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Sample records for aircrew training devices

  1. Instructor/Operator Station Design Handbook for Aircrew Training Devices. Final Technical Report for Period March 1982-December 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, H. D.

    Human engineering guidelines for the design of instructor/operator stations (IOSs) for aircrew training devices are provided in this handbook. These guidelines specify the preferred configuration of IOS equipment across the range of the anticipated user sizes and performance capabilities. The guidelines are consolidated from various human…

  2. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase II-Air Training Command, Military Airlift Command, and Strategic Air Command [and] Phase III-Electronic Warfare Trainers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Hubbard, David C.

    This document consists of an interim report and a final report which describe the second and third phases of a project designed to determine the utility and utilization of sophisticated hardware and software capabilities known as advanced instructional features (AIFs). Used with an aircrew training device (ATD), AIFs permit a simulator instructor…

  3. A Systems Approach to C-130E Aircrew Transitional Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Horace H.; Burkett, Bob P.

    The report describes the development and evaluation of a Tactical Air Command (TAC) C-130E transitional aircrew training program based on a systems approach. The systems approach to training emphasizes the importance of specifying objectives derived from a task analysis of the aircrew member's job. A training program was prepared to develop…

  4. Simulation and Aircrew Training and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prophet, Wallace W.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper outlines some major areas of use of simulation in Army Aviation and comments on current research. Equipment development, crew performance studies, concept development and training are discussed. Only in the training area has the Army made substantial progress. A broad program of simulation research with emphasis on engineering and…

  5. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  6. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  7. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  8. 14 CFR 142.37 - Approval of flight aircrew training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and... the Administrator for training program approval. (b) A curriculum approved under SFAR 58 of part 121... application for training program approval must indicate— (1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum...

  9. 14 CFR 142.37 - Approval of flight aircrew training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and... the Administrator for training program approval. (b) A curriculum approved under SFAR 58 of part 121... application for training program approval must indicate— (1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum...

  10. Helicopter simulation: An aircrew training and qualification perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbach, Richard A.; Longridge, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the unique considerations that distinguish the commercial rotary wing domain from its fixed-wing counterpart. These considerations should give the FAA cause to proceed cautiously in drawing upon its fixed-wing experience. One major point to consider is the following: device qualification should be accomplished in a context of an overall training and qualification system. This approach would take as its starting point a detailed analysis of rotary-wing missions and tasks from which proficiency objectives can be systematically developed.

  11. Low-Cost Avionics Simulation for Aircrew Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Bernell J.

    This report documents an experiment to determine the training effectiveness of a microcomputer-based avionics system trainer as a cost-effective alternative to training in the actual aircraft. Participants--26 operationally qualified C-141 pilots with no prior knowledge of the Fuel Saving Advisory System (FSAS), a computerized fuel management…

  12. Military aircrew and noise-induced hearing loss: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day high performance aircraft are more powerful, more efficient, and, unfortunately, frequently produce high noise levels, resulting in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in military aircrew. Military pilots are required to perform many flight duties correctly in the midst of many challenges that may affect mission completion as well as aircraft and aircrew safety. NIHL can interfere with successful mission completion. NIHL may also require aircrew to be downgraded from flying duties, with the incumbent re-training costs for downgraded personnel and training costs for new/replacement aircrew. As it is not possible to control the source of the noise without compromising the efficiency of the engine and aircraft, protecting the aircrew from hazards of excessive noise and treating NIHL are of extreme importance. In this article we discuss various personal hearing protection devices and their efficacy, and pharmacological agents for prevention and management of NIHL. PMID:24459798

  13. Military aircrew and noise-induced hearing loss: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day high performance aircraft are more powerful, more efficient, and, unfortunately, frequently produce high noise levels, resulting in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in military aircrew. Military pilots are required to perform many flight duties correctly in the midst of many challenges that may affect mission completion as well as aircraft and aircrew safety. NIHL can interfere with successful mission completion. NIHL may also require aircrew to be downgraded from flying duties, with the incumbent re-training costs for downgraded personnel and training costs for new/replacement aircrew. As it is not possible to control the source of the noise without compromising the efficiency of the engine and aircraft, protecting the aircrew from hazards of excessive noise and treating NIHL are of extreme importance. In this article we discuss various personal hearing protection devices and their efficacy, and pharmacological agents for prevention and management of NIHL.

  14. Communication training for aircrews: A review of theoretical and pragmatic aspects of training program design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1987-01-01

    This study is the final report of a project studying methods of communications training applicable to both civilian and military aviation personnel, including multiperson teams or single pilot fixed wing or rotary wing aircraft. A review is provided of a number of theories proposed as relevant for producing training materials for improved communications. Criteria are given for evaluating the applicability of training programs to the aviation environment, and these criteria are applied to United Airlines' Resources Management Training, as well as to a number of commercially available general purpose training programs. The report considers in detail assertiveness training and grid management training, examining their theoretical background and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. It was found that there are substantive difficulties in assessing the effectiveness of both training programs, as well as problems with the theories underlying them. However, because the aviation environment offers unique advantages for studying the effectiveness of communications training, recommendations are made on the design of appropriate training programs and on procedures that might be used to validate them.

  15. Training Reflective Processes in Military Aircrews through Holistic Debriefing: The Importance of Facilitator Skills and Development of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldjord, Christian; Hybertsen, Ingunn Dahler

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how Holistic Debrief, a new concept in the field of debriefing and reflective processes, can contribute to restitution, reflection and learning in professional teams following stressful events and routine tasks. Interviews were conducted with Norwegian military aircrew mission commanders following deployment to Afghanistan in…

  16. Aircrew team management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerison, Charles; Mccann, Dick; Davies, Rod

    1987-01-01

    The key features of the Aircrew Team Management Workshop which was designed for and in consultation with Trans Australia Airlines are outlined. Five major sections are presented dealing with: (1) A profile of the airline and the designers; (2) Aircrew consultation and involvement; (3) Educational design and development; (4) Implementation and instruction; and (5) Evaluation and assessment. These areas are detailed.

  17. Dynamic training devices in CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawver, J.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot training effectiveness and flying safety of a seasonal tour flight company are described. The change from single pilot to two pilot operated twin otters is examined. The use of the ATC 810 training device, its possibilities and training capacity is outlined. Problem areas which may arise, emergency system and pilot/passenger interaction are analyzed.

  18. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel. PMID:16426285

  19. Pyrolaser development for aircrew escape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Ben E.; Cobbett, John A.

    A Laser Ordnance Initiation System (LOIS) has been developed for use in military aircraft emergency escape/egress systems. Applying LOIS to a single-seat and a two-seat F-16 aircraft escape system has proven both cost and weight effective. In both cases, system redundancy is supplied. The large weight reduction is attributed to the elimination of certain initiators, the small size of the logic components and the low weight of the fiber-optic lines (0.037 lb/ft). The required components for a laser operated escape systems are described, with emphasis on the mechanically actuated pyrolaser, which supplies the required energy to activate the various seat devices; the optical AND gate, which provides the logic to ensure proper event sequencing; and the optical mode selector, which establishes aircrew control of the ejection sequence in multiseat aircraft only.

  20. 2013 aircrew, avionics, and operations survey, part 1.

    PubMed

    Greene, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Air medical transport services (AMTS) depend on the teamwork of aviation professionals, medical caregivers, communications specialists, maintenance staff, and administrative personnel to facilitate the safe medical transportation and care to critically ill and injured patients across the world. Consisting of respondents based in the United States, this 2013 survey revisits contemporary AMTS aircrew (pilot, aviator) experience, compensation, benefits, training, and safety in the industry compared to a survey conducted in 2000.

  1. Aircrew cooperation in the Royal Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive introduction of modern, high performance aircraft, coupled with a significant increase in the complexity of the operational environment, has highlighted crew co-operation as a critical factor in aircraft safety. Investigation into recent MAC aircraft accidents supports the conclusion reached by NASA and other U.S. research institutions that a positive training program is required to improve resource management in the cockpit and prevent a breakdown under stress of the crew process. Past training and regulation has concentrated on the attainment of individual flying skills, but group skills have been neglected through lack of knowledge and understanding of the group process. This long-standing deficiency is now being addressed in the U.S. by the progressive and widespread introduction of theoretical and practical training programs to improve crew co-operation. The RAF should provide similar training for its aircrews through the adaptation and development of existing training resources. Better crew co-operation would not only reduce the number of RAF aircraft accidents but also improve the morale of the Service.

  2. Epidemiological studies of cancer in aircrew.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to cosmic ionising radiation, in addition to other specific occupational risks, is of concern to aircrew members. Epidemiological studies provide an objective way to assess the health of this occupational group. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature on health of aircrew members since 1990, focusing on cancer as the endpoint of interest. Sixty-five relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Whereas overall cancer incidence and mortality was generally lower than in the comparison population, consistently elevated risks were reported for breast cancer incidence in female aircrew members and for melanoma in both male and female aircrew members. Brain cancer was increased in some studies among pilots. Occasionally trends of increasing cancer mortality or incidence with increasing estimated radiation dose were reported. Ionising radiation is considered to contribute little if at all to the elevated risks for cancers among aircrew, whereas excess ultraviolet radiation is a probable cause of the increased melanoma risk. PMID:19608578

  3. Communication variations and aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Folk, Valerie G.; Irwin, Cheryl M.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between communication variations and aircrew performance (high-error vs low-error performances) was investigated by analyzing the coded verbal transcripts derived from the videotape records of 18 two-person air transport crews who participated in a high-fidelity, full-mission flight simulation. The flight scenario included a task which involved abnormal operations and required the coordinated efforts of all crew members. It was found that the best-performing crews were characterized by nearly identical patterns of communication, whereas the midrange and poorer performing crews showed a great deal of heterogeneity in their speech patterns. Although some specific speech sequences can be interpreted as being more or less facilitative to the crew-coordination process, predictability appears to be the key ingredient for enhancing crew performance. Crews communicating in highly standard (hence predictable) ways were better able to coordinate their task, whereas crews characterized by multiple, nonstandard communication profiles were less effective in their performance.

  4. 49 CFR 232.613 - End-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End-of-train devices. 232.613 Section 232.613... EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.613 End-of-train devices. (a) An ECP-EOT device shall, at a minimum, serve as the final node on the ECP...

  5. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 67836, Nov. 12, 2013. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device... training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator or other training device may be approved...

  6. 49 CFR 232.613 - End-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... circuit, provide a cable terminal circuit, and monitor, confirm, and report train, brake pipe, and train... a functioning ECP-EOT device. (d) Exception. A freight train operating in ECP brake mode is...

  7. 14 CFR 121.921 - Training devices and simulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... devices and simulators. (a) Each flight training device or airplane simulator that will be used in an AQP... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training devices and simulators. 121.921... device or flight simulator qualification level: (1) Required evaluation of individual or crew...

  8. 14 CFR 121.921 - Training devices and simulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... devices and simulators. (a) Each flight training device or airplane simulator that will be used in an AQP... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training devices and simulators. 121.921... device or flight simulator qualification level: (1) Required evaluation of individual or crew...

  9. 14 CFR 121.921 - Training devices and simulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices and simulators. (a) Each flight training device or airplane simulator that will be used in an AQP... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training devices and simulators. 121.921... device or flight simulator qualification level: (1) Required evaluation of individual or crew...

  10. 14 CFR 121.921 - Training devices and simulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... devices and simulators. (a) Each flight training device or airplane simulator that will be used in an AQP... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training devices and simulators. 121.921... device or flight simulator qualification level: (1) Required evaluation of individual or crew...

  11. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  12. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  13. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate...

  14. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate...

  15. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  16. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate...

  17. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under §...

  18. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate...

  19. 49 CFR 232.613 - End-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false End-of-train devices. 232.613 Section 232.613..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.613...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1631 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.1631 Section 250... SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1631 Safety device training..., inspecting, testing, and maintaining safety devices shall be instructed in the safety requirements of...

  1. Water survival: 20 years Canadian Forces aircrew experience.

    PubMed

    Brooks, C J; Rowe, K W

    1984-01-01

    A 20 year review of Canadian Forces (CF) aircrew ejection/ditching, survival/rescue times and injury patterns in salt and fresh water is presented. Of the 595 A, B, and C category accidents which have been reviewed (1962-1982), 37 were water-entry. Of the 116 crew which were involved, 38 died (4 in fresh water). The Sea King helicopter is most at risk from sea water immersion, and the single-engine Otter has been the most vulnerable to fresh water immersion. A water immersion can be expected approximately once every 170,000 h of total flying time. In 92% of cases, the crew had less than 1 min warning that immersion was imminent and in 78% had less than 15 s to make a practical response. There were two clinical cases of hypothermia. In the absence of injuries, aircrew trained in water survival, qualified on the Dilbert Dunker, and who are strong swimmers or sports divers, have a better chance to survival. Time to rescue in all cases was under 3 h, and in 16 out of 24 cases crew members were rescued in under 15 min.

  2. Application and Design Characteristics of Generalized Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edward L.

    This program identified applications and developed design characteristics for generalized training devices. The first of three sequential phases reviewed in detail new developments in Naval equipment technology that influence the design of maintenance training devices: solid-state circuitry, modularization, digital technology, standardization,…

  3. Human Factors Inputs to the Training Device Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smode, Alfred F.

    Guidelines are presented for achieving human factors inputs to the design of synthetic training systems. A method is developed for design and organization of training concepts and data supportive to the human factors specialist in deriving the functional specifications for the design of any complex training device. Three major sections are…

  4. Equipment-Device Task Commonality Analysis and Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Procedures were developed to enable training personnel systematically and objectively to determine the potential utility of training devices for teaching how to perform missions in operational rotary wing aircraft. These procedures allow comparison of task stimulus and response elements with corresponding elements in synthetic training equipment.…

  5. Low cost training aids and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawver, J.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The need for advanced flight simulators for two engine aircraft is discussed. Cost effectiveness is a major requirement. Other training aids available for increased effectiveness are recommended. Training aids include: (1) audio-visual slides; (2) information transfer; (3) programmed instruction; and (4) interactive training systems.

  6. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Christopher; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots. PMID:25419162

  7. Determining Training Device Requirements in Fixed Wing Aviator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.; And Others

    A systematic study of all fixed wing pilot training programs at the U.S. Army Aviation School was conducted in fiscal year 1968. The objective was to determine whether training might be made more effective through greater use of synthetic flight training equipment and, if so, to specify the main characteristics of appropriate equipment. Secondary…

  8. [Study on an Exoskeleton Hand Function Training Device].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jicai; Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; He, Rongrong

    2016-02-01

    Based on the structure and motion bionic principle of the normal adult fingers, biological characteristics of human hands were analyzed, and a wearable exoskeleton hand function training device for the rehabilitation of stroke patients or patients with hand trauma was designed. This device includes the exoskeleton mechanical structure and the electromyography (EMG) control system. With adjustable mechanism, the device was capable to fit different finger lengths, and by capturing the EMG of the users' contralateral limb, the motion state of the exoskeleton hand was controlled. Then driven by the device, the user's fingers conducting adduction/abduction rehabilitation training was carried out. Finally, the mechanical properties and training effect of the exoskeleton hand were verified through mechanism simulation and the experiments on the experimental prototype of the wearable exoskeleton hand function training device. PMID:27382735

  9. [Study on an Exoskeleton Hand Function Training Device].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jicai; Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; He, Rongrong

    2016-02-01

    Based on the structure and motion bionic principle of the normal adult fingers, biological characteristics of human hands were analyzed, and a wearable exoskeleton hand function training device for the rehabilitation of stroke patients or patients with hand trauma was designed. This device includes the exoskeleton mechanical structure and the electromyography (EMG) control system. With adjustable mechanism, the device was capable to fit different finger lengths, and by capturing the EMG of the users' contralateral limb, the motion state of the exoskeleton hand was controlled. Then driven by the device, the user's fingers conducting adduction/abduction rehabilitation training was carried out. Finally, the mechanical properties and training effect of the exoskeleton hand were verified through mechanism simulation and the experiments on the experimental prototype of the wearable exoskeleton hand function training device.

  10. Generalized Training Devices for Avionic Systems Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edward L.

    A research study was conducted to determine the feasibility and desirability of developing generalized training equipment for use in avionic systems maintenance training. The study consisted of a group of survey and analytic tasks to provide useful guidance to serve the needs of the Naval Aviation community in future years. The study had four…

  11. 30 CFR 250.805 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 250, subpart O. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.805 Section 250.805 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  12. 30 CFR 250.805 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 250, subpart O. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.805 Section 250.805 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  13. 30 CFR 250.805 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 250, subpart O. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.805 Section 250.805 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  14. Performance of the EPD-N2 dosemeter for monitoring aircrew doses.

    PubMed

    Scherpelz, R I; Cezeaux, J R

    2015-03-01

    United States Air Force (USAF) aircrew fly at altitudes and for durations where doses from cosmic radiation are significant enough to warrant monitoring. This study evaluated a candidate radiological monitoring system for USAF aircrew, the Thermo Scientific electronic personnel dosemeter (EPD-N2). The evaluation consisted of characterising the device in a well-characterised radiation field at a European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerator, and aboard an USAF aircraft. The performance of the EPDs was evaluated by comparison with accepted values for dose at the CERN facility, comparison with the value calculated by flight dose software and comparison with the value estimated by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter aboard the aircraft. This study recommends that a correction factor of 1/CF = 1/3.9 be applied to EPD-N2 measurements aboard aircraft flights. The uncertainty in this correction factor is 11.8 %. PMID:25108394

  15. An analysis of aircrew procedural compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, J. E.; Giffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    This research examines the relationships between aircrew compliance with procedures and operator errors. The data for this analysis were generated by reexamination of a 1976 experiment in full mission simulation conducted by Dr. H. P. Ruffell Smith (1979) for the NASA-Ames Research Center. The character of individual operators, the chemistry of crew composition, and complex aspects of the operational environment affected procedural compliance by crew members. Associations between enumerated operator errors and several objective indicators of crew coordination were investigated. The correspondence among high operator error counts and infrequent compliance with specific crew coordination requirements was most notable when copilots were accountable for control of flight parameters.

  16. 14 CFR 121.921 - Training devices and simulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... device or flight simulator qualification level: (1) Required evaluation of individual or crew proficiency. (2) Training to proficiency or training activities that determine if an individual or crew is ready for an evaluation of proficiency. (3) Activities used to meet recency of experience requirements....

  17. Device-Task Fidelity and Transfer of Training: Aircraft Cockpit Procedures Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prophet, Wallace W.; Boyd, H. Alton

    An evaluation was made of the training effectiveness of two cockpit procedures training devices, differing greatly in physical fidelity and cost, for use on the ground for a twin-engine, turboprop, fixed-wing aircraft. One group of students received training in cockpit procedures in a relatively expensive, sophisticated, computerized trainer,…

  18. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  19. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  20. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  1. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  2. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  3. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Under Instrument Flight Rules, pilots are not permitted to make changes to their approved trajectory without first receiving permission from Air Traffic Control (ATC). Referred to as "user requests," trajectory change requests from aircrews are often denied or deferred by controllers because they have awareness of traffic and airspace constraints not currently available to flight crews. With the introduction of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and other information services, a rich traffic, weather, and airspace information environment is becoming available on the flight deck. Automation developed by NASA uses this information to aid flight crews in the identification and formulation of optimal conflict-free trajectory requests. The concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) combines ADS-B and airborne automation to enable user-optimal in-flight trajectory replanning and to increase the likelihood of ATC approval for the resulting trajectory change request. TASAR may improve flight efficiency or other user-desired attributes of the flight while not impacting and potentially benefiting the air traffic controller. This paper describes the TASAR concept of operations, its enabling automation technology which is currently under development, and NASA s plans for concept assessment and maturation.

  4. Dose assessment of aircrew using passive detectors.

    PubMed

    Hajek, M; Berger, T; Schöner, W; Summerer, L; Vana, N

    2002-01-01

    Radiation exposure of aircrew is a serious concern which has been given special emphasis in the European Council directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic ray induced neutron component can contribute more than 50% to the biologically relevant dose at aviation altitudes. Various computational approaches to route dose assessment, e.g. CARI, are in use nowadays and are compared with experimental data. Measurements of aircrew exposure usually involve extensive instrumentation in order to cover the whole particle spectrum and energy range present inside aircraft. Due to their small size and easy handling, thermoluminescence dosemeters represent an appropriate alternative. Previous measurements onboard aircraft applying the high-temperature ratio method with LiF:Mg,Ti dosemeters for the determination of an 'averaged' linear energy transfer of mixed radiation fields demonstrate the ability of this method to evaluate the dose equivalent, according to the Q(LETinfinity) relationship proposed by the ICRP. Measurements with CaF2:Tm dosemeters are currently in progress and are discussed here.

  5. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  6. Aircrew dosimetry using the Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE).

    PubMed

    Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Green, A R; Butler, A; Desormeaux, M; Kitching, F; McCall, M J; Ellaschuk, B; Pierre, M

    2005-01-01

    During 2003, a portable instrument suite was used to conduct cosmic radiation measurements on 49 jet-altitude flights, which brings the total number of in-flight measurements by this research group to over 160 flights since 1999. From previous measurements, correlations have been developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose-equivalent rate for any global position, altitude and date. The result was a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE), which has since been improved. This version of the PCAIRE has been validated against the integral route dose measurements made at commercial aircraft altitudes during the 49 flights. On most flights, the code gave predictions that agreed to the measured data (within +/- 25%), providing confidence in the use of PCAIRE to predict aircrew exposure to galactic cosmic radiation. An empirical correlation, based on ground-level neutron monitoring data, has also been developed for the estimation of aircrew exposure from solar energetic particle (SEP) events. This model has been used to determine the significance of SEP exposure on a theoretical jet altitude flight during GLE 42.

  7. Innovative approaches to recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, H.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative approaches to recurrent training for regional airline aircrews are explored. Guidelines for recurrent training programs which include in corporation of cockpit resource management are discussed. B.W.

  8. Tanker avionics and aircrew complement evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moss, R W; Barbato, G J

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes an effort to determine control and display criteria for operating SAC's KC-135 tanker with a reduced crew complement. The Tanker Avionics and Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE) Program was a four-phase effort addressing the control and display design issues associated with operating the tanker without the navigator position. Discussed are: the mission analysis phase, during which the tanker's operational responsibilities were defined and documented; the design phase, during which alternative crew station design concepts were developed; the mockup evaluation phase, which accomplished initial SAC crew member assessment of cockpit designs; and the simulation phase, which validated the useability of the crew system redesign. The paper also describes a recommended crew station configuration and discusses some of the philosophy underlying the selection of cockpit hardware and systems.

  9. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  10. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better achieve the operator's preferred business trajectory. Requests are currently made with limited information and are often denied because the change is not compatible with traffic. Also, request opportunities can be overlooked due to lack of automation that advises aircrews of trajectory changes that improve flight time, fuel burn, and other objectives. The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept leverages Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance information to advise the aircrew of beneficial trajectory changes that are probed for traffic compatibility prior to issuing the request to ATC. This document describes the features, benefits, and limitations of TASAR automation hosted on an Electronic Flight Bag. TASAR has two modes: (1) auto mode that continuously assesses opportunities for improving the performance of the flight and (2) manual mode that probes trajectory changes entered by aircrews for conflicts and performance objectives. The roles and procedures of the aircrew and ATC remain unchanged under TASAR.

  11. 30 CFR 250.1631 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.1631 Section 250.1631 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations §...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1631 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.1631 Section 250.1631 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations §...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1631 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.1631 Section 250.1631 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations §...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1631 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.1631 Section 250.1631 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...; and general safety considerations to be taken to protect personnel, equipment, and the...

  15. Equipment-Device Task Commonality Analysis and Transfer of Training. Technical Report 70-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W., Jr.

    Army researchers developed a system of procedures designed to enable training personnel to assess the utility of an existing flight training device for new training purposes. Such adaptations became a salient feature of military training due to the continuous modification of operational equipment. Using a candidate device for rotary wing training,…

  16. A Review of Simulators with Haptic Devices for Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Castillejos, David; Noguez, Julieta; Neri, Luis; Magana, Alejandra; Benes, Bedrich

    2016-04-01

    Medical procedures often involve the use of the tactile sense to manipulate organs or tissues by using special tools. Doctors require extensive preparation in order to perform them successfully; for example, research shows that a minimum of 750 operations are needed to acquire sufficient experience to perform medical procedures correctly. Haptic devices have become an important training alternative and they have been considered to improve medical training because they let users interact with virtual environments by adding the sense of touch to the simulation. Previous articles in the field state that haptic devices enhance the learning of surgeons compared to current training environments used in medical schools (corpses, animals, or synthetic skin and organs). Consequently, virtual environments use haptic devices to improve realism. The goal of this paper is to provide a state of the art review of recent medical simulators that use haptic devices. In particular we focus on stitching, palpation, dental procedures, endoscopy, laparoscopy, and orthopaedics. These simulators are reviewed and compared from the viewpoint of used technology, the number of degrees of freedom, degrees of force feedback, perceived realism, immersion, and feedback provided to the user. In the conclusion, several observations per area and suggestions for future work are provided. PMID:26888655

  17. A Review of Simulators with Haptic Devices for Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Castillejos, David; Noguez, Julieta; Neri, Luis; Magana, Alejandra; Benes, Bedrich

    2016-04-01

    Medical procedures often involve the use of the tactile sense to manipulate organs or tissues by using special tools. Doctors require extensive preparation in order to perform them successfully; for example, research shows that a minimum of 750 operations are needed to acquire sufficient experience to perform medical procedures correctly. Haptic devices have become an important training alternative and they have been considered to improve medical training because they let users interact with virtual environments by adding the sense of touch to the simulation. Previous articles in the field state that haptic devices enhance the learning of surgeons compared to current training environments used in medical schools (corpses, animals, or synthetic skin and organs). Consequently, virtual environments use haptic devices to improve realism. The goal of this paper is to provide a state of the art review of recent medical simulators that use haptic devices. In particular we focus on stitching, palpation, dental procedures, endoscopy, laparoscopy, and orthopaedics. These simulators are reviewed and compared from the viewpoint of used technology, the number of degrees of freedom, degrees of force feedback, perceived realism, immersion, and feedback provided to the user. In the conclusion, several observations per area and suggestions for future work are provided.

  18. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport..

  19. Prediction of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Les

    A transport code analysis using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is used to propagate an extrapolated particle spectrum based on GOES satellite measurements through the atmosphere to estimate aircrew radiation exposure for solar particle events. Comparison between code predictions and actual flight measurements made during ground level event (GLE) 60 and 65 are presented. Data from ground-level neutron monitoring stations around the world are also compared against the model predictions for various events. A computer code has been further developed implementing this methodology for routine aircrew exposure estimation from solar particle events to supplement those predictions from galactic cosmic radiation using the PCAIRE code in order to better determine the overall aircrew exposure at altitude.

  20. Training with the International Space Station interim resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Suzanne M.; Amonette, William E.; Blazine, Kristi; Bentley, Jason; Lee, Stuart M C.; Loehr, James A.; Moore, Alan D Jr; Rapley, Michael; Mulder, Edwin R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A unique, interim elastomer-based resistive exercise device (iRED) is being used on the International Space Station. PURPOSE: This study characterized iRED training responses in a 1-g environment by: 1) determining whether 16 wk of high-intensity training with iRED produces increases in muscle strength and volume and bone mineral density (BMD), 2) comparing training responses with iRED to free weights, and 3) comparing iRED training responses at two training volumes. METHODS: Twenty-eight untrained men were assigned to four groups of seven subjects each: a no exercise control group (CON), an iRED group who trained with three sets/exercise (iRED3), a free-weight group (FW) who trained with three sets/exercise, and an iRED group who trained with six sets/exercise (iRED6). Training exercises included squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and dead lift (DL) exercises, 3 d.wk(-1) for 16 wk. RESULTS: For CON, no changes occurred pre- to posttraining. For iRED3, increases (P< or =0.05) in one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength (SQ 21 +/- 4%, HR 17 +/- 4%, DL 29 +/- 5%), leg lean mass (3.1 +/- 0.5%) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and thigh (4.5 +/- 0.9%) and calf (5.9 +/- 0.7%) muscle volume (by magnetic resonance imaging) occurred after training with no changes in BMD (DXA). For FW, increases in 1-RM strength (SQ 22 +/- 5%, HR 24 +/- 3%, DL 41 +/- 7%), whole body (3.0 +/- 1.1%) and leg lean mass (5.4 +/- 1.2%), thigh (9.2 +/- 1.3%) and calf (4.2 +/- 1.0%) muscle volumes, and lumbar BMD (4.2 +/- 0.7%) occurred after training. For iRED6, all responses were similar to iRED3. CONCLUSION: High-intensity training with the iRED produced muscle responses similar to FW but was not effective in stimulating bone. Bed rest and spaceflight studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the iRED to prevent microgravity deconditioning.

  1. 49 CFR 232.403 - Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices... Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices. (a) General. A one-way end-of-train device shall be... the rear unit from the brake pipe; (3) Designed so that an internal failure will not cause...

  2. 49 CFR 232.403 - Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices... Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices. (a) General. A one-way end-of-train device shall be... the rear unit from the brake pipe; (3) Designed so that an internal failure will not cause...

  3. Demonstration of an Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Blankenship, Kurt S.; Lee, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The development of a piloted flight simulator called the Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) was recently completed. This device demonstrates the ability to accurately represent an iced airplane s flight characteristics and is utilized to train pilots in recognizing and recovering from aircraft handling anomalies that result from airframe ice formations. The ICEFTD was demonstrated at three recent short courses hosted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute. It was also demonstrated to a group of pilots at the National Test Pilot School. In total, eighty-four pilots and flight test engineers from industry and the regulatory community spent approximately one hour each in the ICEFTD to get a "hands on" lesson of an iced airplane s reduced performance and handling qualities. Additionally, pilot cues of impending upsets and recovery techniques were demonstrated. The purpose of this training was to help pilots understand how ice contamination affects aircraft handling so they may apply that knowledge to the operations of other aircraft undergoing testing and development. Participant feedback on the ICEFTD was very positive. Pilots stated that the simulation was very valuable, applicable to their occupations, and provided a safe way to explore the flight envelope. Feedback collected at each demonstration was also helpful to define additional improvements to the ICEFTD; many of which were then implemented in subsequent demonstrations

  4. Impact of TGF for aircrew dosimetry: analysis of continuous onboard measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trompier, Francois; Fuller, Nicolas; Bonnotte, Frank; Desmaris, Gérard; Musso, Angelica; Cale, Eric; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The actual assessment of the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is performed in routine by software based on the crossing of route flight data with dose rate maps of the atmosphere obtained by simulation or elaborated with model based on measured data. In addition of the galactic component, some of these softwares take into account also the possible increase of dose from solar flares. In several publications, terrestrial gamma-rays flashes (TGF) are also investigated as a possible source of exposure of aircrew. Up to now, the evaluation of the impact of TGF in terms of dose onboard aircraft has been performed only by calculation. According to these publications, if the airplane is located in or near the high-field region during the lightning discharge, doses could reach the order of 100 of mSv, which far exceed the annual dose limit for workers (1). To our knowledge, no measured data has been yet reported for such phenomena that could confirm or not the order of magnitude of dose from TGF or the frequency or the probability of occurrence of such phenomena. To investigate further the TGF effect, it is recommended to perform measurements onboard airplanes. Since the beginning of 2013, the Institute of Radiation Protection and nuclear Safety (IRSN) in cooperation with Air France is running a campaign of continuous measurements with active devices aiming to measure effect on dose rate of solar flare. These measurements are used to improve models used to estimate the doses from Ground Level Event (GLE). In addition, passive dosimeters were historically installed in Air France airplanes and read out every three months constituting a very large database of dose measurements. All these data will be analyzed to better characterize the possible influence on dose from TGF. The statistical analysis of these data offers the possibility to estimate the order of magnitude of possible additional doses to aircrew due to TGF and/or to evaluate the probability of

  5. Circadian rhythmicity and sleep of aircrew during polar schedules.

    PubMed

    Spencer, M B; Stone, B M; Rogers, A S; Nicholson, A N

    1991-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms of aircrew were studied during a 7-d polar schedule operated between London and Tokyo. Sleep, rectal temperature, and subjective alertness were recorded for 2 d before departure during the schedule, and for 10 d after the return. Changes in sleep during the early part of the trip were due to sleep loss on the outward journey, but later these changes were related to the displacement of the circadian rhythm. The acrophases of the circadian rhythms of temperature were delayed by the outward journey, and amplitudes were reduced throughout the trip. During the return, aircrew reported high levels of tiredness which persisted until the second recovery night. Though the amounts of sleep obtained during the schedule were satisfactory for the aircrew as a group, some crewmembers experienced difficulties. Realignment of circadian rhythms was attained by an advance of the circadian phase in eight aircrew and by a delay in three, and resynchronization was achieved in all cases within 6 d.

  6. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Analysis and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report and deliverable 30 of Contract No. NNL12AA06C, the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) contract awarded via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA). It documents the accomplishments of the contract, the evolution of its role in the overall TASAR project, and lessons learned from its execution.

  7. An active noise reduction system for aircrew helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, P. D.; Rawlinson, D.; Pelc, S. F.; Dorey, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    An active noise reduction system was developed for use in aircrew flying helmets in which the acoustic noise field inside the ear defender is detected using a miniature microphone and an antiphase signal is fed back to a communications telephone within the ear defender. Performance of the active noise reduction system in a laboratory trial simulating flight conditions is shown to be satisfactory.

  8. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  9. Not all instability training devices enhance muscle activation in highly resistance-trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Behm, David G

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus, bicep femoris, rectus femoris, lower abdominal, and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles with a variety of (a) instability devices, (b) stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) exercises, and (c) a fatiguing exercise in 16 highly conditioned individuals. The device protocol had participants assume standing and squatting postures while balancing on a variety of unstable platforms (Dyna Disc, BOSU ball, wobble board, and a Swiss ball) and a stable floor. The exercise protocol had subjects performing, static front lunges, static side lunges, 1-leg hip extensions, 1-leg reaches, and calf raises on a floor or an unstable Dyna Disc. For the fatigue experiment, a wall sit position was undertaken under stable and unstable (BOSU ball) conditions. Results for the device experiment demonstrated increased activity for all muscles when standing on a Swiss ball and all muscles other than the rectus femoris when standing on a wobble board. Only lower abdominals and soleus EMG activity increased while squatting on a Swiss ball and wobble board. Devices such as the Dyna Disc and BOSU ball did not exhibit significant differences in muscle activation under any conditions, except the LSES in the standing Dyna Disc conditions. During the exercise protocol, there were no significant changes in muscle activity between stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) conditions. With the fatigue protocol, soleus EMG activity was 51% greater with a stable base. These results indicate that the use of moderately unstable training devices (i.e., Dyna Disc, BOSU ball) did not provide sufficient challenges to the neuromuscular system in highly resistance-trained individuals. Since highly trained individuals may already possess enhanced stability from the use of dynamic free weights, a greater degree of instability may be necessary.

  10. Study of Training Device Needs for Meeting Basic Officer Tactics Training Requirements. Volume I of II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammell, Thomas J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine the appropriate training objectives for fire control personnel aboard nuclear submarines, to identify specific requirements for training materials to accomplish these objectives, and to provide functional descriptions of recommended training devices. A task analysis was conducted to determine the skill and…

  11. Preparation and Design for a Training Effectiveness Evaluation of Device 2F64C for Replacement Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Robert F.; And Others

    This report details the setting up of a program to assess the training potential of a new simulator (Device 2F64C) for training SH-3 replacement helicopter pilots. Section 2 describes the training situation at the fleet readiness squadron prior to and during the transition to a new curriculum that resulted from an instructional system development…

  12. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  13. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  14. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  15. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  16. Characterisation of bubble detectors for aircrew and space radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Green, A R; Bennett, L G I; Lewis, B J; Tume, P; Andrews, H R; Noulty, R A; Ing, H

    2006-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere acts as a natural radiation shield which protects terrestrial dwellers from the radiation environment encountered in space. In general, the intensity of this radiation field increases with distance from the ground owing to a decrease in the amount of atmospheric shielding. Neutrons form an important component of the radiation field to which the aircrew and spacecrew are exposed. In light of this, the neutron-sensitive bubble detector may be ideal as a portable personal dosemeter at jet altitudes and in space. This paper describes the ground-based characterisation of the bubble detector and the application of the bubble detector for the measurement of aircrew and spacecrew radiation exposure. PMID:16987919

  17. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  18. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  19. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  20. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  1. Development of a predictive code for aircrew radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    McCall, M J; Lemay, F; Bean, M R; Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I

    2009-10-01

    Using the empirical data measured by the Royal Military College with a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a model was derived to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date. Through integration of the dose-rate function over a great circle flight path or between various waypoints, a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAire) was further developed to provide an estimate of the total dose equivalent on any route worldwide at any period in the solar cycle.

  2. Education and training in regulatory science for medical device development.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory science can be defined as the science aimed at the optimal introduction into society of new products of science, such as discovered substances and new scientific tools and technologies as well as knowledge and information. In addition to engineering researches that create novel medical devices, scientific methods for evaluating efficacy, safety and quality of medical devices are necessary to enable rational and scientific evaluation of the device in device approval process. Engineers and medical doctors involving research and development of novel medical devices are required to have basic knowledge on medical device safety standard, medical device regulation, and relevant methodologies. In Japan, several graduate schools in Japan have started educational programs on regulatory sciences in collaboration of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), Japan. In 2012, program for researches for development of evaluation guidelines for novel medical device products started where personnel exchanges between academic researches institutes and PMDA. Example of these programs will be introduced in the presentation and its impact on improvement of medical device research and development process will be discussed.

  3. Education and training in regulatory science for medical device development.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory science can be defined as the science aimed at the optimal introduction into society of new products of science, such as discovered substances and new scientific tools and technologies as well as knowledge and information. In addition to engineering researches that create novel medical devices, scientific methods for evaluating efficacy, safety and quality of medical devices are necessary to enable rational and scientific evaluation of the device in device approval process. Engineers and medical doctors involving research and development of novel medical devices are required to have basic knowledge on medical device safety standard, medical device regulation, and relevant methodologies. In Japan, several graduate schools in Japan have started educational programs on regulatory sciences in collaboration of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), Japan. In 2012, program for researches for development of evaluation guidelines for novel medical device products started where personnel exchanges between academic researches institutes and PMDA. Example of these programs will be introduced in the presentation and its impact on improvement of medical device research and development process will be discussed. PMID:24110397

  4. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Anid, Hani Khaled

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties

  5. Some Current Issues in the Design of Flight Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prophet, Wallace W.; And Others

    The rationale is developed that training equipment should be selected or designed to furnish what the student needs to know and to be able to do to perform successfully on the operational job. Several considerations relevant to training equipment design from the systems engineering standpoint are examined. Suggested design features based upon…

  6. A novel myoelectric training device for upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Clingman, Ryan; Pidcoe, Peter

    2014-07-01

    A training system intended for myoelectric prosthetic hands for upper limb amputees was developed to assist in learning myoelectric control schemes and training muscle isolation. The trainer allowed a user to operate a remote controlled car by use of a control scheme commonly used in myoelectric prosthetic hands. The trainer was designed to be easy for therapists to use and more engaging for the user than current methods of signal training. Preliminary testing of the trainer was conducted with eight nonamputee adult volunteers. The results indicated that the trainer could be a useful tool for myoelectric training in upper limb amputees. All subjects' skill with the myoelectric control scheme improved over the course of testing, with the improvements being greater at the beginning of the training period than at the end. Whereas the individual subjects' performance varied greatly at the beginning of the training, the subjects had achieved a more uniform level of performance by the end of the training, approaching the minimum possible values for the assessments.

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESISTANCE TRAINING USING UNSTABLE SURFACES AND DEVICES FOR REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Colado, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: While the popularity of instability resistance training (resistance training that involves the use of unstable surfaces and devices: IRT) is evident in fitness training facilities, its effectiveness for optimal sport performance training has been questioned. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to explore the resistance training literature, which implements the use of unstable surfaces and devices to determine the suitability of IRT for rehabilitation. Description of Topic and Related Evidence: The criticism of IRT for athletic conditioning is based on the findings of impaired kinetic measures such as force, power and movement velocity during a bout of IRT compared to traditional resistance training with more stable surfaces or devices. However, these deficits occur concurrently with minimal changes or in some cases increases in trunk and limb muscle activation. Compared to the kinetic deficits that are reported during unstable resistance exercises, the relatively greater trunk muscle activation indicates a greater stabilizing function for the muscles. IRT exercises can also provide training adaptations for coordination and other motor control issues, which may be more important for low back pain rehabilitation than strength or power enhancements. Relation to Clinical Practice: Improvements in postural stability from balance training without resistance can improve force output which can then lead to a training progression involving an amalgamation of balance and IRT leading to higher load traditional resistance training. PMID:22530196

  8. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) training in the 1550th combat crew training wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Michael T.

    1987-01-01

    The training program the 1550th Combat Crew Training Wing at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, implemented in September 1985 is discussed. The program is called Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT), and it is designed specifically to help aircrew members work more effectively as a team in their respective aircraft and hopefully to reduce human factors-related accidents. The scope of the 1550th CCTW's training responsibilities is described, the structure of the program, along with a brief look at the content of the academic part of the course. Then the Mission-Oriented Simulator Training (MOST) program is discussed; a program similar to the Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) programs. Finally, the future plans for the Aircrew Coordination Training Program at the 1550th is discussed.

  9. A systematic review of bilateral upper limb training devices for poststroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    van Delden, A Lex E Q; Peper, C Lieke E; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics). Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required. PMID:23251833

  10. A Systematic Review of Bilateral Upper Limb Training Devices for Poststroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    van Delden, A. (Lex) E. Q.; Peper, C. (Lieke) E.; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics). Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required. PMID:23251833

  11. A systematic review of bilateral upper limb training devices for poststroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    van Delden, A Lex E Q; Peper, C Lieke E; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics). Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required.

  12. 49 CFR 232.409 - Inspection and testing of end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be determined, after charging the train, by comparing the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the front unit with the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the rear unit or on a properly calibrated air gauge. The end-of-train device shall not be used if the difference...

  13. 49 CFR 232.409 - Inspection and testing of end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be determined, after charging the train, by comparing the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the front unit with the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the rear unit or on a properly calibrated air gauge. The end-of-train device shall not be used if the difference...

  14. 49 CFR 232.409 - Inspection and testing of end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be determined, after charging the train, by comparing the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the front unit with the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the rear unit or on a properly calibrated air gauge. The end-of-train device shall not be used if the difference...

  15. 49 CFR 232.409 - Inspection and testing of end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be determined, after charging the train, by comparing the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the front unit with the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the rear unit or on a properly calibrated air gauge. The end-of-train device shall not be used if the difference...

  16. 49 CFR 232.409 - Inspection and testing of end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be determined, after charging the train, by comparing the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the front unit with the quantitative value of the air pressure displayed on the rear unit or on a properly calibrated air gauge. The end-of-train device shall not be used if the difference...

  17. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners. PMID:23494126

  18. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners.

  19. Vertical flight training: An overview of training and flight simulator technology with emphasis on rotary-wing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alderete, Thomas S.; Ascencio-Lee, Carmen E.; Bray, Richard; Carlton, John; Dohme, Jack; Eshow, Michelle M.; Francis, Stephen; Lee, Owen M.; Lintern, Gavan; Lombardo, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The principal purpose of this publication is to provide a broad overview of the technology that is relevant to the design of aviation training systems and of the techniques applicable to the development, use, and evaluation of those systems. The issues addressed in our 11 chapters are, for the most part, those that would be expected to surface in any informed discussion of the major characterizing elements of aviation training systems. Indeed, many of the same facets of vertical-flight training discussed were recognized and, to some extent, dealt with at the 1991 NASA/FAA Helicopter Simulator Workshop. These generic topics are essential to a sound understanding of training and training systems, and they quite properly form the basis of any attempt to systematize the development and evaluation of more effective, more efficient, more productive, and more economical approaches to aircrew training. Individual chapters address the following topics: an overview of the vertical flight industry: the source of training requirements; training and training schools: meeting current requirements; training systems design and development; transfer of training and cost-effectiveness; the military quest for flight training effectiveness; alternative training systems; training device manufacturing; simulator aero model implementation; simulation validation in the frequency domain; cockpit motion in helicopter simulation; and visual space perception in flight simulators.

  20. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  1. Aircrew laser eye protection: visual consequences and mission performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R

    1994-05-01

    Battlefield laser proliferation poses a mounting risk to aircrew and ground personnel. Laser eye protection (LEP) based on current mature, mass-producible technologies absorbs visible light and can impact visual performance and color identification. These visual consequences account for many of the mission incompatibilities associated with LEP. Laboratory experiments and field investigations that examined the effects of LEP on visual performance and mission compatibility are reviewed. Laboratory experiments assessed the ability of subjects to correctly read and identify the color of head-down display symbology and tactical pilotage charts (TPC's) with three prototype LEP visors. Field investigations included Weapons Systems Trainer (WST), ground, and flight tests of the LEP visors. Recommendations for modifying aviation lighting systems to improve LEP compatibility are proposed. Issues concerning flight safety when using LEP during air operation are discussed.

  2. Communication as group process media of aircrew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    This study of group process was motivated by a high-fidelity flight simulator project in which aircrew performance was found to be better when the crew had recently flown together. Considering recent operating experience as a group-level input factor, aspects of the communication process between crewmembers (Captain and First Officer), were explored as a possible mediator to performance. Communication patterns were defined by a speech act typology adapted for the flightdeck setting and distinguished crews that had previously flown together (FT) from those that had not flown together (NFT). A more open communication channel with respect to information exchange and validation and greater First Officer participation in task-related topics was shown by FT crews while NFT crews engaged in more non-task discourse, a speech mode less structured by roles and probably serving a more interpersonal function. Relationships between the speech categories themselves, representing linguistic, and role-related interdependencies provide guidelines for interpreting the primary findings.

  3. Comparison of Training Devices for Teaching Emotional Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMattia, Dominic J.; Zimmer, Jules M.

    1972-01-01

    This study compared two training methods for preparing counselors to discriminate verbal, facial, and voice cues that are associated with the emotion of depression. Results showed programmed text treatment to be more effective in teaching discrimination of depressive cues than the video presentation. (Author)

  4. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provided in this section. (b) Except for the airline transport pilot certification training program... training at the pilot controls of an airplane simulator as well as a proper briefing before and after the... do not apply if the training program for the airplane type includes— (1) A course of pilot...

  5. 30 CFR 250.805 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.805 Safety device... operating the production platforms shall be qualified in accordance with subpart O....

  6. 30 CFR 250.805 - Safety device training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production... maintaining these safety devices and personnel operating the production platforms shall be qualified...

  7. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  8. Training augmentation device for the Air Force satellite Control Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoates, Keith B.

    1993-01-01

    From the 1960's and into the early 1980's satellite operations and control were conducted by Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), now Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), out of the Satellite Control Facility at Onizuka AFB, CA. AFSC was responsible for acquiring satellite command and control systems and conducting routine satellite operations. The daily operations, consisting of satellite health and status contacts and station keeping activities, were performed for AFSC by a Mission Control Team (MCT) staffed by civilian contractors who were responsible for providing their own technically 'qualified' personnel as satellite operators. An MCT consists of five positions: mission planner, ground controller, planner analyst, orbit analyst, and ranger controller. Most of the training consisted of On-the-Job-Training (OJT) with junior personnel apprenticed to senior personnel until they could demonstrate job proficiency. With most of the satellite operators having 15 to 25 years of experience, there was minimal risk to the mission. In the mid 1980's Air Force Space Command (AFSPACOM) assumed operational responsibility for a newly established control node at Falcon AFB (FAFB) in CO. The satellites and ground system program offices (SPO's) are organized under AFSC's Space and Missiles Systems Center (SMC) to function as a systems engineering and acquisition agency for AFSPACECOM. The collection of the satellite control nodes, ground tracking stations, computer processing equipment, and connecting communications links is referred to as the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN).

  9. 14 CFR 142.39 - Training program curriculum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training program curriculum requirements... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and Syllabus Requirements § 142.39 Training program curriculum requirements. Each training program...

  10. 14 CFR 142.39 - Training program curriculum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program curriculum requirements... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and Syllabus Requirements § 142.39 Training program curriculum requirements. Each training program...

  11. Sleep and wakefulness in aircrew before and after transoceanic flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dement, William C.; Seidel, Wesley F.; Cohen, Suzanne A.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Bliwise, Nancy G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of rapid transmeridian flight on sleep and wakefulness were studied in aircrew members before and after flying one of two routes: San Francisco (SFO) to London (LHR) or SFO to Tokyo. After an adaptation night, sleep and daytime sleepiness were measured objectively in SFO and during the first layover (L/O) of the target trip, using the 'core measures' described by Graeber et al. (1986) and respiration parameters, and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) described by Carscadon (1982); postsleep questionnaires provided subjective assessments. It was found that baseline sleep is not an ideal basis for subsequent comparison; nevertheless, there was an indication that L/O sleep periods tended to provide either less total sleep or less efficient sleep. During baseline, there was significant midday sleepiness tendency as measured by the MSLT; this tendency occurred at almost the same time on the second L/O day in LHR. Recommendations are offered for the adjustment of flight times and for scheduling times of permitted napping as accommodations for the periods of sleepiness tendency.

  12. Aircrew exposure monitoring: results of 2001 to 2003 studies.

    PubMed

    Spurný, F; Turek, K; Vlcek, B; Dachev, Ts

    2004-01-01

    Aircrew exposure represents one of the recent subjects of occupational individual dosimetry. Since 1991 many new results have been found; there is however a need to gather further data on this exposure and its variation with geomagnetic position, solar activity and flight route parameters. Since 2001, many individual and six long-term monitoring programmes have been conducted onboard aircraft of Czech Airlines (CSA). In these programmes, a Si-diode spectrometer was fixed in an aircraft. Together with it, passive dosemeters thermoluminescent detector, track-etch based neutron dosemeter linear energy transfer and spectrometer) were exposed. More than 700 regular commercial flights were monitored in this manner. CSA supplied us also with full navigation data, which allowed us to calculate the exposure levels using EPCARD 3.2 and CARI6 codes. Direct experimental readings obtained with the detectors mentioned above were interpreted on the basis of calibrations in on-Earth reference fields and compared with calculated data. A satisfactory correlation between all sets of data was observed.

  13. Aircrew exposure from cosmic radiation on commercial airline routes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B J; McCall, M J; Green, A R; Bennett, L G; Pierre, M; Schrewe, U J; O'Brien, K; Felsberger, E

    2001-01-01

    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP 60, and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, an extensive study was carried out by the Royal Military College of Canada over a one-year period to measure the cosmic radiation at commercial jet altitudes. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter was used to measure the ambient total dose equivalent rate on 62 flight routes, resulting in over 20,000 data points at one-minute intervals at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes (i.e. which span the full cut-off rigidity of the Earth's magnetic field). These data were then compared to similar experimental work at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, using a different suite of equipment, to measure separately the low and high linear energy transfer components of the mixed radiation field, and to predictions with the LUIN transport code. All experimental and theoretical results were in excellent agreement. From these data, a semiempirical model was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date (i.e. heliocentric potential). Through integration of the dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a computer code was developed to provide an estimate of the total dose equivalent on any route worldwide at any period in the solar cycle.

  14. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  15. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  16. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  17. The Prediction of Training Device Effectiveness: A Review of Army Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufano, Daniel R.; Evans, Robert A.

    This is a critical review of the analytical models developed by the U.S. Army to predict training device effectiveness. The Simulation Systems Technical Area of the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences performed the research. Special consideration is given to a family of models known collectively as TRAINVICE. These…

  18. Calibrating a Respirable Dust Sampling Device. Module 24. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on calibrating a respirable dust sampling device. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn, are three lessons: (1) naming each part of…

  19. The speech-generating device (SGD) mentoring program: training adults who use an SGD to mentor.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Liora; Balandin, Susan; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2012-12-01

    Mentoring in speech-generating device (SGD) use by adults who use SGDs offers the potential to improve new device learners' linguistic competence. This paper forms part of a larger study of mentoring among people who use SGDs. This paper investigates the effects of training adults who use SGDs in interaction strategies to enable them to fulfil a mentoring role. Mentors were taught to use open-ended questions, expansions, and recast sentences. Three mentors, aged 23-, 31-, and 54-years-old; and three mentees, aged 13-, 14-, and 32-years-old, participated in this study. A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used to assess the outcomes. Following the interaction strategies training, an increase in the number of strategies used in mentoring sessions occurred across all three mentors. These results provide preliminary evidence of SGD mentor training success. The SGD mentors learned the strategies and used them in mentoring sessions.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Two Skiing Simulators as Functional Training Devices for Recreational Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Panizzolo, Fausto A.; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine two ski simulators, Skimagic and Skier’s Edge, and to evaluate their efficacy as functional training devices for skiers. Vertical ground reaction forces, knee flexion angle kinematics and muscles activity were recorded on these devices and compared with those measured in similar condition while skiing on snow. Five ski instructors performed three randomized testing sessions (snow, Skimagic and Skier’s Edge). During the testing sessions, vertical ground reaction forces were recorded by means of pressure insoles in synchronisation with a portable data logger that collected values of knee flexion-extension and EMG activation of rectus femoris and vastus medialis. EMG activations and ground reaction forces measured while skiing on simulators were lower than on snow. Although less overall EMG activation was present on the simulators, the pattern of EMG activity was closer to real snow on Skimagic than on Skiers’ Edge. Results of the present study suggested that the two devices are not effectively applicable for strength training. However, based on the recorded EMG patterns, the Skimagic treadmill is potentially suitable to act as a functional training device for recreational skiers provided that an increase of speed and slope on Skimagic could induce a closer matching of the studied biomechanical parameters with the snow skiing conditions. Key points EMG activation and ground reaction forces were lower on both simulators with respect to snow. Both simulators were not able to provide an effective contribution to strength development for skiers. In term of functional training Skier’s Edge showed a predominance of concentric action over eccentric which is in contrast with competitive skiing. Skimagic treadmill could be potentially suitable to act as a functional training device for recreational skiers only if an increase of speed and slope will induce a closer matching of the studied biomechanical parameters with the snow

  1. Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices: Design Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Vlasov, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU) devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30, 000 × compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84, 000 GigaOps∕s∕W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration, and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things) sensors. PMID:27493624

  2. Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices: Design Considerations.

    PubMed

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Vlasov, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU) devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30, 000 × compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84, 000 GigaOps∕s∕W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration, and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things) sensors. PMID:27493624

  3. Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices: Design Considerations.

    PubMed

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Vlasov, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU) devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30, 000 × compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84, 000 GigaOps∕s∕W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration, and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things) sensors.

  4. 14 CFR 121.408 - Training equipment other than flight simulation training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipment. (1) Each instructor, check airman or supervisor conducting training or checking, and each person conducting an inspection of the equipment who discovers a discrepancy, including any missing, malfunctioning... maintained for at least 60 days. (e) No person may use, allow the use of, or offer the use of...

  5. Toward the Implementation of Augmented Reality Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Air Force (USAF) trains C-130H Loadmaster students at Little Rock Air Force Base (AFB) through a civilian contract. The Aircrew Training System (ATS) contractor utilizes a Fuselage Trainer (FuT) to provide scenarios for the Loadmaster students to practice loading and unloading a simulated aircraft. The problem was the USAF does…

  6. The Captive Helicopter as a Training Device: Experimental Evaluation of a Concept. Technical Report 68-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W., Jr.; And Others

    As part of the Army's effort to use synthetic devices to improve training, researchers evaluated a captive helicopter attached to a ground effects machine. Experimental groups received varying amounts of pre-flight practice tasks designed to develop flight skills, while control groups received no device training. Student flight performance during…

  7. Dynamics Control Approaches to Improve Vibratory Environment of the Helicopter Aircrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh Kanchana

    Although helicopter has become a versatile mode of aerial transportation, high vibration levels leads to poor ride quality for its passengers and aircrew. Undesired vibration transmitted through the helicopter seats have been known to cause fatigue and discomfort to the aircrew in the short-term as well as neck strain and back pain injuries due to long-term exposure. This research study investigated the use of novel active as well as passive methodologies integrated in helicopter seats to mitigate the aircrew exposure to high vibration levels. Due to significantly less certification effort required to modify the helicopter seat structure, application of novel technologies to the seat is more practical compared to flight critical components such as the main rotor to reduce aircrew vibration. In particular, this research effort developed a novel adaptive seat mount approach based on active vibration control technology. This novel design that incorporated two stacked piezoelectric actuators as active struts increases the bending stiffness to avoid the low frequency resonance while generating forces to counteract higher harmonic vibration peaks. A real-time controller implemented using a feed-forward algorithm based on adaptive notches counteracted the forced vibration peaks while a robust feedback control algorithm suppressed the resonance modes. The effectiveness of the adaptive seat mount system was demonstrated through extensive closed-loop control tests on a full-scale helicopter seat using representative helicopter floor vibration profiles. Test results concluded that the proposed adaptive seat mount approach based on active control technology is a viable solution for the helicopter seat vibration control application. In addition, a unique flight test using a Bell-412 helicopter demonstrated that the aircrew is exposed to high levels of vibration during flight and that the whole body vibration spectrum varied substantially depending on operating conditions as

  8. Return on Investment and Technology-Based Training--An Introduction and a Case Study at Advanced Micro Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masumian, Bijan

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes findings from studies comparing classroom and technology-based approaches to training and the respective Return on Investment (ROI) data. Highlights several advantages of technology-based training. Offers information and initial ROI numbers on the use of technology-based training at Advanced Micro Devices, a global manufacturer of…

  9. What the aircrew automated escape system and aircrew life support system equipment designers need from the investigating medical officer and pathologist.

    PubMed

    Guill, F C

    1989-10-01

    A major problem apparent in many safety investigation reports concerning aviation mishaps, and especially in their component Flight Surgeon's Reports (FSRs), is the failure of the investigators to recognize needs beyond those of their immediate organizational structures and chains of command in conducting the investigation, and reporting the resultant facts and findings. If aircrew losses and serious injuries are to be reduced, other needs must also be considered and addressed. These additional needs include those of aircrew automated escape system (AAES) and aircrew life support system (ALSS) acquisition personnel who formulate, design, and test requirements, and AAES and ALSS designers and manufacturers who need to know how well and under what conditions of use their equipment is performing. Each mishap, in a sense, constitutes an extremely costly yet highly realistic test of the AAES and ALSS involved. If properly and thoroughly examined, these mishaps will yield exceptionally valuable insights into AAES and ALSS problems and successes and the reasons underlying system behavioral differences. This paper discusses a number of the AAES and ALSS community's needs which investigating medical officers should consider if the U.S. Navy is to gain from these expensive and often tragic mishaps.

  10. Risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma among aircrews and a random sample of the population

    PubMed Central

    Rafnsson, V; Hrafnkelsson, J; Tulinius, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Hjaltalin, O

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate whether a difference in the prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma in a random sample of the population and among pilots and cabin attendants could explain the increased incidence of malignant melanoma which had been found in previous studies of aircrews. Methods: A questionnaire was used to collect information on hair colour, eye colour, freckles, number of naevi, family history of skin cancer and naevi, skin type, history of sunburn, sunbed, all sunscreen use, and number of sunny vacations. Results: The 239 pilots were all males and there were 856 female cabin attendants, which were compared with 454 males and 1464 females of the same age drawn randomly from the general population. The difference in constitutional and behavioural risk factors for malignant melanoma between the aircrews and the population sample was not substantial. The aircrews had more often used sunscreen and had taken more sunny vacations than the other men and women. The predictive values for use of sunscreen were 0.88 for pilots and 0.85 for cabin attendants and the predictive values for sunny vacation were 1.36 and 1.34 respectively. Conclusion: There was no substantial difference between the aircrew and the random sample of the population with respect to prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma. Thus it is unlikely that the increased incidence of malignant melanoma found in previous studies of pilots and cabin attendants can be solely explained by excessive sun exposure. PMID:14573711

  11. Recent studies on the exposure of aircrew to cosmic and solar radiation.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, D; Bartlett, D T; Beck, P; Bottollier, J-F; Schrewe, U; Lindborg, L; Tommasino, L; Zhou, D

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of cosmic and solar radiation on aircrew involve many challenges. The great variety of primary and secondary ionising and non-ionising radiation, the wide range of energies involved and the role played by the Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field and the Sun combine to produce a very complicated scenario. These factors are reflected in conditions on aviation routes where exposure to radiation varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. The great increase in air travel and consequent rise in numbers of aircrew whose occupation requires them to work in this environment has prompted new concern about exposure risks at aviation altitudes. The situation has also been highlighted by the tendency for aircraft to fly at higher altitudes in recent years and by the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP that exposure of civil aircrew be considered as being occupational. These have recently been translated into a legal requirement in the European Union. Several studies have been completed using a very wide range of detectors on subsonic and supersonic routes and new investigations are underway. With the completion of the DOSMAX project in another three years or so. world data for a whole solar cycle will be more complete than ever before. Results indicate that for most routes investigated during solar minimum, aircrew are unlikely to receive doses in excess of 6 mSv.y(-1).

  12. Effects of three types of resisted sprint training devices on the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Palao, José M; Elvira, José L L; Linthorne, Nicholas P

    2008-05-01

    Resisted sprint running is a common training method for improving sprint-specific strength. For maximum specificity of training, the athlete's movement patterns during the training exercise should closely resemble those used when performing the sport. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of sprinting at maximum velocity to the kinematics of sprinting when using three of types of resisted sprint training devices (sled, parachute, and weight belt). Eleven men and 7 women participated in the study. Flying sprints greater than 30 m were recorded by video and digitized with the use of biomechanical analysis software. The test conditions were compared using a 2-way analysis of variance with a post-hoc Tukey test of honestly significant differences. We found that the 3 types of resisted sprint training devices are appropriate devices for training the maximum velocity phase in sprinting. These devices exerted a substantial overload on the athlete, as indicated by reductions in stride length and running velocity, but induced only minor changes in the athlete's running technique. When training with resisted sprint training devices, the coach should use a high resistance so that the athlete experiences a large training stimulus, but not so high that the device induces substantial changes in sprinting technique. We recommend using a video overlay system to visually compare the movement patterns of the athlete in unloaded sprinting to sprinting with the training device. In particular, the coach should look for changes in the athlete's forward lean and changes in the angles of the support leg during the ground contact phase of the stride.

  13. Simulation and training of lumbar punctures using haptic volume rendering and a 6DOF haptic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber, Matthias; Heller, Julika; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a needle into the spinal chord of the patient to inject medicaments or to extract liquor. The training of this procedure is usually done on the patient guided by experienced supervisors. A virtual reality lumbar puncture simulator has been developed in order to minimize the training costs and the patient's risk. We use a haptic device with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) to feedback forces that resist needle insertion and rotation. An improved haptic volume rendering approach is used to calculate the forces. This approach makes use of label data of relevant structures like skin, bone, muscles or fat and original CT data that contributes information about image structures that can not be segmented. A real-time 3D visualization with optional stereo view shows the punctured region. 2D visualizations of orthogonal slices enable a detailed impression of the anatomical context. The input data consisting of CT and label data and surface models of relevant structures is defined in an XML file together with haptic rendering and visualization parameters. In a first evaluation the visible human male data has been used to generate a virtual training body. Several users with different medical experience tested the lumbar puncture trainer. The simulator gives a good haptic and visual impression of the needle insertion and the haptic volume rendering technique enables the feeling of unsegmented structures. Especially, the restriction of transversal needle movement together with rotation constraints enabled by the 6DOF device facilitate a realistic puncture simulation.

  14. Assessment of a Newly Developed, Active Pneumatic-Driven, Sensorimotor Test and Training Device

    PubMed Central

    Haslinger, Wolfram; Müller, Lisa; Mildner, Esmeralda; Löfler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut; Raschner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The sensorimotor system (SMS) plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP) in a target circle (TITC). The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe) were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS) was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS). The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years) showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments. PMID:25517695

  15. The development of an instrumented wheelchair propulsion testing and training device.

    PubMed

    Klaesner, Joseph; Morgan, Kerri A; Gray, David B

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have used several types of testing devices and training surfaces to examine wheelchair propulsion. Testing and training wheelchair users on the actual surface of interest, such as tile floors or ramps, is ideal but difficult. Devices such as treadmills, dynamometers, and ergometers allow for researchers and clinicians to observe wheelchair users in a controlled space. However, these devices often do not have the ability to realistically simulate the environment. This methodological article describes the instrumentation, development and function of a wheelchair dynamometer system, the WheelMill System (WMS), a uniquely adjustable roller system for wheelchairs. Three participants wheeled on the WMS, over a tile surface and up two different graded slopes with the SmartWheel to compare speed and forces. The WMS reasonably simulated propulsion over a tile floor, though the participants' speed was slightly faster on tile, and the peak forces for each propulsion stroke varied more on tile than on the WMS. For the slopes, the speed oscillated over a greater range and was slower, and the measured peak forces were higher than the values measured on the WMS. The WMS may have several applications, though additional studies on a greater and more diverse population are needed.

  16. Exercise physiology, testing, and training in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur

    2015-08-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research.

  17. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program (A3I) software detailed design document, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Chiu, Alex; Helms, Gretchen; Hsieh, Tehming; Lui, Andrew; Murray, Jerry; Shankar, Renuka

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities and design approach of the MIDAS (Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System) computer-aided engineering (CAE) workstation under development by the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration Program is detailed. This workstation uses graphic, symbolic, and numeric prototyping tools and human performance models as part of an integrated design/analysis environment for crewstation human engineering. Developed incrementally, the requirements and design for Phase 3 (Dec. 1987 to Jun. 1989) are described. Software tools/models developed or significantly modified during this phase included: an interactive 3-D graphic cockpit design editor; multiple-perspective graphic views to observe simulation scenarios; symbolic methods to model the mission decomposition, equipment functions, pilot tasking and loading, as well as control the simulation; a 3-D dynamic anthropometric model; an intermachine communications package; and a training assessment component. These components were successfully used during Phase 3 to demonstrate the complex interactions and human engineering findings involved with a proposed cockpit communications design change in a simulated AH-64A Apache helicopter/mission that maps to empirical data from a similar study and AH-1 Cobra flight test.

  18. Psychological factors influencing adoption of postural training devices: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy; Walsh, Shari; Biggs, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper details an exploratory investigation of psychological factors that may influence the adoption/rejection of postural training devices from the perspectives of two potential user groups (clients and practitioners). The aim was to elicit perceived advantages and disadvantages from potential users and to apply psychological principles to examine, and potentially counter perceived barriers to use. A small sample (50) of general public members, physiotherapists and occupational therapists were surveyed using open-ended questions designed to elicit information about current practices and attitudinal beliefs about postural training. Results suggested that members of the public fall into two categories according to whether they would use the device for prevention or treatment. This group identified issues such as lack of need, time consuming, and motivations to comply. Practitioners highlighted that lack of research, lack of ability to trial a product, and issues of cost and non-compliance by consumers and were seen as prohibitory to use. A number of theoretical principles of behaviour change were then related to the findings including: the stages of change model, behavioural learning, message framing, persuasion, attitude-behaviour relationships, motivations and impression management. Client cost objections to treatments and the need to integrate research findings into practice are also discussed. PMID:19276521

  19. Development of a night-driving simulator concept for night vision image-intensification device training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Piccione, Dino; Woodward, Kim G.

    1997-06-01

    The use of night vision devices (NVDs) by US Army foot soldiers, aviator,s and drivers of combat and tactical wheeled vehicles has enhanced operations at night by allowing increased mobility and potentially safer operations. With this increased capability in the night environment has come an increased exposure to the hazards of that environment and the risks that the command structure must manage and balance with mission requirements. Numerous vehicular accidents have occurred during night filed exercises involving drivers wearing image intensification (I2) systems. These accidents can frequently be attributed to perceptual problems experienced by the drivers. Performance with NVDs generally increases with practice and experience. However, there is little formal training provided in night driving skills and few opportunities to practice these skills under realistic conditions. This paper reports the approach and preliminary result of an effort to define and demonstrate a low-cost night driving simulator concept for training night driving skills with I2 devices and to identify and evaluate the techniques and resources that are available for implementing this approach.

  20. A review of US Army aircrew-aircraft integration research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. C.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    If the U.S. Army's desire to develop a one crew version of the Light Helicopter Family (LHX) helicopter is to be realized, both flightpath management and mission management will have to be performed by one crew. Flightpath management, the helicopter pilot, and the handling qualities of the helicopter were discussed. In addition, mission management, the helicopter pilot, and pilot control/display interface were considered. Aircrew-aircraft integration plans and programs were reviewed.

  1. Reliability of the Lode Excalibur Sport Ergometer and applicability to Computrainer electromagnetically braked cycling training device.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Conrad P; Wharton, Richard P; Church, Timothy S; Lucia, Alejandro

    2005-05-01

    New technology allows cyclists to train via power output (PO) in addition to heart rate (HR). For those athletes undertaking seasonal laboratory testing (e.g., Vo(2), lactate threshold), it is imperative that athletes be able to directly apply this information to their training device. We examined the reliability of a standardized laboratory ergometer (Lode Excalibur Sport) and its applicability to an electromagnetically braked ergometer (Computrainer) in 2 phases. Phase I (n = 12) examined the reliability of the Lode. Phase II (n = 14) compared the Lode to the Computrainer using a randomized, counterbalance assignment. Following warm-up, each trial started at 100 W, progressing 50 W every 3 minutes to exhaustion. Outcomes were time-to-exhaustion (TTE), peak PO (W) (PO(peak)), peak HR (HR(peak)), and ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCP) thresholds. We used a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey post hoc analysis, regression analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and coefficient of variation (CV) analysis for each variable. During phase I, we found no significant difference for any variable, minimal dispersion of Vo(2) during Bland-Altman analysis, and a low CV at each test stage (training device. PMID:15903373

  2. The medical acceptability of soft contact lens wear by USAF tactical aircrews.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R J; Green, R P; Ketchum, N S

    1992-02-01

    Seventy-two Tactical Air Command (TAC) aircrew members completed one full year of soft contact lens (SCL) wear. A daily-wear regimen, using extended-wear lenses, was used to minimize corneal stress. Baseline measurements of visual acuity with SCLs and with spectacles after SCL removal and ocular indicator gradings were compared to measurements at 5-d, 10-d, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month examinations. Visual acuity did not decrease during the test. No aircrew member developed corneal ulcers or other serious complications requiring elimination from the test. Two aircrew members lost a total of 9 "duties not to include flying" (DNIF) days: one flyer was grounded for 1 d with a corneal abrasion and another for 8 d with epithelial microcysts. The TAC SCL Test, as designed, was generally successful. The conservative approach to SCL wear during the test and the meticulous follow-up care by United States Air Force eye care professionals most likely contributed to the low ocular complication rate.

  3. Epidemiological investigations of aircrew: an occupational group with low-level cosmic radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Hajo; Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to low-level cosmic ionising radiation. Annual effective doses for flight crew have been estimated to be in the order of 2-5 mSv and can attain 75 mSv at career end. Epidemiological studies in this occupational group have been conducted over the last 15-20 years, usually with a focus on radiation-associated cancer. These studies are summarised in this note. Overall cancer risk was not elevated in most studies and subpopulations analysed, while malignant melanoma, other skin cancers and breast cancer in female aircrew have shown elevated incidence, with lesser risk elevations in terms of mortality. In some studies, including the large German cohort, brain cancer risk appears elevated. Cardiovascular mortality risks were generally very low. Dose information for pilots was usually derived from calculation procedures based on routine licence information, types of aircraft and routes/hours flown, but not on direct measurements. However, dose estimates have shown high validity when compared with measured values. No clear-cut dose-response patterns pointing to a higher risk for those with higher cumulative doses were found. Studies on other health outcomes have shown mixed results. Overall, aircrew are a highly selected group with many specific characteristics and exposures that might also influence cancers or other health outcomes. Radiation-associated health effects have not been clearly established in the studies available so far.

  4. Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Takada, M; Lewis, B J; Boudreau, M; Al Anid, H; Bennett, L G I

    2007-01-01

    Correlations have been developed for implementation into the semi-empirical Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) to account for effects of extremum conditions of solar modulation and low altitude based on transport code calculations. An improved solar modulation model, as proposed by NASA, has been further adopted to interpolate between the bounding correlations for solar modulation. The conversion ratio of effective dose to ambient dose equivalent, as applied to the PCAIRE calculation (based on measurements) for the legal regulation of aircrew exposure, was re-evaluated in this work to take into consideration new ICRP-92 radiation-weighting factors and different possible irradiation geometries of the source cosmic-radiation field. A computational analysis with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended Code was further used to estimate additional aircrew exposure that may result from sporadic solar energetic particle events considering real-time monitoring by the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite. These predictions were compared with the ambient dose equivalent rates measured on-board an aircraft and to count rate data observed at various ground-level neutron monitors.

  5. Epidemiological investigations of aircrew: an occupational group with low-level cosmic radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Hajo; Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to low-level cosmic ionising radiation. Annual effective doses for flight crew have been estimated to be in the order of 2-5 mSv and can attain 75 mSv at career end. Epidemiological studies in this occupational group have been conducted over the last 15-20 years, usually with a focus on radiation-associated cancer. These studies are summarised in this note. Overall cancer risk was not elevated in most studies and subpopulations analysed, while malignant melanoma, other skin cancers and breast cancer in female aircrew have shown elevated incidence, with lesser risk elevations in terms of mortality. In some studies, including the large German cohort, brain cancer risk appears elevated. Cardiovascular mortality risks were generally very low. Dose information for pilots was usually derived from calculation procedures based on routine licence information, types of aircraft and routes/hours flown, but not on direct measurements. However, dose estimates have shown high validity when compared with measured values. No clear-cut dose-response patterns pointing to a higher risk for those with higher cumulative doses were found. Studies on other health outcomes have shown mixed results. Overall, aircrew are a highly selected group with many specific characteristics and exposures that might also influence cancers or other health outcomes. Radiation-associated health effects have not been clearly established in the studies available so far. PMID:22395103

  6. Evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU member states.

    PubMed

    Thierfeldt, S; Haider, C; Hans, P; Kaleve, M; Neuenfeldt, F

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU Member States has recently been performed in a study sponsored by the European Commission. A comprehensive database has been gathered using questionnaires for civil aviation authorities, aircraft operators and radiation protection authorities in each country. The study has revealed the following results: all countries within the scope of this study where aircrew might receive annual doses >1 mSv have implemented appropriate legislation. The treatment of limits or constraints (action levels) for annual doses of 1, 6, 20 mSv could be an area where clear guidance by the European Commission might be needed. The way in which doses are determined might also be treated in a more harmonized way in the EU, including the transfer of dose data of freelancers or crew members working for other airlines. The establishment of the European Aviation Safety Agency leads to a gradual shift in responsibilities from the national civil aviation authorities towards this centralised European agency. Currently, however, tracking of doses for aircrew still lies with national bodies.

  7. Galactic and solar radiation exposure to aircrew during a solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Green, A R; McCall, M J; Ellaschuk, B; Butler, A; Pierre, M

    2002-01-01

    An on-going investigation using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) has been carried out to measure the ambient dose equivalent rate of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircrew during a solar cycle. A semi-empirical model has been derived from these data to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position. The model has been extended to an altitude of up to 32 km with further measurements made on board aircraft and several balloon flights. The effects of changing solar modulation during the solar cycle are characterised by correlating the dose rate data to different solar potential models. Through integration of the dose-rate function over a great circle flight path or between given waypoints, a Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) has been further developed for estimation of the route dose from galactic cosmic radiation exposure. This estimate is provided in units of ambient dose equivalent as well as effective dose, based on E/H x (10) scaling functions as determined from transport code calculations with LUIN and FLUKA. This experimentally based treatment has also been compared with the CARI-6 and EPCARD codes that are derived solely from theoretical transport calculations. Using TEPC measurements taken aboard the International Space Station, ground based neutron monitoring, GOES satellite data and transport code analysis, an empirical model has been further proposed for estimation of aircrew exposure during solar particle events. This model has been compared to results obtained during recent solar flare events.

  8. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p < 0.05) and meaningful difference between power development among the 2 groups, with the VertiMax eliciting a greater treatment effect (effect size = 0.54) over conventional resistance and plyometric training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  9. Evaluation of the Multi-Chambered Treatment Train, a retrofit water-quality management device

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Greb, Steven R.; Bannerman, Roger T.; Pitt, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the benefits and efficiencies of a device called the Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT), which was installed below the pavement surface at a municipal maintenance garage and parking facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Flow-weighted water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the device during 15 storms, and the efficiency of the device was based on reductions in the loads of 68 chemical constituents and organic compounds. High reduction efficiencies were achieved for all particulate-associated constituents, including total suspended solids (98 percent), total phosphorus (88 percent), and total recoverable zinc (91 percent). Reduction rates for dissolved fractions of the constituents were substantial, but somewhat lower (dissolved solids, 13 percent; dissolved phosphorus, 78 percent; dissolved zinc, 68 percent). The total dissolved solids load, which originated from road salt storage, was more than four times the total suspended solids load. No appreciable difference was detected between particle-size distributions in inflow and outflow samples.

  10. Analysis of spontaneous and bleomycin-induced chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes of long-haul aircrew members from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bolzán, Alejandro D; Bianchi, Martha S; Giménez, Esteban M; Flaqué, María C Díaz; Ciancio, Vicente R

    2008-03-01

    Spontaneous and bleomycin (BLM)-induced chromosomal aberrations in G0 and G2 stages of the cell cycle have been analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 21 long-haul aircrew members from Argentina in order to assess BLM-induced clastogenesis as a first approach to determine the DNA repair capacity and thereby the susceptibility to environmental cancers in aircrew. The possibility that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation can induce an adaptive response in their peripheral lymphocytes that can be detected by a subsequent in vitro treatment with BLM was also investigated. For comparison, aberrations were also scored in the lymphocytes of 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, health, sex, drinking and smoking habits to the flight personnel group. Aircrew exhibited a higher frequency of spontaneous dicentrics and ring chromosomes than the control population (p<0.05). BLM sensitivity test showed that aircrew and controls are equally sensitive to BLM G2 clastogenic effects, since both groups exhibited a similar frequency of chromatid breaks per cell (p>0.05). However, the aircrew sampled population was almost two times more sensitive to BLM G0 clastogenic effects than controls (p<0.05). Therefore, our data suggest that chronic exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation increases the in vitro chromosomal sensitivity of their peripheral lymphocytes to BLM (at least in the G0 stage of the cell cycle), and that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation does not induce an adaptive response to this radiomimetic compound. Our results justify further studies aimed at determine if those aircrew members hypersensitive to BLM are more prone to develop environmental cancer than BLM-insensitive individuals. PMID:18164039

  11. Distributed training, testing, and decision aids within one solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strini, Robert A.; Strini, Keith

    2002-07-01

    Military air operations in the European theater require U.S. and NATO participants to send various mission experts to 10 Combined Air Operations Centers (CAOCs). Little or no training occurs prior to their arrival for tours of duty ranging between 90 days to 3 years. When training does occur, there is little assessment of its effectiveness in raising CAOC mission readiness. A comprehensive training management system has been developed that utilizes traditional and web based distance-learning methods for providing instruction and task practice as well as distributed simulation to provide mission rehearsal training opportunities on demand for the C2 warrior. This system incorporates new technologies, such as voice interaction and virtual tutors, and a Learning Management System (LMS) that tracks trainee progress from academic learning through procedural practice and mission training exercises. Supervisors can monitor their subordinate's progress through synchronous or asynchronous methods. Embedded within this system are virtual tutors, which provide automated performance measurement as well as tutoring. The training system offers a true time management savings for current instructors and training providers that today must perform On the Job Training (OJT) duties before, during and after each event. Many units do not have the resources to support OJT and are forced to maintain an overlap of several days to minimally maintain unit readiness. One CAOC Commander affected by this paradigm has advocated supporting a beta version of this system to test its ability to offer training on-demand and track the progress of its personnel and unit readiness. If successful, aircrew simulation devices can be connected through either Distributed Interactive Simulation or High Level Architecture methods to provide a DMT-C2 air operations training environment in Europe. This paper presents an approach to establishing a training, testing and decision aid capability and means to assess

  12. Hyperstereopsis in night vision devices: basic mechanisms and impact for training requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Hourlier, Sylvain; Giraudet, Guillaume; Leger, Alain; Roumes, Corinne

    2006-05-01

    Including night vision capabilities in Helmet Mounted Displays has been a serious challenge for many years. The use of "see through" head mounted image intensifiers systems is particularly challenging as it introduces some peculiar visual characteristics usually referred as "hyperstereopsis". Flight testing of such systems has started in the early nineties, both in US and Europe. While the trials conducted in US yielded quite controversial results, convergent positive ones were obtained from European testing, mainly in UK, Germany and France. Subsequently, work on integrating optically coupled I2 tubes on HMD was discontinued in the US, while European manufacturers developed such HMDs for various rotary wings platforms like the TIGER. Coping with hyperstereopsis raises physiological and cognitive human factors issues. Starting in the sixties, effects of increased interocular separation and adaptation to such unusual vision conditions has been quite extensively studied by a number of authors as Wallach, Schor, Judge and Miles, Fisher and Ciuffreda. A synthetic review of literature on this subject will be presented. According to users' reports, three successive phases will be described for habituation to such devices: initial exposure, building compensation phase and behavioral adjustments phase. An habituation model will be suggested to account for HMSD users' reports and literature data bearing on hyperstereopsis, cue weighting for depth perception, adaptation and learning processes, task cognitive control. Finally, some preliminary results on hyperstereopsis spatial and temporal adaptation coming from the survey of training of TIGER pilots, currently conducted at the French-German Army Aviation Training Center, will be unveiled.

  13. Training and education to increase the effectiveness of technology introduction in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Albert H.

    1994-12-01

    Training and education can increase the effectiveness with which new technology can be introduced in medicine. However, the use of technology in the education and training itself can be the vehicle for that increased effectiveness. The most effective way that education and training can be improved by technology is through the use of simulation. Examples are given from, first, the historical perspective in aircrew and spacecrew flight training; an anesthesiology training simulator; and a laparoscopic surgery training simulator.

  14. Acquisition, Retention, and Retraining: Effects of High and Low Fidelity in Training Devices. Technical Report 69-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimsley, Douglas L.

    This study is the first in a series which was conducted under the name STRANGER III, and which was to examine trainee's long-term memory of motor skills. This phase examined the effects of varying fidelity of training devices on acquisition, retention, and reinstatement of ability to perform a 92-step procedural task. Three versions of the Section…

  15. Effects of Aquatic and Dry Land Resistance Training Devices on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Colado, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Masso, Xavier; Rogers, Michael E; Tella, Victor; Benavent, Juan; Dantas, Estelio H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of a supervised strength training program on body composition and physical capacity of older women using three different devices: weight machines, elastic bands, and aquatic devices that increase drag forces (ADIDF). Four groups were formed: control group, weight machine group (WMG), elastic band group (EBG) and a group that used ADIDF (ADIDFG). Body composition and physical capacity were assessed before and after the intervention period. The ADIDFG showed improvements in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass of the left arm (FFM-LA) and right arm (FFM-RA), knee push-up test (KPT), squat test (ST) and crunch test (CT) (p <0.05). Individuals in the EBG and WMG also improved their FM, fat free mass (FFM), FFM-LA, FFM-RA, KPU, ST and CT. ADIDF training improves body composition and physical capacity of postmenopausal women as does performing land-based training programs. PMID:23487349

  16. Neck pain in military helicopter aircrew and the role of exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Danielle M; Harrison, Michael F; Neary, J Patrick

    2011-10-01

    Neck pain is a growing aeromedical concern for military forces on an international scale. Neck pain prevalence in the global military helicopter community has been reported in the range of 56.6-84.5%. Despite this high prevalence, historically, research examining helicopter aircrews has focused predominantly on low back pain. A number of recent studies have emerged examining flight-related factors that are hypothesized to contribute to the development of flight-related neck pain. Loading factors such as the posture adopted during flight, use of night vision goggles, and vibration have all been found to contribute to neck pain and muscular fatigue. Prolonged or repeated exposureto these loading factors has been hypothesized to perpetuate or contribute to the development of neck pain. Despite the high number of helicopter aircrew personnel that suffer from neck pain, very few individuals seek treatment for the disorder. The focus of medical personnel should, therefore, be directed toward a solution that addresses not only the issue of muscular fatigue, but the hesitancy to seek treatment. Previous research in military and civilian populations have used exercise therapy as a treatment modality for neck pain and have found improved endurance capacity in the neck musculature and reduced self-reported neck pain.

  17. The Italian national survey of aircrew exposure: II. On-board measurements and results.

    PubMed

    Curzio, G; Grillmaier, R E; O'Sullivan, D; Pelliccioni, M; Piermattei, S; Tommasino, L

    2001-01-01

    The Italian survey of aircrew exposure has been carried out with different advanced dosimetric systems, as described in part I of this paper. The key strategy of the survey was to obtain on-board comparison of measurements for both passive and real-time detectors flown together with passengers. The survey has been carried out in the period of solar minimum (1995-1997), in which the exposure to galactic cosmic rays reaches its maximum value. Even though carrying out the survey in the period of solar minimum was entirely coincidental, this circumstance has been used to good advantage to obtain a comprehensive set of data of the galactic cosmic radiation with little or no disturbance by the solar activity modulation. This comprehensive set of data covers flight routes between -20 degrees and 75 degrees geographic latitude at different civil aviation altitudes. The survey obtained with different advanced dosimetric systems has been supplemented by a large variety of data gathered with passive stacks on different short-range and long-range flights at supersonic and subsonic altitudes. Some of the most important conclusions which can be drawn from the survey are: (i) aircrew of civil aviation receive annual doses within the range of 1 mSv to 6 mSv; (ii) data from different periods of solar minimum agree well, since the discrepancies encountered seem mainly due to the different dosimetric systems used; (iii) repeated measurements on the same route are highly consistent.

  18. Neck pain in military helicopter aircrew and the role of exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Danielle M; Harrison, Michael F; Neary, J Patrick

    2011-10-01

    Neck pain is a growing aeromedical concern for military forces on an international scale. Neck pain prevalence in the global military helicopter community has been reported in the range of 56.6-84.5%. Despite this high prevalence, historically, research examining helicopter aircrews has focused predominantly on low back pain. A number of recent studies have emerged examining flight-related factors that are hypothesized to contribute to the development of flight-related neck pain. Loading factors such as the posture adopted during flight, use of night vision goggles, and vibration have all been found to contribute to neck pain and muscular fatigue. Prolonged or repeated exposureto these loading factors has been hypothesized to perpetuate or contribute to the development of neck pain. Despite the high number of helicopter aircrew personnel that suffer from neck pain, very few individuals seek treatment for the disorder. The focus of medical personnel should, therefore, be directed toward a solution that addresses not only the issue of muscular fatigue, but the hesitancy to seek treatment. Previous research in military and civilian populations have used exercise therapy as a treatment modality for neck pain and have found improved endurance capacity in the neck musculature and reduced self-reported neck pain. PMID:21961403

  19. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  20. Evidence-based consensus on the insertion of central venous access devices: definition of minimal requirements for training.

    PubMed

    Moureau, N; Lamperti, M; Kelly, L J; Dawson, R; Elbarbary, M; van Boxtel, A J H; Pittiruti, M

    2013-03-01

    There is a lack of standard minimal requirements for the training of insertion techniques and maintenance of central venous access devices (CVADs). An international evidence-based consensus task force was established through the World Congress of Vascular Access (WoCoVA) to provide definitions and recommendations for training and insertion of CVADs. Medical literature published from February 1971 to April 2012 regarding 'central vascular access', 'training', 'competency', 'simulation', and 'ultrasound' was reviewed on Pubmed, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases. The GRADE and the GRADE-RAND methods were utilized to develop recommendations. Out of 156 papers initially identified, 83 papers described training for central vascular access placement. Sixteen recommendations are proposed by this task force, each with an evidence level, degree of consensus, and recommendation grade. These recommendations suggest central venous access education include didactic or web-based teaching with insertion procedure, infection prevention, complications, care, and maintenance of devices, along with laboratory models and tools for simulation practice incorporating ultrasound. Clinical competence should be determined by observation during clinical practice using a global rating scale rather than by the number of procedures performed. Ensuring safe insertion and management of central venous devices requires standardized education, simulation practice, and supervised insertions. PMID:23361124

  1. Does human cognition allow Human Factors (HF) certification of advanced aircrew systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, Iain S.; Taylor, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has examined the requirements of HF specification and certification within advanced or complex aircrew systems. It suggests reasons for current inadequacies in the use of HF in the design process, giving some examples in support, and suggesting an avenue towards the improvement of the HF certification process. The importance of human cognition to the operation and performance of advanced aircrew systems has been stressed. Many of the shortfalls of advanced aircrew systems must be attributed to over automated designs that show little consideration on either the mental limits or the cognitive capabilities of the human system component. Traditional approaches to system design and HF certification are set within an over physicalistic foundation. Also, traditionally it was assumed that physicalistic system functions could be attributed to either the human or the machine on a one to one basis. Moreover, any problems associated with the parallel needs, or promoting human understanding alongside system operation and direction, were generally equated in reality by the natural flexibility and adaptability of human skills. The consideration of the human component of a complex system is seen as being primarily based on manifestations of human behavior to the almost total exclusion of any appreciation of unobservable human mental and cognitive processes. The argument of this paper is that the considered functionality of any complex human-machine system must contain functions that are purely human and purely cognitive. Human-machine system reliability ultimately depends on human reliability and dependability and, therefore, on the form and frequency of cognitive processes that have to be conducted to support system performance. The greater the demand placed by an advanced aircraft system on the human component's basic knowledge processes or cognition, rather than on skill, the more insiduous the effects the human may have on that system. This paper discusses one

  2. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  3. Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white microstructure in aircrew members exposed to engine oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B; Mulder, Michel; Mutsaerts, Henri J; Hageman, Gerard; de Ruiter, Michiel B

    2016-06-01

    Cabin air in airplanes can be contaminated with engine oil contaminants. These contaminations may contain organophosphates (OPs) which are known neurotoxins to brain white matter. However, it is currently unknown if brain white matter in aircrew is affected. We investigated whether we could objectify cognitive complaints in aircrew and whether we could find a neurobiological substrate for their complaints. After medical ethical approval from the local institutional review board, informed consent was obtained from 12 aircrew (2 females, on average aged 44.4 years, 8,130 flying hours) with cognitive complaints and 11 well matched control subjects (2 females, 43.4 years, 233 flying hours). Depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive symptoms were assessed, in addition to a neuropsychological test battery. State of the art Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques were administered that assess structural and functional changes, with a focus on white matter integrity. In aircrew we found significantly more self-reported cognitive complaints and depressive symptoms, and a higher number of tests scored in the impaired range compared to the control group. We observed small clusters in the brain in which white matter microstructure was affected. Also, we observed higher cerebral perfusion values in the left occipital cortex, and reduced brain activation on a functional MRI executive function task. The extent of cognitive impairment was strongly associated with white matter integrity, but extent of estimated number of flight hours was not associated with cognitive impairment nor with reductions in white matter microstructure. Defects in brain white matter microstructure and cerebral perfusion are potential neurobiological substrates for cognitive impairments and mood deficits reported in aircrew.

  4. Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white microstructure in aircrew members exposed to engine oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B; Mulder, Michel; Mutsaerts, Henri J; Hageman, Gerard; de Ruiter, Michiel B

    2016-06-01

    Cabin air in airplanes can be contaminated with engine oil contaminants. These contaminations may contain organophosphates (OPs) which are known neurotoxins to brain white matter. However, it is currently unknown if brain white matter in aircrew is affected. We investigated whether we could objectify cognitive complaints in aircrew and whether we could find a neurobiological substrate for their complaints. After medical ethical approval from the local institutional review board, informed consent was obtained from 12 aircrew (2 females, on average aged 44.4 years, 8,130 flying hours) with cognitive complaints and 11 well matched control subjects (2 females, 43.4 years, 233 flying hours). Depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive symptoms were assessed, in addition to a neuropsychological test battery. State of the art Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques were administered that assess structural and functional changes, with a focus on white matter integrity. In aircrew we found significantly more self-reported cognitive complaints and depressive symptoms, and a higher number of tests scored in the impaired range compared to the control group. We observed small clusters in the brain in which white matter microstructure was affected. Also, we observed higher cerebral perfusion values in the left occipital cortex, and reduced brain activation on a functional MRI executive function task. The extent of cognitive impairment was strongly associated with white matter integrity, but extent of estimated number of flight hours was not associated with cognitive impairment nor with reductions in white matter microstructure. Defects in brain white matter microstructure and cerebral perfusion are potential neurobiological substrates for cognitive impairments and mood deficits reported in aircrew. PMID:26063438

  5. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (p<0.05) were used to test for differences in muscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW

  6. A mathematical model of aircraft for evaluating the effects of shielding structure on aircrew exposure.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the aircraft structures and contents on the exposure of aircrew to the galactic component of cosmic rays, a mathematical model of an aeroplane has been developed. The irradiation of the mathematical model in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated using the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. Effective dose andambient dose-equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage at a typicaI civil aviation altitude. A significant effect of the shielding of aircraft structures has been observed on the ambient dose-equivalent rates, while the impact on the effective dose rates seems to be minor. Care should be taken in positioning the detectors onboard when the measurements are aimed at validating the codes.

  7. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Coffey, Brendan; Albert, Wayne J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain occurs at a significant rate in the military helicopter community. It is often attributed to the use of night vision goggles (NVG) and to a number of additional factors such as anthropometrics, posture, vibration, mission length, physical fitness, and helmet fit or load. A number of research studies have addressed many aspects of this epidemic, but an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the literature is not currently available. This paper reviews the spinal anatomy in general and then summarizes what is known about the incidence and prevalence of neck injuries, how the operational environments and equipment may contribute to these injuries, and what can be done to address them from a prevention and/or rehabilitation perspective. Harrison MF, Coffey B, Albert WJ, Fischer SL. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review.

  8. Analysis of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Stefan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Safety analyses of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) application are provided to establish its Failure Effects Classification which affects certification and operational approval requirements. TASAR was developed by NASA Langley Research Center to offer flight path improvement opportunities to the pilot during flight for operational benefits (e.g., reduced fuel, flight time). TASAR, using own-ship and network-enabled information concerning the flight and its environment, including weather and Air Traffic Control (ATC) system constraints, provides recommended improvements to the flight trajectory that the pilot can choose to request via Change Requests to ATC for revised clearance. This study reviews the Change Request process of requesting updates to the current clearance, examines the intended function of TASAR, and utilizes two safety assessment methods to establish the Failure Effects Classification of TASAR. Considerable attention has been given in this report to the identification of operational hazards potentially associated with TASAR.

  9. Cockpit thermal stress and aircrew thermal strain during routine Jaguar operations.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T M; Cochrane, L A; Harrison, M H; Rigden, P W

    1979-08-01

    Thermal data have been obtained from Jaguar aircraft flying routine, warm-weather operations in Sardinia. These data have been analysed in terms of the ambient and cockpit wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) and the mean body temperature (Tb) of the pilot. In contrast to similar data previously obtained from Harrier and Buccaneer aircraft, no interrelationships could be demonstrated between ambient WBGT at ground level and either cockpit WBGT or pilot Tb. Relationships which could be described by equations of negative slope were obtained between Tb and sortie time and between cockpit WBGT and sortie time. A model has been derived for predicting aircrew thermal strain in the Jaguar from cockpit temperature and sortie time.

  10. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Coffey, Brendan; Albert, Wayne J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain occurs at a significant rate in the military helicopter community. It is often attributed to the use of night vision goggles (NVG) and to a number of additional factors such as anthropometrics, posture, vibration, mission length, physical fitness, and helmet fit or load. A number of research studies have addressed many aspects of this epidemic, but an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the literature is not currently available. This paper reviews the spinal anatomy in general and then summarizes what is known about the incidence and prevalence of neck injuries, how the operational environments and equipment may contribute to these injuries, and what can be done to address them from a prevention and/or rehabilitation perspective. Harrison MF, Coffey B, Albert WJ, Fischer SL. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review. PMID:25565533

  11. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  12. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  13. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  14. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  15. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  16. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to satisfy any requirement of 14 CFR chapter I. (b) The approval required by paragraph (a)(2) of this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight...

  17. 16 Weeks of Training with the International Space Station Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) Is not Different than Training with Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) is a resistive exercise system designed to maintain muscle mass and strength in microgravity by simulating free weight (FW) exercise. aRED utilizes vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to replicate the constant mass and inertial components, respectively, of FW exercise in normal gravity. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of aRED and FW resistive exercise training in ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Untrained subjects were assigned to two groups, FW (6 males, 3 females) and aRED (8 males, 3 females), and performed squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR and DL strength (1RM) were measured using FW hardware pre-, mid- and post-training. Subjects participated in a periodized training protocol with the exercise prescription based on a percentage of 1RM. Thigh and lower leg muscle volume were assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and leg (LLM) and total body lean mass (BLM) were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) pre- and post-training. RESULTS: SQ 1RM increased in both FW (48.9+/-6.1%) and aRED (31.2+/-3.8%) groups, and there was a greater training response in FW compared with aRED (p=0.01). HR and DL 1RM increased in FW (HR: 12.3+/-2.4%, DL: 23.3+/-4.4%) and aRED (HR: 18.0+/-1.6%, DL: 23.2+'-2.8%), but there were no differences between groups. Thigh muscle volume was greater following training in both groups (FW: 9.8+/-0.9%, aRED: 7.1+/-1.2%) but lower leg muscle volume increased only in the FW group (3.0+/-1.1%). Lean tissue mass increased in both FW (LLM: 3.9+/-1.1%, BLM: 2.5+/-0.7%) and aRED (LLM: 4.8+/-0.7%, BLM: 2.6 0.7%). There were no between group differences in muscle volume or lean mass in response to training. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the increase in muscle strength, muscle volume, and lean tissue mass when training with aRED was not different than when using the same training protocol with FW. The smaller increase in SQ 1RM in the a

  18. Evaluating a prototype device designed to alleviate night vision goggle induced neck strain among military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dibblee, Jenna; Worthy, Portia; Farrell, Philip; Hetzler, Markus; Reid, Susan; Stevenson, Joan; Fischer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was verify the design of a novel Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) that can be used by military aircrew to help intervene on and reduce the high prevalence of neck trouble. Twelve healthy participants repeated simulated helicopter aircrew tasks on 3 separate days. On each day they wore a different helmet configuration, where measures of performance, perceived demand/preference and muscular demand were recorded. The results showed that vigilance tasks were performed over 10% faster with the HSSD configuration compared to wearing the normal helmet configuration. Participants were able to maintain static (endurance) postures for 28% longer, and use of the HSSD helped to prevent neck muscle fatigue in the most demanding task. The results of this design verification study indicate that the HSSD may be a realistic, feasible near-term solution to intervene on the high prevalence of neck trouble among rotary-wing aircrew. Practitioner Summary: This paper verifies the effectiveness of the Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) as an on-body personal protective device to help control exposures associated with aircrew neck trouble. The HSSD reduced perceived demand, reduced cumulative muscle activity in select muscles and provided improved fatigue resistance, meeting its desired design objectives. PMID:25932658

  19. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... performance requirements contained in § 232.405 or a device using an alternative technology to perform the... requirements contained in § 232.405 or a device using an alternative technology to perform the same function... valve on the train and be in constant radio communication with the locomotive engineer. The crew...

  20. Skills Training of Health Workers in the Use of a Non Surgical Device (PrePex) for Adult Safe Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Galukande, Moses; Duffy, Kevin; Bitega, Jean Paul; Wooding, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) is a proven approach for partial protection of men from acquisition of HIV infection. Several sub-Saharan African countries have a target to circumcise 80% of males aged 15 to 49. The use of devices such as PrePex would aid scaling up of SMC. Since most health workers would have no prior experience with use of devices, skills training is needed. This paper explores a skills transfer model at an urban site in Uganda. Objective To assess the practicability and feasibility of rapid short duration training for safe PrePex device use. Methods A prospective study, conducted over 8 weeks (August–October 2012) at International Hospital Kampala, an urban Kampala hospital, examining the performance of various health worker cadres after training in the use of a non-surgical device (PrePex). The prospective study obtained approval from the Makerere School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee and the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. If eligible, and after the subject signed the informed consent form, they were enrolled into the study. Results Ten health workers were successfully trained in use of PrePex during a 3 day non-residential on-the-job training course. After the first three days of training, the trained health workers performed 561 placements and 529 device removals successfully. Over all adverse events (AE) rates were below ≤2%; however, there were some differences in AE rates across the cadres trained but not significant (p>0.25 for moderate AEs). Conclusion Rapid training for safe use of the PrePex device is feasible for the range of health workers available for SMC in resource limited settings, but among those with past SMC experience. PMID:25118716

  1. Ankle Training With a Robotic Device Improves Hemiparetic Gait After a Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Task-oriented therapies such as treadmill exercise can improve gait velocity after stroke, but slow velocities and abnormal gait patterns often persist, suggesting a need for additional strategies to improve walking. Objectives To determine the effects of a 6-week visually guided, impedance controlled, ankle robotics intervention on paretic ankle motor control and gait function in chronic stroke. Methods This was a single-arm pilot study with a convenience sample of 8 stroke survivors with chronic hemiparetic gait, trained and tested in a laboratory. Subjects trained in dorsiflexion–plantarflexion by playing video games with the robot during three 1-hour training sessions weekly, totaling 560 repetitions per session. Assessments included paretic ankle ranges of motion, strength, motor control, and overground gait function. Results Improved paretic ankle motor control was seen as increased target success, along with faster and smoother movements. Walking velocity also increased significantly, whereas durations of paretic single support increased and double support decreased. Conclusions Robotic feedback training improved paretic ankle motor control with improvements in floor walking. Increased walking speeds were comparable with reports from other task-oriented, locomotor training approaches used in stroke, suggesting that a focus on ankle motor control may provide a valuable adjunct to locomotor therapies. PMID:21115945

  2. Video disc technology - A new approach to the design of training devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, S.; Fletcher, J. D.

    It appears that the productivity limits of current training technology have been reached, and that revolutionary new techniques are needed to break through existing constraints. It is pointed out that video disk technology is one of the most promising sources of these new techniques. At the heart of this technology is the capability to access tens of thousands of color images, including stereo sound, in very short time. Attention is given to four new ideas for training applications which use video disk technology. Optical video disk antecedents are considered along with aspects of optical video disk technology, interactive movies, surrogate travel, electronic libraries, and simulation. A number of issues concerning the use of video disks by the training community are also investigated.

  3. Reliability and comparability of the accelerometer and the linear position measuring device in resistance training.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Piriz, Pedro T; Sanchez, Eva T; Manrique, David C; Gonzalez, Esther P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intermachine reliability attained from devices used to measure the common variables in sports performance. Repeatability conditions were established by creating a similar set of conditions under which the measurements were taken from both devices. The objectives of this research were to demonstrate the reliability between two devices in a bench press movement--the linear position measuring device (LPM) isoinertial dynamometer (T-Force) and the 3D (Myotest) accelerometer (AC)--and to compare the existing correlations between maximum velocity, maximum estimated strength, and peak power estimate variables in the bench press exercise. Forty bench press exercise trials were analyzed simultaneously, performed by 3 different subjects (age: 26.74 ± 1.2 years, height: 175.74 ± 4.04 cm, weight: 78.7 ± 3.35 kg) at maximum velocity (25 kg additional load). Three simple linear regression models were developed, supplied by the LPM on the basis of the AC data. The assumption of independence of errors was compared by means of the Durban-Watson test, and partial autocorrelation coefficients were established at an overall p < 0.05 significance level. It has not been possible to confirm the presence of a general correlation between the measurements of both devices. Regarding the assumption of independence of errors, the presence of generalized autocorrelation was confirmed. Linear regression analysis revealed an intermachine correlation in one of the nonconclusive cases, (peak power) variable and subject 1, r (10) = 0.640, p = 0.024. No partial autocorrelation was found. The devices should not be used interchangeably as instruments. PMID:22847523

  4. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... test. (c) Use of a flight simulator for the helicopter rating. If an applicant uses a flight simulator for training or the practical test for the helicopter class or type rating, (1) The flight simulator— (i) Must represent the class and type of helicopter rating (if a type rating is applicable) for...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Definitions and Abbreviations for Flight Simulation Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... definitions found in 14 CFR part 1, as indicated parenthetically End Information Begin QPS Requirements 2... training, testing, or checking activities under this Chapter requires the certificate holder to submit to... airplane plane of symmetry. Automatic Testing—FSTD testing where all stimuli are under computer...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1087 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1087 Approval of aircraft simulators and... included in the program manager's training program if approved by the Administrator. (b) Each aircraft... manager; and (ii) The particular maneuver, procedure, or crewmember function involved. (2) It...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1087 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1087 Approval of aircraft simulators and... included in the program manager's training program if approved by the Administrator. (b) Each aircraft... manager; and (ii) The particular maneuver, procedure, or crewmember function involved. (2) It...

  8. Peer Review as a Motivating Device in the Training of Writing Skills for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Victor N.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a method of training college students writing skills in content areas that involves the use of a peer-review panel to encourage students to write in-class essays in academic and professional formats. Concludes that because the procedure motivates students to learn and helps the instructor teach, both students and the instructor feel…

  9. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment §...

  14. Aircrew radiation dose estimates during recent solar particle events and the effect of particle anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Al Anid, H; Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Takada, M; Duldig, M

    2014-01-01

    A model was developed using a Monte-Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX, to estimate the additional radiation exposure to aircrew members during solar particle events. The model transports an extrapolated particle spectrum based on satellite measurements through the atmosphere to aircraft altitudes. This code produces the estimated flux at a specific altitude where radiation dose conversion coefficients are applied to convert the particle flux into effective and ambient dose-equivalent rates. A cut-off rigidity model accounts for the shielding effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Comparisons were made between the model predictions and actual flight measurements taken with various types of instruments used to measure the mixed radiation field during ground level enhancements (GLEs) 60 and 65. An anisotropy analysis that uses neutron monitor responses and the pitch angle distribution of energetic solar particles was used to identify particle anisotropy for a solar event in December 2006. In anticipation of future commercial use, a computer code has been developed to implement the radiation dose assessment model for routine analysis. PMID:24084521

  15. Evaluation of new cosmic radiation monitors designed for aircrew exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, B. J.; Bennett, B.; Dyer, C. S.; Hands, A. D. P.; Duldig, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of next generation aircraft designs capable of ultralong-range flight and extended flight endurance, new experimental dosimetry equipment has been specifically designed to enable aircrew to monitor and respond to airborne alerts of potential doses that exceed recommended limits. The new QinetiQ QDOS/Rayhound monitor and designer-specific Liulin 4SA both provide real-time monitoring and readout with both audible and visual alert functions. The potential advantage to pilots and airlines is a more rational response to an alert by minimizing the altitude descent and time at lower levels in response to a significant event. This not only protects passengers and crew from solar particle events but provides a "greener" option to fuel burn at lower altitudes when events have abated. Thus, it will allow the crew to determine safer optimum flight levels during and after the event. These monitors were flown on numerous high- and low-latitude flights in combination with a "Hawk" tissue equivalent proportional counter acting as the reference instrument as it measured the total ambient dose equivalent H*(10). An FH 41B Eberline monitor and bubble detectors were also used in the comparison.

  16. Sleep patterns in aircrew operating on the polar route between Germany and east Asia.

    PubMed

    Samel, A; Wegmann, H M; Summa, W; Naumann, M

    1991-07-01

    The study was performed as the second part of an investigation to assess sleep behavior and circadian rhythmicity in aircrew operating regular passenger flights between Germany and East Asia via Anchorage (ANC). Continuous records of sleep and ratings of sleep quality were obtained by sleep logs from 101 B747-cockpit crewmembers, starting at least 3 d before commencing flight duty, continuing during days on duty (the duration depending on the flight schedule) and finishing 4 d after return, at the earliest. Regardless of the specific duty roster, sleep deficit occurred mainly after the first flight leg to ANC, presumably due to the 10-h time zone difference and the short layover time. During the layover in the Far East, the sleep deficit diminished partly because of additional naps. Sleep was often disturbed and scattered over days and nights. Another pronounced sleep deficit occurred after the first return flight from South Korea or Japan to ANC. Compared to the outgoing layover period in ANC, the number and duration of naps increased during this layover and, additionally, on the first 2 d after returning home. Poorer sleep quality ratings were associated with accumulated sleep deficit and increased napping, but significant decrements in sleep quality were seen only during two out of the six different duty rosters. All six of the polar route duty rosters may lead to significant sleep disturbances. During some flight schedules the sleep deficit is large enough to raise operational implications.

  17. Aircrew helmet design and manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David P.; George, Alan E.; Winkler, Edward R.

    1993-12-01

    With the development of helmet mounted displays (HMD) and night vision systems (NVS) for use in military and civil aviation roles, new methods of helmet development need to be explored. The helmet must be designed to provide the user with the most lightweight, form fitting system, while meeting other system performance requirements. This can be achieved through a complete analysis of the system requirements. One such technique for systems analysis, a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix, is explored for this purpose. The advanced helmet development process for developing aircrew helmets includes the utilization of several emerging technologies such as laser scanning, computer aided design (CAD), computer generated patterns from 3-D surfaces, laser cutting of patterns and components, and rapid prototyping (stereolithography). Advanced anthropometry methods for helmet development are also available for use. Besides the application of advanced technologies to be used in the development of helmet assemblies, methods of mass reduction are also discussed. The use of these advanced technologies will minimize errors in the development cycle of the helmet and molds, and should enhance system performance while reducing development time and cost.

  18. Aircrew radiation dose estimates during recent solar particle events and the effect of particle anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Al Anid, H; Lewis, B J; Bennett, L G I; Takada, M; Duldig, M

    2014-01-01

    A model was developed using a Monte-Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX, to estimate the additional radiation exposure to aircrew members during solar particle events. The model transports an extrapolated particle spectrum based on satellite measurements through the atmosphere to aircraft altitudes. This code produces the estimated flux at a specific altitude where radiation dose conversion coefficients are applied to convert the particle flux into effective and ambient dose-equivalent rates. A cut-off rigidity model accounts for the shielding effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Comparisons were made between the model predictions and actual flight measurements taken with various types of instruments used to measure the mixed radiation field during ground level enhancements (GLEs) 60 and 65. An anisotropy analysis that uses neutron monitor responses and the pitch angle distribution of energetic solar particles was used to identify particle anisotropy for a solar event in December 2006. In anticipation of future commercial use, a computer code has been developed to implement the radiation dose assessment model for routine analysis.

  19. Aircrew coordination and decisionmaking: Peer ratings of video tapes made during a full mission simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Awe, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Six professionally active, retired captains rated the coordination and decisionmaking performances of sixteen aircrews while viewing videotapes of a simulated commercial air transport operation. The scenario featured a required diversion and a probable minimum fuel situation. Seven point Likert-type scales were used in rating variables on the basis of a model of crew coordination and decisionmaking. The variables were based on concepts of, for example, decision difficulty, efficiency, and outcome quality; and leader-subordin ate concepts such as person and task-oriented leader behavior, and competency motivation of subordinate crewmembers. Five-front-end variables of the model were in turn dependent variables for a hierarchical regression procedure. The variance in safety performance was explained 46%, by decision efficiency, command reversal, and decision quality. The variance of decision quality, an alternative substantive dependent variable to safety performance, was explained 60% by decision efficiency and the captain's quality of within-crew communications. The variance of decision efficiency, crew coordination, and command reversal were in turn explained 78%, 80%, and 60% by small numbers of preceding independent variables. A principle component, varimax factor analysis supported the model structure suggested by regression analyses.

  20. Aircrew helmet protection against potential cerebral concussion in low-magnitude impacts.

    PubMed

    Norman, R W; Bishop, P J; Pierrynowski, M R; Pezzack, J C

    1979-06-01

    The response of the Gentex DH-151 (contact type) and Gentex 411 (suspension type) aircrew helmets to low-magnitude impacts, such as those sometimes encountered during cockpit buffeting, in ejection, and in parachute landings, was studied to augment the data base on helmet performance. The helmets, mounted on a Hodgson headform, were dropped on the crown and rear at impact velocities up to 4.97 m/s. Acceleration time histories were tape recorded and digitized and Gadd Severity Indices (GSI), among others, were calculated from the resultant acceleration curve. Both helmets kept the GSI below predicted concussion thresholds at 4.97 m/s and were considered to perform well on initial impacts. On second impacts, the GSI rose considerably because the shell and liner of the DH-151 cracked and the suspension of the "141" stretched during the first blow. Improvement of the multiple impact performance of both helmets appears desirable, although the suspension helmet performed slightly better than the contact helmet with respect to the criterion used. PMID:475701

  1. Feedback training using a non-motorized device for long-term upper extremity impairment after stroke: a single group study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ki Hun; Song, Won-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of feedback training using a non-motorized device on the upper extremity kinematic performance of chronic stroke survivors. [Subjects] This study had a single group design. Thirteen chronic stroke survivors (onset duration: 11.5 years, 62.6 years, mini-mental state examination score: 26.0) were enrolled. [Methods] The feedback training system consisted of a non-motorized device that offered weight support, and a projective display device and loud speakers that provided suitable visual and auditory feedback to the user. Subjects participated in the feedback training for 40 min per day, two times a week for 4 weeks. Upper extremity kinematic performance (i.e., movement time) in three directions was confirmed twice (at baseline and post-intervention). [Results] After 4 weeks of the intervention, a significant improvement in upper extremity kinematic performance was observed in the three directions. [Conclusion] The present study demonstrated the positive effects of feedback training using a non-motorized device on the upper extremity kinematic performance of chronic stroke survivors. Therefore, the findings of this study may provide beneficial information for future studies on feedback training using a non-motorized device for chronic stroke survivors. PMID:27064768

  2. Integration of soft tissue model and open haptic device for medical training simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasum, G. F.; Ramdhania, L. N.; Suprijanto; Widyotriatmo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been widely used to perform any surgical procedures nowadays. Currently, MIS has been applied in some cases in Indonesia. Needle insertion is one of simple MIS procedure that can be used for some purposes. Before the needle insertion technique used in the real situation, it essential to train this type of medical student skills. The research has developed an open platform of needle insertion simulator with haptic feedback that providing the medical student a realistic feel encountered during the actual procedures. There are three main steps in build the training simulator, which are configure hardware system, develop a program to create soft tissue model and the integration of hardware and software. For evaluating its performance, haptic simulator was tested by 24 volunteers on a scenario of soft tissue model. Each volunteer must insert the needle on simulator until rearch the target point with visual feedback that visualized on the monitor. From the result it can concluded that the soft tissue model can bring the sensation of touch through the perceived force feedback on haptic actuator by looking at the different force in accordance with different stiffness in each layer.

  3. Walking gait changes after stepping-in-place training using a foot lifting device in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kanichirou; Asai, Hitoshi; Inaoka, Pleiades Tiharu; Nakaizumi, Dai

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of stepping-in-place training using a foot lifting assist device on the walking gait of chronic hemiparetic stroke patients. [Subjects] Seven patients with chronic hemiplegic stroke (age 80.9±4.9 years) who were attending a local adult daycare facility participated in this study. [Methods] The participants had 2 or 16 weeks of intervention after a baseline period of 2 weeks. Evaluations were performed before the baseline period and before and after the intervention period. The evaluation consisted of a two-dimensional motion analysis of walking and stepping-in-place exercises and a clinical evaluation. [Results] Walking speed increased in three participants after 2 or 16 weeks of intervention. The swing phase percentage increased in the paretic gait cycle, and the time from non-paretic heel contact to paretic heel off decreased during stepping-in-place in these participants. [Conclusion] Given that the transition from the support phase support to the swing phase was shortened after the intervention, the stepping-in-place exercise using the device designed for this study may improve the muscle strength of the lower limb and coordination in the pre-swing phase of the paretic limb. PMID:27190449

  4. [Incontinence after radical prostatectomy and cystectomy: are combined training with mechanical devices and whole body vibration effective?].

    PubMed

    Zellner, M

    2011-04-01

    In spite of improvements in nerve-sparing operation techniques in radical prostatectomies, a disturbance of (early) continence is subjectively perceived by a number of patients as burdensome, which can last for several months. Skilled physiotherapy is appreciated as causal therapy in the hands of the qualified therapist. In an open randomised controlled trial the efficacy of a standardised rehabilitation therapy with pelvic floor re-education instructed by a physiotherapist (n=25) as the control group in comparison to a group with additional combined electrostimulation and biofeedback device (Myo 420™; n=25) or whole body vibration therapy (FitVibe medical™; n=25). Pre- and post-therapeutic evaluation of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the enclosed question about quality of life (IPSS-QL), pad test, pelvic floor strength, maximum uroflow, micturition volume, serum testosterone and blood glucose was done. Within the treatment duration of 3-4 weeks in all treatment groups a statistically significant improvement of IPSS and IPSS-QL was seen. Due to whole body vibration the reduction of urine loss (pad test), increase of voided volume and maximum uroflow were statistically significant. Whereas for isolated physiotherapy during the short therapy duration merely a trend for the improvement of pelvic floor muscle strength was seen, the difference was significant in the Myo 420 and the whole body vibration groups, respectively. It was shown that a continuous improvement in continence depends on the consistent continuation of the training also under domestic conditions. The controlled trial conditions also confirm the efficacy, acceptance and tolerance of a standardised pelvic floor re-education under the conditions of urological inpatient rehabilitation treatment. By additional use of a combined electro- and multichannel biofeedback device or a whole body vibration device, the treatment results could be further improved. Due to the different causal

  5. [Incontinence after radical prostatectomy and cystectomy: are combined training with mechanical devices and whole body vibration effective?].

    PubMed

    Zellner, M

    2011-04-01

    In spite of improvements in nerve-sparing operation techniques in radical prostatectomies, a disturbance of (early) continence is subjectively perceived by a number of patients as burdensome, which can last for several months. Skilled physiotherapy is appreciated as causal therapy in the hands of the qualified therapist. In an open randomised controlled trial the efficacy of a standardised rehabilitation therapy with pelvic floor re-education instructed by a physiotherapist (n=25) as the control group in comparison to a group with additional combined electrostimulation and biofeedback device (Myo 420™; n=25) or whole body vibration therapy (FitVibe medical™; n=25). Pre- and post-therapeutic evaluation of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the enclosed question about quality of life (IPSS-QL), pad test, pelvic floor strength, maximum uroflow, micturition volume, serum testosterone and blood glucose was done. Within the treatment duration of 3-4 weeks in all treatment groups a statistically significant improvement of IPSS and IPSS-QL was seen. Due to whole body vibration the reduction of urine loss (pad test), increase of voided volume and maximum uroflow were statistically significant. Whereas for isolated physiotherapy during the short therapy duration merely a trend for the improvement of pelvic floor muscle strength was seen, the difference was significant in the Myo 420 and the whole body vibration groups, respectively. It was shown that a continuous improvement in continence depends on the consistent continuation of the training also under domestic conditions. The controlled trial conditions also confirm the efficacy, acceptance and tolerance of a standardised pelvic floor re-education under the conditions of urological inpatient rehabilitation treatment. By additional use of a combined electro- and multichannel biofeedback device or a whole body vibration device, the treatment results could be further improved. Due to the different causal

  6. ANKLE JOINT CONTROL DURING SINGLE-LEGGED BALANCE USING COMMON BALANCE TRAINING DEVICES – IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Mark; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Tang, Lars; Zebis, Mette; Nielsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background A lateral ankle sprain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal injury in sports. Exercises that aim to improve balance are a standard part of the ankle rehabilitation process. In an optimal progression model for ankle rehabilitation and prevention of future ankle sprains, it is important to characterize different balance exercises based on level of difficulty and sensori-motor training stimulus. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate frontal-plane ankle kinematics and associated peroneal muscle activity during single-legged balance on stable surface (floor) and three commonly used balance devices (Airex®, BOSU® Ball and wobble board). Design Descriptive exploratory laboratory study. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects performed single-legged balance with eyes open on an Airex® mat, BOSU® Ball, wobble board, and floor (reference condition). Ankle kinematics were measured using reflective markers and 3-dimensional recordings and expressed as inversion-eversion range of motion variability, peak velocity of inversion and number of inversion-eversion direction changes. Peroneus longus EMG activity was averaged and normalized to maximal activity during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and in addition amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) between 90 and 10% was calculated as a measure of muscle activation variability. Results Balancing on BOSU® Ball and wobble board generally resulted in increased ankle kinematic and muscle activity variables, compared to the other surfaces. BOSU® Ball was the most challenging in terms of inversion-eversion variability while wobble board was associated with a higher number of inversion-eversion direction changes. No differences in average muscle activation level were found between these two surfaces, but the BOSU® Ball did show a more variable activation pattern in terms of APDF. Conclusion The results showed large kinematic variability among different balance training devices and

  7. The probability of laser caused ocular injury to the aircrew of undetected aircraft violating the exclusion zone about the airborne aura LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2006-12-01

    The probability of a laser caused ocular injury, to the aircrew of an undetected aircraft entering the exclusion zone about the AURA LIDAR airborne platform with the possible violation of the Laser Hazard Zone boundary, was investigated and quantified for risk analysis and management.

  8. Lasers for Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, C. A.

    A breadboard model of a laser display system is described in detail and its operating procedure is outlined. The system consists of: a Model 52 argon krypton ion laser and power supply; an optical breadboard comprising a pocket cell light modulator, a galvonmeter beam deflector for vertical scanning, a unique multiple reflection beam steerer for…

  9. Ground Training Devices in Job Sample Approach to UPT [Undergraduate Pilot Training] Selection and Screening. Final Report, September 1972-August 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMaster, W. Dean; Gray, Thomas H.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a screening procedure for undergraduate pilot training (UPT). This procedure was based upon the use of ground-based instrument trainers in which UPT candidates, naive to flying, were evaluated in their performance of job sample tasks; i.e., basic instrument flying. Training and testing sessions were…

  10. A Second-Generation Device for Automated Training and Quantitative Behavior Analyses of Molecularly-Tractable Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Blackiston, Douglas; Shomrat, Tal; Nicolas, Cindy L.; Granata, Christopher; Levin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A deep understanding of cognitive processes requires functional, quantitative analyses of the steps leading from genetics and the development of nervous system structure to behavior. Molecularly-tractable model systems such as Xenopus laevis and planaria offer an unprecedented opportunity to dissect the mechanisms determining the complex structure of the brain and CNS. A standardized platform that facilitated quantitative analysis of behavior would make a significant impact on evolutionary ethology, neuropharmacology, and cognitive science. While some animal tracking systems exist, the available systems do not allow automated training (feedback to individual subjects in real time, which is necessary for operant conditioning assays). The lack of standardization in the field, and the numerous technical challenges that face the development of a versatile system with the necessary capabilities, comprise a significant barrier keeping molecular developmental biology labs from integrating behavior analysis endpoints into their pharmacological and genetic perturbations. Here we report the development of a second-generation system that is a highly flexible, powerful machine vision and environmental control platform. In order to enable multidisciplinary studies aimed at understanding the roles of genes in brain function and behavior, and aid other laboratories that do not have the facilities to undergo complex engineering development, we describe the device and the problems that it overcomes. We also present sample data using frog tadpoles and flatworms to illustrate its use. Having solved significant engineering challenges in its construction, the resulting design is a relatively inexpensive instrument of wide relevance for several fields, and will accelerate interdisciplinary discovery in pharmacology, neurobiology, regenerative medicine, and cognitive science. PMID:21179424

  11. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. PMID:24007620

  12. Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging using an MR-compatible hand-induced robotic device suggests training-induced neuroplasticity in patients with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    LAZARIDOU, ASIMINA; ASTRAKAS, LOUKAS; MINTZOPOULOS, DIONYSSIOS; KHANICHEH, AZADEH; SINGHAL, ANEESH B.; MOSKOWITZ, MICHAEL A.; ROSEN, BRUCE; TZIKA, ARIA A.

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and a frequent cause of long-term adult impairment. Improved strategies to enhance motor function in individuals with chronic disability from stroke are thus required. Post-stroke therapy may improve rehabilitation and reduce long-term disability; however, objective methods for evaluating the specific impact of rehabilitation are rare. Brain imaging studies on patients with chronic stroke have shown evidence for reorganization of areas showing functional plasticity after a stroke. In this study, we hypothesized that brain mapping using a novel magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible hand device in conjunction with state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can serve as a novel biomarker for brain plasticity induced by rehabilitative motor training in patients with chronic stroke. This hypothesis is based on the premises that robotic devices, by stimulating brain plasticity, can assist in restoring movement compromised by stroke-induced pathological changes in the brain and that these changes can then be monitored by advanced MRI. We serially examined 15 healthy controls and 4 patients with chronic stroke. We employed a combination of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetric MRI using a 3-tesla (3T) MRI system using a 12-channel Siemens Tim coil and a novel MR-compatible hand-induced robotic device. DTI data revealed that the number of fibers and the average tract length significantly increased after 8 weeks of hand training by 110% and 64%, respectively (p<0.001). New corticospinal tract (CST) fibers projecting progressively closer to the motor cortex appeared during training. Volumetric data analysis showed a statistically significant increase in the cortical thickness of the ventral postcentral gyrus areas of patients after training relative to pre-training cortical thickness (p<0.001). We suggest that rehabilitation is possible for a longer period of time after stroke than previously thought, showing that

  13. Proceedings of the Naval Training Device Center and Industry Conference (2nd, november 28-30, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Device Center, Orlando, FL.

    This report consists of 40 conference papers actually presented, and four others submitted but not presented due to lack of time. It concentrates on the technical problems confronting organizations having a prime interest in simulation for training, and stresses the cooperation of the military educator and the technical community to achieve a…

  14. 49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and perform with the following features: (a) An emergency brake application command from the front.... (b) The rear unit of the device shall send an acknowledgment message to the front unit immediately upon receipt of an emergency brake application command. The front unit shall listen for...

  15. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  16. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  17. Training Australian military health care personnel in the primary care of maxillofacial wounds from improvised explosive devices.

    PubMed

    Reed, B E; Hale, R G

    2010-06-01

    Severe facial wounds frequently result from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as the face is still vulnerable despite advances in personal protection of soldiers. In contrast to the poor outcomes with civilian maxillofacial trauma management methods initially employed by the US Army for maxillofacial wounds from IEDs, advances in wound management methods for such injuries by the US Army have resulted in significant improvements in appearance and function. This article describes the features of a short course in the primary management of combat related maxillofacial wounds for deployed health care personnel who may not be facial specialists, including contemporary treatment techniques for those confronting wounds from IEDs which are explained in this course.

  18. Engaging with economic evaluation methods: insights from small and medium enterprises in the UK medical devices industry after training workshops

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With increased governmental interest in value assessment of technologies and where medical device manufacturers are finding it increasingly necessary to become more familiar with economic evaluation methods, the study sought to explore the levels of health economics knowledge within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to scope strategies they employ to demonstrate the value of their products to purchasers. Methods A short questionnaire was completed by participants attending one of five workshops on product development in the medical device sector that took place in England between 2007 and 2011. From all responses obtained, a large proportion of participants were based in SMEs (N = 43), and these responses were used for the analysis. Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests was performed on questions with approximately interval scales. Qualitative data from participant responses were analysed to reveal emerging themes. Results The questionnaire results revealed that 60% of SME participants (mostly company directors or managers, including product or project managers) rated themselves as having low or no knowledge of health economics prior to the workshops but the rest professed at least medium knowledge. Clinical trials and cost analyses or cost-effectiveness studies were the most highly cited means by which SMEs aim to demonstrate value of products to purchasers. Purchasers were perceived to place most importance on factors of safety, expert opinion, cost-effectiveness and price. However many companies did not utilise formal decision-making tools to prioritise these factors. There was no significant dependence of the use of decision-making tools in general with respect to professed knowledge of health economics methods. SMEs did not state a preference for any particular aspect of potential value when deciding whether to develop a product. A majority of SMEs stated they would use a health economics tool. Research and development

  19. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  20. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  1. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  2. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  3. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  4. Low-cost training technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    The differences between flight training technology and flight simulation technology are highlighted. Examples of training technologies are provided, including the Navy's training system and the interactive cockpit training device. Training problems that might arise in the near future are discussed. These challenges follow from the increased amount and variety of information that a pilot must have access to in the cockpit.

  5. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall...

  6. 49 CFR 236.740 - Device, reset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Device, reset. 236.740 Section 236.740..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.740 Device, reset. A device whereby the brakes may be released after an automatic train control...

  7. Power transmission device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Kishizawa, Y.; Kato, Y.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a multistage gear shifting device for a motor vehicle in which first speed to fourth speed gear trains and reverse gear trains are arranged between two shafts in an order such that a low speed gear train comes first, one gear of each gear train being able to engage with and disengage from one of the two shafts through a hydraulic clutch, the gear shifting device including a manual valve which has operating positions corresponding to first speed to fourth speed and reverse and which is adapted to selectively operate hydraulic clutches for the respective gear trains, the one gear of the fourth speed gear train and one gear of the reverse gear train being integrally formed with each other and loosely fitting on one of two shafts and detachably engaged with one of the two shafts through a common hydraulic clutch, the other gears of the fourth speed and reverse gear trains being loosely fitting on the other shaft, the multistage gear shifting device including a selector for selectively engaging the other gears of the fourth speed and reverse gear trains, an actuator for actuating the selector in response to the action of the manual valve, and a switching valve annexed to the actuator, the switching valve guiding hydraulic oil from the manual valve to the common hydraulic clutch when the manual valve is brought to an operating position corresponding to fourth speed or reverse and discharging the hydraulic oil in the common hydraulic clutch to a drain through the manual valve.

  8. The impact of resistance respiratory muscle training with a SpiroTiger® device on lung function, exercise performance, and health-related quality of life in respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are studies demonstrating that respiratory muscles can be trained using proper stimulation. Positive effects have been achieved in patients with pulmonary diseases and in patients after thoracic surgery procedures using isocapnic hyperpnoea training with a SpiroTiger® device. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SpiroTiger® training has an impact on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), exercise performance, respiratory muscle fitness, and health-related quality of life. Material and methods Search phrases “spirotiger” and “spiro tiger” were entered into the search engines of the following databases: Academic Search Complete, Medline, Ebscohost, and PubMed. Results One article about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 4 articles about cystic fibrosis were found. Conclusions The positive effect of SpiroTiger® training on FEV1 cannot be unequivocally confirmed as it was found only in two of the five analysed studies. SpiroTiger® training has a positive impact on exercise performance measured with the six-minute walk test; it increases breathing muscle fitness in patients with COPD and in patients after thoracic surgery procedures, and it improves health-related quality of life. PMID:26855662

  9. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with 4,000 trailing tons or less and travels between a point of origin and a point of final destination... valve on the train and be in constant radio communication with the locomotive engineer. The crew member... the train reaches its destination. If a loss of communication occurs at the location where the...

  10. Analysis of eighty-four commercial aviation incidents - Implications for a resource management approach to crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    A resource management approach to aircrew performance is defined and utilized in structuring an analysis of 84 exemplary incidents from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System. The distribution of enabling and associated (evolutionary) and recovery factors between and within five analytic categories suggests that resource management training be concentrated on: (1) interpersonal communications, with air traffic control information of major concern; (2) task management, mainly setting priorities and appropriately allocating tasks under varying workload levels; and (3) planning, coordination, and decisionmaking concerned with preventing and recovering from potentially unsafe situations in certain aircraft maneuvers.

  11. SAR Aircrew--HH-3F Avionics and HH-3F Flight Preparation. ACH3AV-0442. Second Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coast Guard Inst., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This document contains two U.S. Coast Guard self-study pamphlets that provide training in helicopter flight preparation and avionics duties. Each pamphlet consists of a number of lessons that include objectives, information illustrated with line drawings and/or photographs, and self-quizzes with answers. The avionics course covers the following…

  12. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.566 Locomotive of each train operating...

  13. Flight Evaluation of the Army/NASA Variable Stability Fly-by-Wire Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concept Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arterburn, Dave

    2002-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) have performed initial flight evaluations of the Research Flight Control System (RFCS) integrated into the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A. The highly modified JUH-6OA Black Hawk helicopter is a full authority, high bandwidth, variable stability, in-flight simulator designed to support development of advanced flight control, sensor, and integrated display and control technologies in a fail safe environment. Preparation for flight test required an extensive hazard analysis and ground testing to ensure proper system operation. A hardware in the loop development facility was utilized to evaluate control law stability following software changes, assess servo hardover upset conditions during manual and monitor disengagements and provide pilot familiarization of test techniques and software changes prior to flight. First engagement of the RFCS was conducted on 31 Aug 2001. RFCS transfer system operation, envelope expansion and a limited rate monitor evaluation have been completed with low bandwidth and model following control laws.

  14. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Trains that must be divided into two sections in order to traverse a grade (e.g., doubling a hill). This... one mile in order to establish communication. When communication is established, the...

  15. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Trains that must be divided into two sections in order to traverse a grade (e.g., doubling a hill). This... one mile in order to establish communication. When communication is established, the...

  16. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Trains that must be divided into two sections in order to traverse a grade (e.g., doubling a hill). This... one mile in order to establish communication. When communication is established, the...

  17. Study of optimal training protocols and devices for developing and maintaining physical fitness in females prior to and during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.; Corbin, B.; Smith, C.

    1977-01-01

    Pedalling a bicycle at least ten minutes a day at 85% of maximum pulse rate, three days a week for ten weeks will produce moderate increases in overall strength and physical work capacity in college-age females. The longer the training session, up to thirty minutes per session, the greater are the increases in physical work capacity that result when college-age females are trained three days a week for ten weeks at 85% of their maximum heart rate.

  18. HMD-based training for the U.S. Army's AVCATT-A collective aviation training simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rita; Melzer, James E.

    2003-09-01

    The Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer - Aviation (AVCATT-A) reconfigurable manned simulator is the Army's newest helicopter training simulator. AVCATT-A is a dynamic reconfigurable system developed for use for combined arms collective training and mission rehearsal through a suite of networked simulators in a simulated battlefield environment. The main purpose of AVCATT-A is to effectively train aviation aircrews in a collective training environment. The AVCATT-A visual system is required to support realistic collective/combined arms training with the required fidelity to fly nap-of-the-earth (NOE) or conduct multi-ship operations. To meet this high level of expectation requires that the visual system be capable of performing all necessary collective tasks and supporting individual tasks with no negative training transfer or physical impacts on crewmembers. In addition to these stringent training requirements for the visual system, the AVCATT-A simulator must be reconfigurable for five different cockpits and be readily deployable. The solution was found in a combination of state-of-the-art technology where the standard projection dome is replaced by a combination of rear-screen projection displays and a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) which provides all the Out-The-Window (OTW) visual imagery.

  19. Payload IVA training and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monsees, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a training program for the intravehicular operation of space shuttle payloads is discussed. The priorities for the program are compliance with established training standards, and accommodating changes. Simulation devices are also reviewed.

  20. Army-NASA aircrew/aircraft integration program. Phase 5: A3I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) software concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banda, Carolyn; Bushnell, David; Chen, Scott; Chiu, Alex; Neukom, Christian; Nishimura, Sayuri; Prevost, Michael; Shankar, Renuka; Staveland, Lowell; Smith, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This is the Software Concept Document for the Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) being developed as part of Phase V of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Progam. The approach taken in this program since its inception in 1984 is that of incremental development with clearly defined phases. Phase 1 began in 1984 and subsequent phases have progressed at approximately 10-16 month intervals. Each phase of development consists of planning, setting requirements, preliminary design, detailed design, implementation, testing, demonstration and documentation. Phase 5 began with an off-site planning meeting in November, 1990. It is expected that Phase 5 development will be complete and ready for demonstration to invited visitors from industry, government and academia in May, 1992. This document, produced during the preliminary design period of Phase 5, is intended to record the top level design concept for MIDAS as it is currently conceived. This document has two main objectives: (1) to inform interested readers of the goals of the MIDAS Phase 5 development period, and (2) to serve as the initial version of the MIDAS design document which will be continuously updated as the design evolves. Since this document is written fairly early in the design period, many design issues still remain unresolved. Some of the unresolved issues are mentioned later in this document in the sections on specific components. Readers are cautioned that this is not a final design document and that, as the design of MIDAS matures, some of the design ideas recorded in this document will change. The final design will be documented in a detailed design document published after the demonstrations.

  1. 49 CFR 232.111 - Train handling information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... train crew taking charge of a train be informed of: (1) The total weight and length of the train, based... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train handling information. 232.111 Section 232... TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES General Requirements § 232.111 Train handling information....

  2. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., muscle activity, skin temperature, etc.) so that the patient can control voluntarily these physiological... device that is indicated for relaxation training and muscle reeducation and prescription use, subject...

  3. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., muscle activity, skin temperature, etc.) so that the patient can control voluntarily these physiological... device that is indicated for relaxation training and muscle reeducation and prescription use, subject...

  4. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., muscle activity, skin temperature, etc.) so that the patient can control voluntarily these physiological... device that is indicated for relaxation training and muscle reeducation and prescription use, subject...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., muscle activity, skin temperature, etc.) so that the patient can control voluntarily these physiological... device that is indicated for relaxation training and muscle reeducation and prescription use, subject...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., muscle activity, skin temperature, etc.) so that the patient can control voluntarily these physiological... device that is indicated for relaxation training and muscle reeducation and prescription use, subject...

  7. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) training in the 349th military airlift wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, John T.; Biegalski, Conrad S.; Inzana, Anthony

    1987-01-01

    CRM training can be done on a limited budget. It seems that everyone has a special name for their CRM program. A new program was created and entitled, Aircrew Resource Management (ARM) to emphasize the use of the full resources on our aircraft. That is meant to specifically include the loadmasters. The name also emphasizes the concept that all crewmembers are responsible for safe completion of the trip. The loadmasters have been the brightest students to date. They are a classic under-utilized resource. Together, their crew position has been credited with more ARM saves than the engineers and pilots. The seminar-based program is run by two seminar facilitators that is reinforced by Line Oriented Flight Training sessions run by the active-duty counterparts.

  8. Flying and dying in WWI: British aircrew losses and the origins of U.S. military aviation medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, David R

    2008-02-01

    In 1918, 1920, and 1935, William H. Wilmer wrote that of every 100 British military pilot deaths during the first year of World War I, 90 resulted from individual deficiencies (60 of these from physical defects), 8 from aircraft defects, and 2 from enemy action. "As a result of these appalling findings, the British established a special service for the 'Care of the Flier,'" thus reducing deaths from physical defects to "20% during the second year and 12% during the third." Wilmer never specified the source of his statistics. American aeromedical texts have long cited his '90-8-2' numbers as the basis for establishing the U.S. military flight surgeon system in 1918, but these statistics never appeared in British aeromedical literature. Given the frail aircraft and sketchy mishap investigations of that era, it seems unlikely that pilot deficiencies (today, "human factors") were proven to have caused 90% of British aviation-related deaths in 1914-15, or that their military aviation medicine program reduced human factor losses to just 12% of total pilot fatalities by 1917. Recent analyses from academic British sources demonstrate that of 153 British military fliers who died while flying between August 1914 and December 1915, 89 (58%) were killed in action or died of their wounds soon after being shot down, and 64 (42%) perished from injuries suffered in training or operational mishaps. This article reviews the history of early British and American military aeromedical services, and proposes replacement of the 90-8-2 statistic with a ratio of 58:42. PMID:18309913

  9. Transfer of Instrument Training and the Synthetic Flight Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    One phase of an innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration is described in this paper. The operational suitability test activities related to a determination of the transfer of instrument training value of the Army's Synthetic Flight Training System (SFTS) Device 2B24. Sixteen active Army members of an Officer…

  10. T-1 Training Area

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-07

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  11. T-1 Training Area

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  12. Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Christopher M; Ross, Larry; Lingenfelter, Forrest E; Sokolnikov, Pavel I; Kaldenbach, Karen Yvonne; Estigneev, Yuri; Murievav, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. government has been assisting the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) for many years with nuclear weapons transportation security (NWTS) through the provision of specialized guard escort railcars and cargo railcars with integrated physical security and communication systems, armored transport vehicles, and armored escort vehicles. As a natural continuation of the NWTS program, a partnership has been formed to construct a training center that will provide counterterrorism training to personnel in all branches of the RF MOD. The Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center (ACTC) is a multinational, multiagency project with funding from Canada, RF and the U.S. Departments of Defense and Energy. ACTC will be a facility where MOD personnel can conduct basic through advanced training in various security measures to protect Category IA material against the threat of terrorist attack. The training will enhance defense-in-depth principles by integrating MOD guard force personnel into the overall physical protection systems and improving their overall response time and neutralization capabilities. The ACTC project includes infrastructure improvements, renovation of existing buildings, construction of new buildings, construction of new training facilities, and provision of training and other equipment. Classroom training will be conducted in a renovated training building. Basic and intermediate training will be conducted on three different security training areas where various obstacles and static training devices will be constructed. The central element of ACTC, where advanced training will be held, is the 'autodrome,' a 3 km road along which various terrorist events can be staged to challenge MOD personnel in realistic and dynamic nuclear weapons transportation scenarios. This paper will address the ACTC project elements and the vision for training development and integrating this training into actual nuclear weapons transportation operations.

  13. 49 CFR 236.833 - Train, opposing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train, opposing. 236.833 Section 236.833..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.833 Train, opposing. A train, the movement of which is in a direction opposite to and toward another...

  14. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training requirements. 232.203 Section 232.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Inspection and Testing Requirements § 232.203 Training requirements....

  15. An Innovative Instrument Flight Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    An innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration are described. The program involves use of a commercially available training device in a twin-engine transition and instrument training course. Principal features of the training include redefinition of the flight instructor's role, and incentive award system,…

  16. Evaluation of a single-use intubating videoscope (Ambu aScope ™) in three airway training manikins for oral intubation, nasal intubation and intubation via three supraglottic airway devices.

    PubMed

    Scutt, S; Clark, N; Cook, T M; Smith, C; Christmas, T; Coppel, L; Crewdson, K

    2011-04-01

    We compared the Ambu aScope™ with a conventional fibrescope in two simulated settings. First, 22 volunteers performed paired oral and nasal fibreoptic intubations in three different manikins: the Laerdal Airway Trainer, Bill 1 and the Airsim (a total of 264 intubations). Second, 21 volunteers intubated the Airway Trainer manikin via three supraglottic airways: classic and intubating laryngeal mask airways and i-gel (a total of 66 intubations). Performance of the aScope was good with few failures and infrequent problems. In the first study, choice of fibrescope had an impact on the number of user-reported problems (p=0.004), and user-assessed ratings of ease of endoscopy (p<0.001) and overall usefulness (p<0.001), but not on time to intubate (p=0.19), or ease of railroading (p=0.72). The manikin chosen and route of endoscopy had more consistent effects on performance: best performance was via the nasal route in the Airway Trainer manikin. In the second study, the choice of fibrescope did not significantly affect any performance outcome (p=0.3), but there was a significant difference in the speed of intubation between the devices (p=0.02) with the i-gel the fastest intubation conduit (mean (SD) intubation time i-gel 18.5 (6.8) s, intubating laryngeal mask airway = 24.1 (11.2) s, classic laryngeal mask airway = 31.4 (32.5) s, p=0.02). We conclude that the aScope performs well in simulated fibreoptic intubation and (if adapted for untimed use) would be a useful training tool for both simulated fibreoptic intubation and conduit-assisted intubation. The choice of manikin and conduit are also important in the success of such training. This manikin study does not predict performance in humans and a clinical study is required.

  17. GUIDELINES FOR TRAINING SITUATION ANALYSIS (TSA). FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHENZOFF, ANDREW P.; FOLLEY, JOHN D., JR.

    THESE GUIDELINES REPRESENT A TEXTBOOK FOR INSTRUCTION IN THREE PHASES OF TRAINING SITUATION ANALYSIS (TSA), A STANDARDIZED PROCEDURE DEVELOPED BY THE NAVAL TRAINING DEVICE CENTER FOR SYSTEMATICALLY GATHERING AND INTERPRETING THE INFORMATION RELEVANT TO THE PLANNING OF TRAINING AND TRAINING DEVICES. THREE PHASES OF TSA ARE DESCRIBED IN…

  18. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  19. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  20. 49 CFR 221.15 - Marking device inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking device inspection. 221.15 Section 221.15..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.15 Marking device inspection. (a) Each marking device displayed in compliance with this part...

  1. 49 CFR 236.739 - Device, acknowledging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Device, acknowledging. 236.739 Section 236.739..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.739 Device, acknowledging. A manually operated electric switch or pneumatic valve by means of which, on...

  2. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  3. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  4. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  5. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  6. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow...

  7. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  8. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  9. Sealing device

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  10. BRAKE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  11. Electrochromic devices

    DOEpatents

    Allemand, Pierre M.; Grimes, Randall F.; Ingle, Andrew R.; Cronin, John P.; Kennedy, Steve R.; Agrawal, Anoop; Boulton, Jonathan M.

    2001-01-01

    An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

  12. Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlie, John E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for training and education in new skill areas. Points out that the right people often do not get the right training. Too often engineers and skilled workers are trained to the exclusion of supervisors and operators. (JOW)

  13. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  14. Medical simulation training initiative (MSTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Magee, J. Harvey; Moses, Gerald; Leitch, Robert; Dawson, Steven L.

    2000-08-01

    Now that we are in the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important is how we train in peace for the realities of conflict. Training 100,000 active duty military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. A more effective solution may be training through computer simulation. Success requires a strategic plan and coordination among experts in their own fields, e.g., medical personnel, engineers, to ensure useful, valuable products. Research and development in fundamental sciences is required to permit realistic representations of anatomy and medical procedures. Enabling technologies are required, e.g., tissue modeling, haptics, physiological representations, systems architecture, learning systems. Medical Simulation Training Initiative (MSTI) is a visionary military program to develop a multi- functional simulation platform based on a personal computer, with 3-D imaging of anatomic compartments or body structures. Interfaces will likely be an exoskeletal robotic device, haptic gloves, and other interactive devices. MSTI will provide risk-free, realistic learning environments for the spectrum of medical skills training. This will enhance hands-on training opportunities and revolutionize how we train medically. High fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices. Engineering designers can then test devices in varieties of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to practice medicine.

  15. 49 CFR 236.832 - Train.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train. 236.832 Section 236.832 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.832 Train....

  16. 49 CFR 232.605 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training requirements. 232.605 Section 232.605..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.605...

  17. 49 CFR 232.605 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.605 Training requirements. (a) Inspection, testing and maintenance. A railroad that operates a freight car or freight...

  18. 49 CFR 232.605 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.605 Training requirements. (a) Inspection, testing and maintenance. A railroad that operates a freight car or freight...

  19. 49 CFR 232.605 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.605 Training requirements. (a) Inspection, testing and maintenance. A railroad that operates a freight car or freight...

  20. 49 CFR 232.605 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.605 Training requirements. (a) Inspection, testing and maintenance. A railroad that operates a freight car or freight...

  1. 49 CFR 236.26 - Buffing device, maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buffing device, maintenance. 236.26 Section 236.26..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Roadway Signals and Cab Signals § 236.26 Buffing device, maintenance. Buffing device...

  2. 49 CFR 221.13 - Marking device display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking device display. 221.13 Section 221.13..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.13 Marking device display. (a) During the periods prescribed in paragraph (b) of this...

  3. 49 CFR 221.15 - Marking device inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking device inspection. 221.15 Section 221.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.15 Marking device inspection....

  4. 49 CFR 221.15 - Marking device inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking device inspection. 221.15 Section 221.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.15 Marking device inspection....

  5. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  6. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  7. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Brathenahl, A.; Furth, H.P.

    1962-04-10

    A device for producing a confined high temperature plasma is described. In the device the concave inner surface of an outer annular electrode is disposed concentrically about and facing the convex outer face of an inner annular electrode across which electrodes a high potential is applied to produce an electric field there between. Means is provided to create a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field and a gas is supplied at reduced pressure in the area therebetween. Upon application of the high potential, the gas between the electrodes is ionized, heated, and under the influence of the electric and magnetic fields there is produced a rotating annular plasma disk. The ionized plasma has high dielectric constant properties. The device is useful as a fast discharge rate capacitor, in controlled thermonuclear research, and other high temperature gas applications. (AEC)

  8. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  9. Ventricular assist device

    MedlinePlus

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  10. Borescope Device Takes Impressions In Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Richard F.; Turner, Laura J.

    1990-01-01

    Maneuverable device built around borescope equipped to make impression molds of welded joints in interior surfaces of ducts. Molds then examined to determine degress of mismatch in welds. Inserted in duct, and color-coded handles on ends of cables used to articulate head to maneuver around corners. Use of device fairly easy and requires little training.

  11. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  12. Detection device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber, (2) a central chamber, and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  13. Detection device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  14. Electrochemical device

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  15. Hazmat training.

    PubMed

    Borak, J

    1991-04-01

    Federal laws and regulations require hazardous-materials-response training for EMS personnel and other emergency responders. The requirements, however, aren't entirely clear about the amount of time and topics to be covered for EMS training. EMTs and paramedics should either be trained to the highest level at which they are likely to perform, or their performance levels should be restricted to the highest level to which they have been trained.

  16. Toilet training.

    PubMed

    Choby, Beth A; George, Shefaa

    2008-11-01

    Toilet training is a developmental task that impacts families with small children. All healthy children are eventually toilet trained, and most complete the task without medical intervention. Most research on toilet training is descriptive, although some is evidence based. In the United States, the average age at which training begins has increased over the past four decades from earlier than 18 months of age to between 21 and 36 months of age. Newer studies suggest no benefit of intensive training before 27 months of age. Mastery of the developmental skills required for toilet training occurs after 24 months of age. Girls usually complete training earlier than boys. Numerous toilet-training methods are available. The Brazelton child-oriented approach uses physiologic maturity, ability to understand and respond to external feedback, and internal motivation to assess readiness. Dr. Spock's toilet-training approach is another popular method used by parents. The American Academy of Pediatrics incorporates components of the child-oriented approach into its guidelines for toilet training. "Toilet training in a day," a method by Azrin and Foxx, emphasizes operant conditioning and teaches specific toileting components. Because each family and child are unique, recommendations about the ideal time or optimal method must be customized. Family physicians should provide guidance about toilet-training methods and identify children who have difficulty reaching developmental milestones.

  17. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  18. Forecasting Device Effectiveness: Volume I. Issues. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Andrew M.; And Others

    In this first of three volumes, issues related to the prediction of the potential effectiveness of a simulator training device are reviewed, and the methods used to analyze effectiveness are discussed. The Army, which uses simulator devices for performance based weapons training, has used a process linked to the Life Cycle System Management Model…

  19. Certification of training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    Training has been around as an informal process for countless years. Most higher order animals require some level of training in hunting, social skills, or other survival related skills to continue their existence beyond early infancy. Much of the training is accomplished through imitation, trial and error, and good luck. In some ways the essentials of training in aviation have not deviated from this original formula a great deal. One of the major changes in aviation and other technical areas is that more complex response chains based on a broader base of knowledge are now required. 'To certify' means many things according to the American Heritage dictionary of the English Language. These meanings range from 'to guarantee as meeting a standard' to 'to declare legally insane'. For this discussion, we will use the definition 'an action taken by some authoritative body that essentially guarantees that the instruction meets some defined standard'. In order to make this certification, the responsible body subjects the educational process, training, training device, or simulator to some type of examination to determine its adequacy or validity.

  20. Good Clinical Practice Training

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Jaime; Chuck, Tina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Foltz, Bridget; Gorman, Colleen; Hinrichs, Heidi; McHale, Susan; Merchant, Kunal; Shapley, Stephanie; Wild, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses, and reporting of clinical trials. The goal of GCP is to ensure the protection of the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of clinical trial participants and to ensure the credibility and accuracy of data and reported results. In the United States, trial sponsors generally require investigators to complete GCP training prior to participating in each clinical trial to foster GCP and as a method to meet regulatory expectations (ie, sponsor’s responsibility to select qualified investigators per 21 CFR 312.50 and 312.53(a) for drugs and biologics and 21 CFR 812.40 and 812.43(a) for medical devices). This training requirement is often extended to investigative site staff, as deemed relevant by the sponsor, institution, or investigator. Those who participate in multiple clinical trials are often required by sponsors to complete repeated GCP training, which is unnecessarily burdensome. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative convened a multidisciplinary project team involving partners from academia, industry, other researchers and research staff, and government to develop recommendations for streamlining current GCP training practices. Recommendations drafted by the project team, including the minimum key training elements, frequency, format, and evidence of training completion, were presented to a broad group of experts to foster discussion of the current issues and to seek consensus on proposed solutions. PMID:27390628

  1. A Review of Embedded Training: "Status and Emerging Role in Training".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Douglas R.; Spears, Robert E.

    Embedded Training (ET), means the use of sophisticated simulators for training that are embedded within operational equipment, is an emerging trend in military education for pilots, weapon systems personnel, etc. Training devices and ET are used to provide opportunities for both practicing job skills and original learning, and their effectiveness…

  2. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accomplished either inflight, in an airplane simulator, or in a training device. (2) A flight check that... an airplane simulator, or in a training device. Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot... utilizing an airplane simulator or other training device under § 121.409(c), each flight engineer...

  3. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accomplished either inflight, in an airplane simulator, or in a training device. (2) A flight check that... an airplane simulator, or in a training device. Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot... utilizing an airplane simulator or other training device under § 121.409(c), each flight engineer...

  4. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accomplished either inflight, in an airplane simulator, or in a training device. (2) A flight check that... an airplane simulator, or in a training device. Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot... utilizing an airplane simulator or other training device under § 121.409(c), each flight engineer...

  5. 49 CFR 236.1049 - Training specific to roadway workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system failures and the provision of alternative methods of on-track safety in case the train control..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1049 Training specific to roadway workers. (a) Roadway worker...

  6. 49 CFR 232.111 - Train handling information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train handling information. 232.111 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES General Requirements § 232.111 Train handling information....

  7. 49 CFR 232.213 - Extended haul trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must designate the train in writing to FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety. This designation must..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Inspection and Testing Requirements § 232.213 Extended haul trains. (a)...

  8. Device Would Provide Controllable Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm J.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed buoyant device attaches to object denser than water and adjusts to obtain neutral overall buoyancy. Conceived to aid training astronauts in handling "weightless" equipment in water tanks. Could be used to support marine environmental monitoring instrument at fixed predetermined depth. In marine salvage operation it holds parts at convenient depth before used or hoisted to surface. Device made in variety of sizes and shapes to suit objects to be supported. Could be equipped with such suitable attachment hardware as U-bolts, clamps, or cable ties. One or more such devices used to support object as necessary. Replaces plastic foam floats, which must be cut to size according to estimates of volume of foam that gives required amount of buoyancy. Device does not become waterlogged or release contaminating particles.

  9. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  10. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2008-08-19

    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  11. [Devic disease].

    PubMed

    Papeix, Caroline

    2006-11-01

    Devic disease, also known as neuromyelitis optica, is a severe rare condition characterized clinically by one or more episodes of optical neuritis and myelitis. Pathologically, it is characterized by extensive demyelination associated with axon loss and deposits of complement and immunoglobulins (IgM) within the lesions. Specific antibodies for this disease (IgG NMO) were recently identified. Immunosuppressive treatment is currently the best option for preventing relapse. PMID:17086129

  12. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    SciTech Connect

    Fedewa, Andrew M

    2014-01-07

    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  13. Training compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.N. )

    1989-02-01

    Legally mandated training to effect compliance with environmental regulations came into prominence with RCRA. Training and its associated recordkeeping requirements were to be in place by May 18, 1981, but, for the most part, this deadline went unnoticed. Whether the lack of response reflected that fact that the RCRA regulations were extremely confusing or that the training requirements were not taken seriously is hard to determine. Ironically, while RCRA facilities were frequently deficient in meeting the training requirements, it was this specific aspect of the regulations that inexperienced inspectors often targeted and cited. Over the years, through a combination of citations and, more importantly, an increasing appreciation of the benefits of training, the attitude toward regulatory compliance training slowly improved. This paper reflects the attitudes of both management and the workers receiving the training.

  14. Training effectiveness of the inertial training and measurement system.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Naczk, Alicja; Adach, Zdzisław

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inertial training with different external loads using a new original device - the Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Forty-six physical education male students were tested. The participants were randomly divided into three training groups and a control group (C group). The training groups performed inertial training with three different loads three times weekly for four weeks. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), the T5 and T10 groups had an additional 5 and 10 kg on the flywheel, respectively. Each training session included three exercise sets involving the shoulder joint adductors. Before and after training, the maximal torque and power were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer during adduction of the shoulder joint. Simultaneously, the electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle was recorded. Results of the study indicate that ITMS training induced a significant increase in maximal muscle torque in the T0, T5, T10 groups (15.5%, 13.0%, and 14.0%, respectively). Moreover, ITMS training caused a significant increase in power in the T0, T5, T10 groups (16.6%, 19.5%, and 14.5%, respectively). The percentage changes in torque and power did not significantly differ between training groups. Electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle increased only in the T0 group after four weeks of training. Using the ITMS device in specific workouts allowed for an increase of shoulder joint adductors torque and power in physical education students. PMID:25713662

  15. Training Effectiveness of The Inertial Training and Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Naczk, Mariusz; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Naczk, Alicja; Adach, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inertial training with different external loads using a new original device - the Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Forty-six physical education male students were tested. The participants were randomly divided into three training groups and a control group (C group). The training groups performed inertial training with three different loads three times weekly for four weeks. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), the T5 and T10 groups had an additional 5 and 10 kg on the flywheel, respectively. Each training session included three exercise sets involving the shoulder joint adductors. Before and after training, the maximal torque and power were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer during adduction of the shoulder joint. Simultaneously, the electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle was recorded. Results of the study indicate that ITMS training induced a significant increase in maximal muscle torque in the T0, T5, T10 groups (15.5%, 13.0%, and 14.0%, respectively). Moreover, ITMS training caused a significant increase in power in the T0, T5, T10 groups (16.6%, 19.5%, and 14.5%, respectively). The percentage changes in torque and power did not significantly differ between training groups. Electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle increased only in the T0 group after four weeks of training. Using the ITMS device in specific workouts allowed for an increase of shoulder joint adductors torque and power in physical education students. PMID:25713662

  16. Electrooptical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  17. OLED devices

    DOEpatents

    Sapochak, Linda Susan [Arlington, VA; Burrows, Paul Edward [Kennewick, WA; Bimalchandra, Asanga [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    An OLED device having an emission layer formed of an ambipolar phosphine oxide host material and a dopant, a hole transport layer in electrical communication with an anode, an electron transport layer in communication with a cathode, wherein the HOMO energy of the hole transport layer is substantially the same as the HOMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer, and the LUMO energy of the electron transport layer is substantially the same as the LUMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer.

  18. Device Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have to take numerous factors/data into their therapeutic decisions in daily life. Connecting the devices they are using by feeding the data generated into a database/app is supposed to help patients to optimize their glycemic control. As this is not established in practice, the different roadblocks have to be discussed to open the road. That large telecommunication companies are now entering this market might be a big help in pushing this forward. Smartphones offer an ideal platform for connectivity solutions. PMID:25614015

  19. Electrospray device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmons, Nathaniel (Inventor); Martin, Roy (Inventor); Hruby, Vladimir (Inventor); Roy, Thomas (Inventor); Spence, Douglas (Inventor); Ehrbar, Eric (Inventor); Zwahlen, Jurg (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electrospray device includes an electrospray emitter adapted to receive electrospray fluid; an extractor plate spaced from the electrospray emitter and having at least one aperture; and a power supply for applying a first voltage between the extractor plate and emitter for generating at least one Taylor cone emission through the aperture to create an electrospray plume from the electrospray fluid, the extractor plate as well as accelerator and shaping plates may include a porous, conductive medium for transporting and storing excess, accumulated electrospray fluid away from the aperture.

  20. Electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendemanm, Irina G.; Polcyn, Adam D.; Finley, James J.; Boykin, Cheri M.; Knowles, Julianna M.

    2011-03-15

    An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A first electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive member. The first electrochromic material includes an organic material. A second conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. A second electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive member. The second electrochromic material includes an inorganic material. An ionic liquid is positioned between the first electrochromic material and the second electrochromic material.

  1. Diversionary device

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    A diversionary device has a housing having at least one opening and containing a non-explosive propellant and a quantity of fine powder packed within the housing, with the powder being located between the propellant and the opening. When the propellant is activated, it has sufficient energy to propel the powder through the opening to produce a cloud of powder outside the housing. An igniter is also provided for igniting the cloud of powder to create a diversionary flash and bang, but at a low enough pressure to avoid injuring nearby people.

  2. Electroexplosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An electroexplosive device is presented which employs a header having contact pins hermetically sealed with glass passing through from a connector end of the header to a cavity filled with a shunt layer of a new nonlinear resistive composition and a heat-sink layer of a new dielectric composition having good thermal conductivity and capacity. The nonlinear resistive layer and the heat-sink layer are prepared from materials by mixing with a low temperature polymerizing resin. The resin is dissolved in a suitable solvent and later evaporated. The resultant solid composite is ground into a powder, press formed into the header and cured (polymerized) at about 250 to 300 F.

  3. Forecasting Device Effectiveness: Volume III. Analytic Assessment of Device Effectiveness Forecasting Technique. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Andrew M.; And Others

    This third of three volumes reports on analytic procedures conducted to address various aspects of the scalar properties of the Device Effectiveness Forecasting Technique (DEFT). DEFT, a series of microcomputer programs applied to data gathered from rating scales, is used to evaluate simulator devices used in U.S. Army weapons training. The…

  4. Current training: Where are we?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum Helicopters, Inc. maintains a staff of 750 helicopter pilots. The initial, transition, upgrade, and recurrent training for these pilots requires a significant financial outlay. Since a major portion of that training is done to satisfy the requirements of FAR 61.57, 'Recent Flight Experience, Pilot in Command' and 135.297, 'Pilot in Command: Instrument Proficiency Check Requirements', much could be accomplished using an approved simulator. However, it is imperative that credit be given for training time spent in the simulators and that the device be realistic, practical, and affordable.

  5. Phacoemulsification skills training and assessment.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Anthony; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Kersey, Tom; Benjamin, Larry; Darzi, Ara; Bloom, Philip

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND The quality of ophthalmic surgical training is increasingly challenged by an untimely convergence of several factors. This article reviews the tools currently available for training and assessment in phacoemulsification surgery. METHODS Medline searches were performed to identify articles with combinations of the following words: phacoemulsification, training, curriculum, virtual reality and assessment. Further articles were obtained by manually searching the reference lists of identified papers. RESULTS Thus far phacoemulsification training outside the operating room include wet labs and micro-surgical skills courses. These methods have been criticised for being unrealistic, inaccurate and inconsistent. Virtual reality simulators have the ability to teach phacoemulsification psychomotor skills, as well as to carry out objective assessment. Other ophthalmic surgical skill assessment tools such as Objective Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (OASIS) and Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (GRASIS) are emerging. Assessor bias is minimised by using video-based assessments, which have been shown to reduce subjectivity. Dexterity analysis technology such as the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device (ICSAD) and virtual reality simulators can be used as objective assessment devices. CONCLUSION Improvements in technology can be utilised in ophthalmology and will help to address the increasingly limited opportunities for training and assessment during training and throughout a subsequent career (re-training and re-validation). This will inevitably translate into enhanced patient care. PMID:19628497

  6. Optoelectronic device

    DOEpatents

    Bonekamp, Jeffrey E.; Boven, Michelle L.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-09-09

    The invention is an optoelectronic device comprising an active portion which converts light to electricity or converts electricity to light, the active portion having a front side for the transmittal of the light and a back side opposite from the front side, at least two electrical leads to the active portion to convey electricity to or from the active portion, an enclosure surrounding the active portion and through which the at least two electrical leads pass wherein the hermetically sealed enclosure comprises at the front side of the active portion a barrier material which allows for transmittal of light, one or more getter materials disposed so as to not impede the transmission of light to or from the active portion, and a contiguous gap pathway to the getter material which pathway is disposed between the active portion and the barrier material.

  7. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  8. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  9. Electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  10. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  11. [Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…

  12. Teacher Training: A Personal Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth T.

    Indiana State University has developed an experimental program to develop a personal approach to teacher training. The ultimate intention of the program is to produce educators who are personally committed to the development of the young people often collectively labeled "students." Devices used in the program include the use of student names,…

  13. 14 CFR 121.427 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection, may be conducted in an airplane simulator or other training device. The preflight inspection may... dispatcher is adequately trained and currently proficient with respect to the type airplane (including... state of the crewmember's or dispatcher's knowledge with respect to the airplane and position...

  14. Integrated device architectures for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Jonathan Mack; Berland, Brian Spencer

    2015-04-21

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for creating monolithically integrated electrochromic devices which may be a flexible electrochromic device. Monolithic integration of thin film electrochromic devices may involve the electrical interconnection of multiple individual electrochromic devices through the creation of specific structures such as conductive pathway or insulating isolation trenches.

  15. Electromechanical Componentry. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Don

    This training module on electromechanical components contains 10 units for a two-year vocational program packaging system equipment control course at Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College. This module describes the functions of electromechanical devices essential for understanding input/output devices for Programmable Logic Control (PLC)…

  16. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  17. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  18. Project Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Hubert

    1970-01-01

    The training manager of the Aero Engine Division of Rolls Royce Limited describes his graduate level program for retaining and developing mechanical engineers, mathematicians, scientists, and other college graduates. Three diagrams. (LY)

  19. Virtual reality welder training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Steven A.; Reiners, Dirk; Prachyabrued, Mores; Borst, Christoph W.; Chambers, Terrence L.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the Virtual Reality Simulated MIG Lab (sMIG), a system for Virtual Reality welder training. It is designed to reproduce the experience of metal inert gas (MIG) welding faithfully enough to be used as a teaching tool for beginning welding students. To make the experience as realistic as possible it employs physically accurate and tracked input devices, a real-time welding simulation, real-time sound generation and a 3D display for output. Thanks to being a fully digital system it can go beyond providing just a realistic welding experience by giving interactive and immediate feedback to the student to avoid learning wrong movements from day 1.

  20. Medical devices: US medical device regulation.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Baxley, John H

    2015-03-01

    Medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) within the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Center for Devices and Radiological Health is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health by ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices, ensuring the safety of radiation-emitting products, fostering innovation, and providing the public with accurate, science-based information about the products we oversee, throughout the total product life cycle. The FDA was granted the authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in 1976. It does not regulate the practice of medicine. Devices are classified based on complexity and level of risk, and "pre-1976" devices were allowed to remain on the market after being classified without FDA review. Post-1976 devices of lower complexity and risk that are substantially equivalent to a marketed "predicate" device may be cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Clinical data are typically not needed for 510(k) clearance. In contrast, higher-risk devices typically require premarket approval. Premarket approval applications must contain data demonstrating reasonable assurance of safety and efficacy, and this information typically includes clinical data. For novel devices that are not high risk, the de novo process allows FDA to simultaneously review and classify new devices. Devices that are not legally marketed are permitted to be used for clinical investigation purposes in the United States under the Investigational Device Exemptions regulation.

  1. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 121 - Flight Training Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Training Requirements The maneuvers and procedures required by § 121.424 of this part for pilot initial... columns. For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean— P=Pilot in Command (PIC). S=Second... Training device As appropriate to the airplane and the operation involved, flight training for pilots...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 121 - Flight Training Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Training Requirements The maneuvers and procedures required by § 121.424 of this part for pilot initial... columns. For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean— P=Pilot in Command (PIC). S=Second... Training device As appropriate to the airplane and the operation involved, flight training for pilots...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 121 - Flight Training Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Training Requirements The maneuvers and procedures required by § 121.424 of this part for pilot initial... columns. For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean— P=Pilot in Command (PIC). S=Second... Training device As appropriate to the airplane and the operation involved, flight training for pilots...

  4. 49 CFR 236.929 - Training specific to roadway workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... concerning the recognition of system failures and the provision of alternative methods of on-track safety in..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.929 Training specific to roadway...

  5. Architecture for Remote Training of Home Telemedicine Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Albert M.; Starren, Justin B.; Shea, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In spite of efforts to develop easy-to-use devices, patients may require multiple training sessions to achieve mastery of advanced telehealth devices, especially those incorporating web-access. In geographically-distributed projects, such repeat training can be costly. A software architecture for simultaneous voice conferencing and remote device control over a single telephone line is presented. Evaluation of the pilot implementation is favorable. PMID:16779302

  6. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  7. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleerman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2015-11-10

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  8. Connector device for building integrated photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Eurich, Gerald K.; Lesniak, Michael J.; Mazor, Michael H.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-06-03

    The present invention is premised upon a connector device and method that can more easily electrically connect a plurality of PV devices or photovoltaic system components and/or locate these devices/components upon a building structure. It also may optionally provide some additional sub-components (e.g. at least one bypass diode and/or an indicator means) and may enhance the serviceability of the device.

  9. Handheld Devices: Toward a More Mobile Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Mary A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an overview of the acceptance and use of handheld personal computing devices on campus that connect wirelessly to the campus network. Considers access; present and future software applications; uses in medial education; faculty training needs; and wireless technology issues. (Author/LRW)

  10. Temporal information encoding in dynamic memristive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen; Chen, Lin; Du, Chao; Lu, Wei D.

    2015-11-01

    We show temporal and frequency information can be effectively encoded in memristive devices with inherent short-term dynamics. Ag/Ag2S/Pd based memristive devices with low programming voltage (˜100 mV) were fabricated and tested. At weak programming conditions, the devices exhibit inherent decay due to spontaneous diffusion of the Ag atoms. When the devices were subjected to pulse train inputs emulating different spiking patterns, the switching probability distribution function diverges from the standard Poisson distribution and evolves according to the input pattern. The experimentally observed switching probability distributions and the associated cumulative probability functions can be well-explained using a model accounting for the short-term decay effects. Such devices offer an intriguing opportunity to directly encode neural signals for neural information storage and analysis.

  11. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mariam; Verma, Rahul; Garcia-Contreras, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided. PMID:25709510

  12. Temporal information encoding in dynamic memristive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wen; Chen, Lin; Du, Chao; Lu, Wei D.

    2015-11-09

    We show temporal and frequency information can be effectively encoded in memristive devices with inherent short-term dynamics. Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Pd based memristive devices with low programming voltage (∼100 mV) were fabricated and tested. At weak programming conditions, the devices exhibit inherent decay due to spontaneous diffusion of the Ag atoms. When the devices were subjected to pulse train inputs emulating different spiking patterns, the switching probability distribution function diverges from the standard Poisson distribution and evolves according to the input pattern. The experimentally observed switching probability distributions and the associated cumulative probability functions can be well-explained using a model accounting for the short-term decay effects. Such devices offer an intriguing opportunity to directly encode neural signals for neural information storage and analysis.

  13. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They range from ... need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep instructions ...

  14. Infrared criminalistic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  15. Training Unpolluters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The shortage of trained manpower remains a troublesome problem that must be overcome if the national attack on water pollution succeeds. The total number of persons treating waste water in 1967 was 11,300 professionals, 10,300 technicians, 23,500 sewage treatment plant operators, and 50,000 maintenance workers. (BC)

  16. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  17. Bullet Train.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge Universe is a conglomerate that includes an assortment of training companies, a chain of child-care centers, a knowledge-management consulting business, and an educational toy maker. KU's mission includes building human capital from birth to post-retirement, providing lifelong learning opportunities, and helping businesses use the power…

  18. Toppling Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Malcolm

    1998-01-01

    Explains a novel way of approaching centripetal force: theory is used to predict an orbital period at which a toy train will topple from a circular track. The demonstration has elements of prediction (a criterion for a good model) and suspense (a criterion for a good demonstration). The demonstration proved useful in undergraduate physics and…

  19. Interval Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  20. Evaluating Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Karen S.; Rummler, Geary A.

    1979-01-01

    Presents general systems models (ballistic system, guided system, and adaptive system) and an evaluation matrix to help in examining training evaluation alternatives and in deciding what evaluation is appropriate. Includes some guidelines for conducting evaluation studies using four designs (control group, reversal, multiple baseline, and "before…

  1. Youth Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    A descriptive study was made of the roles of training and federal programs in helping youths gain employment in selected high-wage occupations that do not require a four-year college degree. Interviews conducted with federal agency officials and industry representatives found little hard data but elicited officials' views on this issue. The study…

  2. Extreme Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Can one learn to lead on the flying trapeze? That's the question prompted by the exotic variations on the theme of experiential learning. By taking employees or executives (or both) out of their work element and putting them through an experience together, training professionals try to create learning that is more meaningful than PowerPoint…

  3. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  4. [Psychosemantic diagnostics of aircrew professional fitness].

    PubMed

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D; Usov, V M

    2015-04-01

    The process of becoming a professional pilot tends to a constant complication. This entails an increase in requirements for the professional competence of flight crews. Further improvement of the professional selection of pilots associated with the obvious need substantial expansion of methodological bases of psychological selection. Proposed improvements psychodiagnosis professional fitness, building on research of value-semantic sphere of professional motivation and structure, including methods of experimental psycho-semantics.

  5. The SIEVERT system for aircrew dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Clairand, I; Fuller, N; Bottollier-Depois, J-F; Trompier, F

    2009-10-01

    Flight personnel are likely to receive an effective dose of several mSv in 1 y of professional activity. In France, the order of 8 December 2003 requires airline companies to monitor the exposure of their flight personnel. This is why public authorities have made the SIEVERT system (a system for evaluating exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport), available to French airlines, to evaluate doses. The SIEVERT system has been operational for use by airlines since the start of summer 2001. So far, more than 2.5 million flights have been processed at the request of more than 30 French airlines. Furthermore, this system was opened to the public in March 2002 (http://www.sievert-system.org), so that every passenger can calculate the dose received during a flight.

  6. [Psychosemantic diagnostics of aircrew professional fitness].

    PubMed

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D; Usov, V M

    2015-04-01

    The process of becoming a professional pilot tends to a constant complication. This entails an increase in requirements for the professional competence of flight crews. Further improvement of the professional selection of pilots associated with the obvious need substantial expansion of methodological bases of psychological selection. Proposed improvements psychodiagnosis professional fitness, building on research of value-semantic sphere of professional motivation and structure, including methods of experimental psycho-semantics. PMID:26454939

  7. Management Training, Yes! Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary E.

    1990-01-01

    Management training programs are a necessity for transportation supervisors. Basic and advanced training programs are available through associations for business officials and university fleet management training programs. (MLF)

  8. 32. DETAIL OF MAIN DRIVE WHEELS AND BELT TENSIONING DEVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF MAIN DRIVE WHEELS AND BELT TENSIONING DEVICE OF MAIN POWER TRAIN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, LOOKING FORM BEHIND THE CLASSIFIER. THESE WHEELS DROVE THE BULL WHEELS ON THE STAMP BATTERIES ABOVE. THE TENSIONING DEVICE AT CENTER RIGHT CONTROLLED THE SPEED OF THE STAMPS. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. Sports Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Practitioners of martial arts have long seen a need for a precise method of measuring the power of a karate kick or a boxer's punch in training and competition. Impax sensor is a piezoelectric film less than one thousandth of an inch thick, yet extremely durable. They give out a voltage impulse when struck, the greater the force of impact, the higher the voltage. The impulse is transmitted to a compact electronics package where voltage is translated into a force-pounds reading shown on a digital display. Impax, manufactured by Impulse Technology, Inc. is used by martial arts instructors, practitioners, U.S. Olympic Committee Training Center, football blocking sleds, and boxers as well as police defensive tactics, providing a means of evaluating the performance of recruits.

  10. A device for human ultrasonic echolocation

    PubMed Central

    Gaub, Benjamin M.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Li, Crystal; DeWeese, Michael R.; Harper, Nicol S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We present a device that combines principles of ultrasonic echolocation and spatial hearing to provide human users with environmental cues that are 1) not otherwise available to the human auditory system and 2) richer in object, and spatial information than the more heavily processed sonar cues of other assistive devices. The device consists of a wearable headset with an ultrasonic emitter and stereo microphones with affixed artificial pinnae. The goal of this study is to describe the device and evaluate the utility of the echoic information it provides. Methods The echoes of ultrasonic pulses were recorded and time-stretched to lower their frequencies into the human auditory range, then played back to the user. We tested performance among naive and experienced sighted volunteers using a set of localization experiments in which the locations of echo-reflective surfaces were judged using these time stretched echoes. Results Naive subjects were able to make laterality and distance judgments, suggesting that the echoes provide innately useful information without prior training. Naive subjects were generally unable to make elevation judgments from recorded echoes. However trained subjects demonstrated an ability to judge elevation as well. Conclusion This suggests that the device can be used effectively to examine the environment and that the human auditory system can rapidly adapt to these artificial echolocation cues. Significance Interpreting and interacting with the external world constitutes a major challenge for persons who are blind or visually impaired. This device has the potential to aid blind people in interacting with their environment. PMID:25608301

  11. Smart Rehabilitation Devices: Part I – Force Tracking Control

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, J. Q.; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been widely reported to have positive rehabilitation effects for patients with neuromuscular and orthopaedic conditions. This article presents prototypes of smart variable resistance exercise devices using magneto-rheological fluid dampers. An intelligent supervisory control for regulating the resistive force or torque of the device is developed, and is validated both numerically and experimentally. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training for the human joints including knee, elbow, hip, and ankle. PMID:18504509

  12. Exer-Genie(Registered Trademark) Exercise Device Hardware Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Sharp,Carwyn; Stroud, Leah

    2008-01-01

    An engineering evaluation was performed on the ExerGenie(r) exercise device to quantify its capabilities and limitations to address questions from the Constellation Program. Three subjects performed rowing and circuit training sessions to assess the suitability of the device for aerobic exercise. Three subjects performed a resistive exercise session to assess the suitability of the device for resistive exercise. Since 1 subject performed both aerobic and resistive exercise sessions, a total of 5 subjects participated.

  13. Hazmat Training: Recognizing "Gremlins."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherniak, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents suggestions and benefits of training programs that extend beyond government regulations for hazardous waste management training procedures. Discusses requirements, environmental concerns, identifying employees for training, administrative details that support training needs, and evaluations. (MCO)

  14. Training for Tech Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InfoWorld, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses nature of training objectives, sources of training materials, and who will direct the training. Also discusses a model training program at Penn Mutual Life Insurance, a customized approach to individual learning, and computer security. (JN)

  15. Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) establishment of a national vocational training service in Nicaragua; (2) vocational training in Senegal; (3) national vocational training week in the Ukraine; and (4) inplant training in the U.S.S.R. (SK)

  16. Leveraging Gaming Technology to Deliver Effective Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The best way to engage a soldier is to present them with training content consistent with their learning preference. Blended Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) can be used to leach soldiers what they need to do, how to do each step, and utilize a COTS game engine to actually practices the skills learned. Blended IMI provides an enjoyable experience for the soldier, thereby increasing retention rates and motivation while decreasing the time to subject mastery. And now mobile devices have emerged as an exciting new platform, literally placing the training into the soldier's hands. In this paper, we will discuss how we leveraged commercial game engine technology, tightly integrated with the Blended IMI, to train soldiers on both laptops and mobile devices. We will provide a recent case study of how this training is being utilized, benefits and student/instructor feedback.

  17. Instability Resistance Training Across the Exercise Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Behm, David G.; Colado Sanchez, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Context: Instability resistance training (IRT; unstable surfaces and devices to strengthen the core or trunk muscles) is popular in fitness training facilities. Objective: To examine contradictory IRT recommendations for health enthusiasts and rehabilitation. Data Sources: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 to 2012. Study Selection: Databases were searched using key terms, including “balance,” “stability,” “instability,” “resistance training,” “core,” “trunk,” and “functional performance.” Additionally, relevant articles were extracted from reference lists. Data Extraction: To be included, research questions addressed the effect of balance or IRT on performance, healthy and active participants, and physiologic or performance outcome measures and had to be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. Results: There is a dichotomy of opinions on the effectiveness and application of instability devices and conditions for health and performance training. Balance training without resistance has been shown to improve not only balance but functional performance as well. IRT studies document similar training adaptations as stable resistance training programs with recreationally active individuals. Similar progressions with lower resistance may improve balance and stability, increase core activation, and improve motor control. Conclusion: IRT is highly recommended for youth, elderly, recreationally active individuals, and highly trained enthusiasts. PMID:24427423

  18. A report on training equipment enhancements for the U.S. Special Operations Command

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Training support systems - including devices, simulators and simulations - significantly improve training. Of course this is important for all military units. But for Special Operations Forces, such improvements are critical. Special Operations Forces must be prepared to operate in the most difficult, least forgiving of environments and do it right on the first try. The objective of this project is to report on the latest state-of-the-art training devices and systems which can enhance the training of Special Operations Forces.

  19. Less-than-lethal "flashbang" diversionary device.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Kevin James; Melof, Brian Matthew; Ingram, Brian V.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann; Broyles, Theresa A.; Anderson, Heidi M.; Covert, Timothy Todd; Mulligan, Edward J.; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2003-11-01

    Diversionary devices such as flashbang grenades are used in a wide variety of military and law-enforcement operations. They function to distract and/or incapacitate adversaries in scenarios ranging from hostage rescue to covert strategic paralysis operations. There are a number of disadvantages associated with currently available diversionary devices. Serious injuries and fatalities have resulted from their use both operationally and in training. Because safety is of paramount importance, desired improvements to these devices include protection against inadvertent initiation, the elimination of the production of high-velocity fragments, less damaging decibel output and increased light output. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a next-generation diversionary flash-bang device that will provide the end user with these enhanced safety features.

  20. Media Training

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-11

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  1. Media Training

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  2. The Pilot Training Study: Advanced Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, P. J.

    An overview is presented of advanced pilot training and of the formal advanced pilot training program that constitutes the primary means of providing this training. Section I deals with the various phases of advanced pilot training that a pilot may encounter during his career; Section II deals with the types of aircraft that require some form of…

  3. The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan J.; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4–5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward

  4. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan J; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward based

  5. Lead-Free Propellant for Propellant Actuated Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's CAD/PAD Department has been working to remove toxic compounds from our products for about a decade. In 1992, we embarked on an effort to develop a lead-free double base propellant to replace that of a foreign sole source. At the time there were availability concerns. In 1995, the department developed a strategic proposal to include a wider range of products. Efforts included such efforts as removing lead sheathing from linear explosives and replacing lead azide and lead styphnate compounds. This paper will discuss efforts specifically related to developing non-leaded double base propellant for use in various Propellant Actuated Devices (PADs) for aircrew escape systems. The propellants can replace their leaded counterparts, mitigating lead handling, processing, or toxic exposure to the environment and personnel. This work eliminates the use of leaded compounds, replacing them with a more environmentally benign metal-organic salt. Historically double-base propellants have held an advantage over other families of energetic materials through their relative insensitivity of the burning rate to changes in temperature and pressure. This desirable ballistic effect has been obtained with the use of a lead-organic salt alone or in a physical mixture with a copper-organic salt, or more recently with a lead-copper complex. These ballistic modifiers are typically added to the double-base 'paste' prior to gelatinization on heated calendars or one type or another. The effect of constant burning rate over a pressure range is called a 'plateau' while an even more beneficial effect of decreasing burning rate with increasing pressure is termed a 'mesa.' The latter effect results in very low temperature sensitivity of the propellant burning rate. Propellants with such effects are ideal tactical rocket motor propellants. The use of lead compounds poses a concern for the environment and personnel safety due to the metal's toxic

  6. 47 CFR 6.11 - Information, documentation, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 6.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS..., installation guides for end-user installable devices, and product support communications, regarding both the... existing training programs, manufacturers and service providers, shall consider the following topics:...

  7. 47 CFR 6.11 - Information, documentation, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 6.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS..., installation guides for end-user installable devices, and product support communications, regarding both the... existing training programs, manufacturers and service providers, shall consider the following topics:...

  8. 47 CFR 6.11 - Information, documentation, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 6.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS..., installation guides for end-user installable devices, and product support communications, regarding both the... existing training programs, manufacturers and service providers, shall consider the following topics:...

  9. 47 CFR 6.11 - Information, documentation, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 6.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS..., installation guides for end-user installable devices, and product support communications, regarding both the... existing training programs, manufacturers and service providers, shall consider the following topics:...

  10. 30 CFR 46.8 - Annual refresher training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; transportation controls and communication systems; escape and emergency evacuation plans, firewarning and... accidents; health; explosives; and respiratory devices. Training is also recommended on the hazards... tractors); conveyor systems; cranes; crushers; excavators; and dredges. Other recommended subjects...

  11. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  12. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  13. Pulse detecting device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  14. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  15. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  16. Photovoltaic device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  17. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  18. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  19. "Training Floors" and "Training Ceilings": Metonyms for Understanding Training Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a conceptual framework for mapping and understanding training trends. It uses the metonyms of floors and ceilings to distinguish between different types of training configurations. The argument is made that the ups and downs of employer reports of training activity are a crude basis on which to make judgements about the…

  20. 75 FR 58370 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... fired to directly support friendly forces engaged in ground combat); airborne laser system operations... operational region that has the weapons training capacity of the CMAGR. Consequently, aircrew and...

  1. 14 CFR 142.35 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and Syllabus Requirements § 142.35 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the curriculum and syllabus requirements for the issuance of a...

  2. 14 CFR 142.35 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and Syllabus Requirements § 142.35 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the curriculum and syllabus requirements for the issuance of a...

  3. Advanced training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  4. Biomechanics of interspinous devices.

    PubMed

    Parchi, Paolo D; Evangelisti, Gisberto; Vertuccio, Antonella; Piolanti, Nicola; Andreani, Lorenzo; Cervi, Valentina; Giannetti, Christian; Calvosa, Giuseppe; Lisanti, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A number of interspinous devices (ISD) have been introduced in the lumbar spine implant market. Unfortunately, the use of these devices often is not associated with real comprehension of their biomechanical role. The aim of this paper is to review the biomechanical studies about interspinous devices available in the literature to allow the reader a better comprehension of the effects of these devices on the treated segment and on the adjacent segments of the spine. For this reason, our analysis will be limited to the interspinous devices that have biomechanical studies published in the literature. PMID:25114923

  5. Biomechanics of Interspinous Devices

    PubMed Central

    Parchi, Paolo D.; Evangelisti, Gisberto; Vertuccio, Antonella; Piolanti, Nicola; Andreani, Lorenzo; Cervi, Valentina; Giannetti, Christian; Calvosa, Giuseppe; Lisanti, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A number of interspinous devices (ISD) have been introduced in the lumbar spine implant market. Unfortunately, the use of these devices often is not associated with real comprehension of their biomechanical role. The aim of this paper is to review the biomechanical studies about interspinous devices available in the literature to allow the reader a better comprehension of the effects of these devices on the treated segment and on the adjacent segments of the spine. For this reason, our analysis will be limited to the interspinous devices that have biomechanical studies published in the literature. PMID:25114923

  6. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  7. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  8. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  9. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

  10. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1996-06-11

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

  11. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  12. Books for Training Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Book League, London (England).

    A new edition of this bibliography (first published in 1967) includes 285 publications in print as of July 1969. Areas covered include: manpower planning, training practice--general works, retraining, training of older workers, operator training, craft training, apprenticeship, training of technicians and technologists, commercial and clerical…

  13. Training from the Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocheu, Ted

    1990-01-01

    The time to plan training is in the research and development stage of a new product. Seven major steps are online training, process validation, skills certification, development of manufacturing training instructions, skills verification, transfer training, and offline training and certification. (SK)

  14. Pilot Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, William E.

    The purpose of the Pilot Training Study is to produce tools with which to analyze the pilot training process of the Air Force in terms of the resources required to train pilots and the cost of pilot training. These tools allow examination of the training courses themselves, and also of the policy factors which drive the need for pilots. The tools…

  15. General Management Training Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Training.

    A description of the courses and seminars given by the General Management Training Center of the U. S. Civil Service Commission to provide training opportunity for managers working in Washington metropolitan area at all levels of government is given. Categories of courses are: Entry Level Training; Supervisory Training; Management Training;…

  16. Management Training in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veness, C. Rosina

    Intended for prospective members of the new Distributive Industrial Training Board in Great Britain, this training guide concentrates on managerial functions in retailing; the selection of trainees; the planning of in-company and external training programs; scheduling and continuity of training; roles of training personnel; and the use of various…

  17. 2011 Training Industry Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents "Training" magazine's exclusive analysis of the U.S. training industry, featuring 2011 training expenditures, budgetary allocations, delivery methods, and training priorities. Now in its 30th year, The Industry Report is recognized as the training industry's most trusted source of data on budgets, staffing, and programs. This…

  18. Heat exchange device

    SciTech Connect

    Callison, G.

    1984-01-17

    A heat exchange device is adapted to recover heat from the fire box of a wood burning stove or the like for heating ambient air in a room or other enclosed space. The heat exchange device is adapted to mount in a recess in a stove top in place of a lid which is normally supplied with the stove. The device according to the invention includes heat exchange means which extend into the fire box of the stove below the top surface thereof. The heat from the heat exchange device is transmitted into a main cavity of the device where the heat is transferred to air forced through the main cavity by a blower mounted to an outside surface of the device. Air exit means are provided on a surface opposite to the surface on which the blower is mounted to provide a passage for heated air into the room or other enclosed space to be heated. The device may also include a top mounted isolated handle for ease in handling the device such as for moving from one area to another. In a second embodiment of the device, a high temperature heat exchange glass plate is mounted on the surface of the device which is in contact with the fire box. Heat is transmitted by heat exchange plate to the main cavity of the device where the air is heated and blown into the room as above.

  19. Electrochromic display device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, M. M.

    1984-07-01

    This invention relates to electrochromic devices. In one aspect it relates to electrically controllable display devices. In another aspect it relates to electrically tunable optical or light filters. In yet another aspect it relates to a chemical sensor device which employs a color changing film. There are many uses for electrically controllable display devices. A number of such devices have been in commercial use for some time. These display devices include liquid crystal displays, light emitting diode displays, plasma displays, and the like. Light emitting diode displays and plasma display panels both suffer from the fact that they are active. Light emissive devices which require substantial power for their operation, In addition, it is difficult to fabricate light emitting diode displays in a manner which renders them easily distinguishable under bright ambient illumination. Liquid crystal displays suffer from the disadvantage that they are operative only over a limited temperature range and have substantially no memory within the liquid crystal material.

  20. Functional PLC devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports recent advances in photonic functional devices. These devices are being developed for advanced optical networks and are fabricated by using planar lightwave circuit technology. After briefly summarizing the fabrication, properties, and progress of silica based planar lightwave circuits, this work describes lattice-form dynamic devices designed to compensate for unwanted fiber characteristics with respect to high-speed wavelength division multiplexing transmissions. These dynamic devices include adaptive chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion, and gain non-uniformity compensators. The paper then describes optical signal processing devices for communications use, namely an optical label recognition device, an optical encoder/decoder for time-spreading/wavelength-hopping code division multiple access, and a spectrum synthesis device.

  1. The novel use of a SenseCam and accelerometer to validate training load and training information in a self-recall training diary.

    PubMed

    O Connor, Siobhan; McCaffrey, Noel; Whyte, Enda; Moran, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Self-recall training diaries are a frequently used tool to quantify training load and training information. While accelerometers are predominantly used to validate training diaries, they are unable to validate contextual training information. Thus this study aimed to examine the novel use of data fusion from a wearable camera device (SenseCam) and accelerometer to validate a self-recall training diary. Thirty participants filled in a training diary for 1 day while simultaneously wearing a SenseCam and accelerometer. The training diary was validated using Bland-Altman plots, Spearman's rank-order correlation, percentage agreement and κ measure of agreement between the diary and the SenseCam and accelerometer. The results demonstrated overall agreement, and no bias, between the training diary and the accelerometer for training intensity, and the SenseCam for duration of activity and travel time. A positive correlation was found for duration (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) and intensity (r = 0.67, P < 0.001). Hundred per cent agreement was found between the SenseCam and training diary for activity, training surface and footwear (κ = 1, P < 0.0001), with a lower agreement noted for sports played (97.3%, κ = 0.91, P < 0.0001). The self-recall training diary was found to be a valid measure of capturing training load and training information using the combined wearable camera device and accelerometer.

  2. Augmented Reality in Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kangdon

    2012-01-01

    There are many different ways for people to be educated and trained with regard to specific information and skills they need. These methods include classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices, and other electronic appliances. The choice of learning innovation is dependent on an individual's access to various technologies and the…

  3. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  4. 14 CFR 121.403 - Training program: Curriculum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane simulators or other training devices approved under § 121.407, including approvals for particular... prepare and keep current a written training program curriculum for each type of airplane with respect to dispatchers and each crewmember required for that type airplane. The curriculum must include ground and...

  5. 14 CFR 121.403 - Training program: Curriculum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and flight checks. (4) A list of airplane simulators or other training devices approved under § 121... for each type of airplane with respect to dispatchers and each crewmember required for that type airplane. The curriculum must include ground and flight training required by this subpart. (b)...

  6. 14 CFR 121.403 - Training program: Curriculum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and flight checks. (4) A list of airplane simulators or other training devices approved under § 121... for each type of airplane with respect to dispatchers and each crewmember required for that type airplane. The curriculum must include ground and flight training required by this subpart. (b)...

  7. 14 CFR 142.47 - Training center instructor eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and speak and understand in the English language; (3) If instructing in an aircraft in flight, is... training device that represents an airplane requiring a type rating or if instructing in a curriculum.... (viii) Minimum equipment requirements for each curriculum. (ix) Revisions to the training courses....

  8. Design of Multimedia Situational Awareness Training for Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Willem J.

    1998-01-01

    A recent development in aviation is the personal computer aviation training device (PC-ATD). This article provides an overview of instructional multimedia for pilot training, specifically for enhancing situational awareness (SA), a state in which a pilot's perceptions match reality. Discusses how PC-based trainers can be used to familiarize pilots…

  9. Independent Living Evaluation-Training Program. Reprint Series No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Soest, Eileen; And Others

    Intended to be used both as a guide for general program direction and as an individual evaluation and training tool this rehabilitation training guide includes materials and evaluation devices for use with mentally and/or physically handicapped clients on basic, intermediate and advanced living center levels. The eight independent living skill…

  10. Training in General Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Frank G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the vital role training plays in the general aviation industry and describes the Cessna International Training Academy and urges more training programs to spur the growth of the industry. (BR)

  11. ENTHUSIASM, INTEREST, AND LEARNING--THE RESULTS OF GAME TRAINING, A STUDY OF SIMULATION TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTEN, RONALD J.; STEINMETZ, LAWRENCE L.

    AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO'S SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF GAMING AS AN EFFECTIVE TRAINING DEVICE FOR LOWER RANKING MANAGEMENT AND RANK-AND-FILE PERSONNEL. PARTICIPANTS WERE COLLEGE STUDENTS AND PART-TIME STUDENTS, BELIEVED TO BE LIKE PERSONS INVOLVED IN MANAGEMENT TRAINING PROGRAMS AND PROGRAMS FOR RANK-AND-FILE EMPLOYEES. THE…

  12. Ear and vestibular symptoms in train operators after sudden air pressure changes in trains.

    PubMed

    Francois, Hugues M A; Vantrappen, Luc; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Godderis, Lode

    2015-01-01

    A healthy 31-year-old train operator presented to our occupational health clinic reporting ear aches, headaches, dizziness, unsteadiness and even slight tinnitus. These symptoms first appeared when the patient started operating from a new train cabin. He described a sudden pressure gradient, experienced on some parts of the trajectory, which might have caused these problems. Although the cabins were equipped with a pressure equalising device, this was usually switched off because of the device creating an uncomfortable feeling in the cabin. The literature describes sudden pressure gradients as possible factors for passenger discomfort. PMID:26678694

  13. DEVICE CONTROLLER, CAMERA CONTROL

    1998-07-20

    This is a C++ application that is the server for the cameral control system. Devserv drives serial devices, such as cameras and videoswitchers used in a videoconference, upon request from a client such as the camxfgbfbx ccint program. cc Deverv listens on UPD ports for clients to make network contractions. After a client connects and sends a request to control a device (such as to pan,tilt, or zooma camera or do picture-in-picture with a videoswitcher),more » devserv formats the request into an RS232 message appropriate for the device and sends this message over the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port and then formats and sends via multicast a status message. In addition, devserv periodically multicasts status or description messages so that all clients connected to the multicast channel know what devices are supported and their ranges of motion and the current position. The software design employs a class hierarchy such that an abstract base class for devices can be subclassed into classes for various device categories(e.g. sonyevid30, cononvco4, panasonicwjmx50, etc.). which are further subclassed into classes for various device categories. The devices currently supported are the Sony evi-D30, Canon, VCC1, Canon VCC3, and Canon VCC4 cameras and the Panasonic WJ-MX50 videoswitcher. However, developers can extend the class hierarchy to support other devices.« less

  14. DEVICE CONTROLLER, CAMERA CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Marcia

    1998-07-20

    This is a C++ application that is the server for the cameral control system. Devserv drives serial devices, such as cameras and videoswitchers used in a videoconference, upon request from a client such as the camxfgbfbx ccint program. cc Deverv listens on UPD ports for clients to make network contractions. After a client connects and sends a request to control a device (such as to pan,tilt, or zooma camera or do picture-in-picture with a videoswitcher), devserv formats the request into an RS232 message appropriate for the device and sends this message over the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port to which the device is connected. Devserv then reads the reply from the device from the serial port and then formats and sends via multicast a status message. In addition, devserv periodically multicasts status or description messages so that all clients connected to the multicast channel know what devices are supported and their ranges of motion and the current position. The software design employs a class hierarchy such that an abstract base class for devices can be subclassed into classes for various device categories(e.g. sonyevid30, cononvco4, panasonicwjmx50, etc.). which are further subclassed into classes for various device categories. The devices currently supported are the Sony evi-D30, Canon, VCC1, Canon VCC3, and Canon VCC4 cameras and the Panasonic WJ-MX50 videoswitcher. However, developers can extend the class hierarchy to support other devices.

  15. 30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstration in the use, care, and maintenance of self-rescue and respiratory devices used at the mine; (ii... District Manager under 30 CFR 75.1502 or the escape and evacuation plan under 30 CFR 57.11053, as... do not need to take training under this paragraph. (12) Self-rescue and respiratory devices....

  16. Simulation training tools for nonlethal weapons using gaming environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, Alexsana; Eagan, Justin; Tse, Gabriel; Vanderslice, Tom; Woods, Jerry

    2006-05-01

    Modern simulation techniques have a growing role for evaluating new technologies and for developing cost-effective training programs. A mission simulator facilitates the productive exchange of ideas by demonstration of concepts through compellingly realistic computer simulation. Revolutionary advances in 3D simulation technology have made it possible for desktop computers to process strikingly realistic and complex interactions with results depicted in real-time. Computer games now allow for multiple real human players and "artificially intelligent" (AI) simulated robots to play together. Advances in computer processing power have compensated for the inherent intensive calculations required for complex simulation scenarios. The main components of the leading game-engines have been released for user modifications, enabling game enthusiasts and amateur programmers to advance the state-of-the-art in AI and computer simulation technologies. It is now possible to simulate sophisticated and realistic conflict situations in order to evaluate the impact of non-lethal devices as well as conflict resolution procedures using such devices. Simulations can reduce training costs as end users: learn what a device does and doesn't do prior to use, understand responses to the device prior to deployment, determine if the device is appropriate for their situational responses, and train with new devices and techniques before purchasing hardware. This paper will present the status of SARA's mission simulation development activities, based on the Half-Life gameengine, for the purpose of evaluating the latest non-lethal weapon devices, and for developing training tools for such devices.

  17. Effects of Task Index Variations On Transfer of Training Criteria. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabella, Angelo; Wheaton, George R.

    The concluding series of a research program designed to validate a battery of task indexes for use in forecasting the effectiveness of training devices is described. Phase I collated 17 task indexes and applied them to sonar training devices, while in Phase II the 17 index battery was validated, using skill acquisition measures as criteria.…

  18. Train Smart: Perfect Trainings Every Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rich

    This book explains the TrainSmart approach to training, which is based on how the authors believe the brain naturally learns best. Part 1 introduces the five pillars of the TrainSmart Model, which are as follows: (1) engage (engage participants' attention); (2) frame (establish a frame of reference); (3) explore (introduce a conceptual activity);…

  19. STS-92 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-92, Commander Brian Duffy, Pilot Pamela A. Melroy, and Mission Specialists Koichi Wakata, Leroy Chiao, Peter J.K. Wisoff, Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, and William S. McArthur during various parts of their training. Clips are seen of the Shuttle bailout training, Shuttle arm and extravehicular activity (EVA) training at the Virtual Reality Lab, EVA training at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab, Shuttle operations training, EVA prep and post training in the Full Fuselage Trainer, ascent and post insertion training in the Guidance Navigation Simulator, and Mission Specialist Wakata in the Shuttle Engineering Dome and training on the Manipulator Development Facility.

  20. Combating medical device fouling.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jacqueline L; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2014-03-01

    When interfaced with the biological environment, biomedical devices are prone to surface biofouling due to adhesion of microbial or thrombotic agents as a result of the foreign body response. Surface biofouling of medical devices occurs as a result of nonspecific adhesion of noxious substrates to the surface. Approaches for biofouling-resistant surfaces can be categorized as either the manipulation of surface chemical functionalities or through the incorporation of regulatory biomolecules. This review summarizes current strategies for creating biofouling-resistant surfaces based on surface hydrophilicity and charge, biomolecule functionalization, and drug elution. Reducing the foreign body response and restoring the function of cells around the device minimizes the risk of device rejection and potentially integrates devices with surrounding tissues and fluids. In addition, we discuss the use of peptides and NO as biomolecules that not only inhibit surface fouling, but also promote the integration of medical devices with the biological environment.

  1. Barrier breaching device

    DOEpatents

    Honodel, C.A.

    1983-06-01

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  2. Barrier breaching device

    DOEpatents

    Honodel, Charles A.

    1985-01-01

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  3. Sensor sentinel computing device

    DOEpatents

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  4. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  5. Investigation of a Training Shoe as a Supplemental Conditioning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Donald; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the use of the "LEGG" Shoe as a supplemental conditioner for leg strength, flexibility, and sprint speed of college varisity football players. The investigation concluded that a program using the "LEGG" Shoe was significantly superior to the regular conditioning program. (RC)

  6. Ion trap device

    DOEpatents

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  7. Active multistable twisting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Marc R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Two similarly shaped, such as rectangular, shells are attached to one another such that they form a resulting thin airfoil-like structure. The resulting device has at least two stable equilibrium shapes. The device can be transformed from one shape to another with a snap-through action. One or more actuators can be used to effect the snap-through; i.e., transform the device from one stable shape to another. Power to the actuators is needed only to transform the device from one shape to another.

  8. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  9. EVA Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights, at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California

  10. Benchmarking emerging logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri

    2014-03-01

    As complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOS FET) are being scaled to ever smaller sizes by the semiconductor industry, the demand is growing for emerging logic devices to supplement CMOS in various special functions. Research directions and concepts of such devices are overviewed. They include tunneling, graphene based, spintronic devices etc. The methodology to estimate future performance of emerging (beyond CMOS) devices and simple logic circuits based on them is explained. Results of benchmarking are used to identify more promising concepts and to map pathways for improvement of beyond CMOS computing.

  11. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Xu, Xi Xiang

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  12. Preloaded latching device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A latching device is disclosed which is lever operated sequentially to actuate a set of collet fingers to provide a radial expansion and to actuate a force mechanism to provide a compressive gripping force for attaching first and second devices to one another. The latching device includes a body member having elongated collet fingers which, in a deactuated condition, is insertable through bores on the first and second devices so that gripping terminal portions on the collet fingers are proximate to the end of the bore of the first device while a spring assembly on the body member is located proximate to the outer surface of a second device. A lever is rotatable through 90 deg to move a latching rod to sequentially actuate and expand collet fingers and to actuate the spring assembly by compressing it. During the first 30 deg of movement of the lever, the collet fingers are actuated by the latching rod to provide a radial expansion and during the last 60 deg of movement of the lever, the spring assembly acts as a force mechanism and is actuated to develop a compressive latching force on the devices. The latching rod and lever are connected by a camming mechanism. The amount of spring force in the spring assembly can be adjusted; the body member can be permanently attached by a telescoping assembly to one of the devices; and the structure can be used as a pulling device for removing annular bearings or the like from blind bores.

  13. LANL12-RS-108J Report on Device Modeler Testing of the Device Modeler Tool Kit. DMTK in FY14

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian Allen; Pimentel, David A.

    2014-09-28

    This document covers the various testing and modifications of the Device Modeler Tool Kit (DMTK) for project LANL12-RS-108J in FY14. The testing has been comprised of different device modelers and trainees for device modeling using DMTK on the secure network for a few test problems. Most of these problems have been synthetic data problems. There has been a local secure network training drill where one of the trainees has used DMTK for real data. DMTK has also been used on a laptop for a deployed real data training drill. Once DMTK gets into the home team, it will be used for more training drills (TDs) which will contain real data in the future.

  14. Development of exercise devices to minimize musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwandt, Douglas F.; Whalen, Robert T.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes three exercise devices, developed at the NASA-Ames Research Center, for maintaining musculoskeletal and cardiovascular fitness in astronauts during extended space flights. These devices represent the following exercise concepts: (1) exercise against LBNP, (2) instrumented dynamic interlimb resistance, and (3) multiple resistive exercise. The three devices complement each other to provide the aerobic and strength training exercises for different situations. All three devices permit eccentric, concentric, and isometric contractions for a variety of exercises.

  15. Medical devices transition to information systems: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Charters, Kathleen G

    2012-01-01

    Medical devices designed to network can share data with a Clinical Information System (CIS), making that data available within clinician workflow. Some lessons learned by transitioning anesthesia reporting and monitoring devices (ARMDs) on a local area network (LAN) to integration of anesthesia documentation within a CIS include the following categories: access, contracting, deployment, implementation, planning, security, support, training and workflow integration. Areas identified for improvement include: Vendor requirements for access reconciled with the organizations' security policies and procedures. Include clauses supporting transition from stand-alone devices to information integrated into clinical workflow in the medical device procurement contract. Resolve deployment and implementation barriers that make the process less efficient and more costly. Include effective field communication and creative alternatives in planning. Build training on the baseline knowledge of trainees. Include effective help desk processes and metrics. Have a process for determining where problems originate when systems share information. PMID:24199054

  16. Power mobility driving training for seniors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Karen; Partnoy, Jacqueline; Tenenbaum, Sheryl; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2005-01-01

    This article describes two power mobility training protocols used with seniors and compares posttraining driving performance. Twelve users of power mobility were consecutively recruited from two residential facilities in Toronto, Canada. The aim of training at both sites was to make clients comfortable with and safe at driving power mobility devices. The content of training was similar, but training protocols differed significantly in terms of the number of sessions (means of 3.43 vs. 9.80; p < or = .05) and the time frame over which the sessions were offered (means of 1.57 vs. 5.10 weeks; p < or = .01). Participants at the two sites differed significantly in terms of overall driving performance (p < or = .05), gender (p < or = .01), and type of device used (p < or = .05). Overall, driving performance was significantly associated with facility, gender, type of device used, and training duration (p < or = .05). When these variables were entered into an exploratory hierarchical regression, facility accounted for 64% of the variance in driving performance. When facility was controlled for, the correlations between device and duration of training with driving performance were no longer significant. The determinants of driving performance are difficult to clearly specify as the variable facility encompasses gender as well as all other differences between the two training protocols. Nevertheless, these data provide direction for future research in this area.

  17. Assessing Intercultural Training Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Training designs are critical to the success of intercultural training programmes. A common typology for classifying intercultural training designs distinguishes among the following dimensions: experiential discovery versus didactic expository and culture-specific versus culture-general training. The purpose of this paper is to assess different…

  18. A Vocational Training Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymans, Susan; Hirschowitz, Ros

    This directory describes the training that is taking place in the private sector in the various industries in South Africa, excluding agriculture and domestic service, at a macro level. It focuses on training given or coordinated by industry training boards, regional training centers, certain employer organizations, and certain large employers, as…

  19. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  20. Training Fishermen at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermansson, Birgir

    This instructor's manual is designed to serve as a guide for a one-year course for training fishermen on board training vessels of 100 to 200 gross tons. Fourteen chapters are included to deal with the subjects and problems most frequently faced by skippers and other instructors on training vessels. Chapter titles are (1) The Training Vessel, (2)…

  1. Creating Training Miracles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rylatt, Alastair; Lohan, Kevin

    This book, which is intended as a comprehensive practical reference source for training professionals, consultants, and managers, examines emerging trends in training and explains how to get training results in the workplace by using various educational strategies and advanced training methods. The following are among the topics discussed:…

  2. Retail Training and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodworth, Margaret

    The book provides insight into training aims, principles, techniques, aids , and courses designed to meet the training needs of specific groups of staff, such as management staff, training staff, new staff, and established staff. It also covers the training and educational elements of the Certificate of Retail Management Principles. Training…

  3. Emergency-escape device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Relatively simple inexpensive device uses reeled steel cable, is controlled by automotive-type shock absorber, and allows safe descent from burning building. Device is cheap to manufacture and assemble and requires neither skill, special knowledge, or athletic ability to operate. It is reliable and fireproof and can be deployed instantly.

  4. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  5. Device for removing blackheads

    DOEpatents

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  6. STORM INLET FILTRATION DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five field tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement Systems (SAGES) device for removing contaminants from stormwater. The SAGES device is a three-stage filtering system that could be used as a best management practices (BMP) retr...

  7. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  8. Devices and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Actor Network Theory to examine two cases of device-mediated educational change, one involving a computer-assisted interactive video module that provided a half-hour of instruction for a university course, the other an assistive communication device that proved a supposedly retarded pre-school child to be intelligent. The paper…

  9. Capillary interconnect device

    SciTech Connect

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  10. Assistive Listening Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warick, Ruth; Clark, Catherine; Dancer, Jesse; Sinclair, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    For most hard of hearing students, and for some who are deaf, hearing aids and related sound amplification devices are of great benefit in their communication and learning. Technology has more recently produced an additional array of electronic devices which benefit many hard of hearing students. This report will deal primarily with the relatively…

  11. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  12. 14 CFR 121.424 - Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures may be performed in an airplane simulator, an appropriate training device, or a static airplane as... course of training utilizing an airplane simulator under § 121.409 (c) and (d) of this part, each pilot... initial flight training that are capable of being performed in an airplane simulator without a...

  13. Road Transport Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training International, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Road Transport Industry Training Board has recognized that manpower planning was the key to estimating the industry's training needs. The effective training methods discussed are: management training, Group Training Associations, apprentice training, direct training, and mobile-training service. (Author/BP)

  14. Rehabilitation device with variable resistance and intelligent control

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, J.Q.; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been widely reported to have positive rehabilitation effects for patients with neuromuscular and orthopaedic conditions. This paper presents an optimal design of magneto-rheological fluid dampers for variable resistance exercise device in the form of a knee brace. An intelligent supervisory control for regulating the resistive force or torque of the knee brace has also been studied. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training for the knee. PMID:15694609

  15. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-06-19

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  16. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson; Craig P. , Visco; Steven J. , De Jonghe; Lutgard C.

    2010-11-09

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  17. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  18. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-10

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  19. Device for cutting protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  20. Training propositional reasoning.

    PubMed

    Klauer, K C; Meiser, T; Naumer, B

    2000-08-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of four training conditions on propositional reasoning. A syntactic training demonstrated formal derivations, in an abstract semantic training the standard truth-table definitions of logical connectives were explained, and a domain-specific semantic training provided thematic contexts for the premises of the reasoning task. In a control training, an inductive reasoning task was practised. In line with the account by mental models, both kinds of semantic training were significantly more effective than the control and the syntactic training, whereas there were no significant differences between the control and the syntactic training, nor between the two kinds of semantic training. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern of effects using a different set of syntactic and domain-specific training conditions. PMID:10994233