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Sample records for airdata sensing system

  1. Design and Calibration of the X-33 Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Haering, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the design of the X-33 Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system. The X-33 FADS uses a matrix of pressure orifices on the vehicle nose to estimate airdata parameters. The system is designed with dual-redundant measurement hardware, which produces two independent measurement paths. Airdata parameters that correspond to the measurement path with the minimum fit error are selected as the output values. This method enables a single sensor failure to occur with minimal degrading of the system performance. The paper shows the X-33 FADS architecture, derives the estimating algorithms, and demonstrates a mathematical analysis of the FADS system stability. Preliminary aerodynamic calibrations are also presented here. The calibration parameters, the position error coefficient (epsilon), and flow correction terms for the angle of attack (delta alpha), and angle of sideslip (delta beta) are derived from wind tunnel data. Statistical accuracy of' the calibration is evaluated by comparing the wind tunnel reference conditions to the airdata parameters estimated. This comparison is accomplished by applying the calibrated FADS algorithm to the sensed wind tunnel pressures. When the resulting accuracy estimates are compared to accuracy requirements for the X-33 airdata, the FADS system meets these requirements.

  2. In-flight demonstration of a Real-Time Flush Airdata Sensing (RT-FADS) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Davis, Roy J.; Fife, John Michael

    1995-01-01

    A prototype real-time flush airdata sensing (RT-FADS) system has been developed and flight tested at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This system uses a matrix of pressure orifices on the vehicle nose to estimate airdata parameters in real time using nonlinear regression. The algorithm is robust to sensor failures and noise in the measured pressures. The RT-FADS system has been calibrated using inertial trajectory measurements that were bootstrapped for atmospheric conditions using meteorological data. Mach numbers as high as 1.6 and angles of attack greater than 45 deg have been tested. The system performance has been evaluated by comparing the RT-FADS to the ship system airdata computer measurements to give a quantitative evaluation relative to an accepted measurement standard. Nominal agreements of approximately 0.003 in Mach number and 0.20 deg in angle of attack and angle of sideslip have been achieved.

  3. Application of a flush airdata sensing system to a wing leading edge (LE-FADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Czerniejewski, Mark W.; Nichols, Douglas A.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of locating a flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on a wing leading edge where the operation of the avionics or fire control radar system will not be hindered is investigated. The leading-edge FADS system (LE-FADS) was installed on an unswept symmetrical airfoil and a series of low-speed wind-tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the system. As a result of the tests it is concluded that the aerodynamic models formulated for use on aircraft nosetips are directly applicable to wing leading edges and that the calibration process is similar. Furthermore, the agreement between the airdata calculations for angle of attack and total pressure from the LE-FADS and known wind-tunnel values suggest that wing-based flush airdata systems can be calibrated to a high degree of accuracy. Static wind-tunnel tests for angles of attack from -50 deg to 50 deg and dynamic pressures from 3.6 to 11.4 lb/sq ft were performed.

  4. Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System Calibration Procedures and Results for Blunt Forebodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Borrer, Jerry; Roback, V. Eric

    1999-01-01

    Blunt-forebody pressure data are used to study the behavior of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center flush airdata sensing (FADS) pressure model and solution algorithm. The model relates surface pressure measurements to the airdata state. Spliced from the potential flow solution for uniform flow over a sphere and the modified Newtonian impact theory, the model was shown to apply to a wide range of blunt-forebody shapes and Mach numbers. Calibrations of a sphere, spherical cones, a Rankine half body, and the F-14, F/A-18, X-33, X-34, and X-38 configurations are shown. The three calibration parameters are well-behaved from Mach 0.25 to Mach 5.0, an angle-of-attack range extending to greater than 30 deg, and an angle-of-sideslip range extending to greater than 15 deg. Contrary to the sharp calibration changes found on traditional pitot-static systems at transonic speeds, the FADS calibrations are smooth, monotonic functions of Mach number and effective angles of attack and sideslip. Because the FADS calibration is sensitive to pressure port location, detailed measurements of the actual pressure port locations on the flight vehicle are required and the wind-tunnel calibration model should have pressure ports in similar locations. The procedure for calibrating a FADS system is outlined.

  5. The effects of pressure sensor acoustics on airdata derived from a High-angle-of-attack Flush Airdata Sensing (HI-FADS) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of a nonintrusive high angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing (HI-FADS) system was verified for quasi-steady flight conditions up to 55 deg angle of attack during the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) Program. The system is a matrix of nine pressure ports arranged in annular rings on the aircraft nose. The complete airdata set is estimated using nonlinear regression. Satisfactory frequency response was verified to the system Nyquist frequency (12.5 Hz). The effects of acoustical distortions within the individual pressure sensors of the nonintrusive pressure matrix on overall system performance are addressed. To quantify these effects, a frequency-response model describing the dynamics of acoustical distortion is developed and simple design criteria are derived. The model adjusts measured HI-FADS pressure data for the acoustical distortion and quantifies the effects of internal sensor geometries on system performance. Analysis results indicate that sensor frequency response characteristics very greatly with altitude, thus it is difficult to select satisfactory sensor geometry for all altitudes. The solution used presample filtering to eliminate resonance effects, and short pneumatic tubing sections to reduce lag effects. Without presample signal conditioning the system designer must use the pneumatic transmission line to attenuate the resonances and accept the resulting altitude variability.

  6. Development of a Flush Airdata Sensing System on a Sharp-Nosed Vehicle for Flight at Mach 3 to 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Mark C.; Pahle, Joseph W.; White, John Terry; Marshall, Laurie A.; Mashburn, Michael J.; Franks, Rick

    2000-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on a sharp-nosed, wedge-shaped vehicle. This paper details the design and calibration of a real-time angle-of-attack estimation scheme developed to meet the onboard airdata measurement requirements for a research vehicle equipped with a supersonic-combustion ramjet engine. The FADS system has been designed to perform in flights at Mach 3-8 and at -6 deg - 12 deg angle of attack. The description of the FADS architecture includes port layout, pneumatic design, and hardware integration. Predictive models of static and dynamic performance are compared with wind-tunnel results across the Mach and angle-of-attack range. Results indicate that static angle-of-attack accuracy and pneumatic lag can be adequately characterized and incorporated into a real-time algorithm.

  7. Development of a Flush Airdata Sensing System on a Sharp-Nosed Vehicle for Flight at Mach 3 to 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Mark C.; Pahle, Joseph W.; White, John Terry; Marshall, Laurie A.; Mashburn, Michael J.; Franks, Rick

    2000-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on a sharp-nosed, wedge-shaped vehicle. This paper details the design and calibration of a real-time angle-of-attack estimation scheme developed to meet the onboard airdata measurement requirements for a research vehicle equipped with a supersonic-combustion ramjet engine. The FADS system has been designed to perform in flights at speeds between Mach 3 and Mach 8 and at angles of attack between -6 deg. and 12 deg. The description of the FADS architecture includes port layout, pneumatic design, and hardware integration. Predictive models of static and dynamic performance are compared with wind-tunnel results across the Mach and angle-of-attack range. Results indicate that static angle-of-attack accuracy and pneumatic lag can be adequately characterized and incorporated into a real-time algorithm.

  8. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information regarding the nosecap Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system on Orion’s Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nosecap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rocket nozzles like the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 Launch Abort System. The nosecap FADS system used pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which were arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, impact pressure, and freestream static pressure. This paper will present the algorithms employed by the FADS system along with the development of the calibration datasets and a comparison of the final results to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data for PA-1. Also presented in this paper is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study to explore the impact of the ACM on the nosecap FADS system. The comparison of the nosecap FADS system results to the BET and the CFD study showed that more investigation is needed to quantify the impact of the firing rocket motors on the FADS system.

  9. Preliminary results from a subsonic high-angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing (HI-FADS) system - Design, calibration, algorithm development, and flight test evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Larson, Terry J.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive high angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing (HI-FADS) system was installed and flight-tested on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle. This paper discusses the airdata algorithm development and composite results expressed as airdata parameter estimates and describes the HI-FADS system hardware, calibration techniques, and algorithm development. An independent empirical verification was performed over a large portion of the subsonic flight envelope. Test points were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.15 to 0.94 and angles of attack from -8.0 to 55.0 deg. Angles of sideslip ranged from -15.0 to 15.0 deg, and test altitudes ranged from 18,000 to 40,000 ft. The HI-FADS system gave excellent results over the entire subsonic Mach number range up to 55 deg angle of attack. The internal pneumatic frequency response of the system is accurate to beyond 10 Hz.

  10. Preliminary results from a subsonic high angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing (HI-FADS) system: Design, calibration, and flight test evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Larson, Terry J.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive high angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing (HI-FADS) system was installed and flight-tested on the F-18 high alpha research flight vehicle. The system is a matrix of 25 pressure orifices in concentric circles on the nose of the vehicle. The orifices determine angles of attack and sideslip, Mach number, and pressure altitude. Pressure was transmitted from the orifices to an electronically scanned pressure module by lines of pneumatic tubing. The HI-FADS system was calibrated and demonstrated using dutch roll flight maneuvers covering large Mach, angle-of-attack, and sideslip ranges. Reference airdata for system calibration were generated by a minimum variance estimation technique blending measurements from two wingtip airdata booms with inertial velocities, aircraft angular rates and attitudes, precision radar tracking, and meteorological analyses. The pressure orifice calibration was based on identifying empirical adjustments to modified Newtonian flow on a hemisphere. Calibration results are presented. Flight test results used all 25 orifices or used a subset of 9 orifices. Under moderate maneuvering conditions, the HI-FADS system gave excellent results over the entire subsonic Mach number range up to 55 deg angle of attack. The internal pneumatic frequency response of the system is accurate to beyond 10 Hz. Aerodynamic lags in the aircraft flow field caused some performance degradation during heavy maneuvering.

  11. Stable Algorithm For Estimating Airdata From Flush Surface Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen, A. (Inventor); Cobleigh, Brent R. (Inventor); Haering, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An airdata estimation and evaluation system and method, including a stable algorithm for estimating airdata from nonintrusive surface pressure measurements. The airdata estimation and evaluation system is preferably implemented in a flush airdata sensing (FADS) system. The system and method of the present invention take a flow model equation and transform it into a triples formulation equation. The triples formulation equation eliminates the pressure related states from the flow model equation by strategically taking the differences of three surface pressures, known as triples. This triples formulation equation is then used to accurately estimate and compute vital airdata from nonintrusive surface pressure measurements.

  12. Design of a Flush Airdata System (FADS) for the Hypersonic Air Launched Option (HALO) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Deets, Dwain A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a design study for a pressure based Flush airdata system (FADS) on the Hypersonic Air Launched Option (HALO) Vehicle. The analysis will demonstrate the feasibility of using a pressure based airdata system for the HALO and provide measurement uncertainty estimates along a candidate trajectory. The HALO is a conceived as a man-rated vehicle to be air launched from an SR-71 platform and is proposed as a testbed for an airbreathing hydrogen scramjet. A feasibility study has been performed and indicates that the proposed trajectory is possible with minimal modifications to the existing SR71 vehicle. The mission consists of launching the HALO off the top of an SR-71 at Mach 3 and 80,000 ft. A rocket motor is then used to accelerate the vehicle to the test condition. After the scramjet test is completed the vehicle will glide to a lakebed runway landing. This option provides reusability of the vehicle and scramjet engine. The HALO design will also allow for various scramjet engine and flowpath designs to be flight tested. For the HALO flights, measurements of freestream airdata are considered to be a mission critical to perform gain scheduling and trajectory optimization. One approach taken to obtaining airdata involves measurement of certain parameters such as external atmospheric winds, temperature, etc to estimate the airdata quantities. This study takes an alternate approach. Here the feasibility of obtaining airdata using a pressure-based flush airdata system (FADS) methods is assessed. The analysis, although it is performed using the HALO configuration and trajectory, is generally applicable to other hypersonic vehicles. The method to be presented offers the distinct advantage of inferring total pressure, Mach number, and flow incidence angles, without stagnating the freestream flow. This approach allows for airdata measurements to be made using blunt surfaces and significantly diminishes the heating load at the sensor. In the FADS concept a

  13. A system for testing airdata probes at high angles of attack using a ground vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geenen, Robert J.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A system to calibrate airdata probes at angles of attack between 0 and 90 deg was developed and tested at the NASA Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system used a test fixture mounted to the roof of a ground vehicle and included an onboard instrumentation and data acquisition system for measuring pressures and flow angles. The data could be easily transferred to the facility mainframe computer for further analysis. The system was designed to provide convenient and inexpensive airdata probe calibrations for projects which require airdata at high angles of attack, such as the F-18 High Alpha Research Program. This type of probe was tested to 90 deg angle of attack in a wind tunnel and using the ground vehicle system. The results of both tests are in close agreement. An airdata probe with a swiveling pilot-static tube was also calibrated with the ground vehicle system. This paper presents the results of these tests and gives a detailed description of the test system.

  14. Airdata Measurement and Calibration. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This Section provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The Section informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This section is not intended to be all inclusive; readers should review AGARDograph 300, Volume 1, "Calibration of Airdata Systems and Flow Direction Sensors" for more detailed information. [11-1] References 11-2, 11-3, and 11-4 also supply pertinent information to better understand airdata measurement and calibration and related terminology. Airdata are vital to successfully complete an aircraft's mission and are derived from the air surrounding the aircraft. These airdata encompass indicated and true airspeed, pressure altitude, ambient air temperature, angles of attack and sideslip, Mach number, and rate of climb. Typically, pitot and static pressures are sensed and converted (by mechanical means in the instruments themselves) into indications on the altimeter, vertical speed indicator, airspeed indicator, and Machmeter. Similarly, measured local flow angles establish angles of attack and sideslip, and the outside air temperature is measured and indicated in the cockpit. (Instruments that can perform the conversion, such as airspeed indicators, altimeters, and Machmeters, do not correct for errors in the input values.) These measured parameters are commonly input to the airdata computer which, using appropriate algorithms and correction factors (or calibrations, as discussed later), can provide other parameters, such as true airspeed, required by the aircraft's avionics or flight control system. The presence of the aircraft in the

  15. Measurement uncertainty and feasibility study of a flush airdata system for a hypersonic flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    Presented is a feasibility and error analysis for a hypersonic flush airdata system on a hypersonic flight experiment (HYFLITE). HYFLITE heating loads make intrusive airdata measurement impractical. Although this analysis is specifically for the HYFLITE vehicle and trajectory, the problems analyzed are generally applicable to hypersonic vehicles. A layout of the flush-port matrix is shown. Surface pressures are related airdata parameters using a simple aerodynamic model. The model is linearized using small perturbations and inverted using nonlinear least-squares. Effects of various error sources on the overall uncertainty are evaluated using an error simulation. Error sources modeled include boundarylayer/viscous interactions, pneumatic lag, thermal transpiration in the sensor pressure tubing, misalignment in the matrix layout, thermal warping of the vehicle nose, sampling resolution, and transducer error. Using simulated pressure data for input to the estimation algorithm, effects caused by various error sources are analyzed by comparing estimator outputs with the original trajectory. To obtain ensemble averages the simulation is run repeatedly and output statistics are compiled. Output errors resulting from the various error sources are presented as a function of Mach number. Final uncertainties with all modeled error sources included are presented as a function of Mach number.

  16. Wind-tunnel investigation of a flush airdata system at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Terry J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1990-01-01

    Flush pressure orifices installed on the nose section of a 1/7-scale model of the F-14 airplane were evaluated for use as a flush airdata system (FADS). Wing-tunnel tests were conducted in the 11- by 11-ft Unitary Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. A full-scale FADS of the same configuration was previously tested using an F-14 aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden). These tests, which were published, are part of a NASA program to assess accuracies of FADS for use on aircraft. The test program also provides data to validate algorithms for the shuttle entry airdata system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The wind-tunnel test Mach numbers were 0.73, 0.90, 1.05, 1.20, and 1.39. Angles of attack were varied in 2 deg increments from -4 deg to 20 deg. Sideslip angles were varied in 4 deg increments from -8 deg to 8 deg. Airdata parameters were evaluated for determination of free-stream values of stagnation pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and Mach number. These parameters are, in most cases, the same as the parameters investigated in the flight test program. The basic FADS wind-tunnel data are presented in tabular form. A discussion of the more accurate parameters is included.

  17. Airdata Measurement and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This memorandum provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The memorandum informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This memorandum is not intended to be all inclusive; this paper contains extensive reference and bibliography sections.

  18. A preliminary look at techniques used to obtain airdata from flight at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    Flight research at high angles of attack has posed new problems for airdata measurements. New sensors and techniques for measuring the standard airdata quantities of static pressure, dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip were subsequently developed. The ongoing airdata research supporting NASA's F-18 high alpha research program is updated. Included are the techniques used and the preliminary results. The F-18 aircraft was flown with three research airdata systems: a standard airdata probe on the right wingtip, a self-aligning airdata probe on the left wingtip, and a flush airdata system on the nose cone. The primary research goal was to obtain steady-state calibrations for each airdata system up to an angle of attack of 50 deg. This goal was accomplished and preliminary accuracies of the three airdata systems were assessed and are presented. An effort to improve the fidelity of the airdata measurements during dynamic maneuvering is also discussed. This involved enhancement of the aerodynamic data with data obtained from linear accelerometers, rate gyros, and attitude gyros. Preliminary results of this technique are presented.

  19. Recent flight-test results of optical airdata techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.

    1993-01-01

    Optical techniques for measuring airdata parameters were demonstrated with promising results on high performance fighter aircraft. These systems can measure the airspeed vector, and some are not as dependent on special in-flight calibration processes as current systems. Optical concepts for measuring freestream static temperature and density are feasible for in-flight applications. The best feature of these concepts is that the air data measurements are obtained nonintrusively, and for the most part well into the freestream region of the flow field about the aircraft. Current requirements for measuring air data at high angle of attack, and future need to measure the same information at hypersonic flight conditions place strains on existing techniques. Optical technology advances show outstanding potential for application in future programs and promise to make common use of optical concepts a reality. Results from several flight-test programs are summarized, and the technology advances required to make optical airdata techniques practical are identified.

  20. Flight and wind-tunnel calibrations of a flush airdata sensor at high angles of attack and sideslip and at supersonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angle-of-attack and sideslip regions studied.

  1. Flight and wind-tunnel calibrations of a flush airdata sensor at high angles of attack and sideslip and at supersonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angles-of-attack and -sideslip regions studied.

  2. Airdata calibration of a high-performance aircraft for measuring atmospheric wind profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The research airdata system of an instrumented F-104 aircraft has been calibrated to measure winds aloft in support of the space shuttle wind measurement investigation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility. For this investigation, wind measurement accuracies comparable to those obtained from Jimsphere balloons were desired. This required an airdata calibration more accurate than needed for most aircraft research programs. The F-104 aircraft was equipped with a research pilot-static noseboom with integral angle-of-attack and flank angle-of-attack vanes and a ring-laser-gyro inertial reference unit. Tower fly-bys and radar acceleration-decelerations were used to calibrate Mach number and total temperature. Angle of attack and angle of sideslip were calibrated with a trajectory reconstruction technique using a multiple-state linear Kalman filter. The F-104 aircraft and instrumentation configuration, flight test maneuvers, data corrections, calibration techniques, and resulting calibrations and data repeatability are presented. Recommendations for future airdata systems on aircraft used to measure winds aloft are also given.

  3. Airdata sensor based position estimation and fault diagnosis in aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevil, Hakki Erhan

    Aerial refueling is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight. In aerial refueling operations, the receiver aircraft is exposed to nonuniform wind field induced by tanker aircraft, and this nonuniform wind field leads to differences in readings of airdata sensors placed at different locations on the receiver aircraft. There are advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon. As an advantage, it is used as a mechanism to estimate relative position of the receiver aircraft inside the nonuniform wind field behind the tanker. Using the difference in the measurements from multiple identical sensors, a model of the nonuniform wind field that is organized as maps of the airspeed, side slip angle and angle of attack as functions of the relative position is prepared. Then, using the developed algorithms, preformed maps and instant sensor readings, the relative position receiver aircraft is determined. The disadvantage of the phenomenon is that the differences in readings of airdata sensors cause false fault detections in a redundant-sensor-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system developed based on the assumption of identical sensor readings from three airdata sensors. Such FDI algorithm successfully performs detection and isolation of sensor faults when the receiver aircraft flies solo or outside the wake of the tanker aircraft. However, the FDI algorithm yields false fault detection when the receiver aircraft enters the tanker's wake. This problem can be eliminated by modifying the FDI algorithm. For the robustness, the expected values of the sensor measurements are incorporated in the FDI algorithm, instead of the assumption of identical measurements from the sensors. The expected values, which depend on the position of the receiver relative to the tanker, are obtained from the maps of the nonuniform wind field as functions of the relative position. The new robust FDI detects and isolates sensor

  4. Mobile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  5. Mobile Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  6. Atmospheric analysis for airdata calibration on research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Lockhart, Mary G.; Teets, Edward H.

    1992-01-01

    In-flight airdata calibrations are used to determine the aerodynamic influence of an airplane on pitot-static pressure measurements of altitude and speed. Conventional flight-test calibration techniques are briefly reviewed and meteorological analysis methods for estimating calibration reference values of atmospheric conditions are described. There are cases where some conventional in-flight techniques are not entirely satisfactory for research aircraft because of added equipment requirements or flight envelope and location limitations. In these cases, atmospheric wind and pressure information can be used to complement conventional techniques. Accuracy of the atmospheric measurements and the variability of upper-air winds and pressure values are discussed. Results from several flight research aircraft show that wind reference calibration is generally less accurate than calibration accuracy standards for civil and research aircraft. Examples of pressure reference altimetry derived from meteorological analyses are also presented for a variety of flight research programs. These flight data show that the reference pressure accuracy provided by meteorological analyses is usually within civil aircraft and flight research airdata calibration accuracy standards. Meteorological analyses altimetry is particularly useful when it is not feasible to restrict the test airplane altitude, location, or maneuver envelope.

  7. Preliminary results from an airdata enhancement algorithm with application to high-angle-of-attack flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique was developed to improve the fidelity of airdata measurements during dynamic maneuvering. This technique is particularly useful for airdata measured during flight at high angular rates and high angles of attack. To support this research, flight tests using the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility. A Kalman filter was used to combine information from research airdata, linear accelerometers, angular rate gyros, and attitude gyros to determine better estimates of airdata quantities such as angle of attack, angle of sideslip, airspeed, and altitude. The state and observation equations used by the Kalman filter are briefly developed and it is shown how the state and measurement covariance matrices were determined from flight data. Flight data are used to show the results of the technique and these results are compared to an independent measurement source. This technique is applicable to both postflight and real-time processing of data.

  8. System for Hydrogen Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jenshan; Norton, David P.; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ren, Fan

    2010-01-01

    A low-power, wireless gas-sensing system is designed to safeguard the apparatus to which it is attached, as well as associated personnel. It also ensures the efficiency and operational integrity of the hydrogen-powered apparatus. This sensing system can be operated with lower power consumption (less than 30 nanowatts), but still has a fast response. The detecting signal can be wirelessly transmitted to remote locations, or can be posted on the Web. This system can also be operated by harvesting energy.

  9. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  10. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  11. Liquid Level Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  12. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  13. Hydroball string sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, Michael J.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Squarer, David

    1991-01-01

    A hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor that includes stainless tubes positioned to guide hydroball strings into and out of the nuclear reactor core. A sensor such as an ultrasonic transducer transmitter and receiver is positioned outside of the nuclear reactor core and adjacent to the tube. The presence of an object such a bullet member positioned at an end a hydroball string, or any one of the hydroballs interrupts the transmission of ultrasound from the transmitter to the receiver. Alternatively, if the bullet member and hydroballs include a ferritic material, either a Hall effect sensor or other magnetic field sensors such as a magnetic field rate of change sensor can be used to detect the location and position of a hydroball string. Placing two sensors along the tube with a known distance between the sensors enables the velocity of a hydroball string to be determined. This determined velocity can be used to control the flow rate of a fluid within the tube so as to control the velocity of the hydroball string.

  14. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  15. Formulation and implementation of nonstationary adaptive estimation algorithm with applications to air-data reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics model and data sources used to perform air-data reconstruction are discussed, as well as the Kalman filter. The need for adaptive determination of the noise statistics of the process is indicated. The filter innovations are presented as a means of developing the adaptive criterion, which is based on the true mean and covariance of the filter innovations. A method for the numerical approximation of the mean and covariance of the filter innovations is presented. The algorithm as developed is applied to air-data reconstruction for the space shuttle, and data obtained from the third landing are presented. To verify the performance of the adaptive algorithm, the reconstruction is also performed using a constant covariance Kalman filter. The results of the reconstructions are compared, and the adaptive algorithm exhibits better performance.

  16. Formulation and implementation of nonstationary adaptive estimation algorithm with applications to air-data reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics model and data sources used to perform air-data reconstruction are discussed, as well as the Kalman filter. The need for adaptive determination of the noise statistics of the process is indicated. The filter innovations are presented as a means of developing the adaptive criterion, which is based on the true mean and covariance of the filter innovations. A method for the numerical approximation of the mean and covariance of the filter innovations is presented. The algorithm as developed is applied to air-data reconstruction for the Space Shuttle, and data obtained from the third landing are presented. To verify the performance of the adaptive algorithm, the reconstruction is also performed using a constant covariance Kalman filter. The results of the reconstructions are compared, and the adaptive algorithm exhibits better performance.

  17. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  18. Displacement sensing system and method

    DOEpatents

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  19. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  20. Radar Attitude Sensing System (RASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The initial design and fabrication efforts for a radar attitude sensing system (RASS) are covered. The design and fabrication of the RASS system is being undertaken in two phases, 1B1 and 1B2. The RASS system as configured under phase 1B1 contains the solid state transmitter and local oscillator, the antenna system, the receiving system, and the altitude electronics. RASS employs a pseudo-random coded cw signal and receiver correlation techniques to measure range. The antenna is a planar, phased array, monopulse type, whose beam is electronically steerable using diode phase shifters. The beam steering computer and attitude sensing circuitry are to be included in Phase 1B2 of the program.

  1. BODY SENSING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method for performing one or more relevant measurements at a target site in an animal body, using a probe. One or more of a group of selected internal measurements is performed at the target site, is optionally combined with one or more selected external measurements, and is optionally combined with one or more selected heuristic information items, in order to reduce to a relatively small number the probable medical conditions associated with the target site. One or more of the internal measurements is optionally used to navigate the probe to the target site. Neural net information processing is performed to provide a reduced set of probable medical conditions associated with the target site.

  2. EDITORIAL: Sensors and sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Richard; Tian, Gui Yun

    2008-02-01

    Sensors are very important for measurement science and technology. They serve as a vital component in new measurement techniques and instrumentation systems. Key qualities of a good sensor system are high resolution, high reliability, low cost, appropriate output for a given input (good sensitivity), rapid response time, small random error in results, and small systematic error. Linearity is also useful, but with the advent of lookup tables and software, it is not as important as it used to be. In the last several years, considerable effort around the world has been devoted to a wide range of sensors from nanoscale sensors to sensor networks. Collectively, these vast and multidisciplinary efforts are developing important technological roadmaps to futuristic sensors with new modalities, significantly enhanced effectiveness and integrated functionality (data processing, computation, decision making and communications). When properly organized, they will have important relevance to life science and security applications, e.g. the sensing and monitoring of chemical, biological, radiological and explosive threats. A special feature in this issue takes a snapshot of some recent developments that were first presented at an international conference, the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). The conference discussed recent developments, from which a few papers have since been brought together in this special feature. Gas sensing for environmental monitoring remains a topical subject, and two papers deal with this issue. One is concerned with the exploitation of nanostructured Au-doped cobalt oxyhydroxide-based carbon monoxide sensors for fire detection at its earlier stages (Zhuiykov and Dowling), whilst another examines the role of oxygen in high temperature hydrogen sulfide detection using MISiC sensors (Weng et al). Again for environmental monitoring, another paper deals with accurate sound source localization in a reverberant

  3. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  4. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  5. Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Jokerst, Nan; Royal, Matthew; Palit, Sabarni; Luan, Lin; Dhar, Sulochana; Tyler, Talmage

    2009-04-01

    Medicine, environmental monitoring, and security are application areas for miniaturized, portable sensing systems. The emerging integration of sensors with other components (electronic, photonic, fluidic) is moving sensing toward higher levels of portability through the realization of self-contained chip scale sensing systems. Planar optical sensors, and in particular, microresonator sensors, are attractive components for chip scale integrated sensing systems because they are small, have high sensitivity, can be surface customized, and can be integrated singly or in arrays in a planar format with other components using conventional semiconductor fabrication technologies. This paper will focus on the progress and prospects for the integration of microresonator sensors at the chip scale with photonic input/output components and with sample preparation microfluidics, toward self-contained, portable sensing systems. PMID:19367589

  6. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  7. Remote sensing using MIMO systems

    DOEpatents

    Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D

    2015-04-28

    A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.

  8. Airborne HCl - CO sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartle, E. R.; Hall, G.

    1977-01-01

    A system for measuring air pollutants in-situ using an aircraft was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system is based upon a technique called Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) which provides for high sensitivity and specificity in the presence of interfering species. This particular system was designed for measuring hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide gases emitted from rocket exhaust effluents.

  9. Future Radiometer Systems for Earth Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Njoku, Eni G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe a new exciting concept for using microwave systems for Earth remote sensing. This concept will use a 6-m diameter mesh deployable antenna with active and passive systems to provide moderate spatial resolution images at L and S-band microwave frequencies.

  10. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribble, R.

    1985-08-01

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer.

  11. OmniSense unattended ground sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuiddy, John

    2008-04-01

    McQ's OmniSense® Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) System has been deployed in large numbers to support current DOD warfighting efforts. This networked UGS system connects the user to the remotely deployed sensors to receive target information and to allow a user to remotely reconfigure the sensors. These intelligent sensors detect and classify the targets, in addition to, capturing a picture of the target. The ability to geographically distribute both the users and the sensors is based on using a network oriented common data structure. McQ developed and has implemented for tactical DOD use the Common Data Interchange Format (CDIF) sensor language. This has enabled UGS to be networked over NIPRnet and SIPRnet links so that operators in the field, at Forward Operating Bases, at Tactical Operations Centers, and at Command Centers can simultaneously share the data. The Army Research Laboratory has further enhanced and extended this network architecture by integrating a common radio (Blue Radio) and demonstrating in Army C4ISR exercises that UGS systems from multiple vendors can be integrated into the Future Combat System FBCB2 situation awareness capability. McQ has extended its OmniSense® UGS capability with direct network connectivity to the soldier, long range standoff imagers controlled over the network, terrestrial network relays, and with a new low cost OmniSenseCOR TM sensor. McQ will present an overview of the technology provided by the OmniSense® UGS system.

  12. Fiber Grating Environmental Sensing System

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Whitten L.; Udd, Eric

    2003-07-29

    Fiber grating environmental measurement systems are comprised of sensors that are configured to respond to changes in moisture or chemical content of the surrounding medium through the action of coatings and plates inducing strain that is measured. These sensors can also be used to monitor the interior of bonds for degradation due to aging, cracking, or chemical attack. Means to multiplex these sensors at high speed and with high sensitivity can be accomplished by using spectral filters placed to correspond to each fiber grating environmental sensor. By forming networks of spectral elements and using wavelength division multiplexing arrays of fiber grating sensors may be processed in a single fiber line allowing distributed high sensitivity, high bandwidth fiber optic grating environmental sensor systems to be realized.

  13. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care. PMID:24584010

  14. Remote tactile sensing glove-based system.

    PubMed

    Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2010-01-01

    A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics. PMID:21096379

  15. Carrier sense data highway system

    DOEpatents

    Frankel, Robert

    1984-02-14

    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  16. Intelligent hand-portable proliferation sensing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckman, S.L.; Bostrom, G.A.; Waterfield, L.G.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Ahuja, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, is currently developing an intelligent hand-portable sensor system. This system is designed specifically to support the intelligence community with the task of in-field sensing of nuclear proliferation and related activities. Based upon pulsed laser photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology, this novel sensing system is capable of quickly providing a molecular or atomic analysis of specimens. The system is capable of analyzing virtually any gas phase molecule, or molecule that can be induced into the gas phase by (for example) sample heating. This system has the unique advantages of providing unprecedented portability, excellent sensitivity, tremendous fieldability, and a high performance/cost ratio. The system will be capable of operating in a highly automated manner for on-site inspections, and easily modified for other applications such as perimeter monitoring aboard a plane or drone. The paper describes the sensing system.

  17. Compressive line sensing underwater imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, B.; Dalgleish, F. R.; Vuorenkoski, A. K.; Caimi, F. M.; Britton, W.

    2013-05-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory has drawn great interest and led to new imaging techniques in many different fields. In recent years, the FAU/HBOI OVOL has conducted extensive research to study the CS based active electro-optical imaging system in the scattering medium such as the underwater environment. The unique features of such system in comparison with the traditional underwater electro-optical imaging system are discussed. Building upon the knowledge from the previous work on a frame based CS underwater laser imager concept, more advantageous for hover-capable platforms such as the Hovering Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (HAUV), a compressive line sensing underwater imaging (CLSUI) system that is more compatible with the conventional underwater platforms where images are formed in whiskbroom fashion, is proposed in this paper. Simulation results are discussed.

  18. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  19. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  20. Other remote sensing systems: Retrospect and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The history of remote sensing is reviewed and the scope and versatility of the several remote sensing systems already in orbit are discussed, especially those with sensors operating in other EM spectral modes. The multisensor approach is examined by interrelating LANDSAT observations with data from other satellite systems. The basic principles and practices underlying the use of thermal infrared and radar sensors are explored and the types of observations and interpretations emanating from the Nimbus, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, and SEASAT programs are examined. Approved or proposed Earth resources oriented missions for the 1980's previewed include LANDSAT D, Stereosat, Gravsat, the French satellite SPOT-1, and multimission modular spacecraft launched from space shuttle. The pushbroom imager, the linear array pushbroom radiometer, the multispectral linear array, and the operational LANDSAT observing system, to be designed the LANDSAT-E series are also envisioned for this decade.

  1. Ultra Small Integrated Optical Fiber Sensing System

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoe, Bram; Lee, Graham; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Kalathimekkad, Sandeep; Maskery, Oliver; Webb, David J.; Sugden, Kate; Van Daele, Peter; Van Steenberge, Geert

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a revolutionary way to interrogate optical fiber sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and to integrate the necessary driving optoelectronic components with the sensor elements. Low-cost optoelectronic chips are used to interrogate the optical fibers, creating a portable dynamic sensing system as an alternative for the traditionally bulky and expensive fiber sensor interrogation units. The possibility to embed these laser and detector chips is demonstrated resulting in an ultra thin flexible optoelectronic package of only 40 μm, provided with an integrated planar fiber pigtail. The result is a fully embedded flexible sensing system with a thickness of only 1 mm, based on a single Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL), fiber sensor and photodetector chip. Temperature, strain and electrodynamic shaking tests have been performed on our system, not limited to static read-out measurements but dynamically reconstructing full spectral information datasets.

  2. Computational Intelligence Techniques for Tactile Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gastaldo, Paolo; Pinna, Luigi; Seminara, Lucia; Valle, Maurizio; Zunino, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Tactile sensing helps robots interact with humans and objects effectively in real environments. Piezoelectric polymer sensors provide the functional building blocks of the robotic electronic skin, mainly thanks to their flexibility and suitability for detecting dynamic contact events and for recognizing the touch modality. The paper focuses on the ability of tactile sensing systems to support the challenging recognition of certain qualities/modalities of touch. The research applies novel computational intelligence techniques and a tensor-based approach for the classification of touch modalities; its main results consist in providing a procedure to enhance system generalization ability and architecture for multi-class recognition applications. An experimental campaign involving 70 participants using three different modalities in touching the upper surface of the sensor array was conducted, and confirmed the validity of the approach. PMID:24949646

  3. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  4. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-02

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  5. Operational LANDSAT remote sensing system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of $121.6 million dollars from NOAA's LANDSAT development program for FY 1982, and the shortened time period for transferring remote sensing technology to the private sector resulted in changes in the Agency's plans for managing the operational system. Proposed legislation for congressional consideration or enactment to establish conditions under which this private sector transfer will occur, and the expected gradual rise in the price of data products are discussed. No money exists for capital investment and none is projected for investing in an operational data handling system for the LANDSAT D satellite. Candidates knowledgeable of various aspects of the needs and uses of remote sensing are urged to consider participation in NOAA's advisory committee.

  6. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  7. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  8. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  9. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

  10. Investigations of new potentiometric gas sensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Hyoung-Sik

    1992-01-01

    Research concerning the development of new and/or improved potentiometric gas sensing systems is described. Studies relating to the development of reversible potentiometric oxygen sensors based on polymeric and metallic film electrodes are presented. In addition, the design and analytical utility of a novel differential ion-selective membrane electrode-based potentiometric gas sensing cell with enhanced sensitivity is documented. The performance of a reversible potentiometric oxygen gas sensor based on a polymeric membrane doped with cobalt-complexes is described. For such sensors, the potentiometric oxygen response is attributed to a mixed potential originating from the underlying platinum electrode surface as well as the Co(II)-tetren doped film. This leads to a short term oxygen response of nearly the theoretical slope value of 118 mV/decade, below 10% O[sub 2]. In the presence of the Co(II)-tetren/PVC film, an analytically useful response is observed for approx. 6-8 days. Thin films of metallic copper, electrochemically deposited on platinum and sputtered on a single crystal silicon wafer, are also examined for reversible potentiometric oxygen sensing. The long-term reversibility and potentiometric stability of such copper film-based sensors is enhanced (up to one month) by preventing the formation of cuprous oxide on the surfaces via the application of an external non-polarizing cathodic current through the working electrode, or by specifically using sputtered copper films that have [100] crystal structures as determined by X-ray diffraction. Finally, the development and application of a differential ion-selective membrane electrode-based potentiometric gas sensing cell is described. The prospects of fabricating differential detection arrangements for CO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], and SO[sub 2], NH[sub 3] are also discussed.

  11. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  12. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  13. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  14. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  15. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  16. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  17. Software for Simulating Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert; Blonski, Slawomir; Russell, Jeffrey; Gasser, Gerald; Greer, Randall

    2003-01-01

    The Application Research Toolbox (ART) is a collection of computer programs that implement algorithms and mathematical models for simulating remote sensing systems. The ART is intended to be especially useful for performing design-tradeoff studies and statistical analyses to support the rational development of design requirements for multispectral imaging systems. Among other things, the ART affords a capability to synthesize coarser-spatial-resolution image-data sets from finer-spatial-resolution data sets and multispectral-image-data products from hyperspectral-image-data products. The ART also provides for synthesis of image-degradation effects, including point-spread functions, misregistration of spectral images, and noise. The ART can utilize real or synthetic data sets, along with sensor specifications, to create simulated data sets. In one example of a typical application, simulated data pertaining to an existing multispectral sensor system are used to verify the data collected by the system in operation. In the case of a proposed sensor system, the simulated data can be used to conduct trade studies and statistical analyses to ensure that the sensor system will satisfy the requirements of potential scientific, academic, and commercial user communities.

  18. A microelectromechanically controlled cavity optomechanical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Houxun; Srinivasan, Kartik; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been applied to many measurement problems in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. In parallel, cavity optomechanical systems have achieved quantum-limited displacement sensitivity and ground state cooling of nanoscale objects. By integrating a novel cavity optomechanical structure into an actuated MEMS sensing platform, we demonstrate a system with high-quality-factor interferometric readout, electrical tuning of the optomechanical coupling by two orders of magnitude and a mechanical transfer function adjustable via feedback. The platform separates optical and mechanical components, allowing flexible customization for specific scientific and commercial applications. We achieve a displacement sensitivity of 4.6 fm Hz-1/2 and a force sensitivity of 53 aN Hz-1/2 with only 250 nW optical power launched into the sensor. Cold-damping feedback is used to reduce the thermal mechanical vibration of the sensor by three orders of magnitude and to broaden the sensor bandwidth by approximately the same factor, to above twice the fundamental frequency of ≈40 kHz. The readout sensitivity approaching the standard quantum limit is combined with MEMS actuation in a fully integrated, compact, low-power, stable system compatible with Si batch fabrication and electronics integration.

  19. Remote oil spill sensing system (ROSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaca, S.; Agravante, H.H.; Eberhard, C.; Hauss, B.I.

    1996-10-01

    To provide tactical information during an oil spill, TRW developed Remote Oil Spill Sensing System (ROSSS). It is an integrated system of airborne sensors for rapid in-situ surveillance and a ground system that provides data analysis and display support at the spill cleanup command center. It provides knowledge of precise location of oil spill and produces timely updates, which are critical for effective spill containment and cleanup operations. It is capable of distinguishing where the bulk of spill exists, which is key to directing cleanup efforts for maximum efficiency. Using a passive microwave radiometric imager as the primary sensor, it provides data acquisition capabilities in both day and night and through haze, fog, and light ram. The high-speed air-to-ground telemetry link permits timely delivery of surveyed data from the spill site to the ground system to aid in the planning and assessment of cleanup strategies. ROSSS has been in service since November, 1992, ready to respond in any oil spill emergencies along the U.S. West Coast. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Cobalt processing - flask positioner location sensing system

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors offer unique opportunities for economical production of /sup 60/Co in the adjuster rods used for xenon override and maximization of core output. Cobalt is effectively a by-product in CANDU reactors with the standards stainless steel adjuster rods replaced with cobalt adjuster rods. The Flask Positioner unit is a part of the cobalt adjuster element processing system (CAEPS) equipment which is used for removing irradiated cobalt adjuster elements from the reactor and safely transporting them to the irradiated fuel bay, where they are dismantled and prepared for shipment. The flask positioner equipment is similar to a crane, carries the CAEPS flask and locates it in an accurate position concentric with any adjuster site centerline. This enables the required operations for safe transfer of the irradiated adjuster element into the flask. The positioner is located above the reactivity mechanism deck. The CAEPS system has been made operational on several CANDU reactors. The location sensing system has been demonstrated to work very satisfactorily on all installations.

  1. The small light multi-function integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Zhaorong; Yao, Yigang

    2015-08-01

    With the development of network information, the era of big data is coming, and this has high demand to the information quantity and the diversity of the remote sensing images. Currently the available remote sensing system focuses on the convenience and the celerity of the acquiring images, and lacking the remote sensing system which can acquire the image with the diversity and large amount of information. In this paper, a new small light multifunction integrated remote sensing and the remote sensing information network system of multi-sensor are proposed to meet the new developing requirements of the current network information. The small light multi-function integrated remote sensing system consists of a load platform, the integrated sensor system, the airborne control system, the stabilized platform, the transmission system and the ground processing system. The components, function and the principle of the system are introduced, and the key technologies of the integrated remote sensing system are analyzed, in the last the applications of the system are described in order to make a contribution to the industrialization of the big data remote sensing.

  2. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Challener, William A

    2014-12-04

    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  3. ATRAN Terrain Sensing Guidance-The Grand-Daddy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Richard F.; Evans, Donald C.

    1980-12-01

    ATRAN was the pioneer terrain sensing guidance system developed in the 1950 era and deployed in Europe on the Air Force's mobile, ground launched TM-76A MACE cruise missile in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The background, principles and technology are described for this system which was the forerunner of todays modern autonomous standoff terrain sensing guided weapons.

  4. Feasibility study ASCS remote sensing/compliance determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggan, I. E.; Minter, T. C., Jr.; Moore, B. H.; Nosworthy, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A short-term technical study was performed by the MSC Earth Observations Division to determine the feasibility of the proposed Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Automatic Remote Sensing/Compliance Determination System. For the study, the term automatic was interpreted as applying to an automated remote-sensing system that includes data acquisition, processing, and management.

  5. A Ground Systems Template for Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel R.; Truskowski, Walter; Starr, Richard D.; Clark, Pamela E.; Evans, Larry G.

    2002-10-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing using gamma and X-ray spectrometers requires particular attention to the design and development of reliable systems. These systems must ensure the scientific requirements of the mission within the challenging technical constraints of operating instrumentation in space. The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft included X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers (XGRS), whose mission was to map the elemental chemistry of the 433 Eros asteroid. A remote sensing system template, similar to a blackboard systems approach used in artificial intelligence, was identified in which the spacecraft, instrument, and ground system was designed and developed to monitor and adapt to evolving mission requirements in a complicated operational setting. Systems were developed for ground tracking of instrument calibration, instrument health, data quality, orbital geometry, solar flux as well as models of the asteroid's surface characteristics, requiring an intensive human effort. In the future, missions such as the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) program will have to rely heavily on automation to collectively encounter and sample asteroids in the outer asteroid belt. Using similar instrumentation, ANTS will require information similar to data collected by the NEAR X-ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) ground system for science and operations management. The NEAR XGRS systems will be studied to identify the equivalent subsystems that may be automated for ANTS. The effort will also investigate the possibility of applying blackboard style approaches to automated decision making required for ANTS.

  6. Naval Remote Ocean Sensing System (NROSS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A set of hardware similar to the SEASAT A configuration requirement, suitable for installation and operation aboard a NOAA-D bus and a budgetary cost for one (1) protoflight model was provided. The scatterometer sensor is conceived as one of several sensors for the Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System (NROSS) Satellite Program. Deliverables requested were to include a final report with appropriate sketches and block diagrams showing the scatterometer design/configuration and a budgetary cost for all labor and materials to design, fabricate, test, and integrate this hardware into a NOAA-D satellite bus. This configuration consists of two (2) hardware assembles - a transmitter/receiver (T/R) assembly and an integrated electronics assembly (IEA). The T/R assembly as conceived is best located at the extreme opposite end of the satellite away from the solar array assembly and oriented in position to enable one surface of the assembly to have unobstructed exposure to space. The IEA is planned to be located at the bottom (Earth viewing) side of the satellite and requires a radiating plate.

  7. Active Sensing System with In Situ Adjustable Sensor Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Nurzaman, Surya G.; Culha, Utku; Brodbeck, Luzius; Wang, Liyu; Iida, Fumiya

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of sensors in engineering systems like robots and automation systems, the common paradigm is to have fixed sensor morphology tailored to fulfill a specific application. On the other hand, robotic systems are expected to operate in ever more uncertain environments. In order to cope with the challenge, it is worthy of note that biological systems show the importance of suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability to handle different kinds of sensing tasks with particular requirements. Methodology This paper presents a robotics active sensing system which is able to adjust its sensor morphology in situ in order to sense different physical quantities with desirable sensing characteristics. The approach taken is to use thermoplastic adhesive material, i.e. Hot Melt Adhesive (HMA). It will be shown that the thermoplastic and thermoadhesive nature of HMA enables the system to repeatedly fabricate, attach and detach mechanical structures with a variety of shape and size to the robot end effector for sensing purposes. Via active sensing capability, the robotic system utilizes the structure to physically probe an unknown target object with suitable motion and transduce the arising physical stimuli into information usable by a camera as its only built-in sensor. Conclusions/Significance The efficacy of the proposed system is verified based on two results. Firstly, it is confirmed that suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability enables the system to sense different physical quantities, i.e. softness and temperature, with desirable sensing characteristics. Secondly, given tasks of discriminating two visually indistinguishable objects with respect to softness and temperature, it is confirmed that the proposed robotic system is able to autonomously accomplish them. The way the results motivate new research directions which focus on in situ adjustment of sensor morphology will also be discussed. PMID:24416094

  8. RF modulated fiber optic sensing systems and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Eustace, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic sensing system with an intensity sensor and a Radio Frequency (RF) modulated source was shown to have sensitivity and resolution much higher than a comparable system employing low modulating frequencies or DC mode of operation. Also the RF modulation with an appropriate configuration of the sensing system provides compensation for the unwanted intensity losses. The basic principles and applications of a fiber optic sensing system employing an RF modulated source are described. In addition the paper discusses various configurations of the system itself, its components, and modulation and detection schemes. Experimental data are also presented.

  9. Development of a portable vital sensing system for home telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, F; Sankai, Y

    2007-01-01

    For safe and effective home medical care, a network system for observing one's vital signs noninvasively and evaluating one's health conditions is highly desirable. In this paper, we described a portable vital sensing system and a home medical server to establish a home telemedicine system. In order to develop a portable vital sensing system, physiological sensing circuit, digital signal processor and wireless communication device are integrated into a small electrical circuit, called "smart telecom unit" with a size of 25mm * 37mm. By using a smart telecom unit, noninvasive vital sensing units including blood pressure, electrocardiograph, pulse wave and body temperature were developed. These sensing units are able to communicate vital records to a home medical server, which consists of a small computer and virtual physiological model to estimate health conditions and can seamlessly connect to the Internet. The accuracy and stability were evaluated in the system performance test. As a result of a performance test of a portable vital sensing system, these vital data could be measured easily and noninvasively. In addition, vital sensing system is able to communicate vital records to home medical server. Hence, it could be confirmed that it was useful to analyze daily health condition in order to prevent a lifestyle disease like hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. PMID:18003350

  10. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  11. Application of Multi-Dimensional Sensing Technologies in Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Hisae; Kimachi, Akira; Suwa, Masaki; Niwakawa, Makoto; Okuda, Haruhisa; Hashimoto, Manabu

    Multi-dimensional sensing has been used for various purposes in the field of production systems. The members of the IEEJ MDS committee investigated the trends in sensing technologies and their applications. In this paper, the result of investigations of auto-guided vehicles, cell manufacturing robots, safety, maintenance, worker monitoring, and sensor networks are discussed.

  12. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  13. INTERCOMPARISON OF OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS FOR ROADSIDE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation describes results of an intercomparison of three optical remote sensing systems for measurements of nitric oxide emitted from passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The intercomparison included a standards comparison to establish comparability of standards, follo...

  14. Gravi-sensing microorganisms as model systems for gravity sensing in eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streb, C.; Richter, P.; Lebert, M.; Häder, D.-P.

    2001-08-01

    Gravi-sensing in single cells and multicellular organisms is a very active field of investigation. Similarities between gravity sensing mechanisms in uni- and multicellular eukaryotes make single cells ideal model systems for the understanding of gravity responses on the cellular and molecular level with far fetching significance for other systems. This article gives a short overview about gravi-sensing in plants (Arabidopsis, Chara) as well as the ciliates Loxodes and Paramecium and concentrates on gravitaxis research in the single cellular flagellate, Euglena gracilis. Experiments revealed the involvement of cAMP, Ca2+ specific mechanosensitive channels and membrane potential in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis. Future perspectives for the use of motile, photosynthetic and other unicellular microorganisms for space applications e.g. for oxygen supply in life support systems or research on the origin of life are discussed.

  15. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  16. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An airborne remote sensing system was developed and tested for recording aerial images of field crops, which were analyzed for variations of crop health or pest infestation. The multicomponent system consists of a multi-spectral camera system, a camera control system, and a radiometer for normalizi...

  17. Systems and methods for sensing occupancy

    DOEpatents

    Dasu, Aravind; Mathias, Dean; Liu, Chenguang; Christensen, Randy; Christensen, Bruce

    2014-09-09

    A computer implemented method for sensing occupancy of a workspace includes creating a difference image that represents luminance differences of pixels in past and current images of the workspace resulting from motion in the workspace, determining motion occurring in regions of the workspace based on the difference image, and altering a workspace environment based at least in part on the determined motion. The method also includes determining which pixels in the difference image represent persistent motion that can be ignored and determining which pixels representing motion in the difference image are invalid because the pixels are isolated from other pixels representing motion.

  18. Application of compressed sensing to the simulation of atomic systems

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Xavier; Sanders, Jacob N.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-01-01

    Compressed sensing is a method that allows a significant reduction in the number of samples required for accurate measurements in many applications in experimental sciences and engineering. In this work, we show that compressed sensing can also be used to speed up numerical simulations. We apply compressed sensing to extract information from the real-time simulation of atomic and molecular systems, including electronic and nuclear dynamics. We find that, compared to the standard discrete Fourier transform approach, for the calculation of vibrational and optical spectra the total propagation time, and hence the computational cost, can be reduced by approximately a factor of five. PMID:22891294

  19. Multi-Dimensional Sensors and Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetter, Joseph R. (Inventor); Shirke, Amol G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A universal microelectromechanical (MEMS) nano-sensor platform having a substrate and conductive layer deposited in a pattern on the surface to make several devices at the same time, a patterned insulation layer, wherein the insulation layer is configured to expose one or more portions of the conductive layer, and one or more functionalization layers deposited on the exposed portions of the conductive layer to make multiple sensing capability on a single MEMS fabricated device. The functionalization layers are adapted to provide one or more transducer sensor classes selected from the group consisting of: radiant, electrochemical, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, and thermal sensors for chemical and physical variables and producing more than one type of sensor for one or more significant parameters that need to be monitored.

  20. A Software Architecture for Adaptive Modular Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Andrew C.; Naish, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    By combining a number of simple transducer modules, an arbitrarily complex sensing system may be produced to accommodate a wide range of applications. This work outlines a novel software architecture and knowledge representation scheme that has been developed to support this type of flexible and reconfigurable modular sensing system. Template algorithms are used to embed intelligence within each module. As modules are added or removed, the composite sensor is able to automatically determine its overall geometry and assume an appropriate collective identity. A virtual machine-based middleware layer runs on top of a real-time operating system with a pre-emptive kernel, enabling platform-independent template algorithms to be written once and run on any module, irrespective of its underlying hardware architecture. Applications that may benefit from easily reconfigurable modular sensing systems include flexible inspection, mobile robotics, surveillance, and space exploration. PMID:22163614

  1. A software architecture for adaptive modular sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Andrew C; Naish, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    By combining a number of simple transducer modules, an arbitrarily complex sensing system may be produced to accommodate a wide range of applications. This work outlines a novel software architecture and knowledge representation scheme that has been developed to support this type of flexible and reconfigurable modular sensing system. Template algorithms are used to embed intelligence within each module. As modules are added or removed, the composite sensor is able to automatically determine its overall geometry and assume an appropriate collective identity. A virtual machine-based middleware layer runs on top of a real-time operating system with a pre-emptive kernel, enabling platform-independent template algorithms to be written once and run on any module, irrespective of its underlying hardware architecture. Applications that may benefit from easily reconfigurable modular sensing systems include flexible inspection, mobile robotics, surveillance, and space exploration. PMID:22163614

  2. High-performance image database system for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, Carter T.; Chang, Chialin; Davis, Larry S.; Goward, Samuel N.; Saltz, Joel H.; Sussman, Alan D.

    1996-02-01

    We present the design of an image database system for remotely sensed imagery. The system stores and serves level 1B remotely sensed data, providing users with a flexible and efficient means for specifying and obtaining image-like products on either a global or a local scale. We have developed both parallel and sequential versions of the system; the parallel version uses the CHAOS++ and Jovian libraries, developed at the University of Maryland as part of an NSF grand challenge project, to support parallel object oriented programming and parallel I/O, respectively.

  3. Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

  4. 4D light-field sensing system for people counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guangqi; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Yunlong; Sun, Zhenan

    2016-03-01

    Counting the number of people is still an important task in social security applications, and a few methods based on video surveillance have been proposed in recent years. In this paper, we design a novel optical sensing system to directly acquire the depth map of the scene from one light-field camera. The light-field sensing system can count the number of people crossing the passageway, and record the direction and intensity of rays at a snapshot without any assistant light devices. Depth maps are extracted from the raw light-ray sensing data. Our smart sensing system is equipped with a passive imaging sensor, which is able to naturally discern the depth difference between the head and shoulders for each person. Then a human model is built. Through detecting the human model from light-field images, the number of people passing the scene can be counted rapidly. We verify the feasibility of the sensing system as well as the accuracy by capturing real-world scenes passing single and multiple people under natural illumination.

  5. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community. PMID:22666057

  6. Software compensated multichannel pressure sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A PC-based software system is described which can be used for data acquisition and thermal-error correction of a multichannel pressure-sensor system developed for use in a cryogenic environment. The software incorporates pressure-sensitivity and sensor-offset compensation files into thermal error-correction algorithms, and the sensors are calibrated by simulating the operating conditions. The system is found to be effective in the collecting, storing, and processing of multichannel pressure-sensor data to correct thermally induced offset and sensitivity errors.

  7. Automated optical sensing system for biochemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroszlan, Peter; Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new system called FOBIA that was developed and optimized with respect to automated operation of repetitive assay cycles with regenerable bioaffinity sensors. The reliability and precision of the new system is demonstrated by an application in a competitive assay for the detection of the triazine herbicide Atrazine. Using one sensor in more than 300 repetitive cycles, a signal precision better than 5% was achieved.

  8. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  9. Modeling, simulation, and analysis of optical remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekes, John Paul; Landgrebe, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Remote Sensing of the Earth's resources from space-based sensors has evolved in the past 20 years from a scientific experiment to a commonly used technological tool. The scientific applications and engineering aspects of remote sensing systems have been studied extensively. However, most of these studies have been aimed at understanding individual aspects of the remote sensing process while relatively few have studied their interrelations. A motivation for studying these interrelationships has arisen with the advent of highly sophisticated configurable sensors as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) proposed by NASA for the 1990's. Two approaches to investigating remote sensing systems are developed. In one approach, detailed models of the scene, the sensor, and the processing aspects of the system are implemented in a discrete simulation. This approach is useful in creating simulated images with desired characteristics for use in sensor or processing algorithm development. A less complete, but computationally simpler method based on a parametric model of the system is also developed. In this analytical model the various informational classes are parameterized by their spectral mean vector and covariance matrix. These class statistics are modified by models for the atmosphere, the sensor, and processing algorithms and an estimate made of the resulting classification accuracy among the informational classes. Application of these models is made to the study of the proposed High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HRIS). The interrelationships among observational conditions, sensor effects, and processing choices are investigated with several interesting results.

  10. Remote sensing applications to Missouri environmental resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    An efficient system for retrieval of remotely sensed data to be used by natural resources oriented agencies, and a natural resources data system that can meet the needs of state agencies were studied. To accomplish these objectives, natural resources data sources were identified, and study of systems already in operation which address themselves to the more efficient utilization of natural resources oriented data was prepared.

  11. A Micro Motion Sensing System for Micromanipulation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Latt, Win Tun; Tan, U-Xuan; Georgiou, Andreas; Sidarta, Ananda Ekaputera; Riviere, Cameron N.; Ang, Wei Tech

    2012-01-01

    An optical-based motion sensing system has been developed for real-time sensing of instrument motion in micromanipulation. The main components of the system consist of a pair of position sensitive detectors (PSD), lenses, an infrared (IR) diode that illuminates the workspace of the system, a non-reflective intraocular shaft, and a white reflective ball attached at the end of the shaft. The system calculates 3D displacement of the ball inside the workspace using the centroid position of the IR rays that are reflected from the ball and strike the PSDs. In order to eliminate inherent nonlinearity of the system, calibration using a feedforward neural network is proposed and presented. Handling of different ambient light and environment light conditions not to affect the system accuracy is described. Analyses of the whole optical system and effect of instrument orientation on the system accuracy are presented. Sensing resolution, dynamic accuracies at a few different frequencies, and static accuracies at a few different orientations of the instrument are reported. The system and the analyses are useful in assessing performance of hand-held microsurgical instruments and operator performance in micromanipulation tasks. PMID:22423177

  12. Optically powered active sensing system for Internet Of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chen; Wang, Jin; Yin, Long; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Jian; Wan, Hongdan

    2014-10-01

    Internet Of Things (IOT) drives a significant increase in the extent and type of sensing technology and equipment. Sensors, instrumentation, control electronics, data logging and transmission units comprising such sensing systems will all require to be powered. Conventionally, electrical powering is supplied by batteries or/and electric power cables. The power supply by batteries usually has a limited lifetime, while the electric power cables are susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In fact, the electromagnetic interference is the key issue limiting the power supply in the strong electromagnetic radiation area and other extreme environments. The novel alternative method of power supply is power over fiber (PoF) technique. As fibers are used as power supply lines instead, the delivery of the power is inherently immune to electromagnetic radiation, and avoids cumbersome shielding of power lines. Such a safer power supply mode would be a promising candidate for applications in IOT. In this work, we built up optically powered active sensing system, supplying uninterrupted power for the remote active sensors and communication modules. Also, we proposed a novel maximum power point tracking technique for photovoltaic power convertors. In our system, the actual output efficiency greater than 40% within 1W laser power. After 1km fiber transmission and opto-electric power conversion, a stable electric power of 210mW was obtained, which is sufficient for operating an active sensing system.

  13. Market Assessment of Forward-Looking Turbulence Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffmann, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a cost benefit analysis of three next-generation forward-looking turbulence sensing systems: X band turbulence radar system for convective turbulence, LIDAR based turbulence systems to sense clear air turbulence and a combined hybrid system. Parameters for the cost benefit analysis were established using a business model which considered injury rates, cost of injuries, indirect costs, market penetration rate estimates and product success characteristics. Topics covered include: study approach, business case equations, data acquisition, benchmark analysis. Data interpretation from the cost benefit analysis is presented. The researchers conclude that the market potential for these products is based primarily on injury cost reduction and that X band radar systems have the greatest chance for commercial success.

  14. Fluorescent sensing of fluoride in cellular system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Zhu, Baocun; Chen, Jihua; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride ions have the important roles in a lot of physiological activities related with biological and medical system, such as water fluoridation, caries treatment, and bone disease treatment. Great efforts have been made to develop new methods and strategies for F(-) detection in the past decades. Traditional methods for the detection of F(-) including ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and spectroscopic techniques have the limitations in the biomedicine research. The fluorescent probes for F(-) are very promising that overcome some drawbacks of traditional fluoride detection methods. These probes exhibit high selectivity, high sensitivity as well as quick response to the detection of fluoride anions. The review commences with a brief description of photophysical mechanisms for fluorescent probes for fluoride, including photo induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Followed by a discussion about common dyes for fluorescent fluoride probes, such as anthracene, naphalimide, pyrene, BODIPY, fluorescein, rhodamine, resorufin, coumarin, cyanine, and near-infrared (NIR) dyes. We divide the fluorescent probes for fluoride in cellular application systems into nine groups, for example, type of hydrogen bonds, type of cleavage of Si-O bonds, type of Si-O bond cleavage and cylization reactions, etc. We also review the recent reported carriers in the delivery of fluorescent fluoride probes. Seventy-four typical fluorescent fluoride probes are listed and compared in detail, including quantum yield, reaction medium, excitation and emission wavelengths, linear detection range, selectivity for F(-), mechanism, and analytical applications. Finally, we discuss the future challenges of the application of fluorescent fluoride probes in cellular system and in vivo. We wish that more and more excellent fluorescent fluoride probes will be

  15. Fluorescent Sensing of Fluoride in Cellular System

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Zhu, Baocun; Chen, Jihua; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride ions have the important roles in a lot of physiological activities related with biological and medical system, such as water fluoridation, caries treatment, and bone disease treatment. Great efforts have been made to develop new methods and strategies for F- detection in the past decades. Traditional methods for the detection of F- including ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and spectroscopic techniques have the limitations in the biomedicine research. The fluorescent probes for F- are very promising that overcome some drawbacks of traditional fluoride detection methods. These probes exhibit high selectivity, high sensitivity as well as quick response to the detection of fluoride anions. The review commences with a brief description of photophysical mechanisms for fluorescent probes for fluoride, including photo induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Followed by a discussion about common dyes for fluorescent fluoride probes, such as anthracene, naphalimide, pyrene, BODIPY, fluorescein, rhodamine, resorufin, coumarin, cyanine, and near-infrared (NIR) dyes. We divide the fluorescent probes for fluoride in cellular application systems into nine groups, for example, type of hydrogen bonds, type of cleavage of Si-O bonds, type of Si-O bond cleavage and cylization reactions, etc. We also review the recent reported carriers in the delivery of fluorescent fluoride probes. Seventy-four typical fluorescent fluoride probes are listed and compared in detail, including quantum yield, reaction medium, excitation and emission wavelengths, linear detection range, selectivity for F-, mechanism, and analytical applications. Finally, we discuss the future challenges of the application of fluorescent fluoride probes in cellular system and in vivo. We wish that more and more excellent fluorescent fluoride probes will be developed

  16. Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim

    2003-01-01

    The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the

  17. Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.

  18. Exploiting Sparse Dynamics For Bandwidth Reduction In Cooperative Sensing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, Harish; Caramanis, Constantine; Ying, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been a significant interest in developing cooperative sensing systems for certain types of wireless applications. In such systems, a group of sensing nodes periodically collect measurements about the signals being observed in the given geographical region and transmit these measurements to a central node, which in turn processes this information to recover the signals. For example, in cognitive radio networks, the signals of interest are those generated by the primary transmitters and the sensing nodes are the secondary users. In such networks, it is critically important to be able to reliably determine the presence or absence of primary transmitters in order to avoid causing interference. The standard approach to transmit these measurements from sensor the nodes to the fusion center has been to use orthogonal channels. Such an approach quickly places a burden on the control-channel-capacity of the network that would scale linearly in the number of cooperating sensing nodes. In this paper, we show that as long as one condition is satisfied: the dynamics of the observed signals are sparse, i.e., the observed signals do not change their values very rapidly in relation to the time-scale at which the measurements are collected, we can significantly reduce the control bandwidth of the system while achieving the full (linear) bandwidth performance.

  19. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts. PMID:19455785

  20. Intelligent fiber sensing system for the oil field area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenju; Ma, Linping

    2010-08-01

    Optical Fiber strain sensor using fiber Bragg grating are poised to play a major role in structural health from military to civil engineering. Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is a practical type of fiber optic sensors. Its measurement is encoded with the wavelength of the optical signal reflected from fiber Bragg grating. The method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. Energy sources are increasingly scarce in the world. Getting oil from the oil-wells has become more and more difficult. Therefore, new technology to monitor the oil-well condition has become extremely important. The traditional electrical sensor system is no longer useful because of the down-hole's high temperature and high pressure environment. The optical fiber sensing system is the first choice to monitor this condition. This system will reduce the cost and increase the productivity. In the high pressure and high temperature environment, the traditional packed fiber grating pressure-temperature sensor will be no longer reliability. We have to find a new fiber grating temperature-pressure sensor element and the interrogation system. In this work we use the very narrow bandwidth birefringent fiber grating as the sensing element. We obtain the interrogation system has 0.1 pm resolution.

  1. Design of real-time remote sensing image compression system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenbo; Lei, Ning; Wang, Kun; Wang, Qingyuan; Li, Tao

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of CCD remote sensing image compression. Compared with other images, CCD remote sensing image data is characterized with high speed and high quantized bits. A high speed CCD image compression system is proposed based on ADV212 chip. The system is mainly composed of three devices: FPGA, SRAM and ADV212. In this system, SRAM plays the role of data buffer, ADV212 focuses on data compression and the FPGA is used for image storage and interface bus control. Finally, a system platform is designed to test the performance of compression. Test results show that the proposed scheme can satisfy the real-time processing requirement and there is no obvious difference between the sourced image and the compressed image in respect of image quality.

  2. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  3. Predicting catastrophes in nonlinear dynamical systems by compressive sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Yang, Rui; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Kovanis, Vassilios; Grebogi, Celso

    2013-01-01

    An extremely challenging problem of significant interest is to predict catastrophes in advance of their occurrences. We present a general approach to predicting catastrophes in nonlinear dynamical systems under the assumption that the system equations are completely unknown and only time series reflecting the evolution of the dynamical variables of the system are available. Our idea is to expand the vector field or map of the underlying system into a suitable function series and then to use the compressive-sensing technique to accurately estimate the various terms in the expansion. Examples using paradigmatic chaotic systems are provided to demonstrate our idea and potential challenges are discussed. PMID:21568562

  4. Adaptive sensing based on profiles for sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yoshiteru; Tokumitsu, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a profile-based sensing framework for adaptive sensor systems based on models that relate possibly heterogeneous sensor data and profiles generated by the models to detect events. With these concepts, three phases for building the sensor systems are extracted from two examples: a combustion control sensor system for an automobile engine, and a sensor system for home security. The three phases are: modeling, profiling, and managing trade-offs. Designing and building a sensor system involves mapping the signals to a model to achieve a given mission. PMID:22291516

  5. Hybrid architecture active wavefront sensing and control system, and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D. (Inventor); Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor); Hyde, Tristram T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    According to various embodiments, provided herein is an optical system and method that can be configured to perform image analysis. The optical system can comprise a telescope assembly and one or more hybrid instruments. The one or more hybrid instruments can be configured to receive image data from the telescope assembly and perform a fine guidance operation and a wavefront sensing operation, simultaneously, on the image data received from the telescope assembly.

  6. Ground-Based Icing Condition Remote Sensing System Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the NASA Glenn Research Center activities to assess and down select remote sensing technologies for the purpose of developing a system capable of measuring icing condition hazards aloft. The information generated by such a remote sensing system is intended for use by the entire aviation community, including flight crews. air traffic controllers. airline dispatchers, and aviation weather forecasters. The remote sensing system must be capable of remotely measuring temperature and liquid water content (LWC), and indicating the presence of super-cooled large droplets (SLD). Technologies examined include Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Dual-Band Radar, Multi-Band Radar, Ka-Band Radar. Polarized Ka-Band Radar, and Multiple Field of View (MFOV) Lidar. The assessment of these systems took place primarily during the Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) in April 1999 and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) from November 1999 to February 2000. A discussion of the various sensing technologies is included. The result of the assessment is that no one sensing technology can satisfy all of the stated project goals. Therefore a proposed system includes radiometry and Ka-band radar. A multilevel approach is proposed to allow the future selection of the fielded system based upon required capability and available funding. The most basic level system would be the least capable and least expensive. The next level would increase capability and cost, and the highest level would be the most capable and most expensive to field. The Level 1 system would consist of a Profiling Microwave Radiometer. The Level 2 system would add a Ka-Band Radar. The Level 3 system would add polarization to the Ka-Band Radar. All levels of the system would utilize hardware that is already under development by the U.S. Government. However, to meet the needs of the aviation community, all levels of the system will require further development. In addition to the proposed system

  7. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning

    2014-01-01

    Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4∼2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity. PMID:25490597

  8. An integrated FBG sensing system for bridge health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ru-Jiao; Sun, Zhi; Dan, Dan-Hui; Sun, Li-Min

    2006-03-01

    Thanking to its distinguishing advantages including wavelength multiplexing capability, miniature size, high sensitivity, immunity from electro-magnetic interference and etc, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technologies are regarded as a competent candidate for the bridge long-term health monitoring. According to the shifted Bragg wavelength of the light reflected by a fiber grating, the FBG sensors can accurately measure various physical properties such as strain, temperature, displacement, acceleration and corrosion. One special advantage of the FBG sensing technology is that only one demodulation device is required to acquire various physical properties simultaneously. Compared with the bridge health monitoring system using conventional sensors, this advantage makes the quasi-distributed sensing possible and data transmission more convenient because many FBG sensors can be connected in series by a single fiber. In this paper, an integrated FBG sensing system is presented for monitoring the physical state of a real bridge, the main-navigation channel cable-stayed bridge of the Donghai Bridge. The strain variation of two selected sections in the construction stage and during the load trial test are continuously monitored. The results of this study will supply a good guidance for the use of FBG sensors on the health monitoring of real bridges. Finally, the paper present the design and fabrication of an accelerometer based on the FBG technology for structure vibration monitoring.

  9. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  10. Plant health sensing system for determining nitrogen status in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. A.; Sui, Ruixiu; Read, John J.; Reddy, K. R.

    2004-03-01

    A plant health sensing system was developed for determining nitrogen status in plants. The system consists of a multi-spectral optical sensor and a data-acquisition and processing unit. The optical sensor"s light source provides modulated panchromatic illumination of a plant canopy with light-emitting diodes, and the sensor measures spectral reflectance through optical filters that partition the energy into blue, green, red, and near-infrared wavebands. Spectral reflectance of plants is detected in situ, at the four wavebands, in real time. The data-acquisition and processing unit is based on a single board computer that collects data from the multi-spectral sensor and spatial information from a global positioning system receiver. Spectral reflectance at the selected wavebands is analyzed, with algorithms developed during preliminary work, to determine nitrogen status in plants. The plant health sensing system has been tested primarily in the laboratory and field so far, and promising results have been obtained. This article describes the development, theory of operation, and test results of the plant health sensing system.

  11. Automatic registration and mosaicking system for remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Dmitry V.; Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Kenney, Charles; Manjunath, Bangalore S.

    2003-03-01

    Image registration is an important operation in remote sensing applications that basically involves the identification of many control points in the images. As the manual identification of control points may be time-consuming and tedious several automatic techniques have been developed. This paper describes a system for automatic registration and mosaic of remote sensing images under development at the Division of Image Processing (National Institute for Space Research - INPE) and the Vision Lab (Electrical & Computer Engineering department, UCSB). Three registration algorithms, which showed potential for multisensor or temporal image registration, have been implemented. The system is designed to accept different types of data and information provided by the user which speed up the processing or avoid mismatched control points. Based on a statistical procedure used to characterize good and bad registration, the user can stop or modify the parameters and continue the processing. Extensive algorithm tests have been performed by registering optical, radar, multi-sensor, high-resolution images and video sequences. Furthermore, the system has been tested by remote sensing experts at INPE using full scene Landsat, JERS-1, CBERS-1 and aerial images. An online demo system, which contains several examples that can be carried out using web browser, is available.

  12. NASA Workshop on Animal Gravity-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The opportunity for space flight has brought about the need for well-planned research programs that recognize the significance of space flight as a scientific research tool for advancing knowledge of life on Earth, and that utilize each flight opportunity to its fullest. For the first time in history, gravity can be almost completely eliminated. Thus, studies can be undertaken that will help to elucidate the importance of gravity to the normal functioning of living organisms, and to determine the effects microgravity may have on an organism. This workshop was convened to organize a plan for space research on animal gravity-sensing systems and the role that gravity plays in the development and normal functioning of these systems. Scientists working in the field of animal gravity-sensing systems use a wide variety of organisms in their research. The workshop presentations dealt with topics which ranged from the indirect gravity receptor of the water flea, Daphnia (whose antennal setae apparently act as current-sensing receptors as the animal moves up and down in water), through specialized statocyst structures found in jellyfish and gastropods, to the more complex vestibular systems that are characteristic of amphibians, avians, and mammals.

  13. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  14. NASA Icing Remote Sensing System Comparisons From AIRS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Individual remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Comparisons between the remote sensing system s fused icing product and in-situ measurements from the research aircraft are reviewed here. While there are areas where improvement can be made, the cases examined indicate that the fused sensor remote sensing technique appears to be a valid approach.

  15. A Variant Quorum Sensing System in Aeromonas veronii MTCC 3249

    PubMed Central

    Jangid, Kamlesh; Parameswaran, Perunninakulath S.; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the quorum sensing control in Aeromonas veronii MTCC 3249, originally isolated as A. culicicola from the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on biosensor assays, the bacterium showed constant production of multiple acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) with increasing cell-density. The luxRI gene homologs, acuR (A. culicicola transcriptional Regulator) and acuI (A. culicicola autoInducer) were successfully amplified by inverse-PCR. Sequence analysis indicated acuRI were divergent from all known quorum sensing gene homologs in Aeromonas. Two localized regions in the C-terminal autoinducer binding domain of acuR showed indels suggesting variations in autoinducer specificity. Further, only a single copy of the quorum sensing genes was detected, suggesting a tight regulation of mechanisms under its control. Chromatography and further chemical analysis identified two AHLs in the culture supernatant: 6-carboxy-HHL (homoadipyl homoserine lactone), a novel AHL, and N-tetradecanoylhomoserine lactone. The existence of a potentially variant quorum sensing system might therefore, reflect in some way the ecological strategies adopted by this bacterium in the mosquito midgut. PMID:22666003

  16. Wearable Eating Habit Sensing System Using Internal Body Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuzo, Masaki; Komori, Shintaro; Takashima, Tomoko; Lopez, Guillaume; Tatsuta, Seiji; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of eating habits could be useful in preventing lifestyle diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Conventional methods consist of self-reporting and calculating mastication frequency based on the myoelectric potential of the masseter muscle. Both these methods are significant burdens for the user. We developed a non-invasive, wearable sensing system that can record eating habits over a long period of time in daily life. Our sensing system is composed of two bone conduction microphones placed in the ears that send internal body sound data to a portable IC recorder. Applying frequency spectrum analysis on the collected sound data, we could not only count the number of mastications during eating, but also accurately differentiate between eating, drinking, and speaking activities. This information can be used to evaluate the regularity of meals. Moreover, we were able to analyze sound features to classify the types of foods eaten by food texture.

  17. Advanced aerospace remote sensing systems for global resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The Landsat program, which was concerned with testing the use of satellite data for global resource observations, has been an unqualified success, and users of Landsat data demand now that repetitive global multispectral data be provided on a routine basis for a wide variety of applications. A review is provided of the current status of NASA's land observation program, new developments in advanced aerospace remote sensing techniques, and issues related to the development and testing of new prototype systems by the U.S. The current Landsat program is considered along with developments in solid-state imaging technology, short wave infrared research using the Space Shuttle, the Shuttle Orbiter camera payload system large format camera, and advanced research in thermal remote sensing. Attention is also given to the potential of imaging radar for global resource observations, and research related to geopotential field mapping.

  18. Sun sensing guidance system for high altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A sun sensing guidance system for high altitude aircraft is described. The system is characterized by a disk shaped body mounted for rotation aboard the aircraft in exposed relation to solar radiation. The system also has a plurality of mutually isolated chambers; each chamber being characterized by an opening having a photosensor disposed therein and arranged in facing relation with the opening for receiving incident solar radiation and responsively providing a voltage output. Photosensors are connected in paired relation through a bridge circuit for providing heading error signals in response to detected imbalances in intensities of solar radiation.

  19. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  20. Wireless sensor systems for sense/decide/act/communicate.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Cushner, Adam; Baker, James A.; Davis, Jesse Zehring; Stark, Douglas P.; Ko, Teresa H.; Kyker, Ronald D.; Stinnett, Regan White; Pate, Ronald C.; Van Dyke, Colin; Kyckelhahn, Brian

    2003-12-01

    After 9/11, the United States (U.S.) was suddenly pushed into challenging situations they could no longer ignore as simple spectators. The War on Terrorism (WoT) was suddenly ignited and no one knows when this war will end. While the government is exploring many existing and potential technologies, the area of wireless Sensor networks (WSN) has emerged as a foundation for establish future national security. Unlike other technologies, WSN could provide virtual presence capabilities needed for precision awareness and response in military, intelligence, and homeland security applications. The Advance Concept Group (ACG) vision of Sense/Decide/Act/Communicate (SDAC) sensor system is an instantiation of the WSN concept that takes a 'systems of systems' view. Each sensing nodes will exhibit the ability to: Sense the environment around them, Decide as a collective what the situation of their environment is, Act in an intelligent and coordinated manner in response to this situational determination, and Communicate their actions amongst each other and to a human command. This LDRD report provides a review of the research and development done to bring the SDAC vision closer to reality.

  1. Sensing the Earth using Global Navigation Satellite System signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Rizos, Chris; Rius, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    International Workshop on GNSS Remote Sensing for Future Missions and Sciences; Shanghai, China, 7-9 August 2011 The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been widely used in navigation, positioning, and geoscience applications. Recently, the versatility of GNSS as a new remote sensing tool has been demonstrated with the use of refracted, reflected, and scattered GNSS signals to sound the atmosphere and ionosphere, ocean, land surfaces (including soil moisture), and cryosphere. Existing GPS radio occultation (RO) missions—e.g., the U.S.-Argentina SAC-C, German Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), U.S.-Germany Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Taiwan-U.S. Formosa Satellite Mission-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) satellites, German TerraSAR-X satellite, and European MetOp—together with groundbased GNSS observations, have provided precise and high-resolution information on tropospheric water vapor, pressure, temperature, tropopause parameters, ionospheric total electron content, and electron density profiles. GNSS signals reflected from the ocean and land surface can determine the ocean height, ocean surface wind speed and wind direction, soil moisture, and ice and snow thickness. With improvement expected due to the next generation of multifrequency GNSS systems and receivers, and new space-based instruments tracking GNSS reflected and refracted signals, new scientific applications of GNSS are expected in the near future across a number of environmental remote sensing fields.

  2. Ammonia sensing system based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, Duarte; Ferreira, João; Silva, Susana O.; Ribeiro, Joana; Flores, Deolinda; Santos, José L.; Frazão, Orlando; Baptista, José M.

    2015-06-01

    A sensing system in the near infrared region has been developed for ammonia sensing based on the wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) principle. The WMS is a rather sensitive technique for detecting atomic/molecular species, presenting the advantage that it can be used in the near-infrared region by using the optical telecommunications technology. In this technique, the laser wavelength and intensity were modulated by applying a sine wave signal through the injection current, which allowed the shift of the detection bandwidth to higher frequencies where laser intensity noise was typically lower. Two multi-pass cells based on free space light propagation with 160 cm and 16 cm of optical path length were used, allowing the redundancy operation and technology validation. This system used a diode laser with an emission wavelength at 1512.21 nm, where NH3 has a strong absorption line. The control of the NH3 gas sensing system, as well as acquisition, processing and data presentation was performed.

  3. A PROTEIN SWITCH SENSING SYSTEM FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF SULFATE

    PubMed Central

    Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Ensor, Charles Mark; Pasini, Patrizia; Daunert, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering has generated versatile methods and technologies that have been instrumental in advancements in the fields of sensing, therapeutics and diagnostics. Herein, we demonstrate the employment of rational design to engineer a unique bioluminescence-based protein switch. A fusion protein switch combines two totally unrelated proteins, with distinct characteristics, in a manner such that the function of one protein is dependent on another. Herein we report a protein switch sensing system by insertion of the sulfate-binding protein (SBP) into the structure of the photoprotein aequorin (AEQ). In the presence of sulfate, SBP undergoes a conformational change bringing the two segments of AEQ together, “turning on” bioluminescence in a dose-dependent fashion, thus allowing quantitative detection of sulfate. A calibration plot was obtained by correlating the amount of bioluminescence generated with the concentration of sulfate present. The switch demonstrated selectivity and reproducibility, and a detection limit of 1.6 × 10−4 M for sulfate. Moreover, the sensing system was validated by performing sulfate detection in clinical and environmental samples, such as, serum, urine and tap water. The detection limits and working ranges in all three samples fall within the average normal / recommended sulfate levels in the respective matrices. PMID:22067979

  4. Self-powered sensing for mechanical system condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Robert X.; Kazmer, David O.; Zhang, Li; Theurer, Charles B.; Cui, Yong

    2004-07-01

    A self-powered wireless sensing module for the condition monitoring of mechanical systems and high energy manufacturing processes is described, with injection molding as a special application. The design and analysis of three constituent components in such a sensing module: an energy converter consisting of a piezoceramic stack, an energy regulator based on a pair of bipolar transistors, and a piezoelectric transmitter that transmits ultrasound signals proportional to the pressure within the injection mold, are presented in this paper. The energy extraction mechanism is investigated based on the interactions between the mechanical strain and the electric field developed within the piezoceramic stack. Analytical models for the energy modulator and signal transmitter are also established. Quantitative results are obtained that describe the energy flow among the three components and guide the parametric design of the three constituent components. Simulations and experimental studies have validated the functionality of each component. The models established can be used to subsequently optimize the design of the entire sensor module in terms of minimizing the energy requirement for the sensor and identifying the minimum level of signal intensity required to ensure successful detection of the signal by the signal receiver on the outside of the injection mold. The proposed self-powered sensing technique enables a new generation of sensors that can be employed for the condition monitoring and health diagnosis of a wide range of mechanical and civil systems that are characterized by high energy contents.

  5. Dynamic Force Sensing Using an Optically Trapped Probing System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanan; Cheng, Peng; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the design of an adaptive observer that is implemented to enable real-time dynamic force sensing and parameter estimation in an optically trapped probing system. According to the principle of separation of estimation and control, the design of this observer is independent of that of the feedback controller when operating within the linear range of the optical trap. Dynamic force sensing, probe steering/clamping, and Brownian motion control can, therefore, be developed separately and activated simultaneously. The adaptive observer utilizes the measured motion of the trapped probe and input control effort to recursively estimate the probe-sample interaction force in real time, along with the estimation of the probing system's trapping bandwidth. This capability is very important to achieving accurate dynamic force sensing in a time-varying process, wherein the trapping dynamics is nonstationary due to local variations of the surrounding medium. The adaptive estimator utilizes the Kalman filter algorithm to compute the time-varying gain in real time and minimize the estimation error for force probing. A series of experiments are conducted to validate the design of and assess the performance of the adaptive observer. PMID:24382944

  6. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire... Protection § 75.1101-16 Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices. (a) Each self-contained dry powder chemical system shall be equipped with sensing devices which shall be designed...

  7. A remote sensing system for northern ecosystem monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanqing; Cihlar, J.; Chen, Jing

    1997-11-01

    A suite of remote sensing techniques intended for northern terrestrial environment monitoring are described. Algorithms designed to derive land cover type, leaf area index, canopy absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, net primary productivity, active fires, and annual total burned area from remote sensing are also outlined. Prototype products of these parameters across Canada from single day and 10-day composite satellite measurements, some of which have been validated, are presented and discussed. The system used for data acquisition and processing includes three major components: data preprocessing, removal of artifacts, and inversion of surface parameters. The preprocessing includes satellite data calibration, registration, and clear sky compositing. Artifacts introduced by the presence of clouds, atmosphere, and angular dependence are eliminated or alleviated using various correction models. 69 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Review of power requirements for satellite remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, Stanley A.

    1988-01-01

    The space environment offers a multitude of attributes and opportunities to be used to enhance human life styles and qualities of life for all future generations, worldwide. Among the prospects having immense social as well as economic benefits are earth-observing systems capable of providing near real-time data in such areas as food and fiber production, marine fisheries, ecosystem monitoring, disaster assessment, and global environmental exchanges. The era of Space Station, the Shuttle program, the planned unmanned satellites in both high and low Earth orbit will transfer to operational status what, until now, has been largely research and development proof of concept for remotely sensing Earth's natural and cultural resources. An important aspect of this operational status focuses on the orbital designs and power requirements needed to optimally sense any of these important areas.

  9. Precision positioning of earth orbiting remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melbourne, William G.; Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    Decimeter tracking accuracy is sought for a number of precise earth sensing satellites to be flown in the 1990's. This accuracy can be achieved with techniques which use the Global Positioning System (GPS) in a differential mode. A precisely located global network of GPS ground receivers and a receiver aboard the user satellite are needed, and all techniques simultaneously estimate the user and GPS satellite states. Three basic navigation approaches include classical dynamic, wholly nondynamic, and reduced dynamic or hybrid formulations. The first two are simply special cases of the third, which promises to deliver subdecimeter accuracy for dynamically unpredictable vehicles down to the lowest orbit altitudes. The potential of these techniques for tracking and gravity field recovery will be demonstrated on NASA's Topex satellite beginning in 1991. Applications to the Shuttle, Space Station, and dedicated remote sensing platforms are being pursued.

  10. A Novel Vision Sensing System for Tomato Quality Detection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Satyam; Boyat, Sachin; Sadistap, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Producing tomato is a daunting task as the crop of tomato is exposed to attacks from various microorganisms. The symptoms of the attacks are usually changed in color, bacterial spots, special kind of specks, and sunken areas with concentric rings having different colors on the tomato outer surface. This paper addresses a vision sensing based system for tomato quality inspection. A novel approach has been developed for tomato fruit detection and disease detection. Developed system consists of USB based camera module having 12.0 megapixel interfaced with ARM-9 processor. Zigbee module has been interfaced with developed system for wireless transmission from host system to PC based server for further processing. Algorithm development consists of three major steps, preprocessing steps like noise rejection, segmentation and scaling, classification and recognition, and automatic disease detection and classification. Tomato samples have been collected from local market and data acquisition has been performed for data base preparation and various processing steps. Developed system can detect as well as classify the various diseases in tomato samples. Various pattern recognition and soft computing techniques have been implemented for data analysis as well as different parameters prediction like shelf life of the tomato, quality index based on disease detection and classification, freshness detection, maturity index detection, and different suggestions for detected diseases. Results are validated with aroma sensing technique using commercial Alpha Mos 3000 system. Accuracy has been calculated from extracted results, which is around 92%. PMID:26904620

  11. A piezoelectric energy-harvesting shoe system for podiatric sensing.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rich; Kelly, Nicholas; Almog, Omri; Chiang, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an energy-harvesting, shoe-mounted system for medical sensing using piezoelectric transducers for generating power. The electronics are integrated inside a conventional consumer shoe, measuring the pressure of the wearer's foot exerted on the sole at six locations. The electronics are completely powered by the harvested energy from walking or running, generating 10-20 μJ of energy per step that is then consumed by capturing and storing the force sensor data. The overall shoe system demonstrates that wearable sensor electronics can be adequately powered through piezoelectric energy-harvesting. PMID:25570036

  12. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  13. Zombie algorithms: a timesaving remote sensing systems engineering tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Powell, Dylan C.; Marley, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    In modern horror fiction, zombies are generally undead corpses brought back from the dead by supernatural or scientific means, and are rarely under anyone's direct control. They typically have very limited intelligence, and hunger for the flesh of the living [1]. Typical spectroradiometric or hyperspectral instruments providess calibrated radiances for a number of remote sensing algorithms. The algorithms typically must meet specified latency and availability requirements while yielding products at the required quality. These systems, whether research, operational, or a hybrid, are typically cost constrained. Complexity of the algorithms can be high, and may evolve and mature over time as sensor characterization changes, product validation occurs, and areas of scientific basis improvement are identified and completed. This suggests the need for a systems engineering process for algorithm maintenance that is agile, cost efficient, repeatable, and predictable. Experience on remote sensing science data systems suggests the benefits of "plug-n-play" concepts of operation. The concept, while intuitively simple, can be challenging to implement in practice. The use of zombie algorithms-empty shells that outwardly resemble the form, fit, and function of a "complete" algorithm without the implemented theoretical basis-provides the ground systems advantages equivalent to those obtained by integrating sensor engineering models onto the spacecraft bus. Combined with a mature, repeatable process for incorporating the theoretical basis, or scientific core, into the "head" of the zombie algorithm, along with associated scripting and registration, provides an easy "on ramp" for the rapid and low-risk integration of scientific applications into operational systems.

  14. A Portable Sensing System for Electronic Tongue Operations

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Karen; Truemper, Andreas; Murphy, Kilian

    2006-01-01

    A portable, low cost sensing system is described which interfaces to an electronic tongue sensor. The sensor used is a voltammetric sensor which monitors electrochemical reactions that occur in solutions. The sensor is able to test a range of liquids with different electrochemical properties without any hardware adjustments to the system. The system can automatically adjust for the change in solution properties by performing a routine which uses an auto-ranging feature to determine a current-to-voltage conversion of the sensor data by using a binary search strategy. This eliminates the intervention of the user to modify the system each time a new solution is tested. The effectiveness of the calibration routine was tested by carrying out cyclic voltammetry in two different solutions, 0.1M sulfuric acid solution and the phosphate buffered solution of pH3. The sensor system was able to accurately acquire the sensor data for each solution.

  15. A miniaturized and flexible optoelectronic sensing system for tactile skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascari, L.; Corradi, P.; Beccai, L.; Laschi, C.

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a hybrid sensing module consisting of a general purpose electro-optical converter and three MEMS force sensors integrated into flexible substrates for tactile skin applications. The features of the converter, namely its flexible and thin substrate and small dimensions, programmability, optical coding and transmission of the information allow this versatile device to host different sensors, locally preprocess signals, translate this diverse information into a 'common language', and transmit it in a parallel, efficient and robust way to the processing unit. After discussing the major technical requirements, the design of the sensing, electrical and optical subsystems is illustrated, as well as the whole process for the module fabrication. A first characterization of a working prototype, hosting three MEMS force sensors and nine independent optical channels was performed. The global performance in terms of sensitivity, bandwidth and spatial sensing resolution make the presented module suitable to be used as basic element of a complete tactile system, conceived for robotic grasping and manipulation. Several solutions for mass production, improved optical properties and more efficient optical transmission are discussed.

  16. Sense and avoid technology for unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalmont, John; Utt, James; Deschenes, Michael; Taylor, Michael; Sanderson, Richard; Montgomery, Joel; Johnson, Randal S.; McDermott, David

    2007-04-01

    The Sensors Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in conjunction with the Global Hawk Systems Group, the J-UCAS System Program Office and contractor Defense Research Associates, Inc. (DRA) is conducting an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) of a sense-and-avoid capability with the potential to satisfy the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) requirement for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to provide "an equivalent level of safety, comparable to see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft". This FAA requirement must be satisfied for UAS operations within the national airspace. The Sense-and-Avoid, Phase I (Man-in-the-Loop) and Phase II (Autonomous Maneuver) ATD demonstrated an on-board, wide field of regard, multi-sensor visible imaging system operating in real time and capable of passively detecting approaching aircraft, declaring potential collision threats in a timely manner and alerting the human pilot located in the remote ground control station or autonomously maneuvered the aircraft. Intruder declaration data was collected during the SAA I & II Advanced Technology Demonstration flights conducted during December 2006. A total of 27 collision scenario flights were conducted and analyzed. The average detection range was 6.3 NM and the mean declaration range was 4.3 NM. The number of false alarms per engagement has been reduced to approximately 3 per engagement.

  17. Development of a Near Ground Remote Sensing System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanchao; Xiao, Yuzhao; Zhuang, Zaichun; Zhou, Liping; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have shown great potential in agriculture and are increasingly being developed for agricultural use. There are still a lot of experiments that need to be done to improve their performance and explore new uses, but experiments using UAVs are limited by many conditions like weather and location and the time it takes to prepare for a flight. To promote UAV remote sensing, a near ground remote sensing platform was developed. This platform consists of three major parts: (1) mechanical structures like a horizontal rail, vertical cylinder, and three axes gimbal; (2) power supply and control parts; (3) onboard application components. This platform covers five degrees of freedom (DOFs): horizontal, vertical, pitch, roll, yaw. A stm32 ARM single chip was used as the controller of the whole platform and another stm32 MCU was used to stabilize the gimbal. The gimbal stabilizer communicates with the main controller via a CAN bus. A multispectral camera was mounted on the gimbal. Software written in C++ language was developed as the graphical user interface. Operating parameters were set via this software and the working status was displayed in this software. To test how well the system works, a laser distance meter was used to measure the slide rail’s repeat accuracy. A 3-axis vibration analyzer was used to test the system stability. Test results show that the horizontal repeat accuracy was less than 2 mm; vertical repeat accuracy was less than 1 mm; vibration was less than 2 g and remained at an acceptable level. This system has high accuracy and stability and can therefore be used for various near ground remote sensing studies. PMID:27164111

  18. Development of a Near Ground Remote Sensing System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchao; Xiao, Yuzhao; Zhuang, Zaichun; Zhou, Liping; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have shown great potential in agriculture and are increasingly being developed for agricultural use. There are still a lot of experiments that need to be done to improve their performance and explore new uses, but experiments using UAVs are limited by many conditions like weather and location and the time it takes to prepare for a flight. To promote UAV remote sensing, a near ground remote sensing platform was developed. This platform consists of three major parts: (1) mechanical structures like a horizontal rail, vertical cylinder, and three axes gimbal; (2) power supply and control parts; (3) onboard application components. This platform covers five degrees of freedom (DOFs): horizontal, vertical, pitch, roll, yaw. A stm32 ARM single chip was used as the controller of the whole platform and another stm32 MCU was used to stabilize the gimbal. The gimbal stabilizer communicates with the main controller via a CAN bus. A multispectral camera was mounted on the gimbal. Software written in C++ language was developed as the graphical user interface. Operating parameters were set via this software and the working status was displayed in this software. To test how well the system works, a laser distance meter was used to measure the slide rail's repeat accuracy. A 3-axis vibration analyzer was used to test the system stability. Test results show that the horizontal repeat accuracy was less than 2 mm; vertical repeat accuracy was less than 1 mm; vibration was less than 2 g and remained at an acceptable level. This system has high accuracy and stability and can therefore be used for various near ground remote sensing studies. PMID:27164111

  19. 15 CFR 960.12 - Data policy for remote sensing space systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data policy for remote sensing space... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.12 Data policy for remote sensing space systems. (a) In accordance with the Act, if the U.S....

  20. 15 CFR 960.12 - Data policy for remote sensing space systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data policy for remote sensing space... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE LICENSING OF PRIVATE REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS Licenses § 960.12 Data policy for remote sensing space systems. (a) In accordance with the Act, if the U.S....

  1. 78 FR 44536 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Licensing of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... of remote-sensing space systems. The information in applications and subsequent reports is needed to ensure compliance with the Land Remote- Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and with the national security...

  2. 75 FR 32360 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Licensing of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... the licensing of private operators of remote-sensing space systems. The information in applications and subsequent reports is needed to ensure compliance with the Land Remote- Sensing Policy Act of...

  3. Technology transfer of NASA microwave remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akey, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    Viable techniques for effecting the transfer from NASA to a user agency of state-of-the-art airborne microwave remote sensing technology for oceanographic applications were studied. A detailed analysis of potential users, their needs and priorities; platform options; airborne microwave instrument candidates; ancillary instrumentation; and other, less obvious factors that must be considered were studied. Conclusions and recommendations for the development of an orderly and effective technology transfer of an airborne microwave system that could meet the specific needs of the selected user agencies are reported.

  4. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M. , Gentile; Ann C. , Marzouk; Youssef M. , Hale; Darrian J. , Thompson; David C.

    2010-07-13

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  5. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M.; Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Hale, Darrian J.; Thompson, David C.

    2011-01-25

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  6. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M.; Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Hale, Darrian J.; Thompson, David C.

    2011-01-04

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  7. A new cantilever system for gas and liquid sensing.

    PubMed

    Vidic, A; Then, D; Ziegler, Ch

    2003-01-01

    A novel setup for gas and liquid sensing was developed and tested. It is based on both detection of frequency shift and of bending of micro-cantilevers to measure mass changes as well as viscosity changes. To drive the cantilevers new electrostatic and magnetic actuations were invented with a closed feed-back loop which forces the cantilever to oscillate always at its resonance frequency. The oscillation is detected via the beam-deflection technique. By measuring the DC signal of the photodiode the static bending of the cantilever can be monitored simultaneously. The closed feed-back loop propagates a very stable oscillation at the resonance frequency and gives a strong increase in the quality factor compared to a system without such feed-back loop. Furthermore, it is possible to operate this cantilever transducer system in liquids. These cantilever sensors hence, show the potential for use in easy-to-use and highly sensitive sensor systems for gas and liquid phase chemical and biochemical sensing. PMID:12801696

  8. Using NASA Remote Sensing Data in a Geographical Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwell, R.; Lindsay, F.; Lynnes, C.; Yang, M.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) generates more than 2 Tb of remotely sensed data each day through multiple space-based instruments and satellite platforms. The Earth Science Data Information Systems (ESDIS) project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is focused on expanding the usage of EOS data in GIS applications, for both scientists and the general public - especially when science quality satellite products are readily obtainable in HDF-EOS format. The primary formats for NASA's EOS data are NetCDF, HDF4 (HDF-EOS2), and HDF5 (HDF-EOS5), of which the Federal Geospatial Data Committee (FGDC) only endorses NetCDF (out of a total of 64 external standards).The benefit of using a GIS includes the ability to interrelate multiple types of information assembled from a variety of sources to visualize, query, overlay, and analyze data, making it valuable to a wide range of scientific, academic and private entities. Some of the issues facing the remote sensing community for using these data include: - Most GIS systems do not readily process or are unable to utilize NASA Remote Sensing (RS) data - Many scientific users utilize specialized software to geolocate images, which presents a problem for interoperability between common systems - Headers in data files are not easily read by GIS systems - Key NASA datasets are mostly available in either HDF-EOS or NetCDF formats - GeoTIFFs cannot be directly created from HDF or NetCDF, creating a multi-step process that is not inherently user friendly (including reprojection, band extraction, and exporting) With that in mind, ESDIS has undertaken a number of steps toward aiding the use of these data by the broader GIS community: - Support raster data geometry and integration of EOS data into a GIS, with functions for image processing, modeling, and spatial analysis - Leverage relationships throughout the GIS community to enable the use of NASA RS data on the most commonly used platforms

  9. Non-contact capacitance based image sensing method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Wiczer, James J.

    1994-01-01

    A system and a method for imaging desired surfaces of a workpiece. A sensor having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece is positioned above and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of the sensor in response to input signals being applied thereto and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of any disturbances in the electric field as a result of the workpiece. An image signal of the workpiece may be developed by processing the capacitance signals. The image signals may provide necessary control information to a machining device for machining the desired surfaces of the workpiece in processes such as deburring or chamfering. Also, the method and system may be used to image dimensions of weld pools on a workpiece and surfaces of glass vials. The sensor may include first and second preview sensors used to determine the feed rate of a workpiece with respect to the machining device.

  10. Non-contact capacitance based image sensing method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Wiczer, James J.

    1995-01-01

    A system and a method is provided for imaging desired surfaces of a workpiece. A sensor having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece is positioned above and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of the sensor in response to input signals being applied thereto and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of any disturbances in the electric field as a result of the workpiece. An image signal of the workpiece may be developed by processing the capacitance signals. The image signals may provide necessary control information to a machining device for machining the desired surfaces of the workpiece in processes such as deburring or chamfering. Also, the method and system may be used to image dimensions of weld pools on a workpiece and surfaces of glass vials. The sensor may include first and second preview sensors used to determine the feed rate of a workpiece with respect to the machining device.

  11. Non-contact capacitance based image sensing method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1994-01-25

    A system and a method for imaging desired surfaces of a workpiece is described. A sensor having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece is positioned above and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of the sensor in response to input signals being applied thereto and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of any disturbances in the electric field as a result of the workpiece. An image signal of the workpiece may be developed by processing the capacitance signals. The image signals may provide necessary control information to a machining device for machining the desired surfaces of the workpiece in processes such as deburring or chamfering. Also, the method and system may be used to image dimensions of weld pools on a workpiece and surfaces of glass vials. The sensor may include first and second preview sensors used to determine the feed rate of a workpiece with respect to the machining device. 18 figures.

  12. Non-contact capacitance based image sensing method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1995-01-03

    A system and a method is provided for imaging desired surfaces of a workpiece. A sensor having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece is positioned above and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of the sensor in response to input signals being applied thereto and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of any disturbances in the electric field as a result of the workpiece. An image signal of the workpiece may be developed by processing the capacitance signals. The image signals may provide necessary control information to a machining device for machining the desired surfaces of the workpiece in processes such as deburring or chamfering. Also, the method and system may be used to image dimensions of weld pools on a workpiece and surfaces of glass vials. The sensor may include first and second preview sensors used to determine the feed rate of a workpiece with respect to the machining device. 18 figures.

  13. Photoacoustic chemical sensing: layered systems and excitation source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Logan S.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a versatile tool that is well suited for the ranged interrogation of layered samples. We have previously demonstrated standoff photoacoustic (PA) chemical detection of condensed phase samples at one meter distance using an interferometric sensing platform. Current research investigates layered solid samples constructed from a thin layer of energetic material deposited on a substrate. The PA signal from the system, as measured by the interferometer, changes based on the differing optical and mechanical properties of the substrate. This signal variance must be understood in order to develop a sensor capable of detecting trace quantities of hazardous materials independent of the surface. Optical absorption and modal excitation are the two biggest sources of PA signal generated in the sample/substrate system. Finally, the mode of operation of the excitation source is investigated. Most PA sensing paradigms use a quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating in either pulsed or modulated CW mode. We will discuss photoacoustic signal generation with respect to these different operating modes.

  14. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  15. A Robust Mechanical Sensing System for Unmanned Sea Surface Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Magnone, Lee J.; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Padgett, Curtis W.; Trotz, David C.; Garrett, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    The need for autonomous navigation and intelligent control of unmanned sea surface vehicles requires a mechanically robust sensing architecture that is watertight, durable, and insensitive to vibration and shock loading. The sensing system developed here comprises four black and white cameras and a single color camera. The cameras are rigidly mounted to a camera bar that can be reconfigured to mount multiple vehicles, and act as both navigational cameras and application cameras. The cameras are housed in watertight casings to protect them and their electronics from moisture and wave splashes. Two of the black and white cameras are positioned to provide lateral vision. They are angled away from the front of the vehicle at horizontal angles to provide ideal fields of view for mapping and autonomous navigation. The other two black and white cameras are positioned at an angle into the color camera's field of view to support vehicle applications. These two cameras provide an overlap, as well as a backup to the front camera. The color camera is positioned directly in the middle of the bar, aimed straight ahead. This system is applicable to any sea-going vehicle, both on Earth and in space.

  16. Software for a GPS-Reflection Remote-Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A special-purpose software Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver designed for remote sensing with reflected GPS signals is described in Delay/Doppler-Mapping GPS-Reflection Remote-Sensing System (NPO-30385), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The input accepted by this program comprises raw (open-loop) digitized GPS signals sampled at a rate of about 20 MHz. The program processes the data samples to perform the following functions: detection of signals; tracking of phases and delays; mapping of delay, Doppler, and delay/Doppler waveforms; dual-frequency processing; coherent integrations as short as 125 s; decoding of navigation messages; and precise time tagging of observable quantities. The software can perform these functions on all detectable satellite signals without dead time. Open-loop data collected over water, land, or ice and processed by this software can be further processed to extract geophysical information. Possible examples include mean sea height, wind speed and direction, and significant wave height (for observations over the ocean); bistatic-radar terrain images and measures of soil moisture and biomass (for observations over land); and estimates of ice age, thickness, and surface density (for observations over ice).

  17. Laser Doppler velocimeter system simulation for sensing aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

    1974-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of aircraft vortex wakes in an irregular wind shear field near the ground is developed and used as a basis for modeling the characteristics of a laser Doppler detection and vortex location system. The trailing vortex sheet and the wind shear are represented by discrete free vortices distributed over a two-dimensional grid. The time dependent hydrodynamic equations are solved by direct numerical integration in the Boussinesq approximation. The ground boundary is simulated by images, and fast Fourier Transform techniques are used to evaluate the vorticity stream function. The atmospheric turbulence was simulated by constructing specific realizations at time equal to zero, assuming that Kolmogoroff's law applies, and that the dissipation rate is constant throughout the flow field. The response of a simulated laser Doppler velocimeter is analyzed by simulating the signal return from the flow field as sensed by a simulation of the optical/electronic system.

  18. Shape memory polymer (SMP) gripper with a release sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan J.; Lee, Abraham P.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Silva, Luiz Da

    2000-01-01

    A system for releasing a target material, such as an embolic coil from an SMP located at the end of a catheter utilizing an optical arrangement for releasing the material. The system includes a laser, laser driver, display panel, photodetector, fiber optics coupler, fiber optics and connectors, a catheter, and an SMP-based gripper, and includes a release sensing and feedback arrangement. The SMP-based gripper is heated via laser light through an optic fiber causing the gripper to release a target material (e.g., embolic coil for therapeutic treatment of aneurysms). Various embodiments are provided for coupling the laser light into the SMP, which includes specific positioning of the coils, removal of the fiber cladding adjacent the coil, a metal coating on the SMP, doping the SMP with a gradient absorbing dye, tapering the fiber optic end, coating the SMP with low refractive index material, and locating an insert between the fiber optic and the coil.

  19. Supercooled large drop detection with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serke, David J.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Politovich, Marcia K.

    2010-10-01

    In-flight icing occurs when aircraft impact supercooled liquid drops. The supercooled liquid freezes on contact and the accreted ice changes a plane's aerodynamic characteristics, which can lead to dangerous loss of control. NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System consists of a multi-channel radiometer, a laser ceilometer and a vertically-pointing Kaband radar, whos fields are merged with internal software logic to arrive at a hazard classification for in-flight icing. The radiometer is used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water and the ceilometer and radar are used to define cloud boundaries. The integrated liquid is then distributed within the determined cloud boundaries and layers to arrive at liquid water content profiles, which if present below freezing are categorized as icing hazards. This work outlines how the derived liquid water content and measured Ka-band reflectivity factor profiles can be used to derive a vertical profile of radar-estimated particle size. This is only possible because NASA's system arrives at independent and non-correlated measures of liquid water and reflectivity factor for a given range volume. The size of the drops significantly effect the drop collection efficiency and the location that icing accretion occurs on the craft's superstructure and thus how a vehicle's performance is altered. Large drops, generally defined as over 50 μm in diameter, tend to accrete behind the normal ice protected areas of the leading edge of the wing and other control surfaces. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System was operated near Montreal, Canada for the Alliance Icing Research Study II in 2003 and near Cleveland, Ohio from 2006 onward. In this study, we present case studies to show how NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System can detect and differentiate between no icing, small drop and large drop in-flight icing hazards to aircraft. This new product provides crucial realtime hazard detection capabilities which improve

  20. Study of 3D remote sensing system based on optical scanning holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shihu; Yan, Lei

    2009-06-01

    High-precision and real-time remote sensing imaging system is an important part of remote sensing development. Holography is a method of wave front record and recovery which was presented by Dennis Gabor. As a new kind of holography techniques, Optical scanning holography (OSH) and remote sensing imaging are intended to be combined together and applied in acquisition and interference measurement of remote sensing. The key principles and applicability of OSH are studied and the mathematic relation between Fresnel Zone Plate number, numerical aperture and object distance was deduced, which are proved to be feasible for OSH to apply in large scale remote sensing. At last, a new three-dimensional reflected OSH remote sensing imaging system is designed with the combination of scanning technique to record hologram patterns of large scale remote sensing scenes. This scheme is helpful for expanding OSH technique to remote sensing in future.

  1. A new SMART sensing system for aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, David C.; Yu, Pin; Beard, Shawn; Qing, Peter; Kumar, Amrita; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2007-04-01

    It is essential to ensure the safety and reliability of in-service structures such as unmanned vehicles by detecting structural cracking, corrosion, delamination, material degradation and other types of damage in time. Utilization of an integrated sensor network system can enable automatic inspection of such damages ultimately. Using a built-in network of actuators and sensors, Acellent is providing tools for advanced structural diagnostics. Acellent's integrated structural health monitoring system consists of an actuator/sensor network, supporting signal generation and data acquisition hardware, and data processing, visualization and analysis software. This paper describes the various features of Acellent's latest SMART sensing system. The new system is USB-based and is ultra-portable using the state-of-the-art technology, while delivering many functions such as system self-diagnosis, sensor diagnosis, through-transmission mode and pulse-echo mode of operation and temperature measurement. Performance of the new system was evaluated for assessment of damage in composite structures.

  2. Intelligent Systems: Terrestrial Observation and Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has made science and technology investments to better utilize its large space-borne remote sensing data holdings of the Earth. With the launch of Terra, NASA created a data-rich environment where the challenge is to fully utilize the data collected from EOS however, despite unprecedented amounts of observed data, there is a need for increasing the frequency, resolution, and diversity of observations. Current terrestrial models that use remote sensing data were constructed in a relatively data and compute limited era and do not take full advantage of on-line learning methods and assimilation techniques that can exploit these data. NASA has invested in visualization, data mining and knowledge discovery methods which have facilitated data exploitation, but these methods are insufficient for improving Earth science models that have extensive background knowledge nor do these methods refine understanding of complex processes. Investing in interdisciplinary teams that include computational scientists can lead to new models and systems for online operation and analysis of data that can autonomously improve in prediction skill over time.

  3. Androgynous, Reconfigurable Closed Loop Feedback Controlled Low Impact Docking System With Load Sensing Electromagnetic Capture Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a fully androgynous, reconfigurable closed loop feedback controlled low impact docking system with load sensing electromagnetic capture ring. The docking system of the present invention preferably comprises two Docking- assemblies, each docking assembly comprising a load sensing ring having an outer face, one of more electromagnets, one or more load cells coupled to said load sensing ring. The docking assembly further comprises a plurality of actuator arms coupled to said load sensing ring and capable of dynamically adjusting the orientation of said load sensing ring and a reconfigurable closed loop control system capable of analyzing signals originating from said plurality of load cells and of outputting real time control for each of the actuators. The docking assembly of the present invention incorporates an active load sensing system to automatically dynamically adjust the load sensing ring during capture instead of requiring significant force to push and realign the ring.

  4. A novel proposal of GPON-oriented fiber grating sensing data digitalization system for remote sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yubao; Zhu, Zhaohui; Wang, Lu; Bai, Jian

    2016-05-01

    A novel GPON-oriented sensing data digitalization system is proposed to achieve remote monitoring of fiber grating sensing networks utilizing existing optical communication networks in some harsh environments. In which, Quick digitalization of sensing information obtained from the reflected lightwaves by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor is realized, and a novel frame format of sensor signal is designed to suit for public transport so as to facilitate sensor monitoring center to receive and analyze the sensor data. The delay effect, identification method of the sensor data, and various interference factors which influence the sensor data to be correctly received are analyzed. The system simulation is carried out with OptiSystem/Matlab co-simulation approach. The theoretical analysis and simulation results verify the feasibility of the integration of the sensor network and communication network.

  5. MEMS deformable mirror embedded wavefront sensing and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Donald; Schoen, Michael; Bush, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic Membrane Deformable Mirror (MDM) technology developed using silicon bulk micro-machining techniques offers the potential of providing low-cost, compact wavefront control systems for diverse optical system applications. Electrostatic mirror construction using bulk micro-machining allows for custom designs to satisfy wavefront control requirements for most optical systems. An electrostatic MDM consists of a thin membrane, generally with a thin metal or multi-layer high-reflectivity coating, suspended over an actuator pad array that is connected to a high-voltage driver. Voltages applied to the array elements deflect the membrane to provide an optical surface capable of correcting for measured optical aberrations in a given system. Electrostatic membrane DM designs are derived from well-known principles of membrane mechanics and electrostatics, the desired optical wavefront control requirements, and the current limitations of mirror fabrication and actuator drive electronics. MDM performance is strongly dependent on mirror diameter and air damping in meeting desired spatial and temporal frequency requirements. In this paper, we present wavefront control results from an embedded wavefront control system developed around a commercially available high-speed camera and an AgilOptics Unifi MDM driver using USB 2.0 communications and the Linux development environment. This new product, ClariFast TM, combines our previous Clarifi TM product offering into a faster more streamlined version dedicated strictly to Hartmann Wavefront sensing.

  6. Assessment of Septic System Performance Using Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, A.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Harvey, C.

    2005-12-01

    Failing and improperly managed septic systems can affect water quality and cause health problems for individuals, community residents, and wildlife. Early detection of septic system leakage and failure can limit the extent off-site contamination. State and county health agencies are typically responsible for permitting and regulating septic systems, and they rely on onsite inspection to identify malfunctioning systems. External symptoms which occur over an improperly functioning septic system can include lush or greener growth of vegetation, distress of vegetation, excessive soil moisture levels, or pooling of surface effluent. The use of remote sensing technologies coupled with attainable permit records to identify these features will enable the appropriate agencies to target problem areas without extensive field inspection. High-resolution thermal and color-infrared imagery were acquired in May 2005 for a study area in Jackson County, Mississippi, adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. Within this coastal neighborhood known to have significant septic system failures, volunteers supplied information regarding the function of their systems by completing a survey and allowing access to their property. For each of 36 data locations, a septic system score was calculated to indicate the level of system performance. Potential predictors of system performance were derived from data obtained from installation records and data extracted from imagery. Linear regression analyses of the dataset identified the significant predictors of septic system performance, and two models have been developed and proposed for the prioritization of problem septic systems by regulatory agencies. The Drain Field Model was developed using linear regression. Vegetative Index and Normalized Differential Vegetative Index were identified as the best predictors of system performance. The model considers the maximum values of the VI and NDVI within each drain field and calculates a score for each system

  7. A Tagless Indoor Localization System Based on Capacitive Sensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Ramezani Akhmareh, Alireza; Lazarescu, Mihai Teodor; Bin Tariq, Osama; Lavagno, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Accurate indoor person localization is essential for several services, such as assisted living. We introduce a tagless indoor person localization system based on capacitive sensing and localization algorithms that can determine the location with less than 0.2 m average error in a 3 m × 3 m room and has recall and precision better than 70%. We also discuss the effects of various noise types on the measurements and ways to reduce them using filters suitable for on-sensor implementation to lower communication energy consumption. We also compare the performance of several standard localization algorithms in terms of localization error, recall, precision, and accuracy of detection of the movement trajectory. PMID:27618049

  8. Software system for simulation IPDA lidar sensing from space platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, G. G.; Sukhanov, A. Ya.

    2014-11-01

    High measurement sensitivity of troposphere CO2 and CH4 is expected from using of integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar, where the strong lidar echoes on two wavelengths from cloud tops or the Earth's take place. We consider a software system for the radiation transport simulation in the atmosphere by Monte-Carlo method that applied in the greenhouse gas (CH4 and CO2) sensing space-based IPDA-lidar. This software is used to evaluate the accuracy of measurement of the green house gas concentration. The paper investigates the impact of multiple scattering in presence of clouds. So multiple scattering can influence on signal power, but differential absorption method eliminates this drawback.

  9. Mass sensing based on a circuit cavity electromechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-10-01

    We present a scheme for mass sensing based on a circuit cavity electromechanical system where a free-standing, flexible aluminium membrane is capacitively coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity. Integration with the microwave cavity enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip. A microwave pump field and a second probe field are simultaneously applied to the cavity. The accreted mass landing on the membrane can be measured conveniently by tracking the mechanical resonance frequency shifts due to mass changes in the probe transmission spectrum. The mass responsivity for the membrane is 0.72 Hz/ag and we demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of one hundred 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the probe transmission spectrum.

  10. Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics: The Helmholtz Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajnsek, I.; Eineder, M.; Walter, T. R.; Friedrich, A. M.; Bieber, P.; Huth, A.; Papathanassiou, K.; Montzka, C.; Wollschläger, U.; Thies, B.; Humbert, A.; Braun, M.; Krieger, G.; Moreira, A.

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the five year funded German Helmholtz Alliance "Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics" is the development and evaluation of novel bio/geo-physical information products derived from data acquired by a new generation of remote sensing satellites; and their integration in Earth system models for improving understanding and modelling the ability of global environmental processes and ecosystem change. The Alliance is organized in 4 research topics, each one dedicated to a specific Earth sphere with a specific scientific goal: Biosphere: Global forest structure and biomass dynamics are evaluated for forest and biodiversity monitoring and the quantification of the global carbon cycle; Geosphere: The ability to measure topographic variations with millimeter accuracy is explored for improving the understanding of earthquake and volcano activities; Hydrosphere: The quantification of soil moisture and its variations at high spatial resolution is assessed with respect to hydrological models and the global water cycle; Cryosphere: The estimation of melting processes in snow, ice and permafrost regions is addressed in terms of global climate change. The Alliance has been founded in June 2012 and comprises around 120 scientists with a financial support for 50 PhDs and Postdocs having different backgrounds and nationalities. 18 national research centers and universities are participating which represent a unique opportunity to exploit and widen the expertise of all participating centers and to maximize their role and contribution in the international environmental change science. In this talk the objectives of the Alliance and research highlights will be presented which were obtained in the first 2.5 years of its research activities.

  11. Development of a Neutron Spectroscopic System Utilizing Compressed Sensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Danilo; Cable Kurwitz, R.; Carron, Igor; DePriest, K. Russell

    2016-02-01

    A new approach to neutron detection capable of gathering spectroscopic information has been demonstrated. The approach relies on an asymmetrical arrangement of materials, geometry, and an ability to change the orientation of the detector with respect to the neutron field. Measurements are used to unfold the energy characteristics of the neutron field using a new theoretical framework of compressed sensing. Recent theoretical results show that the number of multiplexed samples can be lower than the full number of traditional samples while providing the ability to have some super-resolution. Furthermore, the solution approach does not require a priori information or inclusion of physics models. Utilizing the MCNP code, a number of candidate detector geometries and materials were modeled. Simulations were carried out for a number of neutron energies and distributions with preselected orientations for the detector. The resulting matrix (A) consists of n rows associated with orientation and m columns associated with energy and distribution where n < m. The library of known responses is used for new measurements Y (n × 1) and the solver is able to determine the system, Y = Ax where x is a sparse vector. Therefore, energy spectrum measurements are a combination of the energy distribution information of the identified elements of A. This approach allows for determination of neutron spectroscopic information using a single detector system with analog multiplexing. The analog multiplexing allows the use of a compressed sensing solution similar to approaches used in other areas of imaging. A single detector assembly provides improved flexibility and is expected to reduce uncertainty associated with current neutron spectroscopy measurement.

  12. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Zia, Asif I; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jurgen; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I) molecules-a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA. PMID:27347968

  13. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin; Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kruger, Marlena; Yu, Pak-Lam; Kosel, Jurgen; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I) molecules—a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA. PMID:27347968

  14. Scan mirror remote temperature sensing system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyk, Steven G. (Inventor); Balinski, Walter (Inventor); Choo, Ronald J. (Inventor); Bortfeldt, Paul E. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A remote temperature sensing system (10) for a scanning mirror (7). The system (10) includes a sensor which detects heat radiated by the mirror and provides a signal in response thereto. In the illustrative implementation, the system (10) includes a thermistor mounted within a housing. The housing is contoured to maximize the receipt of thermal energy thereby. A mounting assembly maintains the thermistor a predetermined nonzero distance from the scanning mirror (7). The invention includes a shroud (12) mounted on the mirror (7) for shielding the thermistor and a support tube connected to the thermistor housing on a first end and to a base on the second end thereof. The support tube is adapted to remain stationary within the shroud as the scanning mirror and the shroud rotate due to the scanning of the mirror. Wires are connected to the thermistor on a first end thereof and are wrapped around the support tube. The wires include a length of electrically conductive material having a resistivity which has a low sensitivity to temperature variations. The sensor output is processed in a conventional manner to provide an output indicative of the temperature of the mirror.

  15. A transportable executive system for use with remote sensing applications software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wie, P.; Fischel, D.; Howell, D.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a transportable software executive system under development. This executive will facilitate user access to data and programs used in remote sensing applications and will provide the necessary system control, bookkeeping, operating system interface, man-machine communications and other services needed to make the computer an effective and economical tool for the remote sensing investigator.

  16. [Research progress of new antibacterial drugs that target bacterial quorum sensing systems].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shou-Liang; Chang, Ya-Jing; Deng, Su-Ping; Wang, Qing-Chi; Yu, Wen-Gong; Gong, Qian-Hong

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, antibiotic resistance of bacteria has become a global health crisis. Especially, the new class of "superbug" was found in South Asia, which is resistant to almost known antibiotics and causes worldwide alarm. Through the underlying mechanisms of bacterial pathogenecity, the expression of many pathogen virulence factors is regulated by the process of quorum sensing. Screening efficient quorum sensing inhibitors is an especially compelling approach to the future treatment of bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance. This article focuses on bacterial quorum sensing system, quorum sensing screening model for in vitro and evaluation of animal models in vivo, recent research of quorum sensing inhibitors and so on. PMID:21882519

  17. Specificity and complexity in bacterial quorum-sensing systems

    PubMed Central

    Hawver, Lisa A.; Jung, Sarah A.; Ng, Wai-Leung

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-to-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of chemical signals called autoinducers (AIs) to monitor cell density and species complexity in the population. QS allows bacteria to behave as a cohesive group and coordinate collective behaviors. While most QS receptors display high specificity to their AI ligands, others are quite promiscuous in signal detection. How do specific QS receptors respond to their cognate signals with high fidelity? Why do some receptors maintain low signal recognition specificity? In addition, many QS systems are composed of multiple intersecting signaling pathways: what are the benefits of preserving such a complex signaling network when a simple linear ‘one-to-one’ regulatory pathway seems sufficient to monitor cell density? Here, we will discuss different molecular mechanisms employed by various QS systems that ensure productive and specific QS responses. Moreover, the network architectures of some well-characterized QS circuits will be reviewed to understand how the wiring of different regulatory components achieves different biological goals. PMID:27354348

  18. Radiometer system requirements for microwave remote sensing from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jeng-Nan

    1990-01-01

    An area of increasing interest is the establishment of a significant research program in microwave remote sensing from satellites, particularly geosynchronous satellites. Due to the relatively small resolution cell sizes, a severe requirement is placed on beam efficiency specifications for the radiometer antenna. Geostationary satellite microwave radiometers could continuously monitor several important geophysical parameters over the world's oceans. These parameters include the columnar content of atmospheric liquid water (both cloud and rain) and water vapor, air temperature profiles, and possibly sea surface temperature. Two principle features of performance are of concern. The first is the ability of the radiometer system to resolve absolute temperatures with a very small absolute error, a capability that depends on radiometer system stability, on frequency bandwidth, and on footprint dwell time. The second is the ability of the radiometer to resolve changes in temperature from one resolution cell to the next when these temperatures are subject to wide variation over the overall field-of-view of the instrument. Both of these features are involved in the use of the radiometer data to construct high-resolution temperature maps with high absolute accuracy.

  19. Wavefront Sensing Analysis of Grazing Incidence Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, Scott; Saha, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront sensing is a process by which optical system errors are deduced from the aberrations in the image of an ideal source. The method has been used successfully in near-normal incidence, but not for grazing incidence systems. This innovation highlights the ability to examine out-of-focus images from grazing incidence telescopes (typically operating in the x-ray wavelengths, but integrated using optical wavelengths) and determine the lower-order deformations. This is important because as a metrology tool, this method would allow the integration of high angular resolution optics without the use of normal incidence interferometry, which requires direct access to the front surface of each mirror. Measuring the surface figure of mirror segments in a highly nested x-ray telescope mirror assembly is difficult due to the tight packing of elements and blockage of all but the innermost elements to normal incidence light. While this can be done on an individual basis in a metrology mount, once the element is installed and permanently bonded into the assembly, it is impossible to verify the figure of each element and ensure that the necessary imaging quality will be maintained. By examining on-axis images of an ideal point source, one can gauge the low-order figure errors of individual elements, even when integrated into an assembly. This technique is known as wavefront sensing (WFS). By shining collimated light down the optical axis of the telescope and looking at out-of-focus images, the blur due to low-order figure errors of individual elements can be seen, and the figure error necessary to produce that blur can be calculated. The method avoids the problem of requiring normal incidence access to the surface of each mirror segment. Mirror figure errors span a wide range of spatial frequencies, from the lowest-order bending to the highest order micro-roughness. While all of these can be measured in normal incidence, only the lowest-order contributors can be determined

  20. Calibration and deployment of a fiber-optic sensing system for monitoring debris flows.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Jer; Chu, Chung-Ray; Tien, Tsung-Mo; Yin, Hsiao-Yuen; Chen, Ping-Sen

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel fiber-optic sensing system, capable of monitoring debris flows or other natural hazards that produce ground vibrations. The proposed sensing system comprises a demodulator (BraggSCOPE, FS5500), which includes a broadband light source and a data logger, a four-port coupler and four Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) accelerometers. Based on field tests, the performance of the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is compared with that of a conventional sensing system that includes a geophone or a microphone. Following confirmation of the reliability of the proposed sensing system, the fiber-optic sensing systems are deployed along the Ai-Yu-Zi and Chu-Shui Creeks in Nautou County of central Taiwan for monitoring debris flows. Sensitivity test of the deployed fiber-optic sensing system along the creek banks is also performed. Analysis results of the seismic data recorded by the systems reveal in detail the frequency characteristics of the artificially generated ground vibrations. Results of this study demonstrate that the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is highly promising for use in monitoring natural disasters that generate ground vibrations. PMID:22778616

  1. Calibration and Deployment of a Fiber-Optic Sensing System for Monitoring Debris Flows

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ching-Jer; Chu, Chung-Ray; Tien, Tsung-Mo; Yin, Hsiao-Yuen; Chen, Ping-Sen

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel fiber-optic sensing system, capable of monitoring debris flows or other natural hazards that produce ground vibrations. The proposed sensing system comprises a demodulator (BraggSCOPE, FS5500), which includes a broadband light source and a data logger, a four-port coupler and four Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) accelerometers. Based on field tests, the performance of the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is compared with that of a conventional sensing system that includes a geophone or a microphone. Following confirmation of the reliability of the proposed sensing system, the fiber-optic sensing systems are deployed along the Ai-Yu-Zi and Chu-Shui Creeks in Nautou County of central Taiwan for monitoring debris flows. Sensitivity test of the deployed fiber-optic sensing system along the creek banks is also performed. Analysis results of the seismic data recorded by the systems reveal in detail the frequency characteristics of the artificially generated ground vibrations. Results of this study demonstrate that the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is highly promising for use in monitoring natural disasters that generate ground vibrations. PMID:22778616

  2. Development of fiber-optic current sensing technique and its applications in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the development and applications of a fiber-optic electric current sensing technique with the stable properties and compact, simple, and flexible structure of the sensing device. The special characteristics of the sensors were achieved by use of the special low birefringence fiber as the Faraday-effect sensing element and were also achieved with creation of sensing schemes which matched with the features of the fiber. Making use of the excellent features of the sensing technique, various current monitoring devices and systems were developed and applied practically for the control and maintenance in the electric power facility. In this paper, the design and performance of the sensing devices are introduced first. After that, examples of the application systems practically applied are also introduced, including fault section/point location systems for power transmission cable lines.

  3. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  4. A role for AVIRIS in the Landsat and Advanced Land Remote Sensing Systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Simmonds, John J.

    1993-01-01

    As a calibrated imaging spectrometer flying at a 20 km altitude, AVIRIS may contribute to the Landsat and the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System efforts. These contributions come in the areas of: (1) on-orbit calibration, (2) specification of new spectral bands, (3) validation of algorithms, and (4) investigation of an imaging spectrometer of the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System.

  5. Jellyfish Patch Detecting Using Low Latitude Remote Sensing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Jo, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    Jellyfish can be asexual and sexual reproduction depending on the environment, and it has excellent environmental adaptability and reproduction than other sea creatures. If the marine environment become worse, jellyfish can take advantage in the competition for survival. Marine environmental changes caused by rapid climate change, dyke construction and land reclamation will increase the amount of jellyfish and as a result can lead to a various social and economic problems. In this study, jellyfish were observed in coastal area using a low-altitude Helikite remote sensing system for the first time. Helikite is a type of helium balloon plus a kite that can get the data with optical sensors for the desired spatial resolutions by adjusting the altitudes. In addition, it has an advantage that can monitor any objects for a long time at one place as long as the electric power and helium last. In this study, we observed the jellyfish patches using a digital camera in the Chesapeake Bay and estimate populations and size of jellyfish patches through image processing. Research results suggests that we can have long-term real-time observations for not only jellyfish, but also other harmful marine creatures.

  6. An implantable pressure sensing system with electromechanical interrogation scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Albert; Powell, C R; Ziaie, Babak

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of an implantable pressure sensing system that is powered by mechanical vibrations in the audible acoustic frequency range. This technique significantly enhances interrogation range, alleviates the misalignment issues commonly encountered with inductive powering, and simplifies the external receiver circuitry. The interrogation scheme consists of two phases: a mechanical vibration phase and an electrical radiation phase. During the first phase, a piezoelectric cantilever acts as an acoustic receiver and charges a capacitor by converting sound vibration harmonics occurring at its resonant frequency into electrical power. In the subsequent electrical phase, when the cantilever is not vibrating, the stored electric charge is discharged across an LC tank whose inductor is pressure sensitive; hence, when the LC tank oscillates at its natural resonant frequency, it radiates a high-frequency signal that is detectable using an external receiver and its frequency corresponds to the measured pressure. The pressure sensitive inductor consists of a planar coil (single loop of wire) with a ferrite core whose distance to the coil varies with applied pressure. A prototype of the implantable pressure sensor is fabricated and tested, both in vitro and in vivo (swine bladder). A pressure sensitivity of 1 kHz/cm H2O is achieved with minimal misalignment sensitivity (26% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and acoustic source; 60% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and RF receiver coil). PMID:24800754

  7. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  8. Sugar Influx Sensing by the Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Somavanshi, Rahul; Ghosh, Bhaswar; Sourjik, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays a pivotal role in the uptake of multiple sugars in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. In the cell, individual sugar-specific PTS branches are interconnected through a series of phosphotransfer reactions, thus creating a global network that not only phosphorylates incoming sugars but also regulates a number of cellular processes. Despite the apparent importance of the PTS network in bacterial physiology, the holistic function of the network in the cell remains unclear. Here we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to investigate the PTS network in E. coli, including the dynamics of protein interactions and the processing of different stimuli and their transmission to the chemotaxis pathway. Our results demonstrate that despite the seeming complexity of the cellular PTS network, its core part operates in a strikingly simple way, sensing the overall influx of PTS sugars irrespective of the sugar identity and distributing this information equally through all studied branches of the network. Moreover, it also integrates several other specific metabolic inputs. The integrated output of the PTS network is then transmitted linearly to the chemotaxis pathway, in stark contrast to the amplification of conventional chemotactic stimuli. Finally, we observe that default uptake through the uninduced PTS network correlates well with the quality of the carbon source, apparently representing an optimal regulatory strategy. PMID:27557415

  9. Sugar Influx Sensing by the Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Somavanshi, Rahul; Ghosh, Bhaswar; Sourjik, Victor

    2016-08-01

    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays a pivotal role in the uptake of multiple sugars in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. In the cell, individual sugar-specific PTS branches are interconnected through a series of phosphotransfer reactions, thus creating a global network that not only phosphorylates incoming sugars but also regulates a number of cellular processes. Despite the apparent importance of the PTS network in bacterial physiology, the holistic function of the network in the cell remains unclear. Here we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to investigate the PTS network in E. coli, including the dynamics of protein interactions and the processing of different stimuli and their transmission to the chemotaxis pathway. Our results demonstrate that despite the seeming complexity of the cellular PTS network, its core part operates in a strikingly simple way, sensing the overall influx of PTS sugars irrespective of the sugar identity and distributing this information equally through all studied branches of the network. Moreover, it also integrates several other specific metabolic inputs. The integrated output of the PTS network is then transmitted linearly to the chemotaxis pathway, in stark contrast to the amplification of conventional chemotactic stimuli. Finally, we observe that default uptake through the uninduced PTS network correlates well with the quality of the carbon source, apparently representing an optimal regulatory strategy. PMID:27557415

  10. Remote Management for Multipoint Sensing Systems Using Hetero-Core Spliced Optical Fiber Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lee See; Anoda, Yuji; Kazuhiro, Watanabe; Shinomiya, Norihiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and experimental verification of a multipoint sensing system with hetero-core spliced optical fiber sensors and its remote management using an internet-standard protocol. The study proposes two different types of design and conducts experiments to verify those systems' feasibility. In order to manage the sensing systems remotely, the management method uses a standard operation and maintenance protocol for internet: the Simple Network Management Protocol is proposed. The purpose of this study is to construct a multipoint sensing system remote management tool by which the system can also determine the status and the identity of fiber optic sensors. The constructed sensing systems are verified and the results have demonstrated that the first proposed system can distinguish the responses from different hetero-core spliced optical fiber sensors remotely. The second proposed system shows that data communications are performed successfully while identifying the status of hetero-core spliced optical fiber sensors remotely. PMID:24379051

  11. Self-powered semi-passive vibration damping system based on self-sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hui; Zhang, Fengsheng; Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Bian, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, semi-passive vibration damping using Synchronized Switching Damping on Inductor (SSDI) technique has been intensively investigated. In this paper, a self-powered semi-passive vibration damping system based on self sensing approach is proposed and investigated. With the self-sensing technique, the same piezoelectric element can be used as a sensor and an actuator. Compared with the other self-powered SSDI approaches, this technique can not only detect switching time without lag, but also reduce the number of piezoelectric elements. Furthermore, a low-power circuit for semi-passive piezoelectric vibration control based on self-sensing technique is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that the self-sensing SSDI system has good damping performance. The performance of the self-sensing SSDI system is also compared with the externally powered system.

  12. Optimized algorithm module for large volume remote sensing image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Changfeng; Liu, Nan; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Jiawen; Zhang, Qin

    2007-12-01

    A new remote sensing image processing system's algorithm module has been introduced in this paper, which is coded with Visual C++ 6.0 program language and can process large volume of remote sensing image. At the same time, adopted key technologies in algorithm module are given. Two defects of American remote sensing image processing system called ERDAS has been put forward in image filter algorithm and the storage of pixel values that are out of data type range. In author's system two optimized methods has been implemented in these two aspects. By contrasted with ERDAS IMAGINE System, the two methods had been proved to be effective in image analysis.

  13. UAV Deployed Sensor System for Arctic Ocean Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, S. E.; Lawrence, D.; Weibel, D.; LoDolce, G.; Krist, S.; Crocker, I.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX), is an Arctic field project scheduled for summer 2013. The goals of the project are to understand how warming of the marginal ice zone affects sea ice melt and if this warming has been over or underestimated by satellite measurements. To achieve these goals calibrated physical measurements, both remote and in-situ, of the marginal ice zone over scales of square kilometers with a resolution of square meters is required. This will be accomplished with a suite of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with both remote sensing and in-situ instruments, air deployed microbuoys, and ship deployed buoys. In this talk we will present details about the air-deployed micro-buoy (ADMB) and self-deployed surface-sonde (SDSS) components of the MIZOPEX project, developed at the University of Colorado. These systems were designed to explore the potential of low-cost, on-demand access to high-latitude areas of important scientific interest. Both the ADMB and SDSS share a common measurement suite with the capability to measure water temperature at three distinct depths and provide position information via GPS. The ADMBs are dropped from the InSitu ScanEagle UAV and expected to operate and log ocean temperatures for 14 days. The SDSS are micro UAVs that are designed to fly one-way to a region of interest and land at specified coordinates, thereafter becoming a surface sensor similar to the ADMB. A ScanEagle will periodically return to the deployment zone to gather ADMB/SDSS data via low power radio links. Design decisions based upon operational constraints and the current status of the ADMB and SDSS will be presented.

  14. Accuracy and Repeatability of the Gait Analysis by the WalkinSense System

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Marcelo P.; Soares, Denise P.; Borgonovo-Santos, Márcio; Sousa, Filipa; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    WalkinSense is a new device designed to monitor walking. The aim of this study was to measure the accuracy and repeatability of the gait analysis performed by the WalkinSense system. Descriptions of values recorded by WalkinSense depicting typical gait in adults are also presented. A bench experiment using the Trublu calibration device was conducted to statically test the WalkinSense. Following this, a dynamic test was carried out overlapping the WalkinSense and the Pedar insoles in 40 healthy participants during walking. Pressure peak, pressure peak time, pressure-time integral, and mean pressure at eight-foot regions were calculated. In the bench experiments, the repeatability (i) among the WalkinSense sensors (within), (ii) between two WalkinSense devices, and (iii) between the WalkinSense and the Trublu devices was excellent. In the dynamic tests, the repeatability of the WalkinSense (i) between stances in the same trial (within-trial) and (ii) between trials was also excellent (ICC > 0.90). When the eight-foot regions were analyzed separately, the within-trial and between-trials repeatability was good-to-excellent in 88% (ICC > 0.80) of the data and fair in 11%. In short, the data suggest that the WalkinSense has good-to-excellent levels of accuracy and repeatability for plantar pressure variables. PMID:24701570

  15. 15 CFR 960.12 - Data policy for remote sensing space systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data policy for remote sensing space... Data policy for remote sensing space systems. (a) In accordance with the Act, if the U.S. Government..., particularly for research and public benefit purposes; or (5) The extent to which the U.S. interest...

  16. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  17. Analyzing Fourier Transforms for NASA DFRC's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiechtner, Kaitlyn Leann

    2010-01-01

    This document provides a basic overview of the fiber optic technology used for sensing stress, strain, and temperature. Also, the document summarizes the research concerning speed and accuracy of the possible mathematical algorithms that can be used for NASA DFRC's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) system.

  18. Computational modeling of multispectral remote sensing systems: Background investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aherron, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    A computational model of the deterministic and stochastic process of remote sensing has been developed based upon the results of the investigations presented. The model is used in studying concepts for improving worldwide environment and resource monitoring. A review of various atmospheric radiative transfer models is presented as well as details of the selected model. Functional forms for spectral diffuse reflectance with variability introduced are also presented. A cloud detection algorithm and the stochastic nature of remote sensing data with its implications are considered.

  19. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2016-03-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  20. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor and the Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca2+) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca2+ levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca2+-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca2+-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast. As shown in casr knock-out mice, ablation of CaSR downregulates transplacental Ca2+-transport. Receptor expression was reported in human and rat ovarian surface epithelial (ROSE) cells, where CaSR activation stimulates cell proliferation. In follicles of various species a role of CaSR activation in oocyte maturation was suggested. Based on studies in avian follicles, the activation of CaSR expressed in granulosa cells may support the survival of follicles after their selection. CaSR in rat and equine sperms was functionally linked to sperm motility and sperm capacitation. Implantation involves complex interactions between the blastocyst and the uterine epithelium. During early pregnancy, CaSR expression at the implantation site as well as in decidual cells indicates that CaSR is important for blastocyst implantation and decidualization in the rat uterus. Localization of CaSR in human extravillous cytotrophoblasts suggests a role of CaSR in placentation. Overall, evidence for functional involvement of CaSR in physiologic mammalian reproductive processes exists. Moreover, several studies reported altered expression of CaSR in cells of reproductive tissues under pathologic conditions. However, in many tissues we still lack knowledge on physiological ligands activating CaSR, CaSR-linked G-proteins, activated intracellular

  1. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor and the Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Ellinger, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast. As shown in casr knock-out mice, ablation of CaSR downregulates transplacental Ca(2+)-transport. Receptor expression was reported in human and rat ovarian surface epithelial (ROSE) cells, where CaSR activation stimulates cell proliferation. In follicles of various species a role of CaSR activation in oocyte maturation was suggested. Based on studies in avian follicles, the activation of CaSR expressed in granulosa cells may support the survival of follicles after their selection. CaSR in rat and equine sperms was functionally linked to sperm motility and sperm capacitation. Implantation involves complex interactions between the blastocyst and the uterine epithelium. During early pregnancy, CaSR expression at the implantation site as well as in decidual cells indicates that CaSR is important for blastocyst implantation and decidualization in the rat uterus. Localization of CaSR in human extravillous cytotrophoblasts suggests a role of CaSR in placentation. Overall, evidence for functional involvement of CaSR in physiologic mammalian reproductive processes exists. Moreover, several studies reported altered expression of CaSR in cells of reproductive tissues under pathologic conditions. However, in many tissues we still lack knowledge on physiological ligands activating CaSR, CaSR-linked G-proteins, activated

  2. Remote sensing approach for hydrologic assessments of complex lake systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhang, Kon Joon

    Lake studies play an important role in understanding water management, ecology, climatology, etc. because most of earth processes are strongly related to water dynamics. Because the studies have only used on-site gage readings, it is almost impossible to access individual lakes and to evaluate regional scale hydrology as a whole system. Especially in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America has millions of potholes and lakes. Measuring lake levels in this region is one of the critical issues in hydrology or other related sciences and applications. The remote sensing approach with the Geographic Information System (GIS) technique could be used to overcome the difficulty associated with on-site measurements. In this study, the SRTM data was used as a main topographic dataset because the dataset provides accurate and consistent elevation data on a worldwide basis. The first chapter introduced the whole idea of this study. In the second chapter, the elevation values of the C-band SRTM 30-meter DEM were compared with point-wise elevations from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry for Otter Tail County, MN. The accuracy of SRTM DEM was measured as a function of land cover and geomorphologic characteristics. The typical mean vertical difference between the SRTM DEM and ICESat elevations in this study was determined for each classified land use type and the data properties were investigated. Also, the feasibility of using SRTM data for hydrologic applications, especially in a region of low relief exemplified by the Otter Tail basin in Minnesota, was examined in Chapter 3. For measuring lake levels, several lake-level estimation techniques using image processing and feature detection were tested with the Landsat imagery and SRTM data and the efficiency of the techniques were evaluated in Chapter 4. Lastly, the power law distribution of lake was simulated in Chapter 5. For the simulation, one-dimensional fractal landscapes were

  3. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of the Yellowstone Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Schneider, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Yellowstone National Park (YNP) geothermal system is one of the largest in the world, with thousands of individual thermal features ranging in size from a few centimeters to tens of meters across, (e.g., fumaroles, geysers, mud pots and hot spring pools). Together, large concentrations of these thermal features make up dozens of distinct thermal areas, characterized by sparse vegetation, hydrothermally altered rocks, and usually either sinter, travertine, or acid sulfate alteration. The temperature of these thermal features generally ranges from ~30 to ~93 oC, which is the boiling temperature of water at the elevation of Yellowstone. In-situ temperature measurements of various thermal features are sparse in both space and time, but they show a dynamic time-temperature relationship. For example, as geysers erupt and send pulses of warm water down slope, the warm water cools rapidly and is then followed by another pulse of warm water, on time scales of minutes. The total heat flux from the Park’s thermal features has been indirectly estimated from chemical analysis of Cl- flux in water flowing from Yellowstone’s rivers. We are working to provide a more direct measurement, as well as estimates of time variability, of the total heat flux using satellite multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data. Over the last 10 years, NASA’s orbiting ASTER and MODIS instruments have acquired hundreds and thousands of multispectral TIR images, respectively, over the YNP area. Compared with some volcanoes, Yellowstone is a relatively low-temperature geothermal system, with low thermal contrast to the non-geothermal surrounding areas; therefore we are refining existing techniques to extract surface temperature and thermal flux information. This task is complicated by issues such as, during the day, solar heated surfaces may be warmer than nearby geothermal features; and there is some topographic (elevation) influence on surface temperatures, even at night. Still

  4. Smart materials: strain sensing and stress determination by means of nanotube sensing systems, composites, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Nagarajaiah, Satish (Inventor); Dharap, Prasad (Inventor); Zhiling, Li (Inventor); Kim, Jong Dae (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward devices comprising carbon nanotubes that are capable of detecting displacement, impact, stress, and/or strain in materials, methods of making such devices, methods for sensing/detecting/monitoring displacement, impact, stress, and/or strain via carbon nanotubes, and various applications for such methods and devices. The devices and methods of the present invention all rely on mechanically-induced electronic perturbations within the carbon nanotubes to detect and quantify such stress/strain. Such detection and quantification can rely on techniques which include, but are not limited to, electrical conductivity/conductance and/or resistivity/resistance detection/measurements, thermal conductivity detection/measurements, electroluminescence detection/measurements, photoluminescence detection/measurements, and combinations thereof. All such techniques rely on an understanding of how such properties change in response to mechanical stress and/or strain.

  5. Non Radiation Hardened Microprocessors in Spaced Based Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decoursey, Robert J.; Estes, Robert F.; Melton, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) mission is a comprehensive suite of active and passive sensors including a 20Hz 230mj Nd:YAG lidar, a visible wavelength Earth-looking camera and an imaging infrared radiometer. CALIPSO flies in formation with the Earth Observing System Post-Meridian (EOS PM) train, provides continuous, near-simultaneous measurements and is a planned 3 year mission. CALIPSO was launched into a 98 degree sun synchronous Earth orbit in April of 2006 to study clouds and aerosols and acquires over 5 gigabytes of data every 24 hours. The ground track of one CALIPSO orbit as well as high and low intensity South Atlantic Anomaly outlines is shown. CALIPSO passes through the SAA several times each day. Spaced based remote sensing systems that include multiple instruments and/or instruments such as lidar generate large volumes of data and require robust real-time hardware and software mechanisms and high throughput processors. Due to onboard storage restrictions and telemetry downlink limitations these systems must pre-process and reduce the data before sending it to the ground. This onboard processing and realtime requirement load may mean that newer more powerful processors are needed even though acceptable radiation-hardened versions have not yet been released. CALIPSO's single board computer payload controller processor is actually a set of four (4) voting non-radiation hardened COTS Power PC 603r's built on a single width VME card by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS). Significant radiation concerns for CALIPSO and other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites include the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), the north and south poles and strong solar events. Over much of South America and extending into the South Atlantic Ocean the Van Allen radiation belts dip to just 200-800km and spacecraft entering this area are subjected to high energy protons and experience higher than normal Single Event Upset

  6. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  7. [Development and application of quantum cascade laser based gas sensing system].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-yu; Wang, Ling-fang; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an ideal mid-infrared source for gas sensing in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 25 microm, due to its fast response, high sensitivity and selectivity for gas detecting. Prototypes of gas sensing system based on QCL have been developed by worldwide research groups. They have great potential in many applications, such as environment monitoring, space exploration, anti-terrorism and so on. The present paper gives a broad review of QCL gas sensing system, including the basic working principle, existing systems, and its application and future development. PMID:20939303

  8. Sensing small changes in a wave chaotic scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Taddese, Biniyam Tesfaye; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.

    2010-12-01

    Classical analogs of the quantum mechanical concepts of the Loschmidt Echo and quantum fidelity are developed with the goal of detecting small perturbations in a closed wave chaotic region. Sensing techniques that employ a one-recording-channel time-reversal-mirror, which in turn relies on time reversal invariance and spatial reciprocity of the classical wave equation, are introduced. In analogy with quantum fidelity, we employ scattering fidelity techniques which work by comparing response signals of the scattering region, by means of cross correlation and mutual information of signals. The performance of the sensing techniques is compared for various perturbations induced experimentally in an acoustic resonant cavity. The acoustic signals are parametrically processed to mitigate the effect of dissipation and to vary the spatial diversity of the sensing schemes. In addition to static boundary condition perturbations at specified locations, perturbations to the medium of wave propagation are shown to be detectable, opening up various real world sensing applications in which a false negative cannot be tolerated.

  9. Bushland evapotranspiration and agricultural remote sensing system (BEARS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution daily evapotranspiration (ET) maps would greatly assist irrigation scheduling and hydrologic modeling. Numerous remote sensing-based ET algorithms that vary in complexity are available for estimating spatially and temporally variable daily ET at a regional scale. However, implementat...

  10. Integrated Gas Sensing System of SWCNT and Cellulose Polymer Concentrator for Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes

    PubMed Central

    Im, Jisun; Sterner, Elizabeth S.; Swager, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated cellulose polymer concentrator/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sensing system is demonstrated to detect benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) vapors. The sensing system consists of functionalized cellulose as a selective concentrator disposed directly on top of a conductive SWCNT sensing layer. Functionalized cellulose concentrator (top layer) selectively adsorbs the target analyte and delivers the concentrated analyte as near as possible to the SWCNT sensing layer (bottom layer), which enables the simultaneous concentrating and sensing within a few seconds. The selectivity can be achieved by functionalizing cellulose acetate with a pentafluorophenylacetyl selector that interacts strongly with the target BTX analytes. A new design of the integrated cellulose concentrator/SWCNT sensing system allows high sensitivity with limits of detection for benzene, toluene, and m-xylene vapors of 55 ppm, 19 ppm, and 14 ppm, respectively, selectivity, and fast responses (<10 s to reach equilibrium), exhibiting the potential ability for on-site, real-time sensing applications. The sensing mechanism involves the selective adsorption of analytes in the concentrator film, which in turn mediates changes in the electronic potentials at the polymer-SWCNT interface and potentially changes in the tunneling barriers between nanotubes. PMID:26848660

  11. Assessment of Remote Sensing Systems Version-7 Rain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilburn, Kyle; Smith, Deborah; Meissner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This year, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) completed the development of its latest generation of passive microwave satellite data products: Version-7 (V7). Data are now freely available on our website www.remss.com for SSM/I F08 through F15, SSMIS F16 and F17, AMSR-E, and WindSat. V7 has been reprocessed with a consistent methodology for all sensors. All of the calibration adjustments made in V7 are based on physical effects, including: a) error in pre-launch determination of antenna spillover, b) error in the specification of the effective hot load temperature on orbit, c) error due to direct emission from the antenna, and d) error due to spacecraft and calibration targets entering the field of view during part of the scan. The methodology for deriving these calibration adjustments is based on comparing satellite observations to a common radiative transfer model over the rain-free ocean. Thus, assessment of RSS rain retrievals provides a particularly strong test of the intercalibration, since these observations were not used in the inter-calibration. We will show that the inter-satellite differences in V7 rain rates are considerably smaller than in Version-6 (V6). In addition to assessing the inter-calibration of V7 rain rates, our presentation will also assess the effect of changes made to the rain algorithm in V7. A change made to the beamfilling correction in our rain algorithm has increased the contribution of light rain rates (< 5 mm/hour) towards the mean rate at middle and high latitudes. This has increased the extratropical mean rain rate by about 30%, while leaving tropical mean rain rates unchanged to within 1%. The total effect of these changes has increased the global mean rain rate in V7 by 16% over V6. We will present ground validation of RSS V7 rain retrievals compared with in situ rain gauge measurements from TAO, TRITON, PIRATA, and RAMA buoys across the tropics, PACRAIN gauges on small tropical islands, and against coastal GPCC gauges in the middle

  12. Assessment of Remote Sensing Systems Version-7 Rain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilburn, K. A.; Smith, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    This year, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) completed the development of its latest generation of passive microwave satellite data products: Version-7 (V7). Data are now freely available on our website www.remss.com for SSM/I F08 through F15, SSMIS F16 and F17, AMSR-E, and WindSat. V7 has been reprocessed with a consistent methodology for all sensors. All of the calibration adjustments made in V7 are based on physical effects, including: a) error in pre-launch determination of antenna spillover, b) error in the specification of the effective hot load temperature on orbit, c) error due to direct emission from the antenna, and d) error due to spacecraft and calibration targets entering the field of view during part of the scan. The methodology for deriving these calibration adjustments is based on comparing satellite observations to a common radiative transfer model over the rain-free ocean. Thus, assessment of RSS rain retrievals provides a particularly strong test of the intercalibration, since these observations were not used in the inter-calibration. We will show that the inter-satellite differences in V7 rain rates are considerably smaller than in Version-6 (V6). In addition to assessing the inter-calibration of V7 rain rates, our presentation will also assess the effect of changes made to the rain algorithm in V7. A change made to the beamfilling correction in our rain algorithm has increased the contribution of light rain rates (< 5 mm/hour) towards the mean rate at middle and high latitudes. This has increased the extratropical mean rain rate by about 30%, while leaving tropical mean rain rates unchanged to within 1%. The total effect of these changes has increased the global mean rain rate in V7 by 16% over V6. We will present ground validation of RSS V7 rain retrievals compared with in situ rain gauge measurements from TAO, TRITON, and PIRATA buoys across the tropics, PACRAIN gauges on small tropical islands, and against coastal GPCC gauges in the middle

  13. NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) Fiber Optic Sensing System (FOSS) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick; Hamory, Phil; Pena, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Attached is a power point presentation created to assist the Tech Transfer Office and the FOSS project team members in responding to inquiries from the public about the capabilities of the Fiber Optic Sensing System.

  14. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate.

  15. Sense-and-Avoid Equivalent Level of Safety Definition for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Revision 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a pilot on-board the aircraft, they cannot literally comply with the "see and avoid" requirement beyond a short distance from the location of the unmanned pilot. No performance standards are presently defined for unmanned Sense and Avoid systems, and the FAA has no published approval criteria for a collision avoidance system. Before the FAA can develop the necessary guidance (rules / regulations / policy) regarding the see-and-avoid requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), a concise understanding of the term "equivalent level of safety" must be attained. Since this term is open to interpretation, the UAS industry and FAA need to come to an agreement on how this term can be defined and applied for a safe and acceptable collision avoidance capability for unmanned aircraft. Defining an equivalent level of safety (ELOS) for sense and avoid is one of the first steps in understanding the requirement and developing a collision avoidance capability. This document provides a functional level definition of see-and-avoid as it applies to unmanned aircraft. The sense and avoid ELOS definition is intended as a bridge between the see and avoid requirement and the system level requirements for unmanned aircraft sense and avoid systems. Sense and avoid ELOS is defined in a rather abstract way, meaning that it is not technology or system specific, and the definition provides key parameters (and a context for those parameters) to focus the development of cooperative and non-cooperative sense and avoid system requirements.

  16. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  17. [Geographical Information Systems and remote sensing technologies in parasitological epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Cascone, C; Sibilio, G; Musella, V; Taddei, R; Cringoli, G

    2004-06-01

    Parasites have natural habitats in the same way as a species: they are found in focal areas where the spatial distribution of the parasite, host, vector and required environmental conditions coincide. The spatial distribution of parasites is, therefore, a function of the interaction between abiotic and biotic environmental factors. The boundaries of distributions are not strictly fixed in space and time and may fluctuate with climate and other components of the environment or anthropical factors. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies are being used increasingly to study the spatial and temporal patterns of disease. GIS can be used to complement conventional ecological monitoring and modelling techniques, and provide means to portray complex relationships in the ecology of disease. In addition, the use of GIS and RS to identify environmental features allows determination of risk factors and delimitation of areas at risk, permitting more rational allocation of resources for cost-effective control. Since 1996, GIS have been used in our territorial cross-sectional and longitudinal parasitological surveys in order to experiment new applications to plan sampling protocols and to display quickly, clearly, and analytically the spatial and/or temporal distribution of parasitological data. The use of GIS allowed us to draw the following types of descriptive parasitological maps: distribution maps, distribution maps with proportioned peaks, choroplethic maps with proportioned peaks, point distribution maps and point distribution maps with proportioned peaks. In a recent study, GIS and RS technologies have been used also to identify environmental features that influence the distribution of paramphistomosis in sheep from the southern Italian Apennines and to develop a preliminary risk assessment model. A GIS was constructed using RS and landscape feature data together with paramphistome positive survey records from 197 georeferenced ovine

  18. Modeling Chemical Detection Sensitivities of Active and Passive Remote Sensing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scharlemann, E T

    2003-07-28

    During nearly a decade of remote sensing programs under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL has developed a set of performance modeling codes--called APRS--for both Active and Passive Remote Sensing systems. These codes emphasize chemical detection sensitivity in the form of minimum detectable quantities with and without background spectral clutter and in the possible presence of other interfering chemicals. The codes have been benchmarked against data acquired in both active and passive remote sensing programs at LLNL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The codes include, as an integral part of the performance modeling, many of the data analysis techniques developed in the DOE's active and passive remote sensing programs (e.g., ''band normalization'' for an active system, principal component analysis for a passive system).

  19. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  20. Extrinsic fiber optic displacement sensors and displacement sensing systems

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Kent A.; Gunther, Michael F.; Vengsarkar, Ashish M.; Claus, Richard O.

    1994-01-01

    An extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor comprises a single-mode fiber, used as an input/output fiber, and a multimode fiber, used purely as a reflector, to form an air gap within a silica tube that acts as a Fizeau cavity. The Fresnel reflection from the glass/air interface at the front of the air gap (reference reflection) and the reflection from the air/glass interface at the far end of the air gap (sensing reflection) interfere in the input/output fiber. The two fibers are allowed to move in the silica tube, and changes in the air gap length cause changes in the phase difference between the reference reflection and the sensing reflection. This phase difference is observed as changes in intensity of the light monitored at the output arm of a fused biconical tapered coupler. The extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor behaves identically whether it is surface mounted or embedded, which is unique to the extrinsic sensor in contrast to intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors. The sensor may be modified to provide a quadrature phase shift extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor for the detection of both the amplitude and the relative polarity of dynamically varying strain. The quadrature light signals may be generated by either mechanical or optical means. A plurality of the extrinsic sensors may connected in cascade and multiplexed to allow monitoring by a single analyzer.

  1. Extrinsic fiber optic displacement sensors and displacement sensing systems

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, K.A.; Gunther, M.F.; Vengsarkar, A.M.; Claus, R.O.

    1994-04-05

    An extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor comprises a single-mode fiber, used as an input/output fiber, and a multimode fiber, used purely as a reflector, to form an air gap within a silica tube that acts as a Fizeau cavity. The Fresnel reflection from the glass/air interface at the front of the air gap (reference reflection) and the reflection from the air/glass interface at the far end of the air gap (sensing reflection) interfere in the input/output fiber. The two fibers are allowed to move in the silica tube, and changes in the air gap length cause changes in the phase difference between the reference reflection and the sensing reflection. This phase difference is observed as changes in intensity of the light monitored at the output arm of a fused biconical tapered coupler. The extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor behaves identically whether it is surface mounted or embedded, which is unique to the extrinsic sensor in contrast to intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors. The sensor may be modified to provide a quadrature phase shift extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor for the detection of both the amplitude and the relative polarity of dynamically varying strain. The quadrature light signals may be generated by either mechanical or optical means. A plurality of the extrinsic sensors may connected in cascade and multiplexed to allow monitoring by a single analyzer. 14 figures.

  2. Market Assessment of Forward-Looking Turbulence Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2001-01-01

    In recognition of the importance of turbulence mitigation as a tool to improve aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program developed a Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Sub-element. The objective of this effort is to develop highly reliable turbulence detection technologies for commercial transport aircraft to sense dangerous turbulence with sufficient time warning so that defensive measures can be implemented and prevent passenger and crew injuries. Current research involves three forward sensing products to improve the cockpit awareness of possible turbulence hazards. X-band radar enhancements will improve the capabilities of current weather radar to detect turbulence associated with convective activity. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a laser-based technology that is capable of detecting turbulence in clear air. Finally, a possible Radar-LIDAR hybrid sensor is envisioned to detect the full range of convective and clear air turbulence. To support decisions relating to the development of these three forward-looking turbulence sensor technologies, the objective of this study was defined as examination of cost and implementation metrics. Tasks performed included the identification of cost factors and certification issues, the development and application of an implementation model, and the development of cost budget/targets for installing the turbulence sensor and associated software devices into the commercial transport fleet.

  3. Institutional issues affecting the integration and use of remotely sensed data and geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Estes, J.E.; Jensen, J.R.; Greenlee, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The developers as well as the users of remotely sensed data and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are associated with nearly all types of institutions in government, industry, and academia. Individuals in these various institutions often find the barriers to accepting remote sensing and GIS are not necessarily technical in nature, but can be attributed to the institutions themselves. Several major institutional issues that affect the technologies of remote sensing and GIS are data availability, data marketing and costs, equipment availability and costs, standards and practices, education and training, and organizational infrastructures. Not only are problems associated with these issues identified, but needs and opportunities also are discussed. -from Authors

  4. GNSS-based passive radar sensing using hybrid-aperture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Randy; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Suarez, Hernan; Pan, Yu; Huang, Yih-Ru

    2013-05-01

    A hybrid-aperture radar system is being developed for passive, GNSS-based sensing and imaging missions. Different from previous work, the real aperture (RA) array has excellent cross-range resolution and electronic scanning capability, and synthetic aperture processing is applied for the dimension along the UAV/aircraft flight path. The hybrid aperture thus provides real-time, combined sensing capability and multiple functions. Multi-level signal synchronization and tracking is used to ensure the signal phase coherency and integrity. The advantages of covert radar sensing and reduced onboard computing complexity of this sensor are being demonstrated through experiments.

  5. Quorum sensing signal-response systems in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Papenfort, Kai; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2016-08-11

    Bacteria use quorum sensing to orchestrate gene expression programmes that underlie collective behaviours. Quorum sensing relies on the production, release, detection and group-level response to extracellular signalling molecules, which are called autoinducers. Recent work has discovered new autoinducers in Gram-negative bacteria, shown how these molecules are recognized by cognate receptors, revealed new regulatory components that are embedded in canonical signalling circuits and identified novel regulatory network designs. In this Review we examine how, together, these features of quorum sensing signal-response systems combine to control collective behaviours in Gram-negative bacteria and we discuss the implications for host-microbial associations and antibacterial therapy. PMID:27510864

  6. High-resolution hyperspectral single-pixel imaging system based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, Filipe; Abolbashari, Mehrdad; Araújo, Francisco M.; Correia, Miguel V.; Farahi, Faramarz

    2012-07-01

    For the first time, a high-resolution hyperspectral single-pixel imaging system based on compressive sensing is presented and demonstrated. The system integrates a digital micro-mirror device array to optically compress the image to be acquired and an optical spectrum analyzer to enable high spectral resolution. The system's ability to successfully reconstruct images with 10 pm spectral resolution is proven.

  7. STANSORT - Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratory pattern recognition and classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Prelat, A.; Lyon, R. J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The principal barrier to routine use of the ERTS multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes, rather than photointerpretation examination of the images, has been the high computing costs involved due to the large quantity of information (4 Mbytes) contained in a scene. STANSORT, the interactive program package developed at Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratories alleviates this problem, providing an extremely rapid, flexible and low cost tool for data reduction, scene classification, species searches and edge detection. The primary classification procedure, utilizing a search with variable gate widths, for similarities in the normalized, digitized spectra is described along with associated procedures for data refinement and extraction of information. The more rigorous statistical classification procedures are also explained.

  8. System and method for glass processing and temperature sensing

    DOEpatents

    Shepard, Chester L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-09-28

    Techniques for measuring the temperature at various locations through the thickness of glass products and to control the glass processing operation with the sensed temperature information are disclosed. Fluorescence emission of iron or cerium in glass is excited and imaged onto segmented detectors. Spatially resolved temperature data are obtained through correlation of the detected photoluminescence signal with location within the glass. In one form the detected photoluminescence is compared to detected scattered excitation light to determine temperature. Stress information is obtained from the time history of the temperature profile data and used to evaluate the quality of processed glass. A heating or cooling rate of the glass is also controlled to maintain a predetermined desired temperature profile in the glass.

  9. System and Method for Null-Lens Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Peter C. (Inventor); Thompson, Patrick L. (Inventor); Aronstein, David L. (Inventor); Bolcar, Matthew R. (Inventor); Smith, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of measuring aberrations in a null-lens including assembly and alignment aberrations. The null-lens may be used for measuring aberrations in an aspheric optic with the null-lens. Light propagates from the aspheric optic location through the null-lens, while sweeping a detector through the null-lens focal plane. Image data being is collected at locations about said focal plane. Light is simulated propagating to the collection locations for each collected image. Null-lens aberrations may extracted, e.g., applying image-based wavefront-sensing to collected images and simulation results. The null-lens aberrations improve accuracy in measuring aspheric optic aberrations.

  10. Simulation of Peak Flows Using Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña Hernández, F.; Ba, K. M.; Guerra-Cobián, V.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we utilized remotely sensed data (radar and satellite precipitation products) to simulate the peak discharges of some storm events of the Escondido River. This is a poorly gauged watershed located in Northern Mexico, in the State of Coahuila and is a sub-basin of Rio Bravo, known also as Río Grande. The radar data are from NOAA (Radar KDFX located in Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas). We used two satellite product estimates PERSIANN and CMORPH. These three estimated precipitation products have been compared using the hydrologic model HEC-HMS to simulate the peak discharge. The results of the simulations show the importance of the use of this type of data in hydrologic modeling.

  11. Recognition as a challenging label-free optical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauglitz, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly used in application areas of environmental analysis, healthcare and food safety. The quality of the biosensor's results depends on the interaction layer, the detection principles, and evaluation strategies, not only on the biopolymer layer but also especially on recognition elements. Using label-free optical sensing, non-specific interaction between sample and transducer has to be reduced, and the selectivity of recognition elements has to be improved. For this reason, strategies to avoid non-specific interaction even in blood and milk are discussed, a variety of upcoming recognition is given. Based on the classification of direct optical detection methods, some examples for the above mentioned applications are reviewed. Trends as well as advantages of parallel multisport detection for kinetic evaluation are also part of the lecture.

  12. Atmospheric simulator and calibration system for remote sensing radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A system for calibrating the MAPS (measurement of air pollution from satellites) instruments was developed. The design of the system provides a capability for simulating a broad range of radiant energy source temperatures and a broad range of atmospheric pressures, temperatures, and pollutant concentrations for a single slab atmosphere. The system design and the system operation are described.

  13. Manipulation based on sensor-directed control: An integrated end effector and touch sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hand/touch sensing system is described that, when mounted on a position-controlled manipulator, greatly expands the kinds of automated manipulation tasks that can be undertaken. Because of the variety of coordinate conversions, control equations, and completion criteria, control is necessarily dependent upon a small digital computer. The sensing system is designed both to be rugged and to sense the necessary touch and force information required to execute a wide range of manipulation tasks. The system consists of a six-axis wrist sensor, external touch sensors, and a pair of matrix jaw sensors. Details of the construction of the particular sensors, the integration of the end effector into the sensor system, and the control algorithms for using the sensor outputs to perform manipulation tasks automatically are discussed.

  14. Passive sensing and imaging for GIS-PMS: system concept and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, D.; Chung, H.; Chen, S. E.

    2008-03-01

    A GIS-based data management system has been proposed for pavement management due to the spatial capability in organizing diverse geo-referenced information. The technology can be further enhanced by nondestructive distributed sensing. To target a wide study area, this research proposes a low-cost vibro-acousto passive sensing technique that embeds within roadways for long-term sensing. Using self-sustaining MEM sensors, the technology detects acoustic signals and use relative rating to assess pavement conditions. The detection technique echoes the traditional chain-drag technology in that the same sound detection is deployed. Coupling with previously established AMPIS pavement imaging and distress detection technique, the proposed system can evolve to be a more powerful new-generation GIS-PMS. This paper introduces the system concept and describes the philosophy behind the system and some of the challenges that we are currently attempting to solve.

  15. A Three-Dimensional Microdisplacement Sensing System Based on MEMS Bulk-Silicon Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junjie; Lei, Lihua; Chen, Xin; Cai, Xiaoyu; Li, Yuan; Han, Tao

    2014-01-01

    For the dimensional measurement and characterization of microsized and nanosized components, a three-dimensional microdisplacement sensing system was developed using the piezoresistive effect in silicon. The sensor was fabricated using microelectromechanical system bulk-silicon technology, and it was validated using the finite element method. A precise data acquisition circuit with an accuracy of 20 μV was designed to obtain weak voltage signals. By calibration, the sensing system was shown to have a sensitivity of 17.29 mV/μm and 4.59 mV/μm in the axial and lateral directions, respectively; the nonlinearity in these directions was 0.8% and 1.0% full scale, respectively. A full range of 4.6 μm was achieved in the axial direction. Results of a resolution test indicated that the sensing system had a resolution of 5 nm in the axial direction and 10 nm in the lateral direction. PMID:25360581

  16. Monte Carlo analysis of voxel resolution of off-axially distributed image sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao; Piao, Yongri; Cho, Myungjin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a generalization framework to analyze the effect of voxel resolution on Monte Carlo simulation for off-axially distributed image sensing (ODIS) system under fixed resource constraints. Our framework can evaluate the performance of ODIS systems based on various sensing parameters such as the slanted angle between the optical axis and the moving direction, the number of cameras, the pixel size, the distance between the optical axis and the point source plane and so on. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on this framework to evaluate ODIS system performance as a function of sensing parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on quantitative analysis of ODIS systems under fixed resource constraints.

  17. On the Influence of Quorum Sensing in the Competition Between Bacteria and Immune System of Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergola, Paolo; Zhang, Juan; Cerasuolo, Marianna; Ma, Zhien

    2008-07-01

    The competition between bacteria and innate immune system of invertebrate animals is described by means of ODEs. Two different systems are considered corresponding to the absence or the presence of Quorum Sensing (Q.S.) mechanism. Qualitative properties of the solutions of both systems as well as the stability of their meaningful equilibria are analyzed. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functions, global asymptotic stability results have been proved when the quorum sensing is absent. In order to better illustrate the dynamics of competition, some numerical simulations, obtained by means of MATHEMATICA (Wolfram Research, 1989) are presented.

  18. Fiber optic medical pressure-sensing system employing intelligent self-calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fiber-optic catheter-type pressure-sensing system that has been successfully introduced for medical diagnostic applications. We present overall sensors and optoelectronics designs, and highlight product development efforts that lead to a reliable and accurate disposable pressure-sensing system. In particular, the incorporation of an intelligent on-site self-calibration approach allows limited sensor reuses for reducing end-user costs and for system adaptation to wide sensor variabilities associated with low-cost manufacturing processes. We demonstrate that fiber-optic sensors can be cost-effectively produced to satisfy needs of certain medical market segments.

  19. Remote sensing of moisture and nutrient stress in turfgrass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Jason Keith

    Management of irrigation and fertility on a golf course or other large turfgrass area requires a significant amount of time scouting for and identifying problem areas to maintain optimum turfgrass quality. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the relationship between remotely sensed reflectance data collected from a turfgrass canopy and the associated phosphorus and nitrogen content of turfgrass tissue, and to determine the relationship between reflectance data and soil moisture content as determined by time domain reflectometry (TDR). Phosphorus deficiency symptoms decreased and biomass production increased at P rates above 1.0 g m-2 with a single application while no increase in soil-P was observed. Reflectance measurements were taken in increments from 400 to 1050 nm and correlated with plant tissue P concentration, chlorophyll content, plant biomass and visual quality. Stepwise regression identified a model utilizing reflectance in the blue, yellow, orange, and red regions of the spectrum that explained 73% of the variability in plant tissue P concentration for all sampling dates in 2002 and 2003. Few correlations were found between vegetative indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and plant response. Results indicate that P deficiencies of creeping bentgrass can be detected through the use of remote sensing. P deficiencies were corrected with a single foliar application of P at rates above 1.5 g m-2. Using partial least-squares regression, our results indicate a weak relationship between the actual and predicted values for turfgrass quality, biomass production, and chlorophyll content under varying rates of N fertilization. However, a strong relationship was observed between actual and predicted values for N concentration of the plant tissue during 2002 and 2003 (r2 = 0.90 and 0.74 respectively). Similarly, no correlation was observed between visual drought stress ratings and the associated soil moisture content for

  20. Research On Fiber Optic Sensing Systems And Their Application As Final Repository Monitoring Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Jobmann, M.; Biurrun, E.

    2003-02-24

    For several years, fiber-optic sensing devices had been used for straightforward on/off monitoring functions such as presence and position detection. Recently, they gained interest as they offer a novel, exciting technology for a multitude of sensing applications. In the deep geological environment most physical properties, and thus most parameters important to safety, can be measured with fiber-optic technology. Typical examples are displacements, strains, radiation dose and dose rate, presence of some gases, temperature, pressure, etc. Their robustness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, as well as their large bandwidths and data rates ensure high reliability and superior performance. Moreover, the networking capabilities of meanwhile available fiber-optic sensors allow for efficient management of large sensor systems. Distributed sensing with multiple sensing locations on a single fiber reduces significantly the number of cables and connecting points. Reliable, cost effective, and maintenance-free solutions can thus be implemented.

  1. The potential of expert systems for remote sensing application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the status and potential of artificial intelligence-driven expert systems in the role of image data analysis is presented. An expert system is defined and its structure is summarized. Three such systems designed for image interpretation are outlined. The use of an expert system to detect changes on the earth's surface is discussed, and the components of a knowledge-based image interpretation system and their make-up are outlined. An example of how such a system should work for an area in the tropics where deforestation has occurred is presented as a sequence of situation/action decisions.

  2. REMOTE SENSING OF OZONE USING AN INFRARED DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype airborne downlooking infrared differential absorption system using CO2 TEA (transverse excited atmospheric) lasers is described. The system uses two wavelengths and topographic reflection to measure the integrated column concentration of ozone between the laser source...

  3. Bacteria sensing mechanisms in Drosophila gut: Local and systemic consequences.

    PubMed

    Capo, Florence; Charroux, Bernard; Royet, Julien

    2016-11-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on their exoskeleton, their gut and even in some cases within their own somatic and germ line cells. This microbiota that can represent up to a few percent of the insect biomass may have a pervasive impact on many aspects of insect biology including physiology, nutrient acquisition, ageing, behaviour and resistance to infection. Mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, the mouth-gut axis represents the first and principal access of external bacteria to the host. Soon after ingestion, the feeding insect needs to rapidly and accurately identify the ingested microbes and decide whether to preserve them if beneficial or neutral, or to eliminate them if potentially harmful. We will review here the recent data acquired in Drosophila on the mechanisms that invertebrate enterocytes rely on to detect the presence of bacteria in the gut. We will compare these modes of bacteria sensing to those in other immune competent tissues and try to rationalize differences that may exist. We will also analyse the physiological consequences of bacteria detection not only locally for the gut itself but also for remote tissues. Finally, we will describe the physiological disorders that can occur due to inaccurate bacteria identification by the gut epithelium. PMID:26778296

  4. Mycofabricated biosilver nanoparticles interrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Braj R; Singh, Brahma N; Singh, Akanksha; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, Alim H; Singh, Harikesh B

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical communication process that Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses to regulate virulence and biofilm formation. Disabling of QS is an emerging approach for combating its pathogenicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but not for the attenuation of bacterial QS. Here we mycofabricated AgNPs (mfAgNPs) using metabolites of soil fungus Rhizopus arrhizus BRS-07 and tested their effect on QS-regulated virulence and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional studies demonstrated that mfAgNPs reduced the levels of LasIR-RhlIR. Treatment of mfAgNPs inhibited biofilm formation, production of several virulence factors (e.g. LasA protease, LasB elastrase, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, pyochelin, rhamnolipid, and alginate) and reduced AHLs production. Further genes quantification analyses revealed that mfAgNPs significantly down-regulated QS-regulated genes, specifically those encoded to the secretion of virulence factors. The results clearly indicated the anti-virulence property of mfAgNPs by inhibiting P. aeruginosa QS signaling. PMID:26347993

  5. Novel electrode systems for amperometric sensing: the case of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzi, F.; Pigani, L.; Zanardi, C.; Zanfrognini, B.; Ruggeri, S.; Maccaferri, G.; Seeber, R.

    2014-10-01

    After working for years on organic materials, e.g., polythiophenes and relevant composites with metal nanoparticles, we shifted our attention to unusual metals, chosen as candidates to effective amperometric sensing on the basis of the atomic structure and crystalline properties. The present contribution aims at proposing an electrode material rarely employed in electroanalysis, namely Ti. We have experimented that the peculiar nature of Ti leads to electrochemical behavior quite different with respect to the conventional electrode materials, including those based on TiO2 (nano)particles. Our work focuses on the determination of strong oxidizing species, namely H2O2 and HClO, and noble metal ions, namely Au(III). Strong oxidizing species are commodity chemicals employed in a number of different industrial processes, in which usually high concentration levels should be monitored. The procedures proposed have been successfully applied also in complex matrices, such as detergent samples. As to Au(III) determination, it also constitutes a crucial tool in order to increase the efficiency of hydrometallurgic processes and of the recovery of precious materials from electronic waste. Ti electrodes allow the determination of dissolved Au species in the presence of other metal ions. In any cases the electrodes exhibit reproducible and repeatable electrochemical responses, even in the presence of high concentration of organic fouling species typical of bio-sorption processes.

  6. A biomimetic tactile sensing system based on polyvinylidene fluoride film.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yi; Tian, Hongying; Guo, Chao; Li, Xiang; Sun, Hongshuai; Wang, Peiyuan; Qian, Chenghui; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film has been widely investigated as a sensing material due to its outstanding properties such as biocompatibility, high thermal stability, good chemical resistance, high piezo-, pyro- and ferro-electric properties. This paper reports on the design, test, and analysis of a biomimetic tactile sensor based on PVDF film. This sensor consists of a PVDF film with aluminum electrodes, a pair of insulating layers, and a "handprint" friction layer with a copper foil. It is designed for easy fabrication and high reliability in outputting signals. In bionics, the fingerprint of the glabrous skin plays an important role during object handling. Therefore, in order to enhance friction and to provide better manipulation, the ridges of the fingertips were introduced into the design of the proposed tactile sensor. And, a basic experimental study on the selection of the high sensitivity fingerprint type for the biomimetic sensor was performed. In addition, we proposed a texture distinguish experiment to verify the sensor sensitivity. The experiment's results show that the novel biomimetic sensor is effective in discriminating object surface characteristics. Furthermore, an efficient visual application program (LabVIEW) and a quantitative evaluation method were proposed for the verification of the biomimetic sensor. The proposed tactile sensor shows great potential for contact force and slip measurements. PMID:26931883

  7. A biomimetic tactile sensing system based on polyvinylidene fluoride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yi; Tian, Hongying; Guo, Chao; Li, Xiang; Sun, Hongshuai; Wang, Peiyuan; Qian, Chenghui; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film has been widely investigated as a sensing material due to its outstanding properties such as biocompatibility, high thermal stability, good chemical resistance, high piezo-, pyro- and ferro-electric properties. This paper reports on the design, test, and analysis of a biomimetic tactile sensor based on PVDF film. This sensor consists of a PVDF film with aluminum electrodes, a pair of insulating layers, and a "handprint" friction layer with a copper foil. It is designed for easy fabrication and high reliability in outputting signals. In bionics, the fingerprint of the glabrous skin plays an important role during object handling. Therefore, in order to enhance friction and to provide better manipulation, the ridges of the fingertips were introduced into the design of the proposed tactile sensor. And, a basic experimental study on the selection of the high sensitivity fingerprint type for the biomimetic sensor was performed. In addition, we proposed a texture distinguish experiment to verify the sensor sensitivity. The experiment's results show that the novel biomimetic sensor is effective in discriminating object surface characteristics. Furthermore, an efficient visual application program (LabVIEW) and a quantitative evaluation method were proposed for the verification of the biomimetic sensor. The proposed tactile sensor shows great potential for contact force and slip measurements.

  8. An integrated active sensing system for damage identifcation and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wait, J. R.; Park, G. H.; Sohn, H.; Farrar, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage. Two damage identification techniques, Lamb wave propagation and impedance-based methods, are investigated utilizing piezoelectric (PZT) actuators/sensors. The Lamb wave propagation and the impedance methods operate in high frequency ranges (typically > 30 kHz) at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks, debonding, delamination, and loose connections. In Lamb wave propagation, one PZT is used to launch an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of sensors. The technique used for the Lamb wave propagation method looks for the possibility of damage by tracking changes in transmission velocity and wave attenuation/reflections. Experimental results show that this method works well for surface anomalies. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT. Through monitoring the measured electrical impedance and comparing it to a baseline measurement, a decision can be made about whether or not structural damage has occurred or is imminent. In addition, significant advances have been made recently by incorporating advanced statistic-based signal processing techniques into the impedance methods. To date, several sets of experiments have been conducted on a cantilevered aluminum plate and composite plate to demonstrate the feasibility of this combined active sensing technology.

  9. Mycofabricated biosilver nanoparticles interrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Braj R.; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Akanksha; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, Alim H.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical communication process that Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses to regulate virulence and biofilm formation. Disabling of QS is an emerging approach for combating its pathogenicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but not for the attenuation of bacterial QS. Here we mycofabricated AgNPs (mfAgNPs) using metabolites of soil fungus Rhizopus arrhizus BRS-07 and tested their effect on QS-regulated virulence and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional studies demonstrated that mfAgNPs reduced the levels of LasIR-RhlIR. Treatment of mfAgNPs inhibited biofilm formation, production of several virulence factors (e.g. LasA protease, LasB elastrase, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, pyochelin, rhamnolipid, and alginate) and reduced AHLs production. Further genes quantification analyses revealed that mfAgNPs significantly down-regulated QS-regulated genes, specifically those encoded to the secretion of virulence factors. The results clearly indicated the anti-virulence property of mfAgNPs by inhibiting P. aeruginosa QS signaling. PMID:26347993

  10. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Site-Specific Agricultural Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for site-specific management in agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been avail...

  11. Patterns, Probabilities, and People: Making Sense of Quantitative Change in Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle Hoda; Wilensky, Uri J.

    2015-01-01

    The learning sciences community has made significant progress in understanding how people think and learn about complex systems. But less is known about how people make sense of the quantitative patterns and mathematical formalisms often used to study these systems. In this article, we make a case for attending to and supporting connections…

  12. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sensing device installed in such system. (b) Where sensors are operated from the same power source as the belt drive, each sensor shall be equipped with a standby power source which shall be capable of remaining operative for at least 4 hours after a power cutoff. (c) Sensor systems shall include a...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sensing device installed in such system. (b) Where sensors are operated from the same power source as the belt drive, each sensor shall be equipped with a standby power source which shall be capable of remaining operative for at least 4 hours after a power cutoff. (c) Sensor systems shall include a...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sensing device installed in such system. (b) Where sensors are operated from the same power source as the belt drive, each sensor shall be equipped with a standby power source which shall be capable of remaining operative for at least 4 hours after a power cutoff. (c) Sensor systems shall include a...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sensing device installed in such system. (b) Where sensors are operated from the same power source as the belt drive, each sensor shall be equipped with a standby power source which shall be capable of remaining operative for at least 4 hours after a power cutoff. (c) Sensor systems shall include a...

  16. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  17. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  18. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  19. Guided wave generation and sensing system using a single laser source and optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Park, Hyun-Jun; Sohn, Hoon; Kwon, Il-bum

    2010-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques based on guided waves have been of great interests to many researchers. Among various SHM devices used for guided wave generation and sensing, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been widely used because of their light weight, non-intrusive nature and compactness. To best take advantage of their merits, combination of PZT-based guided wave excitation and FBG-based sensing has been attempted by a few researchers. However, the PZT-based actuation and the FBG-based sensing are basically two independent systems in the past studies. This study proposes an integrated PZT/FBG system using a single laser source. Since power and data delivery is based on optical fibers, it may alleviate problems associated with conventional wire cables such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) and power/data attenuation. The experimental procedure for the proposed system is as follows. First, a tunable laser is used as the common power source for guided wave generation and sensing. The tunable laser beam is modulated and amplified to contain an arbitrary waveform. Then, it is transmitted to the PZT transducer node through an optical fiber for guided wave actuation. The transmitted laser beam is also used with the FBG sensor to measure high-speed strain changes induced by guided waves. Feasibility of the proposed technique has been experimentally demonstrated using aluminum plates. The results show that the proposed system could properly generate and sense the guided waves compared to the conventional methods.

  20. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  1. Commercialization of the land remote sensing system: An examination of mechanisms and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, J. K.; Gaelick, C.; Greenberg, J. S.; Logsdon, J.; Monk, T.

    1983-01-01

    In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.

  2. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  3. A Layered Image Sensing System Considering Movement of Humanoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Kengo; Tomiyama, Ken

    A new layered image processing system is proposed for robots under motion and is evaluated for its performance by implementing it onto a small-size humanoid robot. The proposed system is a layered system in both resolution and processing method. As such, the system can employ appropriate processing methods for layers with different resolutions and, as a result, can avoid unnecessary processing of images corrupted by robot motions. It can improve the image processing speed of floor images because of this and because the image processing is performed simultaneously with robot motions. The proposed method and the results of verification experiments are discussed here.

  4. Differential pressure sensing system for airfoils usable in turbine engines

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Stampahar, Maria E.

    2005-09-13

    A detection system for identifying airfoils having a cooling systems with orifices that are plugged with contaminants or with showerheads having a portion burned off. The detection system measures pressures at different locations and calculates or measures a differential pressure. The differential pressure may be compared with a known benchmark value to determine whether the differential pressure has changed. Changes in the differential pressure may indicate that one or more of the orifices in a cooling system of an airfoil are plugged or that portions of, or all of, a showerhead has burned off.

  5. Software Suite to Support In-Flight Characterization of Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Holekamp, Kara; Gasser, Gerald; Tabor, Wes; Vaughan, Ronald; Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Kenton, Ross

    2014-01-01

    A characterization software suite was developed to facilitate NASA's in-flight characterization of commercial remote sensing systems. Characterization of aerial and satellite systems requires knowledge of ground characteristics, or ground truth. This information is typically obtained with instruments taking measurements prior to or during a remote sensing system overpass. Acquired ground-truth data, which can consist of hundreds of measurements with different data formats, must be processed before it can be used in the characterization. Accurate in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems relies on multiple field data acquisitions that are efficiently processed, with minimal error. To address the need for timely, reproducible ground-truth data, a characterization software suite was developed to automate the data processing methods. The characterization software suite is engineering code, requiring some prior knowledge and expertise to run. The suite consists of component scripts for each of the three main in-flight characterization types: radiometric, geometric, and spatial. The component scripts for the radiometric characterization operate primarily by reading the raw data acquired by the field instruments, combining it with other applicable information, and then reducing it to a format that is appropriate for input into MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission), an Air Force Research Laboratory-developed radiative transport code used to predict at-sensor measurements. The geometric scripts operate by comparing identified target locations from the remote sensing image to known target locations, producing circular error statistics defined by the Federal Geographic Data Committee Standards. The spatial scripts analyze a target edge within the image, and produce estimates of Relative Edge Response and the value of the Modulation Transfer Function at the Nyquist frequency. The software suite enables rapid, efficient, automated processing of

  6. On the transfer of remote sensing technology to an operational data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbet, J. D.; Bradford, L. H., Jr.; White, T. T.; Purnell, R. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Data processing techniques for the transfer of remote sensing technology to an operational data system are evaluated. The study is aimed at developing a scheme for the improvement of the quantifying cost/performance ratio, noting the timeliness of the results, the ease of system development, system operating costs, and accuracy. The method is applicable to the Production Area and Yield Estimation System (PAYES) and the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE).

  7. Ground-Based Sensing System for Weed Mapping in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ground-based weed mapping system was developed to measure weed intensity and distribution in a cotton field. The weed mapping system includes WeedSeeker® PhD600 sensor modules to indicate the presence of weeds between rows, a GPS receiver to provide spatial information, and a data acquisition and ...

  8. Multidimensional Mapping Method Using an Arrayed Sensing System for Cross-Reactivity Screening

    PubMed Central

    Chocron, Sheryl E.; Weisberger, Bryce M.; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Winkler, Thomas E.; Kim, Eunkyoung; Kelly, Deanna L.; Payne, Gregory F.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    When measuring chemical information in biological fluids, challenges of cross-reactivity arise, especially in sensing applications where no biological recognition elements exist. An understanding of the cross-reactions involved in these complex matrices is necessary to guide the design of appropriate sensing systems. This work presents a methodology for investigating cross-reactions in complex fluids. First, a systematic screening of matrix components is demonstrated in buffer-based solutions. Second, to account for the effect of the simultaneous presence of these species in complex samples, the responses of buffer-based simulated mixtures of these species were characterized using an arrayed sensing system. We demonstrate that the sensor array, consisting of electrochemical sensors with varying input parameters, generated differential responses that provide synergistic information of sample. By mapping the sensing array response onto multidimensional heat maps, characteristic signatures were compared across sensors in the array and across different matrices. Lastly, the arrayed sensing system was applied to complex biological samples to discern and match characteristic signatures between the simulated mixtures and the complex sample responses. As an example, this methodology was applied to screen interfering species relevant to the application of schizophrenia management. Specifically, blood serum measurement of antipsychotic clozapine and antioxidant species can provide useful information regarding therapeutic efficacy and psychiatric symptoms. This work proposes an investigational tool that can guide multi-analyte sensor design, chemometric modeling and biomarker discovery. PMID:25789880

  9. The Design of Vibration Sensing System Used for the Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Ma, Xuejie

    2016-06-01

    A vibration sensing system used for the Internet of Things is presented in this paper. Using the distributed feedback fiber lasers (DFB-FL) collects external sound signals and digital phase generated carrier (PGC) method realizes wavelength demodulation. The platform is designed based on an open architecture and B/S (Browser/Server) technology which makes it an ideal platform to be operated under a network environment. The sensing system is no power supply and could be monitored anytime and anywhere which is the requirement of Internet of things.

  10. Development of eight-channel methane gas optical fiber sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Wang, Weiqi; Gao, Liancong; Koscica, Thomas; Li, David

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces an eight-channel methane gas optical fiber sensing system designed for underground coalmine methane gas monitoring. With eight self-designed gas sensor heads, this system can detect the concentration of methane gas at eight locations in a coal mine simultaneously. By wavelength modulation with the DFB laser diode, 1×8 WDM, a self-designed processing circuit, and data processing software, this system features a high sensitivity (10ppb). The response time of the system is less than 6 seconds. Extensive tests have been carried out on the system. It is shown that the performance of the optical fiber sensor system is generally better than conventional methane sensing systems currently in wide use in coalmines. It can be used in the coalmines for multi-point gas detecting using one light source and attendant central processing unit only, resulting in more versatility, reduced cost, and increased perational efficiency.

  11. Operational perspective of remote sensing-based forest fire danger forecasting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fire is a natural phenomenon in many ecosystems across the world. One of the most important components of forest fire management is the forecasting of fire danger conditions. Here, our aim was to critically analyse the following issues, (i) current operational forest fire danger forecasting systems and their limitations; (ii) remote sensing-based fire danger monitoring systems and usefulness in operational perspective; (iii) remote sensing-based fire danger forecasting systems and their functional implications; and (iv) synergy between operational forecasting systems and remote sensing-based methods. In general, the operational systems use point-based measurements of meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitations, cloudiness, solar radiation, etc.) and generate danger maps upon employing interpolation techniques. Theoretically, it is possible to overcome the uncertainty associated with the interpolation techniques by using remote sensing data. During the last several decades, efforts were given to develop fire danger condition systems, which could be broadly classified into two major groups: fire danger monitoring and forecasting systems. Most of the monitoring systems focused on determining the danger during and/or after the period of image acquisition. A limited number of studies were conducted to forecast fire danger conditions, which could be adaptable. Synergy between the operational systems and remote sensing-based methods were investigated in the past but too much complex in nature. Thus, the elaborated understanding about these developments would be worthwhile to advance research in the area of fire danger in the context of making them operational.

  12. Listening to Another Sense: Somatosensory Integration in the Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Martel, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, sensory systems are viewed as separate entities, each with its own physiological process serving a different purpose. However, many functions require integrative inputs from multiple sensory systems, and sensory intersection and convergence occur throughout the central nervous system. The neural processes for hearing perception undergo significant modulation by the two other major sensory systems, vision and somatosensation. This synthesis occurs at every level of the ascending auditory pathway: the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and the auditory cortex. In this review, we explore the process of multisensory integration from 1) anatomical (inputs and connections), 2) physiological (cellular responses), 3) functional, and 4) pathological aspects. We focus on the convergence between auditory and somatosensory inputs in each ascending auditory station. This review highlights the intricacy of sensory processing, and offers a multisensory perspective regarding the understanding of sensory disorders. PMID:25526698

  13. Sensing risk, fearing uncertainty: systems science approach to change

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, Ivo P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicine devotes its primary focus to understanding change, from cells to network relationships; observations of non-linearity are inescapable. Recent events provide extraordinary examples of major non-linear surprises within the societal system: human genome-from anticipated 100,000+ genes to only 20,000+; junk DNA-initially ignored but now proven to control genetic processes; economic reversals-bursting of bubbles in technology, housing, finance; foreign wars; relentless rise in obesity, neurodegenerative diseases. There are two attributes of systems science that are especially relevant to this research: One—it offers a method for creating a structural context with a guiding path to pragmatic knowledge; and, two—it gives pre-eminence to sensory input capable to register, evaluate, and react to change. Materials/Methods: Public domain records of change, during the last 50 years, have been studied in the context of systems science, the dynamic systems model, and various cycles. Results/Conclusions: Change is dynamic, ever-present, never isolated, and of variable impact; it reflects innumerable relationships among contextual systems; change can be perceived as risk or uncertainty depending upon how the assessment is made; risk is quantifiable by sensory input and generates a degree of rational optimism; uncertainty is not quantifiable and evokes fear; trust is key to sharing risk; the measurable financial credit can be a proxy for societal trust; expanding credit dilutes trust; when a credit bubble bursts, so will trust; absence of trust paralyzes systems' relationships leading to disorganized complexity which prevents value creation and heightens the probability of random events; disappearance of value, accompanied by chaos, threatens all systems. From personal health to economic sustainability and collective rationality, most examined components of the societal system were found not to be optimized and trust was not in evidence. PMID:24744723

  14. Adaptive guidance and control for future remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrie, J. W.; Myers, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A unique approach to onboard processing was developed that is capable of acquiring high quality image data for users in near real time. The approach is divided into two steps: the development of an onboard cloud detection system; and the development of a landmark tracker. The results of these two developments are outlined and the requirements of an operational guidance and control system capable of providing continuous estimation of the sensor boresight position are summarized.

  15. Famine Early Warning Systems and Their Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Essam, Timothy; Leonard, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Famine early warning organizations have experience that has much to contribute to efforts to incorporate climate and weather information into economic and political systems. Food security crises are now caused almost exclusively by problems of food access, not absolute food availability, but the role of monitoring agricultural production both locally and globally remains central. The price of food important to the understanding of food security in any region, but it needs to be understood in the context of local production. Thus remote sensing is still at the center of much food security analysis, along with an examination of markets, trade and economic policies during food security analyses. Technology including satellite remote sensing, earth science models, databases of food production and yield, and modem telecommunication systems contributed to improved food production information. Here we present an econometric approach focused on bringing together satellite remote sensing and market analysis into food security assessment in the context of early warning.

  16. Spectrally Tailored Pulsed Thulium Fiber Laser System for Broadband Lidar CO2 Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Georgieva, Elena M.; McComb, Timothy S.; Cheung, Eric C.; Hassell, Frank R.; Baldauf, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Thulium doped pulsed fiber lasers are capable of meeting the spectral, temporal, efficiency, size and weight demands of defense and civil applications for pulsed lasers in the eye-safe spectral regime due to inherent mechanical stability, compact "all-fiber" master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) architectures, high beam quality and efficiency. Thulium fiber's longer operating wavelength allows use of larger fiber cores without compromising beam quality, increasing potential single aperture pulse energies. Applications of these lasers include eye-safe laser ranging, frequency conversion to longer or shorter wavelengths for IR countermeasures and sensing applications with otherwise tough to achieve wavelengths and detection of atmospheric species including CO2 and water vapor. Performance of a portable thulium fiber laser system developed for CO2 sensing via a broadband lidar technique with an etalon based sensor will be discussed. The fielded laser operates with approximately 280 J pulse energy in 90-150ns pulses over a tunable 110nm spectral range and has a uniquely tailored broadband spectral output allowing the sensing of multiple CO2 lines simultaneously, simplifying future potentially space based CO2 sensing instruments by reducing the number and complexity of lasers required to carry out high precision sensing missions. Power scaling and future "all fiber" system configurations for a number of ranging, sensing, countermeasures and other yet to be defined applications by use of flexible spectral and temporal performance master oscillators will be discussed. The compact, low mass, robust, efficient and readily power scalable nature of "all-fiber" thulium lasers makes them ideal candidates for use in future space based sensing applications.

  17. Large viewing field wavefront sensing by using a lightfield system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yang; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Ma, Haotong; Ning, Yu; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaojun

    2013-09-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, we developed a lightfield wavefront detection system, which is able to complete the large field of view, multi-perspective wavefront detection in a single photographic exposure. The lightfield wavefront detection system includes an imaging primary mirror, a lenslet array and a photosensitive device. The lenslet array is located on the imaging plane of the imaging primary mirror and the photosensitive device is located on the focal plane of the lenslet array. In this system, each lenslet reimages the aperture and forms a low-resolution image of the aperture. Compared with the Shack-Hartmann sensor, this lightfield measuring method can obtain imaging arrays in different perspectives. By comparing the array information with the standard information, we can obtain the slope matrix of the wavefront in different perspectives and restore the wavefront in a large field of view. Based on Fourier optics, we built the corresponding theoretical model and simulation system. By busing Meade telescope, turbulent phase screen, lenslet array and CCD camera, we founded the experimental lightfield wavefront measuring system. Numerical simulation results and experimental results show that this wavefront measuring method can effectively achieve the wavefront aberration information. This wavefront measurement method can realize the multi-perspective wavefront measurement, which is expected to solve the problem of large viewing field wavefront detection, and can be used for adaptive optics in giant telescopes.

  18. Determination of the linear equations of position-sensing detectors for small motion measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Psang Dain

    2010-11-01

    Small motion measurement systems are widely used in industry measurement fields to measure small positional/angular motions. These systems usually consist of two parts: a measuring assembly and a reference assembly. The position-sensing detectors (PSDs) are embedded in either measuring assembly or reference assembly to sense the variations of laser light incidence points when there are any small positional/angular motions. To use these systems, it is necessary to determine the linear equations of PSD readings, which relate the six-degrees-of-freedom small positional/angular motions and PSD readings. The purpose of this paper is to derive these equations based on the paraxial raytracing method. Two measurement systems are used as illustrative examples to validate the proposed methodology. The methodology of this study will be useful for system design of PSD-based measurement systems and their applications. PMID:21045913

  19. Detecting target velocity and location using a novel optoelectronic sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi Ching

    2004-12-01

    We propose a cost-effective, compact, and robust optoelectronic sensing system for measuring ballistic impact velocity and distribution of the projectile motion. The key elements consisted of this system are four photo-gates hybridized by compound one-dimensional prism array and analog/digital electronic components. The number of light sources and photodetectors used in a photo-gate was reduced to one pair of that. The time interval passing each pair can be measured precisely (~10-8 s). The average velocity and location of projectile are carried out according the measured time intervals. The system can precisely measure the velocity of a bullet as it leaves a gun barrel and the velocity toward the trajectory outside the firearm. Furthermore, the system uses a commonly found low-powered laser pointer as light source. Compared with other optoelectronic sensing systems that use high-powered lasers, our system is both economical and safe.

  20. Miniaturized neural sensing and optogenetic stimulation system for behavioral studies in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Hyuck; Nam, Ilho; Ryu, Youngki; Wellman, Laurie W.; Sanford, Larry D.; Yoon, Hargsoon

    2015-04-01

    Real time sensing of localized electrophysiological and neurochemical signals associated with spontaneous and evoked neural activity is critically important for understanding neural networks in the brain. Our goal is to enhance the functionality and flexibility of a neural sensing and stimulation system for the observation of brain activity that will enable better understanding from the level of individual cells to that of global structures. We have thus developed a miniaturized electronic system for in-vivo neurotransmitter sensing and optogenetic stimulation amenable to behavioral studies in the rat. The system contains a potentiostat, a data acquisition unit, a control unit, and a wireless data transfer unit. For the potentiostat, we applied embedded op-amps to build single potential amperometry for electrochemical sensing of dopamine. A light emitting diode is controlled by a microcontroller and pulse width modulation utilized to control optogenetic stimulation within a sub-millisecond level. In addition, this proto-typed electronic system contains a Bluetooth module for wireless data communication. In the future, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) will be designed for further miniaturization of the system.

  1. Impact of dither-based Electro-Optic Modulator bias control on distributed Brillouin sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Tu, Xiaobo; Sun, Shilin; Hu, Xiaoyang; Meng, Zhou

    2015-10-01

    In most distributed Brillouin sensing systems, it is crucial to keep the long-term stability of the electro-optic modulator (EOM) operating point. The dither-tone based bias control methods are widely adopted in this kind of systems for its robustness and reliability, but the low frequency dither tone (a few kilohertz) added into the dc bias port of the EOM may have a detrimental impact on the sensing performance of the Brillouin sensing system. Experimental results show that the dither frequency should not be set around quarter of the pulse repetition rate or its multiples, and the employed dither amplitude should be in the range of 0.003Vπ to 0.015Vπ (Vπ is the RF half-wave voltage of the EOM), in order to overcome the limitation of dither tone based bias control techniques in BOTDA systems. These results will provide guidelines to improve the performance of the Brillouin sensing systems using dither-based EOM bias control method.

  2. Drosophila blood as a model system for stress sensing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jiwon

    2015-04-01

    The Drosophila lymph gland is the hematopoietic organ in which stem-like progenitors proliferate and give rise to myeloid-type blood cells. Mechanisms involved in Drosophila hematopoiesis are well established and known to be conserved in the vertebrate system. Recent studies in Drosophila lymph gland have provided novel insights into how external and internal stresses integrate into blood progenitor maintenance mechanisms and the control of blood cell fate decision. In this review, I will introduce a developmental overview of the Drosophila hematopoietic system, and recent understandings of how the system uses developmental signals not only for hematopoiesis but also as sensors for stress and environmental changes to elicit necessary blood responses. PMID:25560697

  3. OmniSense: visually enhanced tracking system (OVETS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Russell L.; Porter, Richard D.

    2003-09-01

    McQ Associates, Inc. has worked on a number of efforts to develop practical, fieldable infrared imaging systems which are intended to be used as an integral part of low power remote sensor and surveillance systems. Recent efforts contributing to such an integrated system have been funded through the Office of Naval Research, the U.S. Army Picatinny Arsenal, and the Air Force Research Lab in Rome, NY. The efforts have culminated in developing a digital signal processor based platform capable of detecting, tracking, and extracting multiple targets within either a 360 degree or fixed field of view. This paper discusses the challenges in the developments of such a sensor, focusing on extending achieving reasonable operating ranges, achieving low power, lowering size and cost, and applications for this technology.

  4. THz impulse radar for biomedical sensing: nonlinear system behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. R.; Sung, Shijun; Grundfest, W. S.; Taylor, Z. D.

    2014-03-01

    The THz impulse radar is an "RF-inspired" sensor system that has performed remarkably well since its initial development nearly six years ago. It was developed for ex vivo skin-burn imaging, and has since shown great promise in the sensitive detection of hydration levels in soft tissues of several types, such as in vivo corneal and burn samples. An intriguing aspect of the impulse radar is its hybrid architecture which combines the high-peak-power of photoconductive switches with the high-responsivity and -bandwidth (RF and video) of Schottky-diode rectifiers. The result is a very sensitive sensor system in which the post-detection signal-to-noise ratio depends super-linearly on average signal power up to a point where the diode is "turned on" in the forward direction, and then behaves quasi-linearly beyond that point. This paper reports the first nonlinear systems analysis done on the impulse radar using MATLAB.

  5. Delay/Doppler-Mapping GPS-Reflection Remote-Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Stephen; Kroger, Peter; Franklin, Garth; LeBrecque, John; Lerma, Jesse; Lough, Michael; Marcin, Martin; Muellerschoen, Ronald; Spitzmesser, Donovan; Young, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    A radio receiver system that features enhanced capabilities for remote sensing by use of reflected Global Positioning System (GPS) signals has been developed. This system was designed primarily for ocean altimetry, but can also be used for scatterometry and bistatic synthetic-aperture radar imaging. Moreover, it could readily be adapted to utilize navigation-satellite systems other than the GPS, including the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS) and the proposed European Galileo system. This remote-sensing system offers both advantages and disadvantages over traditional radar altimeters: One advantage of GPS-reflection systems is that they cost less because there is no need to transmit signals. Another advantage is that there are more simultaneous measurement opportunities - one for each GPS satellite in view. The primary disadvantage is that in comparison with radar signals, GPS signals are weaker, necessitating larger antennas and/or longer observations. This GPS-reflection remote-sensing system was tested in aircraft and made to record and process both (1) signals coming directly from GPS satellites by means of an upward-looking antenna and (2) GPS signals reflected from the ground by means of a downward-looking antenna. In addition to performing conventional GPS processing, the system records raw signals for postprocessing as required.

  6. Advanced polychromator systems for remote chemical sensing (LDRD project 52575).

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Allen, James Joe

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop a programmable diffraction grating fabricated in SUMMiT V{trademark}. Two types of grating elements (vertical and rotational) were designed and demonstrated. The vertical grating element utilized compound leveraged bending and the rotational grating element used vertical comb drive actuation. This work resulted in two technical advances and one patent application. Also a new optical configuration of the Polychromator was demonstrated. The new optical configuration improved the optical efficiency of the system without degrading any other aspect of the system. The new configuration also relaxes some constraint on the programmable diffraction grating.

  7. Demodulation System for Fiber Optic Bragg Grating Dynamic Pressure Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Adamovsky, Grigory; Floyd, Bertram

    2001-01-01

    Fiber optic Bragg gratings have been used for years to measure quasi-static phenomena. In aircraft engine applications there is a need to measure dynamic signals such as variable pressures. In order to monitor these pressures a detection system with broad dynamic range is needed. This paper describes an interferometric demodulator that was developed and optimized for this particular application. The signal to noise ratio was maximized through temporal coherence analysis. The demodulator was incorporated in a laboratory system that simulates conditions to be measured. Several pressure sensor configurations incorporating a fiber optic Bragg grating were also explored. The results of the experiments are reported in this paper.

  8. A laser system to remotely sense bird movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korschgen, C. E.; Green, W. L.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a laser detection system for migrating birds are presented. A battery-powered class-III laser (operating at 904 nm, pulse-repetition rate 5 kHz, pulse duration 100 nsec, and peak power 25 W) and a photodiode receiver are mounted on poles at height 10 m and distance 850 m and equipped with 135-mm f/2.8 collimating lenses; beam diameter at the receiver is 1.7 m. The microprocessor-controlled system is found to detect the passing of an object as small as 30 sq cm in cross section at a distance of 425 m.

  9. Modular airborne remote sampling and sensing system (MARSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.O.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia is developing a modular airborne instrumentation system for the Environmental Protection Agency. This system will allow flexibility in the choice of instruments by standardizing mountings, power supplies and sampling modes. The objective is to make it possible to perform aerial surveys from chartered aircraft that have not been adapted in a more than superficial manner. It will also allow the experimenter to tailor his choice of instruments to the specific problem. Since the equipment will have a stand-alone capability, it can be applied to other problems such as long-term unattended use at remote locations or in toxic or otherwise hazardous environments.

  10. Coherent gradient sensing method and system for measuring surface curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosakis, Ares J. (Inventor); Singh, Ramen P. (Inventor); Kolawa, Elizabeth (Inventor); Moore, Jr., Nicholas R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method for determining a curvature of a specularly reflective surface based on optical interference. Two optical gratings are used to produce a spatial displacement in an interference field of two different diffraction components produced by one grating from different diffraction components produced by another grating. Thus, the curvature of the surface can be determined.

  11. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  12. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  13. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  14. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  15. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  16. Use of commercial assets in future remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Gerry

    2008-08-01

    The Global War on Terror, program overruns, and increasing demand for new capabilities has placed an ever increasing strain on National Space Assets, from communications satellites to earth and space observing systems. This strain has also created an opportunity. With the goal of increasing the number and capability of space-based payloads-at reduced costs compared to dedicated systems-the concept of "Hosted Payloads" [1] has recently been attracting the attention of both Government and Industry as an example of how the government can do things differently and focus on capabilities, not systems. The Hosted Payload concept infers that a commercial satellite is used as a platform on which a secondary payload gains access to space by sharing the costs of the bus, the launch, and the insurance. This paper describes the Hosted Payload vision and strategy, and the specific requirements for access to space. It describes the commercial best practices and technical systems trade offs in size, weight and power (SWaP) for deploying a hosted payload onboard an Intelsat satellite.

  17. Live Sensing of a Dynamic Ocean System with NEPTUNE Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Mihaly, S. F.; Scherwath, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Matabos, M.; Juniper, K.; Moran, K.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada is the first operational deep-sea regional cabled ocean observatory worldwide. Since the first data began streaming to the public in 2009, instruments on the five active nodes along the 800 km cable loop have gathered a time-series documenting three years in the northeastern Pacific. Observations cover the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate from ridge to trench and the continental shelf and slope off Vancouver Island. More instruments continue to be added to this technically advanced system, which provides continuous power and high bandwidth communication to measure, in real-time, the physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic conditions of the dynamic earth-ocean system. During these three years significant challenges have been overcome and currently we have more than 70 instruments with hundreds of sensors reporting data in real-time. Salient successes are the first open-ocean seafloor to sea-surface vertical profiling system, three years of operation of Wally—a seafloor crawler that explores a hydrate mound, and a proven resilient cable design that can recover from trawler hits and major equipment meltdown with minimal loss of data. A network wide array of bottom mounted pressure recorders and seismometers recorded the passage of three major tsunamis, numerous earthquakes and frequent whale calls. At the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge high temperature and diffuse vent fluids were monitored and sampled using novel equipment, including high resolution active acoustics instrumentation to study plume dynamics at a massive sulfide hydrothermal vent. Also, four 300 m high deep sea cabled moorings were placed in the precipitous bathymetry of the 2200 m deep axial valley. A three dimensional imaging system monitoring the growth of a sponge complex on the 20 m deep Folger pinnacle in the wave zone offshore Vancouver Island completes the picture of this northeast Pacific dynamic ocean system from an active spreading ridge

  18. Ocean Networks Canada: Live Sensing of a Dynamic Ocean System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, Martin; Juniper, Kim; Hoeberechts, Maia; Matabos, Marjolaine; Mihaly, Steven; Scherwath, Martin; Dewey, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two advanced cabled networks on the west coast of British Columbia. VENUS, the coastal network consisting of two cabled arrays with four Nodes reaching an isolated fjord (Saanich Inlet) and a busy shipping corridor near Vancouver (the Strait of Georgia) went into operation in February 2006. NEPTUNE Canada is the first operational deep-sea regional cabled ocean observatory worldwide. Since the first data began streaming to the public in 2009, instruments on the five active nodes along the 800 km cable loop have gathered a time-series documenting three years in the northeastern Pacific. Observations cover the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate from ridge to trench and the continental shelf and slope off Vancouver Island. The cabled systems provide power and high bandwidth communications to a wide range of oceanographic instrument systems which measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological conditions of the dynamic earth-ocean system. Over the years significant challenges have been overcome and currently we have more than 100 instruments with hundreds of sensors reporting data in real-time. Salient successes are the first open-ocean seafloor to sea-surface vertical profiling system, three years of operation of Wally—a seafloor crawler that explores a hydrate mound, and a proven resilient cable design that can recover from trawler hits and major equipment meltdown with minimal loss of data. A network wide array of bottom mounted pressure recorders and seismometers recorded the passage of three major tsunamis, numerous earthquakes and frequent whale calls. At the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge high temperature and diffuse vent fluids were monitored and sampled using novel equipment, including high resolution active acoustics instrumentation to study plume dynamics at a massive sulfide hydrothermal vent. Also, four deep sea cabled moorings (300 m high) were placed in the precipitous bathymetry of the 2200 m

  19. Three Parallel Quorum-Sensing Systems Regulate Gene Expression in Vibrio harveyi†

    PubMed Central

    Henke, Jennifer M.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2004-01-01

    In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate using extracellular signal molecules termed autoinducers. Two parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. System 1 consists of the LuxM-dependent autoinducer HAI-1 and the HAI-1 sensor, LuxN. System 2 consists of the LuxS-dependent autoinducer AI-2 and the AI-2 detector, LuxPQ. The related bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen, possesses System 2 (LuxS, AI-2, and LuxPQ) but does not have obvious homologues of V. harveyi System 1. Rather, System 1 of V. cholerae is made up of the CqsA-dependent autoinducer CAI-1 and a sensor called CqsS. Using a V. cholerae CAI-1 reporter strain we show that many other marine bacteria, including V. harveyi, produce CAI-1 activity. Genetic analysis of V. harveyi reveals cqsA and cqsS, and phenotypic analysis of V. harveyi cqsA and cqsS mutants shows that these functions comprise a third V. harveyi quorum-sensing system that acts in parallel to Systems 1 and 2. Together these communication systems act as a three-way coincidence detector in the regulation of a variety of genes, including those responsible for bioluminescence, type III secretion, and metalloprotease production. PMID:15466044

  20. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  1. A Wireless Passive Sensing System for Displacement/Strain Measurement in Reinforced Concrete Members

    PubMed Central

    Ozbey, Burak; Erturk, Vakur B.; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Altintas, Ayhan; Kurc, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we show a wireless passive sensing system embedded in a reinforced concrete member successfully being employed for the measurement of relative displacement and strain in a simply supported beam experiment. The system utilizes electromagnetic coupling between the transceiver antenna located outside the beam, and the sensing probes placed on the reinforcing bar (rebar) surface inside the beam. The probes were designed in the form of a nested split-ring resonator, a metamaterial-based structure chosen for its compact size and high sensitivity/resolution, which is at µm/microstrains level. Experiments were performed in both the elastic and plastic deformation cases of steel rebars, and the sensing system was demonstrated to acquire telemetric data in both cases. The wireless measurement results from multiple probes are compared with the data obtained from the strain gages, and an excellent agreement is observed. A discrete time measurement where the system records data at different force levels is also shown. Practical issues regarding the placement of the sensors and accurate recording of data are discussed. The proposed sensing technology is demonstrated to be a good candidate for wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete members by its high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. PMID:27070615

  2. 15 CFR 960.12 - Data policy for remote sensing space systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data policy for remote sensing space systems. 960.12 Section 960.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA...

  3. A Wireless Passive Sensing System for Displacement/Strain Measurement in Reinforced Concrete Members.

    PubMed

    Ozbey, Burak; Erturk, Vakur B; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Altintas, Ayhan; Kurc, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we show a wireless passive sensing system embedded in a reinforced concrete member successfully being employed for the measurement of relative displacement and strain in a simply supported beam experiment. The system utilizes electromagnetic coupling between the transceiver antenna located outside the beam, and the sensing probes placed on the reinforcing bar (rebar) surface inside the beam. The probes were designed in the form of a nested split-ring resonator, a metamaterial-based structure chosen for its compact size and high sensitivity/resolution, which is at µm/microstrains level. Experiments were performed in both the elastic and plastic deformation cases of steel rebars, and the sensing system was demonstrated to acquire telemetric data in both cases. The wireless measurement results from multiple probes are compared with the data obtained from the strain gages, and an excellent agreement is observed. A discrete time measurement where the system records data at different force levels is also shown. Practical issues regarding the placement of the sensors and accurate recording of data are discussed. The proposed sensing technology is demonstrated to be a good candidate for wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) of reinforced concrete members by its high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. PMID:27070615

  4. 15 CFR 960.12 - Data policy for remote sensing space systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data policy for remote sensing space systems. 960.12 Section 960.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA...

  5. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  6. Data processing 2: Advancements in large scale data processing systems for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of large scale data processing systems for remote sensing is studied by evaluating: (1) the suitability of several sensor types with regard to producing data required for multispectral machine analysis; (2) various types of data preprocessing necessary to prepare such data for analysis; and (3) transfer of machine processing techniques for earth resources data to user community.

  7. Measurement of photosynthetic response to plant water stress using a multi-modal sensing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant yield and productivity are significantly affected by abiotic stresses such as water or nutrient deficiency. An automated, timely detection of plant stress can mitigate stress development, thereby maximizing productivity and fruit quality. A multi-modal sensing system was developed and evalua...

  8. Contextual classification on a CDC Flexible Processor system. [for photomapped remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. W.; Siegel, H. J.; Swain, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    A potential hardware organization for the Flexible Processor Array is presented. An algorithm that implements a contextual classifier for remote sensing data analysis is given, along with uniprocessor classification algorithms. The Flexible Processor algorithm is provided, as are simulated timings for contextual classifiers run on the Flexible Processor Array and another system. The timings are analyzed for context neighborhoods of sizes three and nine.

  9. Assimilating Leaf Area Index Estimates from Remote Sensing into the Simulations of a Cropping Systems Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial extrapolation of cropping systems models for regional crop growth and water use assessment and farm-level precision management has been limited by the vast model input requirements and the model sensitivity to parameter uncertainty. Remote sensing has been proposed as a viable source of spat...

  10. Remote Sensing of Exotic Invasive Weeds in the Rio Grande System of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic invasive weeds are a serious problem in the Rio Grande system of Texas. This paper presents the results of several aerial remote sensing studies conducted from 2002 to 2006 on the Rio Grande from its mouth near Brownsville in south Texas to El Paso in west Texas. Weed species addressed inc...

  11. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Dario; Belli, Claudio; Gioli, Beniamino; Miglietta, Franco; Ronchi, Cesare; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS) composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented.

  12. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare pixel sampling with plot-scale metrics for the remo...

  13. Automatic Presentation of Sense-Specific Lexical Information in an Intelligent Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eom, Soojeong

    2012-01-01

    Learning vocabulary and understanding texts present difficulty for language learners due to, among other things, the high degree of lexical ambiguity. By developing an intelligent tutoring system, this dissertation examines whether automatically providing enriched sense-specific information is effective for vocabulary learning and reading…

  14. Assimilating leaf area index estimates from remote sensing into the simulations of a cropping systems model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Practical application of agricultural systems models for farm management decision support has been limited by the vast model input requirements and the model sensitivity to parameter uncertainty. Remote sensing has been proposed as a viable source of information for guiding model simulations, but t...

  15. Hybrid networking sensing system for structural health monitoring of a concrete cable-stayed bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbol, Marco; Kim, Sehwan; Chien, Ting-Chou; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is the remote structural health monitoring to identify the torsional natural frequencies and mode shapes of a concrete cable-stayed bridge using a hybrid networking sensing system. The system consists of one data aggregation unit, which is daisy-chained to one or more sensing nodes. A wireless interface is used between the data aggregation units, whereas a wired interface is used between a data aggregation unit and the sensing nodes. Each sensing node is equipped with high-precision MEMS accelerometers with adjustable sampling frequency from 0.2 Hz to 1.2 kHz. The entire system was installed inside the reinforced concrete box-girder deck of Hwamyung Bridge, which is a cable stayed bridge in Busan, South Korea, to protect the system from the harsh environmental conditions. This deployment makes wireless communication a challenge due to the signal losses and the high levels of attenuation. To address these issues, the concept of hybrid networking system is introduced with the efficient local power distribution technique. The theoretical communication range of Wi-Fi is 100m. However, inside the concrete girder, the peer to peer wireless communication cannot exceed about 20m. The distance is further reduced by the line of sight between the antennas. However, the wired daisy-chained connection between sensing nodes is useful because the data aggregation unit can be placed in the optimal location for transmission. To overcome the limitation of the wireless communication range, we adopt a high-gain antenna that extends the wireless communication distance to 50m. Additional help is given by the multi-hopping data communication protocol. The 4G modem, which allows remote access to the system, is the only component exposed to the external environment.

  16. Sense and avoid technologies with applications to unmanned aircraft systems: Review and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Youmin

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) are becoming ever more promising over the last decade. The Sense and Avoid (S&A) system plays a profoundly important role in integrating UASs into the National Airspace System (NAS) with reliable and safe operations. After analyzing the manner of S&A system, this paper systematically presents an overview on the recent progress in S&A technologies in the sequence of fundamental functions/components of S&A in sensing techniques, decision making, path planning, and path following. The approaches to these four aspects are outlined and summarized, based on which the existing challenges and potential solutions are highlighted for facilitating the development of S&A systems.

  17. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges. PMID:27275822

  18. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges. PMID:27275822

  19. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  20. Capabilities of the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aerial measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the capabilities of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aircraft for use in environmental radiation surveys, multispectral (visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared) surveys of vegetation and buildings, and photographic documentation of the areas covered by the two other surveys. The report discusses the technical capabilities of the various systems and presents examples of the data from a recent demonstration survey. To provide a view of the types of surveys the Remote Sensing Laboratory has conducted in the past, the appendices describe several of the previous area surveys and emergency search surveys.

  1. Making sense of scoring systems in community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Niederman, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    The site of care decision is one of the most important in the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Several scoring systems have been developed to predict mortality risk in CAP, and these have been applied to guide physicians about whether patients should be admitted to the hospital or to the intensive care unit (ICU). However, these tools were initially developed to predict mortality risk, and studies have demonstrated that the risk for death does not always equate with need for hospitalization or ICU care. The most widely studied scoring systems are the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and the CURB-65 (a modification of the British Thoracic Society rule). Each has advantages and limitations, with the more-complex PSI developed to identify low-mortality risk patients, and the CURB-65, which is simpler, being developed to easily identify more severely ill individuals. No scoring system can replace clinical judgement about the admission decision, and prospective studies have shown that physicians still admit at least 30-60% of low mortality risk patients when using the PSI to guide this decision. Limitations of these prognostic tools include their variable utility in the elderly, and their failure to include certain comorbidities (COPD, immune suppression) and social factors, in their calculations. The need for ICU care is also not well-defined by measuring the PSI or CURB-65, and other tools such as those developed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guideline committee and the SMART-COP rule may have greater utility for this purpose. In the future, measurements of serum biomarkers, such as procalcitonin, may augment the information provided by prognostic scoring tools for patients with CAP. PMID:19353770

  2. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  3. Does one national prospective payment system market basket make sense?

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    For the first 4 years of Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS), one national market basket of cost weights and price proxies has been used to update payment rates. Previous evidence for a single rate is reviewed, and more recent data are presented that show definite regional differences in input price inflation, resulting in systematic gains or losses for some regions. However, as long as the Health Care Financing Administration continues to periodically update its hospital wage index, the net impact on hospitals is minor. Nevertheless, large differences in PPS-excluded hospital cost shares indicate the need for two sets of cost weights. PMID:10313084

  4. Sense, decide, act, communicate (SDAC): next generation of smart sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Nina; Davis, Jesse; Ko, Teresa H.; Kyker, Ron; Pate, Ron; Stark, Doug; Stinnett, Regan; Baker, James; Cushner, Adam; Van Dyke, Colin; Kyckelhahn, Brian

    2004-09-01

    The recent war on terrorism and increased urban warfare has been a major catalysis for increased interest in the development of disposable unattended wireless ground sensors. While the application of these sensors to hostile domains has been generally governed by specific tasks, this research explores a unique paradigm capitalizing on the fundamental functionality related to sensor systems. This functionality includes a sensors ability to Sense - multi-modal sensing of environmental events, Decide - smart analysis of sensor data, Act - response to environmental events, and Communication - internal to system and external to humans (SDAC). The main concept behind SDAC sensor systems is to integrate the hardware, software, and networking to generate 'knowledge and not just data'. This research explores the usage of wireless SDAC units to collectively make up a sensor system capable of persistent, adaptive, and autonomous behavior. These systems are base on the evaluation of scenarios and existing systems covering various domains. This paper presents a promising view of sensor network characteristics, which will eventually yield smart (intelligent collectives) network arrays of SDAC sensing units generally applicable to multiple related domains. This paper will also discuss and evaluate the demonstration system developed to test the concepts related to SDAC systems.

  5. Dielectric elastomer vibrissal system for active tactile sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Andrew T.; Pearson, Martin J.; Pipe, Anthony G.; Welsby, Jason; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Rodents are able to dexterously navigate confined and unlit environments by extracting spatial and textural information with their whiskers (or vibrissae). Vibrissal-based active touch is suited to a variety of applications where vision is occluded, such as search-and-rescue operations in collapsed buildings. In this paper, a compact dielectric elastomer vibrissal system (DEVS) is described that mimics the vibrissal follicle-sinus complex (FSC) found in rodents. Like the vibrissal FSC, the DEVS encapsulates all sensitive mechanoreceptors at the root of a passive whisker within an antagonistic muscular system. Typically, rats actively whisk arrays of macro-vibrissae with amplitudes of up to +/-25°. It is demonstrated that these properties can be replicated by exploiting the characteristic large actuation strains and passive compliance of dielectric elastomers. A prototype DEVS is developed using VHB 4905 and embedded strain gauges bonded to the root of a tapered whisker. The DEVS is demonstrated to produce a maximum rotational output of +/-22.8°. An electro-mechanical model of the DEVS is derived, which incorporates a hyperelastic material model and Euler- Bernoulli beam equations. The model is shown to predict experimental measurements of whisking stroke amplitude and whisker deflection.

  6. Preliminary study of a dispersed fringe type sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Gen-Rong; Wang, Yue-Fei; Li, Ye-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Telescopes with large aspherical primary mirrors collect more light and are therefore sought after by astronomers. Instead of using a single large one-piece mirror, smaller segments can be assembled into a useable telescopic primary. Because the segments must fit together to create the effect of a single mirror, segmented optics present unique challenges to the fabrication and testing that are absent in monolithic optics. A dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) using a broadband point source is an efficient method for cophasing and is also highly automated and robust. Unlike the widely adopted Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor and curvature wavefront sensor with edge sensors for calibration of relative pistons, DFS can estimate the piston between segments by only using the spectrum formed by the transmissive grating's dispersion, and therefore can replace the edge sensors, which are difficult to calibrate. We introduce the theory of the DFS and Dispersed Hartmann Sensor (DHS) for further utilization of the coarse phasing method of DFS. According to the theory, we bring out the preliminary system design of the cophasing experimental system based on DFS and DHS which is now established in our institute. Finally, a summary is reached.

  7. A Non-Intrusive GMA Welding Process Quality Monitoring System Using Acoustic Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cayo, Eber Huanca; Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo Absi

    2009-01-01

    Most of the inspection methods used for detection and localization of welding disturbances are based on the evaluation of some direct measurements of welding parameters. This direct measurement requires an insertion of sensors during the welding process which could somehow alter the behavior of the metallic transference. An inspection method that evaluates the GMA welding process evolution using a non-intrusive process sensing would allow not only the identification of disturbances during welding runs and thus reduce inspection time, but would also reduce the interference on the process caused by the direct sensing. In this paper a nonintrusive method for weld disturbance detection and localization for weld quality evaluation is demonstrated. The system is based on the acoustic sensing of the welding electrical arc. During repetitive tests in welds without disturbances, the stability acoustic parameters were calculated and used as comparison references for the detection and location of disturbances during the weld runs. PMID:22399990

  8. Commercial potential of remote sensing data from the Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, Carolyn J.; Tomlin, Sandra M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the market potential of remote sensing value-added products from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform. Sensors on the EOS platform were evaluated to determine which qualities and capabilities could be useful to the commercial user. The approach was to investigate past and future satellite data distribution programs. A questionnaire was developed for use in a telephone survey. Based on the results of the survey of companies that add value to remotely sensed data, conversations with the principal investigators in charge of each EOS sensor, a study of past commercial satellite data ventures, and reading from the commercial remote sensing industry literature, three recommendations were developed: develop a strategic plan for commercialization of EOS data, define a procedure for commercial users within the EOS data stream, and develop an Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program-like demonstration program within NASA using EOS simulated data.

  9. Spectrum sensing and resource allocation for multicarrier cognitive radio systems under interference and power constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmese, Sener; Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi; Renfors, Markku

    2014-12-01

    Multicarrier waveforms have been commonly recognized as strong candidates for cognitive radio. In this paper, we study the dynamics of spectrum sensing and spectrum allocation functions in cognitive radio context using very practical signal models for the primary users (PUs), including the effects of power amplifier nonlinearities. We start by sensing the spectrum with energy detection-based wideband multichannel spectrum sensing algorithm and continue by investigating optimal resource allocation methods. Along the way, we examine the effects of spectral regrowth due to the inevitable power amplifier nonlinearities of the PU transmitters. The signal model includes frequency selective block-fading channel models for both secondary and primary transmissions. Filter bank-based wideband spectrum sensing techniques are applied for detecting spectral holes and filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is selected for transmission as an alternative multicarrier waveform to avoid the disadvantage of limited spectral containment of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based multicarrier systems. The optimization technique used for the resource allocation approach considered in this study utilizes the information obtained through spectrum sensing and knowledge of spectrum leakage effects of the underlying waveforms, including a practical power amplifier model for the PU transmitter. This study utilizes a computationally efficient algorithm to maximize the SU link capacity with power and interference constraints. It is seen that the SU transmission capacity depends critically on the spectral containment of the PU waveform, and these effects are quantified in a case study using an 802.11-g WLAN scenario.

  10. A Haptic-Enhanced System for Molecular Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comai, Sara; Mazza, Davide

    The science of haptics has received an enormous attention in the last decade. One of the major application trends of haptics technology is data visualization and training. In this paper, we present a haptically-enhanced system for manipulation and tactile exploration of molecules.The geometrical models of molecules is extracted either from theoretical or empirical data using file formats widely adopted in chemical and biological fields. The addition of information computed with computational chemistry tools, allows users to feel the interaction forces between an explored molecule and a charge associated to the haptic device, and to visualize a huge amount of numerical data in a more comprehensible way. The developed tool can be used either for teaching or research purposes due to its high reliance on both theoretical and experimental data.

  11. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Pressure Sensing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  12. Chemical sensing system for classification of mine-like objects by explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.B.; Rodacy, P.J.; Jones, E.E.; Gomez, B.J.; Woodfin, R.L.

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. The authors focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. They present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines which demonstrate their ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  13. A real-time multispectral imaging system for low- or mid-altitude remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool in remote sensing applications. Recently a micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the requirements for low- or mid- altitude remote sensing. Such a filter with four narrow bands is integrated with an off-shelf CCD camera, resulting in an economic and light-weight multispectral imaging camera with the capacity of producing multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot. The multispectral imaging camera is then integrated with a wireless transmitter and battery to produce a remote sensing multispectral imaging system. The design and some preliminary results of a prototyped multispectral imaging system with the potential for remote sensing applications with a weight of only 200 grams are reported. The prototyped multispectral imaging system eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies. In addition, it has other advantages such as low cost, being light weight and compact in design.

  14. Design and implementation for satellite remote sensing forest fire-points automatic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunhui; Chen, Huailiang; Yin, Qing

    2009-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing monitoring of forest fire-points is a routine operation of weather service. By taking advantage of remote sensing information's characteristics such as relatively fixed resolution, little geometric distortion and quite stable data quality, the thesis establishes Henan Satellite Remote Sensing Forest Fire-points Automatic Monitoring System in the way of automatic geography registration based on gray correlation and control point database, which can realize automation of the whole process including automatic monitoring,automatic geography registration,automatic fire-points monitoring,automatic production releasing and cell phone short-message notice of fire-points warning information. The system could greatly improve service efficiency. Automatic registration of remote sensing information based on gray correlation and control point database features simpleness and quickness. Through automatic geography registration testing of sunny EOS/MODIS data (at daytime and nightime) during 18 periods from February 2008 to May 2008 in Henan Province with average error of registration is 0.637 pixels at daytime and 0.319 at nighttime, it can fully meet ordinary operation requirements. Fire-point identification and fire-point area estimate method in the system can be applied to monitoring different fires at daytime and at nighttime. Besides, it can automatically screen effective fire-points according to background geographic information, and thus it can improve monitoring accuracy.

  15. Chemical sensing system for classification of minelike objects by explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Jones, Edwin E.; Gomez, Bernard J.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    1998-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. Our focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). We will describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. We will present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines, which demonstrate our ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  16. Advanced end-to-end fiber optic sensing systems for demanding environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad

    2010-09-01

    Optical fibers are small-in-diameter, light-in-weight, electromagnetic-interference immune, electrically passive, chemically inert, flexible, embeddable into different materials, and distributed-sensing enabling, and can be temperature and radiation tolerant. With appropriate processing and/or packaging, they can be very robust and well suited to demanding environments. In this paper, we review a range of complete end-to-end fiber optic sensor systems that IFOS has developed comprising not only (1) packaged sensors and mechanisms for integration with demanding environments, but (2) ruggedized sensor interrogators, and (3) intelligent decision aid algorithms software systems. We examine the following examples: " Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) optical sensors systems supporting arrays of environmentally conditioned multiplexed FBG point sensors on single or multiple optical fibers: In conjunction with advanced signal processing, decision aid algorithms and reasoners, FBG sensor based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are expected to play an increasing role in extending the life and reducing costs of new generations of aerospace systems. Further, FBG based structural state sensing systems have the potential to considerably enhance the performance of dynamic structures interacting with their environment (including jet aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and medical or extravehicular space robots). " Raman based distributed temperature sensing systems: The complete length of optical fiber acts as a very long distributed sensor which may be placed down an oil well or wrapped around a cryogenic tank.

  17. Enzymatic Filter for Improved Separation of Output Signals in Enzyme Logic Systems towards 'Sense and Treat' Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Mailloux, Shay; Zavalov, Oleksandr; Guz, Nataliia; Katz, Evgeny; Bocharova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge for application of autonomous medical sensing systems is the noise produced by non-zero physiological concentrations of the sensed target. If the level of noise is high, then a real signal indicating abnormal changes in the physiological levels of the analytes might be hindered. Inevitably, this could lead to wrong diagnostics and treatment, and would have a negative impact on human health. Here, we report the realization of a filter system implemented to improve both the fidelity of sensing and accuracy of consequent drug release. A new filtering method was tested in the sensing system for the diagnosis of liver injury. This sensing system used the enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) as the inputs. Furthermore, the output of the sensing system was designed to trigger drug release, and therefore, the role of the filter in drug release was also investigated. The drug release system consists of beads with an iron - cross-linked alginate core coated with different numbers of layers of poly-L-lysine. Dissolution of the beads by the output signals of the sensing system in the presence and absence of the filter was monitored by release of encapsulated in the beads rhodamine - 6G dye mimicking release of a real drug. The obtained results offer a new view on the problem of noise reduction for systems intended to be part of sense and treat medical devices.

  18. Meteorological and Aerosol Sensing with small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, J.; Möhler, O.; Haunold, W.; Schrod, J.; Brooks, I.; Norris, S.; Brooks, B.; Hill, M.; Leisner, T.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) facilitate the monitoring of several meteorological and aerosol parameters with high resolution in space and time. They are small, easy to operate, cost efficient and allow for flexible application during field campaigns. We present two experimental payloads for measurement of relative humidity, temperature, aerosol size distribution and the collection of aerosol samples on board the small UAS SIRIUS II. The payload modules are light weight (<1kg) and can be easily switched between two flights. All sensors can be controlled from the ground and the measured data is recorded by the autopilot together with the position data. The first module contains a sensor package for measurement of relative humidity and temperature and the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Prope (CLASP) for acquisition of aerosol size distributions. CLASP measures aerosol particles with diameters from 0.12μm to 9.25μm in up to 32 channels at a frequency of 10 Hz. The second module also contains a humidity and temperature sensor package and the aerosol sample collection device. The aerosol sampler collects air samples at 2 l/min onto a sample holder. After the flight the ice nuclei on the sample holder are activated in the lab and counted. In August 2012 the complete setup will be used during a measurement campaign at mount "Kleiner Feldberg" close to Frankfurt. Until then we will perform test flights and additional laboratory tests.

  19. Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards.

    PubMed

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Strancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  20. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  1. Surveillance system for air pollutants by combination of the decision support system COMPAS and optical remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flassak, Thomas; de Witt, Helmut; Hahnfeld, Peter; Knaup, Andreas; Kramer, Lothar

    1995-09-01

    COMPAS is a decision support system designed to assist in the assessment of the consequences of accidental releases of toxic and flammable substances. One of the key elements of COMPAS is a feedback algorithm which allows us to calculate the source term with the aid of concentration measurements. Up to now the feedback technique is applied to concentration measurements done with test tubes or conventional point sensors. In this paper the extension of the actual method is presented which is the combination of COMPAS and an optical remote sensing system like the KAYSER-THREDE K300 FTIR system. Active remote sensing methods based on FTIR are, among other applications, ideal for the so-called fence line monitoring of the diffuse emissions and accidental releases from industrial facilities, since from the FTIR spectra averaged concentration levels along the measurement path can be achieved. The line-averaged concentrations are ideally suited as on-line input for COMPAS' feedback technique. Uncertainties in the assessment of the source term related with both shortcomings of the dispersion model itself and also problems of a feedback strategy based on point measurements are reduced.

  2. Development of Sensing System for the Estimation of Human's State Using Infrared Sensors Arranged at Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsutoshi; Kitazono, Yuhki; Serikawa, Seiichi

    In a bathroom and a toilet, a security camera cannot be used for the conservation of privacy. In order to solve the problem, a sensing system using infrared sensors arranged at grid is proposed in this study. From the output of infrared sensors, human's state is judged. As the result, the human's state is recognized at high accuracy. This system does not use the image focused by lens like a camera and infrared sensor-array.

  3. A Low Cost Remote Sensing System Using PC and Stereo Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Flood, Michael A.; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Hodson, Wade D.

    2011-01-01

    A system using a personal computer, speaker, and a microphone is used to detect objects, and make crude measurements using a carrier modulated by a pseudorandom noise (PN) code. This system can be constructed using a personal computer and audio equipment commonly found in the laboratory or at home, or more sophisticated equipment that can be purchased at reasonable cost. We demonstrate its value as an instructional tool for teaching concepts of remote sensing and digital signal processing.

  4. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions-From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  5. An optical system for communication and sensing in millimetre-sized swarming microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, P.; Scholz, O.; Knoll, T.; Menciassi, A.; Dario, P.

    2009-01-01

    Microrobotic technology underlines the concept of top-down fabrication of autonomous or semi-autonomous robotic systems, with the final aim to produce autonomous micromachines. For millimetre-sized robots, all the sub-component modules must be conceived and designed as minimal components able to accomplish a specific basic task, and each of them consequently represents a fundamental part in the whole microrobotic system. Communication and sensing modules, in particular, are indispensable to the microrobot in order to physically interact with its neighbours and the surrounding environment, a fundamental feature for multi-agent or swarm robotic systems. At present, there exist no communication and sensing modules suitable to be integrated in millimetre-sized microrobots that fulfil the requirements of the application discussed in this paper. The objective of the paper is to present the development of an integrated and scalable miniaturized optical system for communication and sensing in swarming microrobots that are among the smallest ever reported. The system consists of optoelectronic devices in a die form, which are assembled on a substrate and encompassed in a mirroring polymeric structure. The final experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the optical module, and potential methods for further improving the system performance are finally proposed.

  6. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  7. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed. PMID:26903290

  8. Geographic Information Systems, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Analysis Activities in Texas, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  9. System Properties of Flexible Structures with Self-Sensing Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CARABELLI, S.; TONOLI, A.

    2000-08-01

    Active and passive implementations of self-sensing readout networks are studied in terms of system properties such as the poles and the zeros of their transfer functions. The location of the zeros is shown to be dependent on two non-dimensional parameters related to the balancing condition of the readout bridge and to the compensation of its losses, while it is not affected by the active or passive implementation of the readout bridge. In the case of ideal “loss compensation” a graphical procedure is employed to describe the migration of the zeros. Even if the self-sensing arrangement guarantees the colocation of the sensing and actuating functions, the graphical procedure shows the possibility of non-minimum phase zero coupls for balancing conditions close to the so-called “electrical balancing”. The effects of model reduction techniques such as truncation or residualization is then studied, starting from a model of the system in terms of modal coordinates. Truncation is shown to be better suited to determine the “electrical balancing” condition while residualization gives a better approximation of the system zeros. The conditions of electrical balancing and loss compensation are then related to a condition of minimum dependance of the self-sensing bridge output from the driving electrical input. This property can be practically exploited to devise an adaptive readout bridge which can automatically reach the balancing conditions and the loss compensation or to identify the electrical parameters of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental tests performed on a beam and a plate structures provided with self-sensing piezoelectric transducers are used to validate the analytical models.

  10. Research of fiber carbon dioxide sensing system based laser absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yubin; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Yanfang; Zhao, Yanjie; Wang, Chang; Liu, Tongyu

    2012-02-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the important gas need to be detected in coal mine safety. In the mine limited ventilation environment, Concentration of carbon dioxide directly affects the health of coal miners. Carbon dioxide is also one of important signature Gas in spontaneous combustion forecasting of coal goaf area, it is important to accurately detect concentration of carbon dioxide in coal goaf area. This paper proposed a fiber carbon dioxide online sensing system based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy. The system used laser absorption spectroscopy and optical fiber sensors combined, and a near-infrared wavelength 1608nm fiber-coupled distributed feedback laser (DFB) as a light source and a 7cm length gas cell, to achieve a high sensitivity concentration detection of carbon dioxide gas. The technical specifications of sensing system can basically meet the need of mine safety.

  11. GSA-Tuning IPD Control of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System.

    PubMed

    Li, Jen-Hsing; Chiou, Juing-Shian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a GSA-tuning IPD control technique for magnetic suspension systems. An educational demonstration on a magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system is examined for effectiveness. For the magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system (FSMSS), the current transducer is employed for measuring the electromagnetic coil current, and a Hall effect device is used for detecting the position of the suspended object. To achieve optimal performance, the gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is adopted for tuning the integral-proportional-derivative (IPD) controller. The IPD control includes the specified PD controller and an integrator. The specified PD control is employed for stabilizing the inherently unstable FSMSS, whereas the integral control is utilized for eliminating the steady-state error. The GSA can tune the IPD control parameters to enable optimal FSMSS performance. We achieved excellent results from the simulations and hands-on experiments for the proposed control strategies and structures. PMID:26694404

  12. GSA-Tuning IPD Control of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jen-Hsing; Chiou, Juing-Shian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a GSA-tuning IPD control technique for magnetic suspension systems. An educational demonstration on a magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system is examined for effectiveness. For the magnetic-field sensed magnetic suspension system (FSMSS), the current transducer is employed for measuring the electromagnetic coil current, and a Hall effect device is used for detecting the position of the suspended object. To achieve optimal performance, the gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is adopted for tuning the integral-proportional-derivative (IPD) controller. The IPD control includes the specified PD controller and an integrator. The specified PD control is employed for stabilizing the inherently unstable FSMSS, whereas the integral control is utilized for eliminating the steady-state error. The GSA can tune the IPD control parameters to enable optimal FSMSS performance. We achieved excellent results from the simulations and hands-on experiments for the proposed control strategies and structures. PMID:26694404

  13. A high resolution capacitive sensing system for the measurement of water content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ± 50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  14. Research of AGC technology in a digital optical fiber sensing system with PGC modulation and demodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianfeng; Xiong, Shuidong; Zhang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    The magnitude of light intensity on the photo-to-electric detector fluctuates all the time in an optic fiber sensing system, because of the influence of various factors in the fiber optic sensing system and from the external environment. As a result of the excessive intensity, the electric signal will be overload after the amplifier circuit with constant enlargement factor, and when the light intensity becames too small, it will reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the electric signal. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce an automatic gain control (AGC) module into the system, which can insure the electric signal in a reasonable magnitude. In order to solve the problem of optic intensity fluctuating in the optical fiber sensing system with PGC modulation and demodulation, in this paper, firstly, it is analyzed that the impact of different magnitudes of interferential intensity to the PGC demodulation in theory. Secondly, a reasonable control method is put forward and an AGC module based on the AD602 chip is designed and produced. Finally, it is proved that the optic fiber sensor system with an AGC module has strong ability to resist fluctuation of light intensity within 40dB.

  15. Analysis and modeling of radiometric error caused by imaging blur in optical remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xufen; Zhang, Yuncui; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Imaging blur changes the digital output values of imaging systems. It leads to radiometric errors when the system is used for measurement. In this paper, we focus on the radiometric error due to imaging blur in remote sensing imaging systems. First, in accordance with the radiometric response calibration of imaging systems, we provide a theoretical analysis on the evaluation standard of radiometric errors caused by imaging blur. Then, we build a radiometric error model for imaging blur based on the natural stochastic fractal characteristics of remote sensing images. Finally, we verify the model by simulations and physical defocus experiments. The simulation results show that the modeling estimation result approaches to the simulation computation. The maximum difference of relative MSE (Mean Squared Error) between simulation computation and modeling estimation can achieve 1.6%. The physical experimental results show that the maximum difference of relative MSE between experimental results and modeling estimation is only 1.29% under experimental conditions. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed model is correct, which can be used to estimate the radiometric error caused by imaging blur in remote sensing images. This research is of great importance for radiometric measurement system evaluation and application.

  16. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  17. Design and application of a field sensing system for ground anchors in slopes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  18. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  19. Sub-bandage sensing system for remote monitoring of chronic wounds in healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariz, Alex; Mehmood, Nasir; Voelcker, Nico

    2015-12-01

    Chronic wounds, such as venous leg ulcers, can be monitored non-invasively by using modern sensing devices and wireless technologies. The development of such wireless diagnostic tools may improve chronic wound management by providing evidence on efficacy of treatments being provided. In this paper we present a low-power portable telemetric system for wound condition sensing and monitoring. The system aims at measuring and transmitting real-time information of wound-site temperature, sub-bandage pressure and moisture level from within the wound dressing. The system comprises commercially available non-invasive temperature, moisture, and pressure sensors, which are interfaced with a telemetry device on a flexible 0.15 mm thick printed circuit material, making up a lightweight biocompatible sensing device. The real-time data obtained is transmitted wirelessly to a portable receiver which displays the measured values. The performance of the whole telemetric sensing system is validated on a mannequin leg using commercial compression bandages and dressings. A number of trials on a healthy human volunteer are performed where treatment conditions were emulated using various compression bandage configurations. A reliable and repeatable performance of the system is achieved under compression bandage and with minimal discomfort to the volunteer. The system is capable of reporting instantaneous changes in bandage pressure, moisture level and local temperature at wound site with average measurement resolutions of 0.5 mmHg, 3.0 %RH, and 0.2 °C respectively. Effective range of data transmission is 4-5 m in an open environment.

  20. Sensing, Control, and System Integration for Autonomous Vehicles: A Series of Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, Ümit; Redmill, Keith

    One of the important examples of mechatronic systems can be found in autonomous ground vehicles. Autonomous ground vehicles provide a series of challenges in sensing, control and system integration. In this paper we consider off-road autonomous vehicles, automated highway systems and urban autonomous driving and indicate the unifying aspects. We specifically consider our own experience during the last twelve years in various demonstrations and challenges in attempting to identify unifying themes. Such unifying themes can be observed in basic hierarchies, hybrid system control approaches and sensor fusion techniques.

  1. Parametric modeling in distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system for position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongyan; Wang, Jian; Jia, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system is widely used as a monitoring system in communication cable and pipeline of long distances. When a vibration signal occurs at a particular position along the fiber, the response of the system, in the frequency domain, presents a series of periodic maxima and minima (or null frequencies). These minima depend on the position of the vibration signal along the fiber. Power spectral estimation methods are considered to denoise the power spectrum of the system and determine these minima precisely. The experimental results show higher accuracy of the position using a parametric model with appropriate selection of order p and q than just using fast Fourier transform algorithm.

  2. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  3. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  4. Evaluating the Use of Remote Sensing Data in the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Brickley, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) s Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to food insecurity emergencies on three continents. FEWS NET uses satellite remote sensing and ground observations of rainfall and vegetation in order to provide information on drought, floods and other extreme weather events to decision makers. Previous research has presented results from a professional review questionnaire with FEWS NET expert end-users whose focus was to elicit Earth observation requirements. The review provided FEWS NET operational requirements and assessed the usefulness of additional remote sensing data. Here we analyzed 1342 food security update reports from FEWS NET. The reports consider the biophysical, socioeconomic, and contextual influences on the food security in 17 countries in Africa from 2000-2009. The objective was to evaluate the use of remote sensing information in comparison with other important factors in the evaluation of food security crises. The results show that all 17 countries use rainfall information, agricultural production statistics, food prices and food access parameters in their analysis of food security problems. The reports display large scale patterns that are strongly related to history of the FEWS NET program in each country. We found that rainfall data was used 84% of the time, remote sensing of vegetation 28% of the time, and gridded crop models 10%, reflecting the length of use of each product in the regions. More investment is needed in training personnel on remote sensing products to improve use of data products throughout the FEWS NET system.

  5. BioSense: implementation of a National Early Event Detection and Situational Awareness System.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Colleen A; Rolka, H; Walker, D; Loonsk, J

    2005-08-26

    BioSense is a CDC initiative to support enhanced early detection, quantification, and localization of possible biologic terrorism attacks and other events of public health concern on a national level. The goals of the BioSense initiative are to advance early detection by providing the standards, infrastructure, and data acquisition for near real-time reporting, analytic evaluation and implementation, and early event detection support for state and local public health officials. BioSense collects and analyzes Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs ambulatory clinical diagnoses and procedures and Laboratory Corporation of America laboratory-test orders. The application summarizes and presents analytical results and data visualizations by source, day, and syndrome for each ZIP code, state, and metropolitan area through maps, graphs, and tables. An initial proof of a concept evaluation project was conducted before the system was made available to state and local users in April 2004. User recruitment involved identifying and training BioSense administrators and users from state and local health departments. User support has been an essential component of the implementation and enhancement process. CDC initiated the BioIntelligence Center (BIC) in June 2004 to conduct internal monitoring of BioSense national data daily. BIC staff have supported state and local system monitoring, conducted data anomaly inquiries, and communicated with state and local public health officials. Substantial investments will be made in providing regional, state, and local data for early event detection and situational awareness, test beds for data and algorithm evaluation, detection algorithm development, and data management technologies, while maintaining the focus on state and local public health needs. PMID:16177687

  6. Investigation of targeted biomolecules in a micro-fluxgate-based bio-sensing system.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jian; Lei, Chong; Wang, Tao; Yang, Zhen; Zhou, Yong

    2014-04-01

    An investigation of targeted biomolecules was accomplished by combining a micro-fluxgate-based bio-sensing system and Dynabeads. The fluxgate sensor for biomolecule detection was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical system technology, including thick photoresist lithography, electroplating and chemical wet etching. The magnetic core of the sensor was made of Fe-based amorphous ribbon core and three dimension solenoid coils were used as magnetic sensitive elements. The micro-fluxgate-based bio-sensing system was characterized firstly in different concentrations of Dynabeads, and a concentration as low as 100 ng/ml was detected with an external dc magnetic field in the range of 525 μT to 875 μT. Sandwich assays are performed using antibody-antigen pair combination of biotin-streptavidin on a separated Au film substrate surface with a self-assembled layer. Detection of Alpha Fetoprotein antigens with different concentrations was performed and a minimum detectable concentration of 1 pg/ml was achieved by the bio-sensing system. It is of considerable interest due to its potential application in the biomedical field based on known specific binding of target and labels. PMID:24292779

  7. A multi-mode sensing system for corrosion detection using piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Pollock, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    As an emerging technology for in-situ damage detection and nondestructive evaluation, structural health monitoring with active sensors (active SHM) plays as a promising candidate for the pipeline inspection and diagnosis. Piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS), as an active sensing device, can be permanently attached to the structure to interrogate it at will and can operate in propagating wave mode or electromechanical impedance mode. Its small size and low cost (about $10 each) make itself a potential and unique technology for in-situ SHM application. The objective of the research in this paper is to develop a permanently installed in-situ "multi-mode" sensing system for the corrosion monitoring and prediction of critical pipeline systems. Such a system is used during in-service period, recording and monitoring the changes of the pipelines over time, such as corrosion, wall thickness, etc. Having the real-time data available, maintenance strategies based on these data can then be developed to ensure a safe and less expensive operation of the pipeline systems. After a detailed review of PWAS SHM methods, including ultrasonic, impedance, and thickness measurement, we introduce the concept of PWAS-based multi-mode sensing approach for corrosion detection in pipelines. Particularly, we investigate the potential for using PWAS waves for in thickness mode experimentally. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the corrosion detection ability of the PWAS network in both metallic plate and pipe in a laboratory setting. Results show successful corrosion localization in both tests.

  8. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Dong, Ren; Chenwei, Nie

    2014-03-01

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps.

  9. Piezoelectric-based smart sensing system for I-beam structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Tzuyang; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the I-beam has become one of the most important engineering structural components being applied in areas such as mechanical, civil, and constructional engineering. To ensure safety and proper maintenance, an effective and accurate structural health monitoring method/system for I-beams is urgently needed. This paper proposes a smart sensing system for I-beam crack detection that is based on the energy diffusivity (attenuation) between two individual piezoelectric transducers (PZTs). Sensor (one of the PZTs) responses are analyzed and applied to characterize the health status of the I-beam. Lab experiments are carried out for effective evaluation of this approach in structural health monitoring. The characteristics of crack distribution are studied by calculating and analyzing the energy diffusivity variation of the sensor responses to artificially cuttings to the I-beam. Moreover, instead of utilizing an actuator and a sensor, the system employs a couple of PZTs sensors, which offer the potential for in-field, in situ sensing with the sensor arrays. This smart sensing system can be applied in railway, metro, and iron-steel structures for I-beam health monitoring applications.

  10. A Task-Centric Cooperative Sensing Scheme for Mobile Crowdsourcing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwei; Niu, Xiaoguang; Lin, Xu; Huang, Ting; Wu, Yunlong; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In a densely distributed mobile crowdsourcing system, data collected by neighboring participants often exhibit strong spatial correlations. By exploiting this property, one may employ a portion of the users as active participants and set the other users as idling ones without compromising the quality of sensing or the connectivity of the network. In this work, two participant selection questions are considered: (a) how to recruit an optimal number of users as active participants to guarantee that the overall sensing data integrity is kept above a preset threshold; and (b) how to recruit an optimal number of participants with some inaccurate data so that the fairness of selection and resource conservation can be achieved while maintaining sufficient sensing data integrity. For question (a), we propose a novel task-centric approach to explicitly exploit data correlation among participants. This subset selection problem is regarded as a constrained optimization problem and we propose an efficient polynomial time algorithm to solve it. For question (b), we formulate this set partitioning problem as a constrained min-max optimization problem. A solution using an improved version of the polynomial time algorithm is proposed based on (a). We validate these algorithms using a publicly available Intel-Berkeley lab sensing dataset and satisfactory performance is achieved. PMID:27223288

  11. Construction of an unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing system for crop monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seungtaek; Ko, Jonghan; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Jongkwon

    2016-04-01

    We constructed a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing system and determined the ideal method for equipment setup, image acquisition, and image processing. Fields of rice paddy (Oryza sativa cv. Unkwang) grown under three different nitrogen (N) treatments of 0, 50, or 115 kg/ha were monitored at Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea, in 2013. A multispectral camera was used to acquire UAV images from the study site. Atmospheric correction of these images was completed using the empirical line method, and three-point (black, gray, and white) calibration boards were used as pseudo references. Evaluation of our corrected UAV-based remote sensing data revealed that correction efficiency and root mean square errors ranged from 0.77 to 0.95 and 0.01 to 0.05, respectively. The time series maps of simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) produced using the UAV images reproduced field variations of NDVI reasonably well, both within and between the different N treatments. We concluded that the UAV-based remote sensing technology utilized in this study is potentially an easy and simple way to quantitatively obtain reliable two-dimensional remote sensing information on crop growth.

  12. A framework for developing an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    With a changing climate, drought has become more intensified, of which agriculture is the major affected sector. Satellite observations have proven great utilities for real-time drought monitoring as well as crop yield estimation, and many remotely sensed indicators have been developed for drought monitoring based on vegetation growth conditions, surface temperature and evapotranspiration information. However, those current drought indicators typically don't take into account the different responses of various input information and the drought impacts during the growing season, revealing some limitations for effective agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis. Therefore, the goal of this research is to build a framework for the development of an impact-oriented and remote sensing based agricultural drought indicator. Firstly, the global agricultural drought risk was characterized to provide an overview of the agricultural drought prone areas in the world. Then, the responses of different remotely sensed indicators to drought and the impacts of drought on crop yield from the remote sensing perspective during the growing season were explored. Based on previous works on drought risk, drought indicator response and drought impact analysis, an impact-oriented drought indicator will be prototyped from the integration of the drought responses of different indicators and the drought impacts during the growing season. This research can inform an impact-oriented agricultural drought indicator, help prototype an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system, and thus provide valuable inputs for effective agricultural management.

  13. A hybrid fiber-optic sensing system for down-hole pressure and distributed temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Zhou, Xinlei; Yang, Bokai; Peng, Wei; Yu, Qingxu

    2015-10-01

    A hybrid fiber-optic sensing technique, combining the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) based pressure sensor with the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (IOFDR) based distributed temperature sensor (DTS), is presented for down-hole measurements. By using a laser diode as the common light source, a highly integrated hybrid EFPI/DTS sensing system has been developed with a single fiber. With the injection current of the laser diode below lasing threshold, the broadband spontaneous emission light is used for EFPI based pressure sensing; while with the injection current above the threshold, the stimulated emission light is used for Raman based distributed temperature sensing. There is no overlap between the spectral range of the reflected light from the EFPI sensor and the spectral range of the Raman scattered light. Pressure and distributed temperature can thus be measured by using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology. Experimental results show that both the pressure and the distributed temperature are measured with little interference. Furthermore, the pressure measurement can be compensated by the measured temperature values.

  14. A Task-Centric Cooperative Sensing Scheme for Mobile Crowdsourcing Systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziwei; Niu, Xiaoguang; Lin, Xu; Huang, Ting; Wu, Yunlong; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In a densely distributed mobile crowdsourcing system, data collected by neighboring participants often exhibit strong spatial correlations. By exploiting this property, one may employ a portion of the users as active participants and set the other users as idling ones without compromising the quality of sensing or the connectivity of the network. In this work, two participant selection questions are considered: (a) how to recruit an optimal number of users as active participants to guarantee that the overall sensing data integrity is kept above a preset threshold; and (b) how to recruit an optimal number of participants with some inaccurate data so that the fairness of selection and resource conservation can be achieved while maintaining sufficient sensing data integrity. For question (a), we propose a novel task-centric approach to explicitly exploit data correlation among participants. This subset selection problem is regarded as a constrained optimization problem and we propose an efficient polynomial time algorithm to solve it. For question (b), we formulate this set partitioning problem as a constrained min-max optimization problem. A solution using an improved version of the polynomial time algorithm is proposed based on (a). We validate these algorithms using a publicly available Intel-Berkeley lab sensing dataset and satisfactory performance is achieved. PMID:27223288

  15. Extensible Flexible Optical System for Nano-scale Remote Sensing Satellite “PRISM”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Kim, Sang Kyun; Kusakawa, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Kensuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Komatsu, Mitsuhito; Lambert, Casey; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    As traditional satellites successfully utilize extensible structures such as long magnetic booms or large antennae, the variety of space missions to be realized by nano-scale satellites would be greatly expanded if they employed such structures. Specifically for remote sensing applications, extensible structures are convenient for achieving long focal lengths required by the optics system. In our laboratory, a nano-scale remote sensing satellite “PRISM” has been developed with an expected launch date in the 2008 fiscal year. PRISM has an extensible boom with a telephoto lens at its tip, creating a refractive telescope, which on the orbit can acquire earth images with a resolution better than 30m. In this paper, we describe the design of the boom and present results from a micro-gravity experiment where the operation and system identification tests were performed.

  16. Fiber optic sensing system for temperature and gas monitoring in coal waste pile combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, J.; Lopez-Albada, A.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Silva, S. O.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    It is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires.

  17. Remote sensing and geographic information systems: charting Sin Nombre virus infections in deer mice.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J. D.; McGwire, K. C.; Otteson, E. W.; DeBaca, R. S.; Kuhn, E. A.; Villard, P.; Brussard, P. F.; St Jeor, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    We tested environmental data from remote sensing and geographic information system maps as indicators of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infections in deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations in the Walker River Basin, Nevada and California. We determined by serologic testing the presence of SNV infections in deer mice from 144 field sites. We used remote sensing and geographic information systems data to characterize the vegetation type and density, elevation, slope, and hydrologic features of each site. The data retroactively predicted infection status of deer mice with up to 80% accuracy. If models of SNV temporal dynamics can be integrated with baseline spatial models, human risk for infection may be assessed with reasonable accuracy. PMID:10827114

  18. Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenas, David D.; Farrar, Charles R.; Chong, See Yenn; Lee, J.R.; Park, Gyu Hae; Flynn, Eric B.

    2012-06-29

    The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to

  19. VDM-RS: A visual data mining system for exploring and classifying remotely sensed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianting; Gruenwald, Le; Gertz, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Remotely sensed imagery has become increasingly important in several applications domains, such as environmental monitoring, change detection, fire risk mapping and land use, to name only a few. Several advanced image classification techniques have been developed to analyze such imagery and in particular to improve the accuracy of classifying images in the context of such applications. However, most of the proposed classifiers remain a black box to users, leaving them with little to no means to explore and thus further improve the classification process, in particular for misclassified pixel samples. In this paper, we present the concepts, design and implementation of VDM-RS, a visual data mining system for classifying remotely sensed images and exploring image classification processes. The system provides users with two classes of components. First, visual components are offered that are specific to classifying remotely sensed images and provide traditional interfaces, such as a map view and an error matrix view. Second, the decision tree classifier view provides users with the functionality to trace and explore the classification process of individual pixel samples. This feature allows users to inspect how a sample has been correctly classified using the classifier, but more importantly, it also allows for a detailed exploration of the steps in which a sample has been misclassified. The integration of these features into a coherent, user-friendly system not only helps users in getting more insights into the data, but also to better understand and subsequently improve a classifier for remotely sensed images. We demonstrate the functionality of the system's components and their interaction for classifying imagery using a hyperspectral image dataset.

  20. Developing a flood monitoring system from remotely sensed data for the Limpopo basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asante, K.O.; Macuacua, R.D.; Artan, G.A.; Lietzow, R.W.; Verdin, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of remotely sensed precipitation to the monitoring of floods in a region that regularly experiences extreme precipitation and flood events, often associated with cyclonic systems. Precipitation data, which are derived from spaceborne radar aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's infrared-based products, are used to monitor areas experiencing extreme precipitation events that are defined as exceedance of a daily mean areal average value of 50 mm over a catchment. The remotely sensed precipitation data are also ingested into a hydrologic model that is parameterized using spatially distributed elevation, soil, and land cover data sets that are available globally from remote sensing and in situ sources. The resulting stream-flow is classified as an extreme flood event when flow anomalies exceed 1.5 standard deviations above the short-term mean. In an application in the Limpopo basin, it is demonstrated that the use of satellite-derived precipitation allows for the identification of extreme precipitation and flood events, both in terms of relative intensity and spatial extent. The system is used by water authorities in Mozambique to proactively initiate independent flood hazard verification before generating flood warnings. The system also serves as a supplementary information source when in situ gauging systems are disrupted. This paper concludes that remotely sensed precipitation and derived products greatly enhance the ability of water managers in the Limpopo basin to monitor extreme flood events and provide at-risk communities with early warning information. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  1. A novel reagentless sensing system for measuring glucose based on the galactose/glucose-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salins, L. L.; Ware, R. A.; Ensor, C. M.; Daunert, S.

    2001-01-01

    The galactose/glucose-binding protein (GBP) is synthesized in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in a precursor form and exported into the periplasmic space upon cleavage of a 23-amino-acid leader sequence. GBP binds galactose and glucose in a highly specific manner. The ligand induces a hinge motion in GBP and the resultant protein conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensing system. The mglB gene, which codes for GBP, was isolated from the chromosome of E. coli using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since wild-type GBP lacks cysteines in its structure, introducing this amino acid by site-directed mutagenesis ensures single-label attachment at specific sites with a sulfhydro-specific fluorescent probe. Site-directed mutagenesis by overlap extension PCR was performed to prepare three different mutants to introduce a single cysteine residue at positions 148, 152, and 182. Since these residues are not involved in ligand binding and since they are located at the edge of the binding cleft, they experience a significant change in environment upon binding of galactose or glucose. The sensing system strategy is based on the fluorescence changes of the probe as the protein undergoes a structural change on binding. In this work a reagentless sensing system has been rationally designed that can detect submicromolar concentrations of glucose. The calibration plots have a linear working range of three orders of magnitude. Although the system can sense galactose as well, this epimer is not a potential interfering substance since its concentration in blood is negligible. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Recent Technology of Sensing, Monitoring, Diagnosis, and Maintenance for Aged Electric Power and Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi

    This paper deals with the recent topics related to sensing, monitoring, and diagnosis for electric power equipment. Moreover the risk management for such equipments has been an object of study in many terms such as economical, technical aspects, safety and rest, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) etc. The relationship between the function of the economic engineering and the maintenance strategy for electric power system are reviewed.

  3. Fiber-Optic Sensing System: Overview, Development and Deployment in Flight at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Hon Man; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Richards, W. Lance

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the research and technological development of the fiber-optic sensing system (FOSS) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (NASA AFRC) is presented. Theory behind fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, as well as interrogation technique based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) is discussed. Assessment and validation of FOSS as an accurate measurement tool for structural health monitoring is realized in the laboratory environment as well as large-scale flight deployment.

  4. Peformance evaluation of a passive microwave imaging system. [for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallum, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the passive microwave imaging system for possible application in the NASA Earth Resources Program. In addition to test data analysis, the report gives a brief description of the radiometer, its software, and the ground support equipment. The microwave image quality is adequate for remote sensing applications studies. Instrument problems are described, and suggestions are given for possible improvements and potential applications.

  5. Wireless Sensing System Using Open-circuit, Electrically-conductive Spiral-trace Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless sensing system includes a sensor made from an electrical conductor shaped to form an open-circuit, electrically-conductive spiral trace having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the sensor resonates to generate a harmonic response having a frequency, amplitude and bandwidth. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to the sensor and wirelessly detects the sensor's response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth.

  6. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  7. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  8. Magnetic-assisted triboelectric nanogenerators as self-powered visualized omnidirectional tilt sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengdi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Sun, Xuming; Meng, Bo; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-04-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising device in energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetic-assisted TENG, utilizing the magnetic force for electric generation. Maximum power density of 541.1 mW/m2 is obtained at 16.67 MΩ for the triboelectric part, while the electromagnetic part can provide power density of 649.4 mW/m2 at 16 Ω. Through theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, linear relationship between the tilt angle and output voltage at large angles is observed. On this basis, a self-powered omnidirectional tilt sensor is realized by two magnetic-assisted TENGs, which can measure the magnitude and direction of the tilt angle at the same time. For visualized sensing of the tilt angle, a sensing system is established, which is portable, intuitive, and self-powered. This visualized system greatly simplifies the measure process, and promotes the development of self-powered systems.

  9. 3D-Web-GIS RFID Location Sensing System for Construction Objects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency. PMID:23864821

  10. An approach to improve the spatial resolution of a force mapping sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Lucas Hermann; Manfron Schiefer, Elberth; Sade Paterno, Aleksander; Muller, Marcia; Luís Fabris, José

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a smart sensor system capable of detecting sparse forces applied to different positions of a metal plate. The sensing is performed with strain transducers based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) distributed under the plate. Forces actuating in nine squared regions of the plate, resulting from up to three different loads applied simultaneously to the plate, were monitored with seven transducers. The system determines the magnitude of the force/pressure applied on each specific area, even in the absence of a dedicated transducer for that area. The set of strain transducers with coupled responses and a compressive sensing algorithm are employed to solve the underdetermined inverse problem which emerges from mapping the force. In this configuration, experimental results have shown that the system is capable of recovering the value of the load distributed on the plate with a signal-to-noise ratio better than 12 dB, when the plate is submitted to three simultaneous test loads. The proposed method is a practical illustration of compressive sensing algorithms for the reduction of the number of FBG-based transducers used in a quasi-distributed configuration.

  11. A Two Fiber Bragg Gratings Sensing System to Monitor the Torque of Rotating Shaft.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiao; Liang, Lei; Yuan, Yinquan; Xu, Gang; Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    By fixing two FBGs on the surface of a rotating shaft along the direction of ± 45° and using dynamic wavelength demodulation technology, we propose an optical fiber sensing system to monitor the driving torque and torsion angle of the rotating shaft. In theory, the dependence relation of the dynamic difference of central wavelengths on the torque and torsion angle of the rotating shaft has been deduced. To verify an optical fiber sensing system, a series of sensing experiments have been completed and the measured data are approximately consistent with the theoretical analysis. The difference of two central wavelengths can be expressed as the sum of two parts: a "DC" part and a harmonic "AC" part. The driving torque or torsion angle is linear with the "DC" part of the difference of two central wavelengths, the harmonic "AC" part, meaning the torsion angle vibration, illustrates that periodic vibration torque may be caused by inhomogeneous centrifugal forces or inhomogeneous additional torques produced by the driving system and the load. PMID:26805843

  12. Laser excitation and fully non-contact sensing ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Dipesh; Lee, Jung Ryul; Park, Chan Yik; Flynn, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Various types of damages occur in aerospace, mechanical and many other engineering structures, and a reliable nondestructive evaluation technique is essential to detect any possible damage at the initiation phase. Ultrasound has been widely used but the conventional contact ultrasonic inspection techniques are not suitable for mass and couplant sensitive structures and are relatively slow. This study presents a fully non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic generation and piezoelectric air-coupled transducer (ACT)/laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) sensing technique combined with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI), ultrasonic spectral imaging (USI) and wavelet-transformed ultrasonic propagation imaging (WUPI) algorithms to extract defect-sensitive features aimed at performing a thorough diagnosis of damage. Optimization enables improved performance efficiency of ACT and LDV to be used as receivers for non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) system as shown from the experimental results in this study. Real fatigue closed surface micro crack on metal structure was detected using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/ACT sensing system, with size detection accuracy as high as 96%. Impact damages on carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite wing-box specimen were detected and localized using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/LDV sensing system.

  13. Magnetic-assisted triboelectric nanogenerators as self-powered visualized omnidirectional tilt sensing system

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mengdi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Sun, Xuming; Meng, Bo; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising device in energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetic-assisted TENG, utilizing the magnetic force for electric generation. Maximum power density of 541.1 mW/m2 is obtained at 16.67 MΩ for the triboelectric part, while the electromagnetic part can provide power density of 649.4 mW/m2 at 16 Ω. Through theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, linear relationship between the tilt angle and output voltage at large angles is observed. On this basis, a self-powered omnidirectional tilt sensor is realized by two magnetic-assisted TENGs, which can measure the magnitude and direction of the tilt angle at the same time. For visualized sensing of the tilt angle, a sensing system is established, which is portable, intuitive, and self-powered. This visualized system greatly simplifies the measure process, and promotes the development of self-powered systems. PMID:24770490

  14. Heme sensing in Bacillus thuringiensis: a supplementary HssRS-regulated heme resistance system.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rachel M; Carter, Micaela M; Chu, Michelle L; Latario, Casey J; Stadler, Sarah K; Stauff, Devin L

    2016-05-01

    Several Gram-positive pathogens scavenge host-derived heme to satisfy their nutritional iron requirement. However, heme is a toxic molecule capable of damaging the bacterial cell. Gram-positive pathogens within the phylum Firmicutes overcome heme toxicity by sensing heme through HssRS, a two-component system that regulates the heme detoxification transporter HrtAB. Here we show that heme sensing by HssRS and heme detoxification by HrtAB occur in the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis We find that in B. thuringiensis, HssRS directly regulates an operon, hrmXY, encoding hypothetical membrane proteins that are not found in other Firmicutes with characterized HssRS and HrtAB systems. This novel HssRS-regulated operon or its orthologs BMB171_c3178 and BMB171_c3330 are required for maximal heme resistance. Furthermore, the activity of HrmXY is not dependent on expression of HrtAB. These results suggest that B. thuringiensis senses heme through HssRS and induces expression of separate membrane-localized systems capable of overcoming different aspects of heme toxicity. PMID:27030728

  15. A Two Fiber Bragg Gratings Sensing System to Monitor the Torque of Rotating Shaft

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjiao; Liang, Lei; Yuan, Yinquan; Xu, Gang; Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    By fixing two FBGs on the surface of a rotating shaft along the direction of ±45° and using dynamic wavelength demodulation technology, we propose an optical fiber sensing system to monitor the driving torque and torsion angle of the rotating shaft. In theory, the dependence relation of the dynamic difference of central wavelengths on the torque and torsion angle of the rotating shaft has been deduced. To verify an optical fiber sensing system, a series of sensing experiments have been completed and the measured data are approximately consistent with the theoretical analysis. The difference of two central wavelengths can be expressed as the sum of two parts: a “DC” part and a harmonic “AC” part. The driving torque or torsion angle is linear with the “DC” part of the difference of two central wavelengths, the harmonic “AC” part, meaning the torsion angle vibration, illustrates that periodic vibration torque may be caused by inhomogeneous centrifugal forces or inhomogeneous additional torques produced by the driving system and the load. PMID:26805843

  16. Bragg grating-based fiber laser vibration sensing system with novel phase detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiufeng; Chen, Zhihao; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the dynamic response of a Bragg grating-based fiber laser sensing system. The sensing system comprises of a narrow line width fiber laser based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating formed in an active fiber, an unbalanced fiber Michelson interferometer (FMI), which performs wavelength-to-phase mapping, and a phase detection algorithm, which acquires the phase change from the interferometric output signal. The novel phase detection algorithm is developed based on the combination of the two traditional phase generated carrier algorithms: differential-cross-multiplying and arctangent algorithms, and possesses the advantages of the two algorithms. The modulation depth fluctuation of the carrier does not affect the performance of the sensing system. A relatively high side mode suppression ratio of above 50 dB has been achieved within a wide range of carrier amplitude from 1.6 to 5.0 V which correspond to the modulation depth from 1.314 to 4.106 rad. The linearity is 99.082% for the relationship between the power spectral density (dBm/Hz) of the detected signal and the amplitude (mv) of the test signal. The unbalanced FMI is used to eliminate the polarization effect.

  17. Performance enhancement for long distance BOTDR sensing system based on high extinction ratio probe pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixin; Xia, Lan; Wu, Xuelin; Zhang, Xuping; Wang, Guanghui

    2014-10-01

    The leakage light of an electro-optic modulator (EOM) induced by its finite extinction ratio (ER) may degrade the performance of Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer sensing system, especially for long distance measurement. In this letter, the configuration of a high ER probe pulse generator assisted by synchronous optical switch has been presented. A dual pulses interferometric method was also proposed to determine the dynamic ER value (DER) of the generated probe pulse. Contrast experiments have been performed to verify the effect of the proposed method in a BOTDR system and the results have shown that the performance of a long distance BOTDR sensing system can be improved observably with the proposed high ER probe pulse generator. At the end of a 48.5km sensing fiber, the maximum uncertainty of temperature measurement has been reduced from 5.2° to 0.8° with 25m spatial resolution after we improved the extinction ratio of probe pulse from 35dB to 65dB.

  18. Research on distributed strain separation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing system combining an electric power optical fiber cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yuqing; Chen, Xi; Li, Jihui; Tong, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Brillouin-based optical fiber sensing system has been taken more and more attentions in power transmission line in recent years. However, there exists a temperature cross sensitivity problem in sensing system. Hence, researching on strain separation technology of fiber brillouin sensing system is an urgent requirement in its practical area. In this paper, a real-time online distributed strain separation calculation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing combining an electric power optical fiber cable is proposed. The technology is mainly composed of the Brillouin temperature-strain distributed measurement system and the Raman temperature distributed measurement system. In this technology, the electric power optical fiber cable is a special optical phase conductor (OPPC); the Brillouin sensing system uses the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) method. The optical unit of the OPPC includes single-mode and multimode fibers which can be used as sensing channel for Brillouin sensing system and Raman sensing system respectively. In the system networking aspect, the data processor of fiber Brillouin sensing system works as the host processor and the data processor of fiber Raman sensing system works as the auxiliary processor. And the auxiliary processor transfers the data to the host processor via the Ethernet interface. In the experiment, the BOTDA monitoring system and the Raman monitoring system work on the same optical unit of the OPPC simultaneously; In the data processing aspect, the auxiliary processor of Raman transfers the temperature data to the host processor of Brillouin via the Ethernet interface, and then the host processor of Brillouin uses the temperature data combining itself strain-temperature data to achieve the high sampling rate and high-precision strain separation via data decoupling calculation. The data decoupling calculation is achieved through the interpolation, filtering, feature point alignment, and the singular point prediction

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lon and ClpXP proteases: roles in linking carbon catabolite repression system with quorum-sensing system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nana; Lan, Lefu

    2016-02-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) plays critical roles in virulence gene expression and the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human pathogen. However, the regulatory effects, especially that occur directly upstream of the QS system, remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the key component of carbon catabolite repression (CCR) system and protein quality control (PQC) system in regulating the QS system in P. aeruginosa. We propose that PQC proteases Lon and ClpXP may have an important role in linking CCR with QS, and thus contribute to the integration of nutritional cues into the regulatory network governing the virulence factors expression in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26045103

  20. Channel estimation for OFDM system in atmospheric optical communication based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingsong; Hao, Shiqi; Geng, Hongjian; Sun, Han

    2015-10-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique applied to the atmospheric optical communication can improve data transmission rate, restrain pulse interference, and reduce effect of multipath caused by atmospheric scattering. Channel estimation, as one of the important modules in OFDM, has been investigated thoroughly and widely with great progress. In atmospheric optical communication system, channel estimation methods based on pilot are common approaches, such as traditional least-squares (LS) algorithm and minimum mean square error (MMSE) algorithm. However, sensitivity of the noise effects and high complexity of computation are shortcomings of LS algorithm and MMSE algorithm, respectively. Here, a new method based on compressive sensing is proposed to estimate the channel state information of atmospheric optical communication OFDM system, especially when the condition is closely associated with turbulence. Firstly, time-varying channel model is established under the condition of turbulence. Then, in consideration of multipath effect, sparse channel model is available for compressive sensing. And, the pilot signal is reconstructed with orthogonal matching tracking (OMP) algorithm, which is used for reconstruction. By contrast, the work of channel estimation is completed by LS algorithm as well. After that, simulations are conducted respectively in two different indexes -signal error rate (SER) and mean square error (MSE). Finally, result shows that compared with LS algorithm, the application of compressive sensing can improve the performance of SER and MSE. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed method is reasonable and efficient.

  1. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  2. Framework design for remote sensing monitoring and data service system of regional river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jun'e.; Lu, Jingxuan; Pang, Zhiguo

    2015-08-01

    Regional river basins, transboundary rivers in particular, are shared water resources among multiple users. The tempo-spatial distribution and utilization potentials of water resources in these river basins have a great influence on the economic layout and the social development of all the interested parties in these basins. However, due to the characteristics of cross borders and multi-users in these regions, especially across border regions, basic data is relatively scarce and inconsistent, which bring difficulties in basin water resources management. Facing the basic data requirements in regional river management, the overall technical framework for remote sensing monitoring and data service system in China's regional river basins was designed in the paper, with a remote sensing driven distributed basin hydrologic model developed and integrated within the frame. This prototype system is able to extract most of the model required land surface data by multi-sources and multi-temporal remote sensing images, to run a distributed basin hydrological simulation model, to carry out various scenario analysis, and to provide data services to decision makers.

  3. Remote sensing of tropospheric gases and aerosols with airborne DIAL system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The multipurpose airborne DIAL system developed at NASA Langley Research Center is characterized, and the published results of tropospheric O3, H2O, and aerosol-backscatter remote-sensing experiments performed in 1980 and 1981 are summarized. The system comprises two tunable dye lasers pumped by frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers, dielectric-coated steering optics, a 36-cm-diameter Cassegrain receiver telescope, gateable photomultiplier tubes, and a minicomputer data-processing unit for real-time calculation of gas concentrations and backscattering profiles. The transmitted energy of the 100-microsec-separated dye-laser pulses is 40, 80, or 50 mJ/pulse at around 300, 600, or 720-nm wavelength, respectively. Good agreement was found between DIAL-remote-sensed and in-situ H2O and O3 profiles of the lower troposphere and O3 profiles of the tropopause region, and the usefulness of DIAL backscattering measurements in the study of boundary-layer and tropospheric dynamics is demonstrated. The feasibility of DIAL sensing of power-plant or urban plume SO2, of urban-area (or rural-area column-content) NO2, and of temperature and H2O (simultaneously using a third laser) has been suggested by simulation studies.

  4. Compressed sensing theory-based channel estimation for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Minghui; Wang, Ruyan; Liu, Yuanni; Song, Daiping

    2014-09-01

    Due to the spare multipath property of the channel, a channel estimation method, which is based on partial superimposed training sequence and compressed sensing theory, is proposed for line of sight optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication systems. First, a continuous training sequence is added at variable power ratio to the cyclic prefix of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing symbols at the transmitter prior to transmission. Then the observation matrix of compressed sensing theory is structured by the use of the training symbols at receiver. Finally, channel state information is estimated using sparse signal reconstruction algorithm. Compared to traditional training sequences, the proposed partial superimposed training sequence not only improves the spectral efficiency, but also reduces the influence to information symbols. In addition, compared with classical least squares and linear minimum mean square error methods, the proposed compressed sensing theory based channel estimation method can improve both the estimation accuracy and the system performance. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  5. Electrochemical sensing system employing fructosamine 6-kinase enables glycated albumin measurement requiring no proteolytic digestion.

    PubMed

    Kameya, Miho; Tsugawa, Wakako; Yamada-Tajima, Mayumi; Hatada, Mika; Suzuki, Keita; Sakaguchi-Mikami, Akane; Ferri, Stefano; Klonoff, David C; Sode, Koji

    2016-06-01

    Currently available enzymatic methods for the measurement of glycated proteins utilize fructosyl amino acid/peptide oxidases (FAOXs/FPOXs) as sensing elements. FAOXs/FPOXs oxidize glycated amino acids or glycated dipeptides but they are not able to accept longer glycated peptides or intact glycated proteins as substrates. Therefore, pretreatment via proteolytic digestion is unavoidable with the current enzymatic methods, and there remains a need for simpler measurement methods for glycated proteins. In this study, in order to develop a novel sensing system for glycated albumin (GA), a marker for diabetes, with no requirement for proteolytic digestion, we created an electrochemical sensor based on fructosamine 6-kinase (FN6K) from Escherichia coli. Uniquely, FN6K can react directly with intact GA unlike FAOXs/FPOXs. The concentration of GA in samples was measured using a carbon-printed disposable electrode upon which FN6K as well as two additional enzymes, pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were overlaid. A clear correlation between the response current and the concentration of GA was observed in the range of 20-100 µM GA, which is suitable for measurement of GA in diluted blood samples from both healthy individuals and patients with diabetes. The sensing system reported here could be applied to point-of-care-testing devices for measurement of glycated proteins. PMID:27067959

  6. A noncontact capacitive sensing system for recognizing locomotion modes of transtibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Enhao; Wang, Long; Wei, Kunlin; Wang, Qining

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a noncontact capacitive sensing system (C-Sens) for locomotion mode recognition of transtibial amputees. C-Sens detects changes in physical distance between the residual limb and the prosthesis. The sensing front ends are built into the prosthetic socket without contacting the skin. This novel signal source improves the usability of locomotion mode recognition systems based on electromyography (EMG) signals and systems based on capacitance signals obtained from skin contact. To evaluate the performance of C-Sens, we carried out experiments among six transtibial amputees with varying levels of amputation when they engaged in six common locomotive activities. The capacitance signals were consistent and stereotypical for different locomotion modes. Importantly, we were able to obtain sufficiently informative signals even for amputees with severe muscle atrophy (i.e., amputees lacking of quality EMG from shank muscles for mode classification). With phase-dependent quadratic classifier and selected feature set, the proposed system was capable of making continuous judgments about locomotion modes with an average accuracy of 96.3% and 94.8% for swing phase and stance phase, respectively (Experiment 1). Furthermore, the system was able to achieve satisfactory recognition performance after the subjects redonned the socket (Experiment 2). We also validated that C-Sens was robust to load bearing changes when amputees carried 5-kg weights during activities (Experiment 3). These results suggest that noncontact capacitive sensing is capable of circumventing practical problems of EMG systems without sacrificing performance and it is, thus, promising for automatic recognition of human motion intent for controlling powered prostheses. PMID:25014949

  7. An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

  8. Performance of a high-speed switched reluctance starter/generator system using electronic position sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.R.; Drager, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    A switched reluctance machine based system, whether a motor drive or a starter/generator, requires the rotor position to be determined to commutate at the correct instants. This paper compares the performance of a high-speed switched reluctance starter/generator (SR S/G) system when operating with a resolver to the performance when operating resolverless, or sensorless, using an electronic position sensing (EPS) subsystem for rotor position estimation. A brief overview of the SR S/G system is given, followed by the approach for sensorless system operation. Test results are given, and system efficiency is compared, for both approaches when operating both as a starter and as a generator. Minimal difference is seen in system efficiency, with peaks at over 75% for start-mode and at over 79% for generate mode, for both resolver-based and sensorless operation.

  9. A wearable sensing system for assessment of exposures to environmental volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Tsow, Francis; Xian, Xiaojun; Forzani, Erica; Tao, Nongjian; Tsui, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    A portable chemical sensing system that integrates sample preconcentration, separation and detection as well as wireless communication functionalities into a compact, wearable format can provide continuous and real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds in the environment. The sensing modality relies on tuning forks coated with molecularly imprinted polymers that, in conjunction with sample preconcentration, offer selective detection down to parts-per-billion levels. The use of capillary columns allows individual components of complex mixtures to be detected at these highly sensitive levels even in the presence of interferents. The wireless capability facilitates the utilization of a paired smartphone as the user interface as well as a vehicle for additional processing and storage of the measured data. This integrated approach offers a cost-effective and reliable platform for personal exposure assessment. PMID:25626541

  10. Live Cell Reporter Systems for Positive-Sense Single Strand RNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Ren, Linzhu; Peng, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xinrong; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Cell-based reporter systems have facilitated studies of viral replication and pathogenesis, virus detection, and drug susceptibility testing. There are three types of cell-based reporter systems that express certain reporter protein for positive-sense single strand RNA virus infections. The first type is classical reporter system, which relies on recombinant virus, reporter virus particle, or subgenomic replicon. During infection with the recombinant virus or reporter virus particle, the reporter protein is expressed and can be detected in real time in a dose-dependent manner. Using subgenomic replicon, which are genetically engineered viral RNA molecules that are capable of replication but incapable of producing virions, the translation and replication of the replicon could be tracked by the accumulation of reporter protein. The second type of reporter system involves genetically engineered cells bearing virus-specific protease cleavage sequences, which can sense the incoming viral protease. The third type is based on viral replicase, which can report the specific virus infection via detection of the incoming viral replicase. This review specifically focuses on the major technical breakthroughs in the design of cell-based reporter systems and the application of these systems to the further understanding and control of viruses over the past few decades. PMID:26728654

  11. A Microfluidic Device for Continuous Sensing of Systemic Acute Toxicants in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety. PMID:24300075

  12. Frequency agile laser safety & hazard analysis for the Sandia Remote Sensing System LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2009-05-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the Raytheon Frequency Agile Laser (FAL) to be used with the Sandia Remote Sensing System (SRSS) B-70 Trailer based on the 2007 version of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard 136.1, for Safe Use of Lasers and the 2005 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The B-70 SRSS LIDAR system is a portable platform, which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites.

  13. Restless Watchdog: Selective Quickest Spectrum Sensing in Multichannel Cognitive Radio Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Husheng

    2009-12-01

    Selective quickest spectrum sensing, which monitors the spectrum activity in multiple channels, is studied for multichannel cognitive radio systems with nonnegligible channel switching time (blind period). The spectrum sensor needs to detect the emergence of primary users as quickly as possible. Due to hardware limitation, it is assumed that only a subset of frequency channels can be monitored simultaneously. The problem of controlling the monitoring procedure is studied in the frameworks of dynamic programming (DP). System states and cost functions are defined. Cost-to-go functions for DP are derived, simplified, and approximated, based on which control policies are derived. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the proposed algorithms.

  14. In-service communication channel sensing based on reflectometry for TWDM-PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Daisuke; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Many base stations are accommodated in TWDM-PON based mobile backhaul and fronthaul networks for future radio access, and failed connections in an optical network unit (ONU) wavelength channel severely degrade system performance. A cost effective in-service ONU wavelength channel monitor is essential to ensure proper system operation without failed connections. To address this issue we propose a reflectometry-based remote sensing method that provides wavelength channel information with the optical line terminal (OLT)-ONU distance. The method realizes real-time monitoring of ONU wavelength channels without signal quality degradation. Experimental results show it achieves wavelength channel distinction with high distance resolution.

  15. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes for dielectric sensing of biological systems: An effective treatment of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picaud, F.; Girardet, C.

    We determine the efficiency of semi-conducting multiwalled carbon nanotubes in resonator configuration acting as sensors of biological systems. The resonance frequency shifts due to the dielectric changes of the resonator upon adsorption of highly idealized micelles schematized by a set of concentric shells of polarizable centers surrounded by a water shell to mimic the solvent are calculated on the basis of an effective polarizability distribution in the tube and the sensed system. Cylindrical and spherical geometries including different sizes are considered for the micelles to show that size and geometry selectivity could be reached with such an approach.

  16. A Sensing System for Simultaneous Detection of Urine and its Components Using Plastic Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Takemae, Tadashi; Egami, Chikara; Tsuboi, Naoyuki

    A sensing system using plastic optical fibers and reagent papers was developed for the detection of urine and abnormal level of its components simultaneously. Among several components of urine the detection of two main components namely, protein and glucose was confirmed experimentally. Three states of the papers namely dry and wet with and without change in color, were taken into consideration. These three states were divided by setting the lower and upper threshold voltages at 2.2 V and 5.5 V, respectively. This system is considered to be simple in construction, easy to operate and cost-efficient.

  17. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl detection based on a genetically engineered bioluminescent whole-cell sensing system.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kendrick; Xu, Shifen; Pasini, Patrizia; Deo, Sapna; Bachas, Leonidas; Daunert, Sylvia

    2007-08-01

    The metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), have been identified as environmental contaminants. Various studies have shown that some OH-PCBs can potentially contribute to health problems. Detection of these compounds in environmental and biological samples could provide useful information about their levels and lead to a better understanding of their apparent toxicity. To that end, we have developed a whole-cell sensing system for the detection of OH-PCBs by taking advantage of the recognition of a group of related compounds, i.e., hydroxylated biphenyls, by the product of the hbpR gene in the hbp operon from Pseudomonas azelaica strain HBP1. By fusing the luxAB genes, encoding the reporter protein bacterial luciferase, to the hbp regulator-promoter sequence, a whole-cell sensing system was developed. Here, we describe the optimization and application of this whole-cell sensing system for the detection of a model compound, 2-hydroxy-3',4'-dichlorobiphenyl. A detection limit of 1 x 10(-8) M was achieved using this system. The detection of a broad range of individual OH-PCBs as well as an OH-PCB mixture was investigated. The system can detect OH-PCBs in whole serum samples in a trace amount, which is comparable to the detection of these analytes in medium alone. We envision that the method developed can potentially be employed as a rapid and sensitive way to monitor OH-PCBs for toxicological study in the laboratory, as well as a useful tool to evaluate the presence of bioavailable OH-PCBs in natural environments. PMID:17602671

  18. BioRadioTransmitter: A Self-Powered Wireless Glucose-Sensing System

    PubMed Central

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Background Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. Methods A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Results Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. Conclusions We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor

  19. Sensor failure detection and management scheme for pressure probes using Kalman filtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N. Shantha

    1995-06-01

    For high performance, high angle of attack fighter aircraft, accurate and high fidelity airdata parameters are crucial for the flight control system. At high angle of attack, where small changes in angle of attack can greatly influence aerodynamic properties of the aircraft, the problem of flight control augmentation is extremely complicated. In this flight regime, it is critical that accurate measurements of airdata parameters including angle of attack, angle of sideslip and dynamic pressure are made available for use by the flight augmentation system. But at high angle of attack, it is difficult to measure airdata accurately using conventional intrusive sensing devices, because of upstream vortices and flow separation. To overcome this difficulty, a non-intrusive Flush Airdata Sensing system (FADS) has been developed. The FADS is a simple hardware item with the basic fixture being a hemispherical or conical cap mounted at the nose of the fuselage. A number of small holes are drilled around the cap in annular rings. The pressure at each hole is measured by pressure transducers and related to airdata parameters by a non-linear aerodynamic model derived from potential flow. A 7-hole pressure probe, proposed by the DLR for implementation on an advanced experimental fighter aircraft for airdata measurements at high angle of attack, has redundant measurements in angle of attack, angle of side slip and dynamic pressure to ensure control system augmentation at high angle of attack, in spite of some pressure sensor failure or malfunctioning. Such a system requires an algorithm which detects pressure sensor failure and performs fault management in real time. In this report, a concept for an algorithm using a recursive Kalman filtering technique has been proposed and developed. The algorithm is tested on a 5 hole pressure probe which is used in experimental flights of C-160 Transall aircraft.

  20. The monitoring and alarm system based on distributed temperature fiber sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-qiang; Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yu-ye; Wang, Shu-juan

    2014-09-01

    Air material depot is a warehouse which store consumed all the parts and equipment vault of the plane. In order to ensure the various aviation equipment integrity of the backup piece rate, the inside temperature of depot must be controlled within a certain range. Therefore, the depot must be equipped a self-contained temperature real-time monitoring system. This paper presents a distributed temperature sensing alarm system to apply to real-time measure spatial distribution of temperature field. In order to eliminate influence to the scattering strength from the light source instability and the fiber bending splice loss and to improve temperature measurement accuracy, the system design used dual-channel dual- wavelength comparison method which make Anti-Stokes as signal channel and Stokes as a reference channel to collect signals of two channel respectively and detect the ratio of the two channels' signals. The light of LD directional coupling to the sensing optical fiber in the temperature field to test, domain reflect light from the sensing optical fiber directional coupling to receive channel again, Rayleigh domain reflect light is filtered after optical filter, the Anti-Stokes and Stokes are both taken out, converted and magnified, the two signals is digitalized by A/D Converter, and written to the storage machine , which linear cumulative to the content of the storage unit, The distributed measurement of the temperature field to test is finished. The collected 2900 measuring points real-time on 2km of optical fiber. The spatial resolution of the system was 0.7m, measurement range was -20-370°C, and measurement error was ± 2 °C. All index of the system achieved the desired objective. To get an accurate temperature field spatial distribution and the information of temporal variation, the system enabled real-time temperature of aviation depot monitoring and early warning . As a new sensing technology, the distributed fiber optic sensor has the functions of self

  1. A Dual-Field Sensing Scheme for a Guidance System for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Han, Youngjoon

    2016-01-01

    An electronic guidance system is very helpful in improving blind people’s perceptions in a local environment. In our previous work “Lin, Q.; Han, Y. A Context-Aware-Based Audio Guidance System for Blind People Using a Multimodal Profile Model. Sensors 2014, 14, 18670–18700”, a context-aware guidance system using a combination of a laser scanner and a camera was proposed. By using a near-field graphical model, the proposed system could interpret a near-field scene in very high resolution. In this paper, our work is extended by adding a far-field graphical model. The integration of the near-field and the far-field models constitutes a dual-field sensing scheme. In the near-field range, reliable inference of the ground and object status is obtained by fusing range data and image data using the near-field graphical model. In the far-field range, which only the camera can cover, the far-field graphical model is proposed to interpret far-field image data based on appearance and spatial prototypes built using the near-field interpreted data. The dual-field sensing scheme provides a solution for the guidance systems to optimise their scene interpretation capability using simple sensor configurations. Experiments under various local conditions were conducted to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme in improving blind people’s perceptions in urban environments. PMID:27187388

  2. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  3. Shock and vibration control systems using a self-sensing magnetorheological damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wang, Dai-Hua

    2014-04-01

    The theoretical analysis and the prototype testing of the integrated relative displacement self-sensing magnetorheological damper (IRDSMRD) indicate that the controllable damping force performance and the relative displacement sensing performance influence each other for varying applied currents. Aiming at verifying the feasibility and capability of the IRDSMRD to constitute semi-active shock and vibration control systems, this study presents a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) shock and vibration control system based on the IRDSMRD. The mathematical model of the IRDSMRD, including the control damping force and the linearity of the integrated relative displacement sensor (IRDS), is established, and the governing equation for the SDOF system based on the IRDSMRD is derived. A skyhook control algorithm is utilized to improve the shock and vibration control performance of the SDOF semi-active control systems. The simulated control performances of the SDOF systems individually using the IRDSMRD without any extra-set dynamic sensor, the conventional MR damper with a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), and the passive damper, under shock loads due to vertical pulses (the maximum initial velocity is as high as 10 m/s), and sinusoidal vibrations with a frequency range of 0-25 Hz, are evaluated, compared, and analyzed.

  4. Remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry farm based on Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongwu; Teng, Guanghui; Ma, Liang; Li, Zhizhong; Yuan, Zhengdong; Li, Minzan; Yang, Xiuslayerg

    2005-09-01

    A remote sensing and monitor system for a large poultry layer farm is developed based on distributed data acquisition and internet control. The supervising system applied patent techniques known as arc orbit movable vidicon, wireless video transmission and telecommunications. It features supervising at all orientations, and digital video telecommunicating through internet. All measured and control information is sent to a central computer, which is in charge of storing, displaying, analyzing and serving to internet, where managers can monitor real time production scene anywhere and customers can also see the healthy layers through internet. This paper primarily discusses how to design the remote sensing and monitor system (RSMS), and its usage in a large poultry farm, Deqingyuan Healthy Breeding Ecological Garden, Yanqing County, Beijing, China. The system applied web service technology and the middleware using XML language and Java language. It preponderated in data management, data exchange, expansibility, security, and compatibility. As a part of poultry sustainable development management system, it has been applied in a large farm with 1,200,000 layers. Tests revealed that there was distinct decline in the death ratio of chicken with 2. 2%, as the surroundings of layers had been ameliorated. At the same time, there was definite increase in the laying ratio with 3. 5%.

  5. A Multi-Electrode Electric Field Based Sensing System For Ophthalmic Anesthesia Training.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2015-06-01

    Local anesthesia administration prior to ophthalmic surgery involves inserting a syringe needle into a confined intraorbital space at the proper position, angle and depth. During this procedure ocular structures must remain unhurt and systemic complications must be avoided while achieving quick akinesia and analgesia. Animal cadavers do not emulate human anatomy accurately and human subject based training entails risk to the patient. Therefore, a training system that closely replicates the human ocular and orbital anatomy and provides the trainee with real-time feedback on the safety and effectiveness of the block administered would help reduce risks involved with real life procedures. This paper presents an anatomically accurate, rapid-prototyped manikin based training system for ophthalmic anesthetic blocks. The depth of penetration of the needle, the proximity of the needle to extraocular muscles and the touch of the needle to the muscles or optic nerve is detected by a multi-electrode electric field/capacitive sensing system. The eye structure of the manikin does not have any electrical connections to it, rendering it replaceable, thus, enabling the emulation of anatomical variations due to pathologies of the eye. A virtual instrument measures and computes the position of the needle and displays it to the trainee through an intuitive GUI with a 3D display of the orbital anatomy. The proposed capacitive sensing scheme has been validated by tests performed on a prototype system, thus demonstrating its usefulness for practical training purposes. PMID:25361511

  6. High angle of attack position sensing for the Southampton University magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David H.

    1987-01-01

    An all digital five channel position detection system is to be installed in the Southampton University Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (SUMSBS). The system is intended to monitor a much larger range of model pitch attitudes than has been possible hitherto, up to a maximum of a 90 degree angle of attack. It is based on the use of self-scanning photodiode arrays and illuminating laser light beams, together with purpose built processing electronics. The principles behind the design of the system are discussed, together with the results of testing one channel of the system which was used to control the axial position of a magnetically suspended model in SUMSBS. The removal of optically coupled heave position information from the axial position sensing channel is described.

  7. Performance characteristics of a narrow-linewidth distributed-Bragg-reflector laser for optical remote sensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Little, L.M.; Beernink, K.J.; Papen, G.C.; Coleman, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    Optical remote sensing systems designed to track pollutants and greenhouse gases have received increasing interest. Here, the performance of a novel ridge-waveguide, distributed-Bragg-reflector laser was tested for spectroscopic remote sensing applications. The laser exhibits a narrow linewidth, excellent side-mode suppression, and flexible, highly repeatable wavelength tuning. These characteristics are significant improvements over current Fabry-Perot lasers, and indicate that distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers are promising candidates for implementing advanced semiconductor-based optical remote sensing systems.

  8. RAQ-A Random Forest Approach for Predicting Air Quality in Urban Sensing Systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruiyun; Yang, Yu; Yang, Leyou; Han, Guangjie; Move, Oguti Ann

    2016-01-01

    Air quality information such as the concentration of PM2.5 is of great significance for human health and city management. It affects the way of traveling, urban planning, government policies and so on. However, in major cities there is typically only a limited number of air quality monitoring stations. In the meantime, air quality varies in the urban areas and there can be large differences, even between closely neighboring regions. In this paper, a random forest approach for predicting air quality (RAQ) is proposed for urban sensing systems. The data generated by urban sensing includes meteorology data, road information, real-time traffic status and point of interest (POI) distribution. The random forest algorithm is exploited for data training and prediction. The performance of RAQ is evaluated with real city data. Compared with three other algorithms, this approach achieves better prediction precision. Exciting results are observed from the experiments that the air quality can be inferred with amazingly high accuracy from the data which are obtained from urban sensing. PMID:26761008

  9. The Development of an Uninhabited Aircraft System for Remote Sensing in the Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, W. R.; Hale, R. D.

    2006-12-01

    The use of autonomous aircraft in Cryospheric research is expected to lead to increases in the rate of data collection as well as decreases in both acquisition and operational costs associated with the implementation of aircraft in remote sensing. The University of Kansas is developing a robust, high-performance, autonomous platform capable of carrying up to eight wing-mounted antennas and 75 kg of payload over a distance of 1,700 km at speeds ranging from 150 300 km/hr. This aircraft, named the Meridian, is designed to carry a ground- penetrating radar system, currently under development at the University of Kansas, to measure ice thickness, snow accumulation, and basal conditions in support of the NSF funded Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS). In addition, this vehicle is also designed to be a robust science test bed that can be used for a wide variety of missions related to Cryospheric research. This will offer the geophysical science community opportunities to utilize an uninhabited aircraft that has been designed specifically for remote sensing in extreme conditions. The key design parameters of the Meridian include a turbopropeller engine, which offers logistical benefits as it operates on heavy fuels that are commonly available in the Cryosphere; retractable landing gear with skis for operation from snow runways; anti-icing; and over-the-horizon operational capability

  10. Assessment of Human Respiration Patterns via Noncontact Sensing Using Doppler Multi-Radar System

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique. PMID:25785310

  11. RAQ–A Random Forest Approach for Predicting Air Quality in Urban Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruiyun; Yang, Yu; Yang, Leyou; Han, Guangjie; Move, Oguti Ann

    2016-01-01

    Air quality information such as the concentration of PM2.5 is of great significance for human health and city management. It affects the way of traveling, urban planning, government policies and so on. However, in major cities there is typically only a limited number of air quality monitoring stations. In the meantime, air quality varies in the urban areas and there can be large differences, even between closely neighboring regions. In this paper, a random forest approach for predicting air quality (RAQ) is proposed for urban sensing systems. The data generated by urban sensing includes meteorology data, road information, real-time traffic status and point of interest (POI) distribution. The random forest algorithm is exploited for data training and prediction. The performance of RAQ is evaluated with real city data. Compared with three other algorithms, this approach achieves better prediction precision. Exciting results are observed from the experiments that the air quality can be inferred with amazingly high accuracy from the data which are obtained from urban sensing. PMID:26761008

  12. Distributed fiber-optic sensing system with OFDR and its applications to structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.; Kageyama, K.; Uzawa, K.; Igawa, H.; Omichi, K.; Machijima, Y.

    2009-07-01

    In the field of fiber-optic sensing technology, distributed sensors that return a value of the measurand as a function of linear position along an optical fiber are regarded as a promising sensor which can be applied to structural health monitoring (SHM). We have developed a distributed strain sensing technique using long gauge fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). FBGs functioning as mirrors with wavelengthselective reflectivity have been used as strain or temperature sensors. OFDR is a technique designed to measure backreflections from optical fiber networks and components. In our system, we use a longer gauge FBG whose length is ordinarily more than 100 mm and we can measure strain at an arbitrary position along the FBG. Therefore, we can obtain continuous strain data along the FBG. Furthermore, since the spatial resolution in strain measurements is less than 1 mm, it enables us to measure the strain distribution of stress concentrated area, such as welded and bonded joints, precisely. In this paper, we describe the principle of the distributed sensing technique based on OFDR and the applications to strain monitoring of a bonded joint and a wing box structure.

  13. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique. PMID:25785310

  14. The Hico Image Processing System: A Web-Accessible Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. T., III; Goodman, J.; Justice, B.

    2014-12-01

    As the quantity of Earth-observation data increases, the use-case for hosting analytical tools in geospatial data centers becomes increasingly attractive. To address this need, HySpeed Computing and Exelis VIS have developed the HICO Image Processing System, a prototype cloud computing system that provides online, on-demand, scalable remote sensing image processing capabilities. The system provides a mechanism for delivering sophisticated image processing analytics and data visualization tools into the hands of a global user community, who will only need a browser and internet connection to perform analysis. Functionality of the HICO Image Processing System is demonstrated using imagery from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), an imaging spectrometer located on the International Space Station (ISS) that is optimized for acquisition of aquatic targets. Example applications include a collection of coastal remote sensing algorithms that are directed at deriving critical information on water and habitat characteristics of our vulnerable coastal environment. The project leverages the ENVI Services Engine as the framework for all image processing tasks, and can readily accommodate the rapid integration of new algorithms, datasets and processing tools.

  15. A newly designed compact remote TDL sensing system for air pollutants -- Field experiments and comparison measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Herzog, R.; Lamp, T.; Ropertz, A.; Weber, K.

    1999-07-01

    The remote sensing system for local or diffuse concentrations of gaseous air pollutants developed and realized by the ILK Dresden is a very compact and low mass apparatus based on the tunable diode laser (TDL) techniques in pulse or cw mode regime. The prototypes are characterized by compact design (300x150x300mm3) and stand-alone and mains-independent operation that allows a fast, flexible and mobile use in different applications. The first hardware version works as an one laser monitor while the advanced version provides for the simultaneous operation of two lasers and can thus measure two gaseous pollutants at the same time. The sensitivity limits for CO and NO were determined at 13ppb x 100m and at 22ppb x 100m respectively. Optical measurement paths are possible up to 700m. The paper presented results of field measurements of the gaseous pollutants in the open atmosphere, i.e. traffic-induced CO and NO as well as CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} landfill gases. Furthermore, the authors have investigated in co-operation with the FH Duesseldorf the ILK TDL-system and commercial remote sensing systems for air pollutant monitoring, especially the FTIR and DOAS systems, in different comparison measurements under real field conditions.

  16. A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS) System for Rapid Roadway Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yifeng; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Yinghong; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2013-01-01

    Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test. PMID:23698266

  17. The performance limit of Φ-OTDR sensing system enhanced with ultra-weak fiber Bragg grating array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lan; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Fan; Cao, Chunqi; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-08-01

    Phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) has been widely used in various applications for its distributed measurement capability of dynamic disturbance along the entire length of sensing fiber. In our previous research, the capacity of Φ-OTDR sensing system has been enhanced with ultra-weak fiber Bragg grating (UWFBG) array for high-precision quantitative measurement on the external disturbance. Multipoint nɛ level dynamic strain variation has been fully captured with 2m spatial resolution. However, only 5 identical UWFBGs were used in the demonstration. For large-scale sensing network, the detectable fiber length would be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the dynamic range of the reflection signal. In this paper, the performance limit of the UWFGB array enhanced Φ-OTDR sensing system has been investigated. A numerical simulation was performed to illustrate the relationships between the SNR, sensing length, spatial resolution and the UWFBG reflectivity. The simulation results have shown that when the reflectivity is relatively low, the noise is mainly contributed from Rayleigh scattering. On the other hand, the multiple reflections will dominate the overall noise characteristic with the growing of UWFBG reflectivity. The requirement of detection dynamic range was also analyzed. Simulation has shown that lower UWFBG reflectivity will lead to smaller signal dynamic range, making the selection of detector more practicable. The analysis result is quite useful for designing large-scale sensing network based on UWFGB array enhanced Φ-OTDR sensing system in practical situation.

  18. Improving Data Quality with an Accumulated Reputation Model in Participatory Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruiyun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Xingwei; Cao, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices brings forth a sensing paradigm, participatory sensing, to collect and interpret sensory information from the environment. Participants join in multifarious sensing tasks and share their data. The sensing result can be obtained in light of shared data. It is not uncommon that some corrupted data is provided by participants, which makes sensing result unreliable accordingly. To address this nontrivial issue, we proposed the accumulated reputation model (ARM) to improve the accuracy of the sensing result. In ARM, participants' reputation will be computed and accumulated based on their sensing data. The sensing data from reputable participants make higher contributions to the sensing result. ARM performs well on calculating accurate sensing results, even in extreme scenarios, where there are many inexperienced or malicious participants. PMID:24658621

  19. Modeling and Remote Sensing for a Dust/Health Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne desert dust is a human health problem in much of the world. While controlling emissions from arid lands is problematic, advances in remote sensing and modeling have matured sufficiently to reduce risks of exposure. Active dust sources are identified and monitored from space-based platforms and from modeled back-trajectories. Satellite-based sensors detect and monitor airborne dust crossing oceans and circling the globe. High-resolution dust forecasts and simulations over the U.S. southwest have been successfully demonstrated. Operational dust forecast systems could warn of intercontinental dust movements and potential dust exposure hazards on spatial scales of a few kilometers and on time scales sufficient for planning and avoiding risks. This paper will show how the World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System could coordinate international collaboration for a worldwide Dust/Health Early Warning System modeled after the decades-long success of the international Famine Early Warning System.

  20. Building a functional, integrated GIS/remote sensing resource analysis and planning system. [Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Wheeler, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    To be an effective tool for resource analysis and planning, a geographic information system (GIS) needs to be integrated with a digital remote sensing capability. To be truly functional, the paired system must be driven by grass roots local needs. A case study couched in a Soil Conservation District in northern Utah is presented. Agency representatives determined that the most fundamental data sets to be entered into the GIS system analysis system in the first round were: land use/land cover; geomorphic/soil unit data; hydrologic unit data; and digital terrain. The least expensive and best ways to obtain these data were determined. Data were acquired and formatted to enter the state's PRIME/ARC-INFO GIS, and are being interrogated for resource management decisions related to such issues as agricultural preservation, urban expansion, soil erosion control, and dam siting.

  1. Advanced feature extraction in remote sensing using artificial intelligence and geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Friedl, Mark A.; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Traditional computer-assisted image-analysis techniques in remote sensing lag well behind human abilities in terms of both speed and accuracy. A fundamental limitation of computer-assisted techniques is their inability to assimilate a variety of different data types leading to an interpretation in a manner similar to human image interpretation. Expert systems and computer-vision techniques are proposed as a potential solution to these limitations. Some aspects of human expertise in image analysis may be codified into expert systems. Image understanding and symbolic reasoning provide a means of assimilating spatial information and spatial reasoning into the analysis procedure. Knowledge-based image-analysis systems incorporate many of these concepts and have been implemented for some well defined problem domains. Geographic information systems represent an excellent environment for this type of analysis, providing both analytic tools and contextual information to the analysis procedure.

  2. Development of a high-altitude airborne dial system: The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Vaughan, W. R.; Hall, W. M.; Degnan, J. J.; Averill, R. D.; Wells, J. G.; Hinton, D. E.; Goad, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system to measure vertical profiles of H2O in the lower atmosphere was demonstrated both in ground-based and airborne experiments. In these experiments, tunable lasers were used that required real-time experimenter control to locate and lock onto the atmospheric H2O absorption line for the DIAL measurements. The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is the first step in a long-range effort to develop and demonstrate an autonomous DIAL system for airborne and spaceborne flight experiments. The LASE instrument is being developed to measure H2O, aerosol, and cloud profiles from a high-altitude ER-2 (extended range U-2) aircraft. The science of the LASE program, the LASE system design, and the expected measurement capability of the system are discussed.

  3. Image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nanrun; Pan, Shumin; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Zhihong

    2016-08-01

    Most image encryption algorithms based on low-dimensional chaos systems bear security risks and suffer encryption data expansion when adopting nonlinear transformation directly. To overcome these weaknesses and reduce the possible transmission burden, an efficient image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing is proposed. The original image is measured by the measurement matrices in two directions to achieve compression and encryption simultaneously, and then the resulting image is re-encrypted by the cycle shift operation controlled by a hyper-chaotic system. Cycle shift operation can change the values of the pixels efficiently. The proposed cryptosystem decreases the volume of data to be transmitted and simplifies the keys distribution simultaneously as a nonlinear encryption system. Simulation results verify the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm with acceptable compression and security performance.

  4. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Sandberg, R. L.; Lalone, B. M.; Marshall, B. R.; Grover, M.; Stevens, G. D.; Udd, E.

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  5. Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl Quorum-Sensing Systems in Control of Twitching Motility

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Alex; Smith, Roger S.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Robinson, Jayne B.

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and an important human pathogen. The production of several virulence factors by P. aeruginosa is controlled through two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. We have obtained evidence that both the las and rhl quorum-sensing systems are also required for type 4 pilus-dependent twitching motility and infection by the pilus-specific phage D3112cts. Mutants which lack the ability to synthesize PAI-1, PAI-2, or both autoinducers were significantly or greatly impaired in twitching motility and in susceptibility to D3112cts. Twitching motility and phage susceptibility in the autoinducer-deficient mutants were partially restored by exposure to exogenous PAI-1 and PAI-2. Both twitching motility and infection by pilus-specific phage are believed to be dependent on the extension and retraction of polar type 4 pili. Western blot analysis of whole-cell lysates and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of intact cells were used to measure the amounts of pilin on the cell surfaces of las and rhl mutants relative to that of the wild type. It appears that PAI-2 plays a crucial role in twitching motility and phage infection by affecting the export and assembly of surface type 4 pili. The ability of P. aeruginosa cells to adhere to human bronchial epithelial cells was also found to be dependent on the rhl quorum-sensing system. Microscopic analysis of twitching motility indicated that mutants which were unable to synthesize PAI-1 were defective in the maintenance of cellular monolayers and migrating packs of cells. Thus, PAI-1 appears to have an essential role in maintaining cell-cell spacing and associations required for effective twitching motility. PMID:10049396

  6. OCAM2: world's fastest and most sensitive camera system for advanced Adaptive Optics wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Feautrier, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    For the first time, sub-electron read noise has been achieved with a camera suitable for astronomical wavefront-sensing (WFS) applications. The OCam system has demonstrated this performance at 1500 Hz frame rate and with 240x240-pixel. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON have jointly funded e2v technologies to develop a custom CCD for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240x240 pixel frame-transfer 8-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This talk demonstrates sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1500 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. It reports on the comprehensive, quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220 such as readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, charge transfer efficiency... OCam includes a low noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCAM2, was designed offering enhanced performances, a completely sealed camera package and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally rugged applications. OCAM2 offers two types of built-in data link to the Real Time Computer: the CameraLink industry standard interface and various fiber link options like the sFPDP interface. OCAM2 includes also a modified mechanical design to ease the integration of microlens arrays for use of this camera in all types of wavefront sensing AO system. The front cover of OCAM2 can be customized to include a microlens exchange mechanism. A picture of OCAM2, the commercial version of OCam, is shown in Figure 2. OCAM2 is commercialized by the "First Light Imaging" company.

  7. On-chip microdialysis system with flow-through sensing components.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2007-05-15

    Microdialysis probes have been used for diabetes treatment as continuous monitoring system coupled to a glucose sensor. An on-chip microdialysis system with in-line sensing electrodes is demonstrated. As a first step towards greater biosensor integration with this miniaturized microdialysis system, a stacked system with in-line sensing electrodes was developed. Impedance electrodes sputtered within the microchannels were used to determine fluid electrical resistance from a dialyzed phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, which characterizes solution conductivity as a function of PBS concentration. The permeability of the membrane to the salt ions was obtained as 0.246+/-0.028 microm/s (15 nm pores). Subsequently, experiments measuring PBS dialysis in the time-domain at 64.4% recovery were conducted. The PBS concentration of the reservoir was changed in both a step response and sinusoidally with an 800 s period. The subsequently measured impedance indicates that the system is able to continuously track concentration changes in the reservoir with a 210 s system response delay. Most of this delay is due to the dead volume within the tubing between the syringe pumps and the microsystem. In addition, the predicted response was modeled using linear systems theory and matches the experimental measurements (r=0.98). This system is expected to have the proper sensitivity to track physiologically relevant concentration changes of biomolecules such as glucose (which has a physiological maximum change rate of approximately 4 mg/dl min with a periodicity of 1h or greater) with minimal lag time and amplitude reduction. PMID:17049836

  8. A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yu, G.; Han, W.; Deng, M.

    2010-12-01

    Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George Mason University, is implementing a remote sensing-based global agricultural drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) as a GEOSS societal benefit areas (agriculture and water) prototype. The goals of the project are 1) to establish a system as a component of GEOSS for providing global on-demand and systematic agriculture drought information to users worldwide, and 2) to support decision-making with improved monitoring, forecasting, and analyses of agriculture drought. GADMFS has adopted the service-oriented architecture and is based on standard-compliant interoperable geospatial Web services to provide online on-demand drought conditions and forecasting at ~1 km spatial and daily and weekly temporal resolutions for any part of the world to world-wide users through the Internet. Applicable GEOSS recommended open standards are followed in the system implementation. The system’s drought monitoring relies on drought-related parameters, such as surface and root-zone soil moisture and NDVI time series derived from remote sensing data, to provide the current conditions of agricultural drought. The system links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA for the monitoring purpose. For drought forecasting, the system utilizes a neural-network based modeling algorithm. The algorithm is trained with inputs of current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm will establish per-pixel model for

  9. Guided Wave Sensing In a Carbon Steel Pipe Using a Laser Vibrometer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruíz Toledo, Abelardo; Salazar Soler, Jordi; Chávez Domínguez, Juan Antonio; García Hernández, Miguel Jesús; Turó Peroy, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques have achieved a great development during the last decades as a valuable tool for material characterization, manufacturing control and structural integrity tests. Among these tools, the guided wave technology has been rapidly extended because it reduces inspection time and costs compared to the ordinary point by point testing in large structures, as well as because of the possibility of inspecting under insulation and coating conditions. This fast development has motivated the creation of several inspection and material characterization systems including different technologies which can be combined with this technique. Different measurements systems based on laser techniques have been presented in order to inspect pipes, plates and diverse structures. Many of them are experimental systems of high cost and complexity which combine the employment of a laser for generation of waves in the structure and an interferometer for detection. Some of them employ air-coupled ultrasound generation transducers, with high losses in air and which demand high energy for exciting waves in materials of high stiffness. The combined employment of a commercial vibrometer system for Lamb wave sensing in plates has been successfully shown in the literature. In this paper we present a measurement system based on the combined employment of a piezoelectric wedge transducer and a laser vibrometer to sense guided acoustic waves in carbon steel pipes. The measurement system here presented is mainly compounded of an angular wedge transducer, employed to generate the guided wave and a commercial laser vibrometer used in the detection process. The wedge transducer is excited by means of a signal function generator whose output signal has been amplified with a power signal amplifier. A high precision positioning system is employed to place the laser beam at different points through the pipe surface. The signal detected by the laser vibrometer system is

  10. Lessons Learned From Developing Three Generations of Remote Sensing Science Data Processing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Fleig, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The Biospheric Information Systems Branch at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has developed three generations of Science Investigator-led Processing Systems for use with various remote sensing instruments. The first system is used for data from the MODIS instruments flown on NASA s Earth Observing Systems @OS) Terra and Aqua Spacecraft launched in 1999 and 2002 respectively. The second generation is for the Ozone Measuring Instrument flying on the EOS Aura spacecraft launched in 2004. We are now developing a third generation of the system for evaluation science data processing for the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) to be flown by the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in 2006. The initial system was based on large scale proprietary hardware, operating and database systems. The current OMI system and the OMPS system being developed are based on commodity hardware, the LINUX Operating System and on PostgreSQL, an Open Source RDBMS. The new system distributes its data archive across multiple server hosts and processes jobs on multiple processor boxes. We have created several instances of this system, including one for operational processing, one for testing and reprocessing and one for applications development and scientific analysis. Prior to receiving the first data from OMI we applied the system to reprocessing information from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments flown from 1978 until now. The system was able to process 25 years (108,000 orbits) of data and produce 800,000 files (400 GiB) of level 2 and level 3 products in less than a week. We will describe the lessons we have learned and tradeoffs between system design, hardware, operating systems, operational staffing, user support and operational procedures. During each generational phase, the system has become more generic and reusable. While the system is not currently shrink wrapped we believe it is to the point where it could be readily

  11. Suppression of Background Odor Effect in Odor Sensing System Using Olfactory Adaptation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Tsuneaki; Yamanaka, Takao

    In this study, a new method for suppressing the background odor effect is proposed. Since odor sensors response to background odors in addition to a target odor, it is difficult to detect the target odor information. In the conventional odor sensing systems, the effect of the background odors are compensated by subtracting the response to the background odors (the baseline response). Although this simple subtraction method is effective for constant background odors, it fails in the compensation for time-varying background odors. The proposed method for the background suppression is effective even for the time-varying background odors.

  12. A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline by using distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huijuan; Sun, Zhenshi; Qian, Ya; Zhang, Tao; Rao, Yunjiang

    2015-07-01

    A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline with a distributed optical fiber vibration sensing (DOVS) system based on the phase-sensitive OTDR technology is studied in this paper. By monitoring one end of a common communication optical fiber cable, which is laid in the inner wall of the pipe, we can detect and locate the water leakages easily. Different apertures under different pressures are tested and it shows that the DOVS has good responses when the aperture is equal or larger than 4 mm and the inner pressure reaches 0.2 Mpa for a steel pipe with DN 91cm×EN 2cm.

  13. Control of ignition timing upon occurrence of abnormality in a reference crank angle position sensing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, S.; Ono, T.; Narisawa, N.

    1987-09-01

    A method is described of controlling ignition timing of an internal combustion engine when an abnormality develops in a system for sensing a reference crank angle position of a crankshaft of the engine, in which the timing at which an ignition coil starts and stops conducting is controlled on the basis of a first pulse signal generated once per at least two revolutions of the crankshaft at a predetermined crank angle position associated with a particular cylinder of the engine, a second pulse signal indicative of a predetermined reference crank angle position of the crankshaft for each cylinder, and a third pulse signal indicative of predetermined angular positions of the crankshaft.

  14. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  15. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  16. High-resolution fiber carbon monoxide sensing system and its data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wei, Yubin; Li, Yanfang; Zhao, Yanjie; Liu, Tongyu; Wang, Chang

    2013-09-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of the important gases need to be detected in coal mine safety. Detection technology based on signature gas is the primary means of spontaneous combustion forecasting of coal goaf area. Because of the high accuracy requirement of CO concentration in the coal mining applications, we had to introduce more data processig methods to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), finally to achieve the requirements of coal mining. Therefore, we used three data processing methods to eliminate noises of the CO sensing system which based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS): Fourier transform, least-squares fitting and Kalman filter. The results show that the combination of three data processing methods had a good inhibitory effect of random noise and interference fringes, etc. and significantly improved the system detection accuracy, the minimum detectable spectral absorption rate could be increased by an order of magnitude. So this high-resolution fiber CO sensing system can better meet the needs of coal mine safety.

  17. Design of a novel telerehabilitation system with a force-sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songyuan; Guo, Shuxiang; Gao, Baofeng; Hirata, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Many stroke patients are expected to rehabilitate at home, which limits their access to proper rehabilitation equipment, treatment, or assessment by therapists. We have developed a novel telerehabilitation system that incorporates a human-upper-limb-like device and an exoskeleton device. The system is designed to provide the feeling of real therapist-patient contact via telerehabilitation. We applied the principle of a series elastic actuator to both the master and slave devices. On the master side, the therapist can operate the device in a rehabilitation center. When performing passive training, the master device can detect the therapist's motion while controlling the deflection of elastic elements to near-zero, and the patient can receive the motion via the exoskeleton device. When performing active training, the design of the force-sensing mechanism in the master device can detect the assisting force added by the therapist. The force-sensing mechanism also allows force detection with an angle sensor. Patients' safety is guaranteed by monitoring the motor's current from the exoskeleton device. To compensate for any possible time delay or data loss, a torque-limiter mechanism was also designed in the exoskeleton device for patients' safety. Finally, we successfully performed a system performance test for passive training with transmission control protocol/internet protocol communication. PMID:25996511

  18. Concept of an advanced hyperspectral remote sensing system for pipeline monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Göksu; Teutsch, Caroline D.; Lenz, Andreas; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Areas occupied by oil pipelines and storage facilities are prone to severe contamination due to leaks caused by natural forces, poor maintenance or third parties. These threats have to be detected as quickly as possible in order to prevent serious environmental damage. Periodical and emergency monitoring activities need to be carried out for successful disaster management and pollution minimization. Airborne remote sensing stands out as an appropriate choice to operate either in an emergency or periodically. Hydrocarbon Index (HI) and Hydrocarbon Detection Index (HDI) utilize the unique absorption features of hydrocarbon based materials at SWIR spectral region. These band ratio based methods require no a priori knowledge of the reference spectrum and can be calculated in real time. This work introduces a flexible airborne pipeline monitoring system based on the online quasi-operational hyperspectral remote sensing system developed at Fraunhofer IOSB, utilizing HI and HDI for oil leak detection on the data acquired by an SWIR imaging sensor. Robustness of HI and HDI compared to state of the art detection algorithms is evaluated in an experimental setup using a synthetic dataset, which was prepared in a systematic way to simulate linear mixtures of selected background and oil spectra consisting of gradually decreasing percentages of oil content. Real airborne measurements in Ettlingen, Germany are used to gather background data while the crude oil spectrum was measured with a field spectrometer. The results indicate that the system can be utilized for online and offline monitoring activities.

  19. Field-portable imaging remote sensing system for automatic identification and imaging of hazardous gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, R.; Rusch, P.; Peters, H.; Gerhard, J.; Braun, R.,; Sabbah, S.; Beecken, J.

    2009-09-01

    Hazardous compounds may be released into the atmosphere in the case of fires, chemical accidents, terrorist acts, or war. In these cases, information about the released compounds is required immediately in order to take appropriate measures to protect workers, residents, emergency response personnel at the site of the release, and the environment. Remote sensing by infrared spectroscopy allows detection and identification of hazardous clouds in the atmosphere from long distances. In addition, imaging spectroscopy allows an assessment of the location, the dimensions and the dispersion of a potentially hazardous cloud. This additional information may contribute significantly to a correct assessment of a situation by emergency response forces. Therefore an imaging remote sensing system based on a Fourier-transform spectrometer with a focal plane array detector for automatic identification and imaging of gases has been developed. Imaging systems allow the use of spatial information in addition to spectral information. Thus, in order to achieve low limits of detection, algorithms that combine algorithms for spectral analysis and image analysis have been developed. In this work, the system and first results of measurements are presented.

  20. A Reconstruction Method Based on AL0FGD for Compressed Sensing in Border Monitoring WSN System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xi; Li, Wenzao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Jiliu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, to monitor the border in real-time with high efficiency and accuracy, we applied the compressed sensing (CS) technology on the border monitoring wireless sensor network (WSN) system and proposed a reconstruction method based on approximately l0 norm and fast gradient descent (AL0FGD) for CS. In the frontend of the system, the measurement matrix was used to sense the border information in a compressed manner, and then the proposed reconstruction method was applied to recover the border information at the monitoring terminal. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the helicopter sound signal was used as an example in the experimental simulation, and three other typical reconstruction algorithms 1)split Bregman algorithm, 2)iterative shrinkage algorithm, and 3)smoothed approximate l0 norm (SL0), were employed for comparison. The experimental results showed that the proposed method has a better performance in recovering the helicopter sound signal in most cases, which could be used as a basis for further study of the border monitoring WSN system. PMID:25461759

  1. A Silicon Carbide Wireless Temperature Sensing System for High Temperature Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an extreme environment-capable temperature sensing system based on state-of-art silicon carbide (SiC) wireless electronics is presented. In conjunction with a Pt-Pb thermocouple, the SiC wireless sensor suite is operable at 450 °C while under centrifugal load greater than 1,000 g. This SiC wireless temperature sensing system is designed to be non-intrusively embedded inside the gas turbine generators, acquiring the temperature information of critical components such as turbine blades, and wirelessly transmitting the information to the receiver located outside the turbine engine. A prototype system was developed and verified up to 450 °C through high temperature lab testing. The combination of the extreme temperature SiC wireless telemetry technology and integrated harsh environment sensors will allow for condition-based in-situ maintenance of power generators and aircraft turbines in field operation, and can be applied in many other industries requiring extreme environment monitoring and maintenance. PMID:23377189

  2. Real-time contaminant sensing and control in civil infrastructure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimer, Sara; Katopodes, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory-scale prototype has been designed and implemented to test the feasibility of real-time contaminant sensing and control in civil infrastructure systems. A blower wind tunnel is the basis of the prototype design, with propylene glycol smoke as the ``contaminant.'' A camera sensor and compressed-air vacuum nozzle system is set up at the test section portion of the prototype to visually sense and then control the contaminant; a real-time controller is programmed to read in data from the camera sensor and administer pressure to regulators controlling the compressed air operating the vacuum nozzles. A computational fluid dynamics model is being integrated in with this prototype to inform the correct pressure to supply to the regulators in order to optimally control the contaminant's removal from the prototype. The performance of the prototype has been evaluated against the computational fluid dynamics model and is discussed in this presentation. Furthermore, the initial performance of the sensor-control system implemented in the test section of the prototype is discussed. NSF-CMMI 0856438.

  3. Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

  4. A silicon carbide wireless temperature sensing system for high temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an extreme environment-capable temperature sensing system based on state-of-art silicon carbide (SiC) wireless electronics is presented. In conjunction with a Pt-Pb thermocouple, the SiC wireless sensor suite is operable at 450 °C while under centrifugal load greater than 1,000 g. This SiC wireless temperature sensing system is designed to be non-intrusively embedded inside the gas turbine generators, acquiring the temperature information of critical components such as turbine blades, and wirelessly transmitting the information to the receiver located outside the turbine engine. A prototype system was developed and verified up to 450 °C through high temperature lab testing. The combination of the extreme temperature SiC wireless telemetry technology and integrated harsh environment sensors will allow for condition-based in-situ maintenance of power generators and aircraft turbines in field operation, and can be applied in many other industries requiring extreme environment monitoring and maintenance. PMID:23377189

  5. Design of a Novel Telerehabilitation System with a Force-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Songyuan; Guo, Shuxiang; Gao, Baofeng; Hirata, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Many stroke patients are expected to rehabilitate at home, which limits their access to proper rehabilitation equipment, treatment, or assessment by therapists. We have developed a novel telerehabilitation system that incorporates a human-upper-limb-like device and an exoskeleton device. The system is designed to provide the feeling of real therapist–patient contact via telerehabilitation. We applied the principle of a series elastic actuator to both the master and slave devices. On the master side, the therapist can operate the device in a rehabilitation center. When performing passive training, the master device can detect the therapist’s motion while controlling the deflection of elastic elements to near-zero, and the patient can receive the motion via the exoskeleton device. When performing active training, the design of the force-sensing mechanism in the master device can detect the assisting force added by the therapist. The force-sensing mechanism also allows force detection with an angle sensor. Patients’ safety is guaranteed by monitoring the motor’s current from the exoskeleton device. To compensate for any possible time delay or data loss, a torque-limiter mechanism was also designed in the exoskeleton device for patients’ safety. Finally, we successfully performed a system performance test for passive training with transmission control protocol/internet protocol communication. PMID:25996511

  6. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  7. Experimental study of a DMD based compressive line sensing imaging system in the turbulence environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Hou, Weilin; Gong, Cuiling; Caimi, Frank M.; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.

    2016-05-01

    The Compressive Line Sensing (CLS) active imaging system has been demonstrated to be effective in scattering mediums, such as turbid coastal water through simulations and test tank experiments. Since turbulence is encountered in many atmospheric and underwater surveillance applications, a new CLS imaging prototype was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the CLS concept in a turbulence environment. Compared with earlier optical bench top prototype, the new system is significantly more robust and compact. A series of experiments were conducted at the Naval Research Lab's optical turbulence test facility with the imaging path subjected to various turbulence intensities. In addition to validating the system design, we obtained some unexpected exciting results - in the strong turbulence environment, the time-averaged measurements using the new CLS imaging prototype improved both SNR and resolution of the reconstructed images. We will discuss the implications of the new findings, the challenges of acquiring data through strong turbulence environment, and future enhancements.

  8. Real-time expert system and neural network for the classification of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Nicholas, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines software techniques for classifying remotely sensed data such that the number of computational steps and the amount of resources are bounded. The combination of both neural network and expert system methodology for classifying these data based on land use/land cover categories is examined. The method involves pipelining images through a neural net for initial classification and then through the expert system which resolves the ambiguous classifications. As with any pipeline, every component must have approximately equivalent run-times or otherwise a bottleneck will occur. If real-time is a requirement, each of the components must execute within a bounded number of steps. Attention is focused on the real-time system technique, which is argued to prevent a bottleneck for this data classification application.

  9. Food Security, Decision Making and the Use of Remote Sensing in Famine Early Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2008-01-01

    Famine early warning systems use remote sensing in combination with socio-economic and household food economy analysis to provide timely and rigorous information on emerging food security crises. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is the US Agency for International Development's decision support system in 20 African countries, as well as in Guatemala, Haiti and Afghanistan. FEWS NET provides early and actionable policy guidance for the US Government and its humanitarian aid partners. As we move into an era of climate change where weather hazards will become more frequent and severe, understanding how to provide quantitative and actionable scientific information for policy makers using biophysical data is critical for an appropriate and effective response.

  10. A multiband radiometer and data acquisition system for remote sensing field research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Robinson, B. F.; Dewitt, D. P.; Silva, L. F.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    Specifications are described for a recently developed prototype multispectral data acquisition system which consists of multiband radiometer with 8 bands between 0.4 and 12.5 micrometers and a data recording module to record data from the radometer and ancillary sources. The systems is adaptable to helicopter, truck, or tripod platforms, as well as hand-held operation. The general characteristics are: (1) comparatively inexpensive to acquire, maintain and operate; (2) simple to operate and calibrate; (3) complete with data hardware and software; and (4) well documented for use by researchers. The instrument system is to be commercially available and can be utilized by many researchers to obtain large numbers of accurate, calibrated spectral measurements. It can be a key element in improving and advancing the capability for field research in remote sensing.

  11. A novel compensating approach for self-sensing Maglev system with controlled-PM electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, Y.K.; Wang, T.C.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes a novel compensating approach for the self-sensing (gap-sensor-free) Maglev system with controlled-PM electromagnets. The proposed compensator consists of two parts: the hybrid observer and the robust controller. The hybrid observer combing a reduced-order observer and an external-force observer can estimate the steady-state gap variation even with payload change. A new reaching-law-based variable structure control (VSC) method is employed to the robust controller synthesis for enhancing system stability. The performance of the overall compensator is tested with a single-degree-of-freedom Maglev system. Results obtained indicate the good response of the proposed compensating scheme.

  12. System-level biochip for impedance sensing and programmable manipulation of bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Huang, Yao-Wei; Wu, Yao-Tung

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a dielectrophoretic (DEP) chip with multi-layer electrodes and a micro-cavity array for programmable manipulations of cells and impedance measurement. The DEP chip consists of an ITO top electrode, flow chamber, middle electrode on an SU-8 surface, micro-cavity arrays of SU-8 and distributed electrodes at the bottom of the micro-cavity. Impedance sensing of single cells could be performed as follows: firstly, cells were trapped in a micro-cavity array by negative DEP force provided by top and middle electrodes; then, the impedance measurement for discrimination of different stage of bladder cancer cells was accomplished by the middle and bottom electrodes. After impedance sensing, the individual releasing of trapped cells was achieved by negative DEP force using the top and bottom electrodes in order to collect the identified cells once more. Both cell manipulations and impedance measurement had been integrated within a system controlled by a PC-based LabVIEW program. In the experiments, two different stages of bladder cancer cell lines (grade III: T24 and grade II: TSGH8301) were utilized for the demonstration of programmable manipulation and impedance sensing; as the results show, the lower-grade bladder cancer cells (TSGH8301) possess higher impedance than the higher-grade ones (T24). In general, the multi-step manipulations of cells can be easily programmed by controlling the electrical signal in our design, which provides an excellent platform technology for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or a micro-total-analysis-system (Micro TAS). PMID:22346685

  13. Remote sensing and geographic information system for appraisal of salt-affected soils in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurbachan; Bundela, D S; Sethi, Madhurama; Lal, Khajanchi; Kamra, S K

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of the nature, extent, and spatial distribution of salt-affected soils (SAS) for India and the world is essential for planning and implementing reclamation programs in a timely and cost-effective manner for sustained crop production. The national extent of SAS for India over the last four decades was assessed by conventional and remote sensing approaches using diverse methodologies and class definitions and ranged from 6.0 to 26.1 million hectares (Mha) and 1.2 to 10.1 Mha, respectively. In 1966, an area of 6 Mha under SAS was first reported using the former approach. Three national estimates, obtained using remote sensing, were reconciled using a geographic information system, resulting in an acceptable extent of 6.73 Mha. Moderately and severely salt-encrusted lands having large contiguous area have been correctly mapped, but slightly salt-encrusted land having smaller affected areas within croplands has not been accurately mapped. Recent satellite sensors (e.g., Resourcesat-1, Cartosat-2, IKONOS-II, and RISAT-2), along with improved image processing techniques integrated with terrain and other spatial data using a geographic information system, are enabling mapping at large scale. Significant variations in salt encrustation at the surface caused by soil moisture, waterlogging conditions, salt-tolerant crops, and dynamics of subsurface salts present constraints in appraisal, delineation, and mapping efforts. The article provides an overview of development, identification, characterization, and delineation of SAS, past and current national scenarios of SAS using conventional and remote sensing approaches, reconciliation of national estimates, issues of SAS mapping, and future scope. PMID:20048289

  14. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  15. Remote sensing of rivers: an emerging tool to facilitate management and restoration of fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legleiter, C. J.; Overstreet, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    All phases of river restoration, from design to implementation to assessment, require spatially distributed, high-resolution data on channels and floodplains. Conventional field methods are cost prohibitive for large areas, but remote sensing presents an increasingly viable alternative for characterizing fluvial systems. For example, bathymetric maps useful for habitat assessment can be derived from readily available, free or low cost image data, provided depth measurements are available for calibration. In combination with LiDAR, spectrally-based bathymetry can be used to determine bed elevations for estimating scour and fill and/or to obtain topographic input data for morphodynamic modeling. New, water-penetrating green LiDAR systems that measure sub-aerial and submerged elevations could provide a single-sensor solution for mapping riparian environments. Our current research on the Snake River focuses on comparing optical- and LiDAR-based methods for retrieving depths and bed elevations. Multi-sensor surveys from 2012 and 2013 will allow us to evaluate each instrument's capabilities for measuring volumes of erosion and deposition in a dynamic gravel-bed river. Ongoing studies also suggest that additional river attributes, such as substrate composition and flow velocity, could be inferred from hyperspectral image data. In general, remote sensing has considerable potential to facilitate various aspects of river restoration, from site evaluation to post-project assessment. Moreover, by providing more extensive coverage, this approach favors an integrated, watershed perspective for planning, execution, and monitoring of sustainable restoration programs. To stimulate progress toward these objectives, our research group is now working to advance the remote sensing of rivers through tool development and sensor deployment. Bathymetric map of the Snake River, WY, derived from hyperspectral image data via optimal band ratio analysis. Flow direction is from right to left.

  16. Study on demodulated signal distribution and acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of a self-interfered distributed acoustic sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ying; Yang, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-06-01

    We propose a demodulated signal distribution theory for a self-interfered distributed acoustic sensing system. The distribution region of Rayleigh backscattering including the acoustic sensing signal in the sensing fiber is investigated theoretically under different combinations of both the path difference and pulse width Additionally we determine the optimal solution between the path difference and pulse width to obtain the maximum phase change per unit length. We experimentally test this theory and realize a good acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of  ‑150 dB re rad/(μPa·m) of fiber in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 1 kHz.

  17. Design and implementation of geographic information systems, remote sensing, and global positioning system-based information platform for locust control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Zhu, Dehai; Ye, Sijing; Yao, Xiaochuang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Han, Yueqi; Zhang, Long

    2014-01-01

    To monitor and control locusts efficiently, an information platform for locust control based on the global positioning system (GPS), remote sensing (RS), and geographic information systems (GIS) was developed. The platform can provide accurate information about locust occurrence and control strategies for a specific geographic place. The platform consists of three systems based on modern pest control: field ecology (locust occurrence) and GIS in a mobile GPS pad, a processing system for locust information based on GIS and RS, and a WebGIS-based real-time monitoring and controlling system. This platform was run at different geographical locations for three years and facilitated locust control in China with high efficiency and great accuracy.

  18. Integration of spore-based genetically engineered whole-cell sensing systems into portable centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Date, Amol; Pasini, Patrizia; Daunert, Sylvia

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensing systems provide important information about the bioavailable amount of target analytes. They are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity/selectivity along with rapid response times and amenability to miniaturization as well as high-throughput analysis. Accordingly, they have been employed in various environmental and clinical applications. The use of spore-based sensing systems offers the unique advantage of long-term preservation of the sensing cells by taking advantage of the environmental resistance and ruggedness of bacterial spores. In this work, we have incorporated spore-based whole-cell sensing systems into centrifugal compact disk (CD) microfluidic platforms in order to develop a portable sensing system, which should enable the use of these hardy sensors for fast on-field analysis of compounds of interest. For that, we have employed two spore-based sensing systems for the detection of arsenite and zinc, respectively, and evaluated their analytical performance in the miniaturized microfluidic format. Furthermore, we have tested environmental and clinical samples on the CD microfluidic platforms using the spore-based sensors. Germination of spores and quantitative response to the analyte could be obtained in 2.5-3 h, depending on the sensing system, with detection limits of 1 x 10(-7) M for arsenite and 1 x 10(-6) M for zinc in both serum and fresh water samples. Incorporation of spore-based whole-cell biosensing systems on microfluidic platforms enabled the rapid and sensitive detection of the analytes and is expected to facilitate the on-site use of such sensing systems. PMID:20582692

  19. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  20. Evaluation of a microwave and infrared human-presence sensing system for agricultural equipment.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Gilbert, W; Chaplin, J

    2001-11-01

    The potential use of electronic safety sensors to protect operators from agricultural equipment with rotating hazards has been identified and discussed as a possible means to prevent traumatic entanglement injury. A multi-sensor human-presence sensing system to protect persons approaching a rotating PTO shaft powering a stationary implement was developed using commercially available, passive infrared and microwave sensors. A control and data acquisition system was designed and constructed to evaluate sensor performance and response. The sensor system performed well during 822 warm weather test passes in which a person approached the potentially hazardous area near the drawbar and PTO/IID located between an IH 986 test tractor and a self-unloading forage wagon. During the 822 test passes, there were no false alarms and no misses. Operators approached the hazard space walking from 92 to 227 cm/second. During tests, the sensing system yielded warning times generally between 0.5 and 1.0 seconds, providing an estimate of the time available to accomplish machine shutdown or operator warnings. Additional cold weather tests caused the control and data acquisition hardware to function erratically. This work suggests that multi-sensor human detection systems have the potential to reduce false alarms through redundancy when more than one sensor is required to detect a person before the system signals a "detect" condition. However, the use of multiple, redundant sensors also increases the potential for a "miss." Further work is needed to determine whether these types of sensor can yield timely enough information to prevent injury via mechanical shutdown or operator warnings. PMID:11787754