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  1. RadNet Air Data From Birmingham, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Birmingham, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  2. RadNet Air Data From Montgomery, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Montgomery, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  3. RadNet Air Data From Mobile, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Mobile, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  4. Effect of Al content on impact resistance behavior of Al-Ti-B4C composite fabricated under air atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-12-01

    Reaction behavior, mechanical property and impact resistance of TiC-TiB2/Al composite reacted from Al-Ti-B4C system with various Al content via combination method of combustion synthesis and hot pressed sintering under air was investigated. Al content was the key point to the variation of mechanical property and impact resistance. Increasing Al content could increase the density, strength and toughness of the composite. Due to exorbitant ceramic content, 10wt.% and 20wt.% Al-Ti-B4C composites exhibited poor molding ability and machinability. Flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness of 30-50wt.% Al-Ti-B4C composite were higher than those of Al matrix. The intergranular fracture dispersed and defused impact load and restricted crack extension, enhancing the impact resistance of the composite. The composite with 50wt.% Al content owned highest mechanical properties and impact resistance. The results were useful for the application of TiC-TiB2/Al composite in impact resistance field of ceramic reinforced Al matrix composite.

  5. An aluminum - ionic liquid interface sustaining a durable Al-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Danny; Shvartsev, Boris; Wallwater, Itamar; Kozokaro, Shahaf; Fidelsky, Vicky; Sagy, Adi; Oz, Alon; Baltianski, Sioma; Tsur, Yoed; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2017-10-01

    A thorough study of a unique aluminum (Al)-air battery utilizing a pure Al anode, an air cathode, and hydrophilic room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium oligofluorohydrogenate [EMIm(HF)2.3F] is reported. The effects of various operation conditions, both at open circuit potential and under discharge modes, on the battery components were discussed. A variety of techniques were utilized to investigate and study the interfaces and processes involved, including electrochemical studies, electron microscopy, spectroscopy and diffraction. As a result of this intensive study, the upon-operation voltage drop (;dip;) obstacle, occurring in the initial stages of the Al-air battery discharge, has been resolved. In addition, the interaction of the Al anode with oligofluorohydrogenate electrolyte forms an Al-O-F layer on the Al surface, which allows both activation and low corrosion rates of the Al anode. The evolution of this layer has been studied via impedance spectroscopy genetic programming enabling a unique model of the Al-air battery.

  6. Al-air cells - Potential small electric generators for field use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valand, T.; Mollestad, O.; Nilsson, G.

    The Al-air system is a very attractive system for use as an electric generator in the field. Besides the high energy density of the 'fuel' (theoretically 21 kW h per l Al), it is easy and safe to handle. Since it reacts in an electrochemical cell, it also easily adjusts to variations in load. In order to test the ability of the system, a 40 W mechanically rechargeable Al-air cell has been constructed. The reaction products, which in a short time will clog up the cell, are continuously removed from the electrolyte. The cell has a total efficiency of approximately 40% and has a current efficiency of 100% with respect to Al. Unfortunately, some serious problems have to be solved before the cell can be put into use. The properties of the cell, the problems, and possible solutions are discussed.

  7. The oxidation behavior of several Ti-Al alloys at 900 C in air

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz-Niederau, M.

    1999-10-01

    Ti-23Al, Ti-50Al and Ti-50Al-2Nb (at.%) were oxidized in air at 900 C for times up to 1130 hr. The resulting oxide scale structures were analyzed in great detail by metallographic and microprobe investigations and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} structures in the complex oxide scales were correlated with the course of the thermogravimetric curves. It appears that in order to achieve long-term protective behavior of the scale, it is necessary to stimulate the formation of a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier at the scale-metal interface and not at a position in the outer part of the scale. The Nb effect seems to be mostly due to this stimulation of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at the interface.

  8. Ag-Al based air braze for high temperature electrochemical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

    2007-11-01

    Silver-aluminum based air brazing was attempted using an in-situ alloying and brazing process. In this process, layers of foils of aluminum and silver were laid up between alumina plates in alternating fashion to achieve three target compositions representing Ag, Ag3Al, and Ag2Al phases. Each alloy composition revealed different microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. Joints brazed with foils containing 9.8 at% Al formed a long continuous layer parallel to the direction of the original aluminum foil. The fracture occurred through the interface between this long alumina layer and the braze filler, resulting in low bend strength (6 ~ 12 MPa). Joints containing 26.5 at% Al in the braze filler metal experienced the series of phase transformations, leading to cracks in as-brazed specimens. The fracture initiated through these pre-existing cracks, thus the joint strength observed in these specimens was extremely low. The joints prepared using foils with 35.1 at% Al exhibited a good interface even though interfacial alumina particles formed during air brazing. Crack propagation occurred through the interface between the alumina substrate and in-situ formed interfacial alumina particles or directly through these particles and the best bend strength (46 ~ 52 MPa) among Al-added braze compositions was achieved.

  9. Al-Air Batteries: Fundamental Thermodynamic Limitations from First Principles Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leanne D.; Noerskov, Jens K.; Luntz, Alan C.

    2015-03-01

    The Al-air battery possesses high theoretical specific energy (4140 Wh/kg) and is therefore an attractive candidate for vehicle propulsion applications. However, the experimentally observed open-circuit potential is much lower than what thermodynamics predicts, and this potential loss is widely believed to be an effect of corrosion. We present a detailed study of the Al-air battery using density functional theory. The results suggest that the difference between bulk thermodynamic and surface potentials is due to both the effects of asymmetry in multi-electron transfer reactions that define the anodic dissolution of Al and, more importantly, a large chemical step inherent to the formation of bulk Al(OH)3 from surface intermediates. The former results in an energy loss of 3%, while the latter accounts for 14 -29% of the total thermodynamic energy depending on the surface site where dissolution occurs. Therefore, the maximum open-circuit potential of the Al anode is only -1.87 V vs. SHE in the absence of thermal excitations, contrary to -2.34 V predicted by bulk thermodynamics at pH 14.6. This is a fundamental limitation of the system and governs the maximum output potential, which cannot be improved even if corrosion effects were completely suppressed. Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the ReLiable Project (#11-116792) funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research.

  10. Interaction behaviors at the interface between liquid Al-Si and solid Ti-6Al-4V in ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Yan, Jiuchun; Gao, Fei; Wei, Jinghui; Xu, Zhiwu; Fan, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Power ultrasonic vibration (20 kHz, 6 μm) was applied to assist the interaction between a liquid Al-Si alloy and solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate in air. The interaction behaviors, including breakage of the oxide film on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V, and interfacial chemical reactions, were investigated. Experimental results showed that numerous 2-20 μm diameter-sized pits formed on the Ti-6Al-4V surface. Propagation of ultrasonic waves in the liquid Al-Si alloy resulted in ultrasonic cavitation. When this cavitation occurred at or near the liquid/solid interface, many complex effects were generated at the small zones during the bubble implosion, including micro-jets, hot spots, and acoustic streaming. The breakage behavior of oxide films on the solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate, excessive chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V into liquid Al-Si, abnormal interfacial chemical reactions at the interface, and phase transformation between the intermetallic compounds could be wholly ascribed to these ultrasonic effects. An effective bond between Al-Si and Ti-6Al-4V can be produced by ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of air annealing on DC characteristics of InAlN/GaN MOS high-electron-mobility transistors using atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Shiro; Makiyama, Kozo; Ohki, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Naoya; Kaneki, Shota; Nishiguchi, Kenya; Hara, Naoki; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the DC characteristics of InAlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) using atomic-layer-deposited (ALD-)Al2O3 by focusing on air annealing to control defect levels in Al2O3 and electronic states at the Al2O3/InAlN interface. We clarified that the transconductance linearity and subthreshold slope were improved by air annealing, indicating a reduction in the number of electronic states at the Al2O3/InAlN interface. Furthermore, the cathodoluminescence study demonstrated that the oxygen-related defects in ALD-Al2O3 were decreased by air annealing. Consequently, we could successfully reduce the threshold voltage shift of InAlN/GaN MOS-HEMTs by using air-annealed ALD-Al2O3.

  12. Multilayer Pt/Al based ohmic contacts for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures stable up to 600°C ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Nitin; Dusari, Srujana; Bardong, Jochen; Medjdoub, Farid; Kenda, Andreas; Binder, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a Pt/Al multilayer stack-based ohmic contact metallization for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Circular transmission line method (CTLM) structures were fabricated to assess the electrical properties of the proposed metallization. The fabricated stack shows excellent stability after more than 100 hours of continuous aging at 600°C in air. Measured I-V characteristics of the fabricated samples show excellent linearity after the aging. The Pt/Al-based metallization shows great potential for future device and sensor applications in extreme environment conditions.

  13. Initial Oxidation Behavior in Air of TiAl-2Nb and TiAl-8Nb Alloys Produced by Electron Beam Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terner, M.; Biamino, S.; Baudana, G.; Penna, A.; Fino, P.; Pavese, M.; Ugues, D.; Badini, C.

    2015-10-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys are good candidates for structural applications thanks to their low density and good balance of properties up to relatively high temperatures. However, their application is still limited by significant oxidation. Four γ-TiAl alloys with different content of aluminum and niobium were produced by electron beam melting: Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, Ti-45Al-2Cr-8Nb, and Ti-46Al-2Cr-8Nb. The behavior of these alloys in response to oxidation in air during constant heating up to 1000 °C and isothermal oxidation for 10 h at 850 and 950 °C were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The mass gain due to oxidation of the low Nb-containing alloys was always at least twice that of the high Nb-containing alloys. Both low and high Nb-containing alloys exhibited on their surface oxidation products of the same nature: oxides TiO2 and Al2O3, and nitrides TiN and Ti2AlN. Niobium addition up to 8 at.% did not suppress the growth of rutile and promote the formation of a protective alumina layer. However, it efficiently reduced the formation of rutile, mainly responsible for the mass gain due to oxidation of γ-TiAl alloys and with tendency to spallation.

  14. Characterization Of Nano-Second Laser Induced Plasmas From Al Target In Air At Atmospheric Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, H.; Abdel-Rahim, F. M.; Nossair, A. M. A.; Allam, S. H.; El-Sherbini, Th. M.

    2008-09-23

    In the present work we study the effect of the laser beam energy on the properties of the plasma generated by focusing an intense laser beam on Al solid target in air at atmospheric pressure. Plasma is generated using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser at 1064 nm wavelength, 6 ns pulse duration with a maximum pulse energy of 750mJ. The emission spectrum is collected using an Echelle spectrometer equipped with ICCD camera Andor type. The measurements were performed at several delay times between 0 to 9 {mu}s. Measurements of temperature and electron density of the produced plasmas at different laser energies and at different delay times are described using different emission spectral lines. Based on LTE assumption, excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot using O I spectral lines at 777.34, 794.93, and 848.65 nm and the electron density is determined from Stark width of Al II at 281.6 and 466.3 nm. The determined density is compared with the density determined from H{sub {alpha}} spectral line.

  15. Carrier lifetime reduction in 1.5 μm AlGaAsSb saturable absorbers with air and AlAsSb barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostinelli, O.; Bächtold, W.; Haiml, H.; Grange, R.; Keller, U.; Gini, E.; Almuneau, G.

    2006-08-01

    The optical properties of different AlGaAsSb semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors and InP /AlGaAsSb heterostructures have been investigated by pump-probe and low temperature photoluminescence measurements. The results show that the type-II electron-hole recombination process at the InP-AlGaAsSb interface is responsible for the slow carrier decay time in the absorber. Nevertheless, this slow transition can be avoided by growing an AlAsSb barrier layer between InP and the absorber layer promoting the fast electron-hole recombination at the surface states on the absorber/air interface. This allows reducing the carrier decay time from several nanoseconds down to 20ps.

  16. Effect of Al and Cr Content on Air and Steam Oxidation of FeCrAl Alloys and Commercial APMT Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A.

    2017-03-09

    To develop the next generation of accident-tolerant fuel cladding for light-water nuclear reactors, wrought FeCrAlY alloys with varying amounts of Cr and Al and commercial Kanthal APMT alloy were evaluated for short-term (4 h) oxidation resistance in steam and air at 1200–1475 °C. Model alloys with lower Cr contents and higher Al contents were evaluated in this paper as lower Cr contents are desirable for radiation damage resistance during operation. As expected, a synergistic effect was found between the Cr and Al contents to enable protective Al2O3 formation under these conditions. Characterization of the alumina scales formed in steam foundmore » that the scale morphology was affected by the alloy Y content and detailed scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detected Y segregation along scale grain boundaries at 1200 °C. However, after 4 h at 1475 °C, Y and Hf were not segregated to the oxide grain boundaries formed on APMT and the scale had a single layer structure. Finally, compared to oxidation in air, STEM characterization of the outer scale showed differences in the Fe and Cr distributions in steam.« less

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. [Al

    PubMed

    Purath; Köppe; Schnöckel

    1999-10-04

    A "naked" aluminum atom links two aluminum tetrahedra in the [Al(7){N(SiMe(3))(2)}(6)](-) ion (see picture), which results from the reaction of a metastable AlCl solution with LiN(SiMe(3))(2) and crystallizes with [Li(OEt(2))(3)](+) as cation. This unique structure among molecular metal atom clusters represents a small but characteristic section of cubic close-packed aluminum.

  19. Air-Hybrid Distributed Bragg Reflector Structure for Improving the Light Output Power in AlGalnP-Based LEDs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwa Sub; Ryu, Ho-Soung; Park, Sueng Ho; Jeong, Tak; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hyung Joo; Cho, Young Dae; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Baek, Jong Hyeob

    2015-07-01

    We investigated air gap-induced hybrid distributed Bragg reflectors (AH-DBRs) for use in high brightness and reliable AlGalnP-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). An air gap was inserted into the side of DBRs by selectively etching the Al(x),Ga1-xAs DBR structures. With the AH-DBR structures, the optical output power of LEDs was enhanced by 15% compared to LEDs having conventional DBRs, due to the effective reflection of obliquely incident light by the air gap structures. In addition, the electrical characteristics showed that the AH-DBR LED is a desirable structure for reducing the leakage current, as it suppresses unwanted surface recombinations.

  20. High cycle fatigue behavior of implant Ti-6Al-4V in air and simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-jie; Cui, Shi-ming; He, Chao; Li, Jiu-kai; Wang, Qing-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V implants that function as artificial joints are usually subjected to long-term cyclic loading. To study long-term fatigue behaviors of implant Ti-6Al-4V in vitro and in vivo conditions exceeding 107 cycles, constant stress amplitude fatigue experiments were carried out at ultrasonic frequency (20 kHz) with two different surface conditions (ground and polished) in ambient air and in a simulated body fluid. The initiation mechanisms of fatigue cracks were investigated with scanning electron microscopy. Improvement of fatigue strength is pronounced for polished specimens below 106 cycles in ambient air since fatigue cracks are initiated from surfaces of specimens. While the cycles exceed 106, surface conditions have no effect on fatigue behaviors because the defects located within the specimens become favorable sites for crack initiation. The endurance limit at 108 cycles of polished Ti-6Al-4V specimens decreases by 7% if it is cycled in simulated body fluid instead of ambient air. Fracture surfaces show that fatigue failure is initiated from surfaces in simulated body fluid. Surface improvement has a beneficial effect on fatigue behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V at high stress amplitudes. The fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V deteriorate and the mean endurance limits decrease significantly in simulated body fluid.

  1. Type of wear for the pair Ti6Al4V/PCTFE in ambient air and in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozet, J.-L.

    1993-04-01

    The pair Ti6Al4V/polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) on a pin-on-disk tribometer in ambient air and liquid nitrogen with the contact pressure and sliding speed ranging from 3 to 9 MPa and 0.03 to 0.05 m/s, respectively, is evaluated within the framework of a high pressure valves for cryogenic rocket engines project. Results show that an abrasion wear process, which is closely connected with a tribochemical wear process producing fluorides and an abrasive form of carbon, exists when PCTFE is continuously rubbed against Ti6Al4V in ambient air, liquid nitrogen, and gaseous argon. Degradations detected on the Ti6Al4V surface are found to be unacceptable in most cases, but in the real cryotechnic valves this type of wear was not observed. The latter is attributed to the great dwell time between actuations and the low speed of the reciprocating movements which considerably limit the heating.

  2. Oxidation of nano-multilayered AlTiSiN thin films between 600 and 1000 degrees C in air.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Sun Kyu; Nguyen, Thuan Dinh; Lee, Dong Bok

    2011-07-01

    Multilayered AlTiSiN films with a composition of 32.0Al-12.4Ti-4.9Si-50.7N (at.%) were deposited on a steel substrate in a nitrogen atmosphere by cathodic arc plasma deposition. The films consisted of crystalline approximately 8 nm-thick AISiN nanolayers that originated from the Al-Si target and approximately 3 nm-thick TiN nanolayers that originated from the Ti target. Their oxidation characteristics were studied between 600 and 1000 degrees C for up to 20 h in air. They displayed good oxidation resistance due to the formation of a thin, dense Al2O3 surface scale below which an (Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2)-intermixed inner scale existed. They oxidized slower than TiN films because protective Al2O3-rich scales formed on the surface. However, they oxidized faster than CrN films because impure Al2O3 scale formed on the AlTiSiN film. Their oxidation progressed primarily by the outward diffusion of nitrogen and substrate elements, combined with the inward transport of oxygen that gradually reacted with Al, Ti, and Si in the film.

  3. Effects of gamma-irradiation and air annealing on Yb-doped Y3Al5O12 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xionghui; Xu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zhao, Guangjun; Xu, Jun

    2008-03-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation on the air-annealed 10at.% Yb:Y(3)Al(5)O(12) (YAG) and air annealing on the gamma-irradiated 10at.% Yb:YAG have been studied by the difference absorption spectra before and after treatment. The gamma-irradiation and air annealing led to opposite changes of the absorption properties of the Yb:YAG crystal. After air annealing, the gamma-irradiation induced centers were totally removed and the concentration of Fe(3+) and Yb(3+) were lightly increased. For the first time, the gamma-irradiation induced valence changes between Yb(3+) and Yb(2+) ions in Yb:YAG crystals have been observed.

  4. DC characteristics of ALD-grown Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs and HEMTs at 600 °C in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suria, Ateeq J.; Saran Yalamarthy, Ananth; So, Hongyun; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the 600 °C device characteristics detailed here reflect the highest operation temperature reported for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) in air which supports the realization of electronics for high-temperature applications (e.g., space exploration, combustion and downhole). The high-temperature response of Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs with Al2O3 deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the gate dielectric and passivation layers was examined here. More specifically, the DC current-voltage response and the threshold voltage characteristics of the MIS-HEMTs were evaluated to temperatures up to 600 °C in air. For comparison, the response of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs without the ALD Al2O3 layer was also measured. It was observed that the HEMTs failed above 300 °C accompanied by a ˜500 times increase in leakage current and observation of bubbles formed in active region of gate. On the contrary, the MIS-HEMTs continued to operate normally up to 600 °C. However, within the 30 min period exposed to 600 °C the MIS-HEMT degraded permanently. This was observed at 20 °C after return from operation at 600 °C as a change in threshold voltage and saturation drain current. The failure of the HEMTs is suggested to be due to the diffusion of gate metals (Ni and Au) into the active regions of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, which creates additional leakage current pathways. The impact of strain relaxation and interfacial trapped charges on threshold voltage as a function of temperature was studied using an energy band-gap model. The ALD Al2O3 gate dielectric layer acts as a diffusion barrier to the Ni and Au gate metals, thus enabling short-term operation of MIS-HEMTs to 600 °C, the highest operation temperature reported for this device architecture to date.

  5. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part II: Influence of In addition on the electrochemical characteristics of Al-Zn alloy in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, In-Jun; Choi, Seok-Ryul; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-07-01

    Effects of Zn and In additions on the aluminum anode for Al-air battery in alkaline solution are examined by the self-corrosion rate, cell voltage, current-voltage characteristics, anodic polarization, discharge performance and AC impedance measurements. The passivation behavior of Zn-added anode during anodic polarization decreases the discharge performance of Al-air battery. The addition of In to Al-Zn anode reduces the formation of Zn passivation film by repeated adsorption and desorption behavior of In ion onto anode surface. The attenuated Zn passive layer by In ion attack leads to the improvement of discharge performance of Al-air battery.

  6. Indoor air quality in Montréal area day-care centres, Canada.

    PubMed

    St-Jean, Mélissa; St-Amand, Annie; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Soto, Julio C; Guay, Mireille; Davis, Karelyn; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2012-10-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been understudied in day-care centres (DCCs), even though it can affect the respiratory health of children. This study was undertaken to assess IAQ in a randomly selected sample of 21 DCCs having space for at least 40 children in Montréal, Canada, and to determine associations between building characteristics and IAQ. Questionnaires on building characteristics and operation of the DCC were administered to managers. Temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds were measured in January and February 2008 in rooms attended by children aged between 18 and 60 months. Most DCCs (81%) had a mechanical ventilation system. Over 85% of the DCCs had a mean CO(2) concentration higher than 1000 ppm, the value generally targeted for comfort in buildings. Mean CO(2) concentrations were significantly lower in DCCs having a floor space meeting the provincial standards. The mean (standard deviation-SD) formaldehyde concentration was 22.9 (8.2) μg/m(3), with all participating DCCs being within Health Canada's Residential IAQ Guideline of 50 μg/m(3). The presence of a mechanical ventilation system and a large surface of play area per child were significantly associated with lower CO(2) levels, explaining 44% of the variance in indoor CO(2) concentrations. The presence of a mechanical ventilation system was also associated with significantly lower formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels. Moreover, 68% of the variance in indoor acetaldehyde concentrations was explained by CO(2) levels, indicating that CO(2) was a better proxy of ventilation than the presence of a ventilation system, as this latter variable did not imply that the ventilation system was running or functioning adequately. These results demonstrate the need for on-going efforts to ensure sufficient floor space and adequate ventilation in DCCs to maintain good IAQ. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Environmental effects on orthorhombic alloy Ti-22Al-25Nb in air between 650 and 1,000 C

    SciTech Connect

    Leyens, C. |

    1999-12-01

    The environmental behavior of an orthorhombic titanium-aluminide alloy, Ti-22Al-25Nb, was studied in dry and humid air between 650 and 1,000 C by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness measurements were performed after exposure to gage hardening due to nitrogen and oxygen ingress. The parabolic rate constant of Ti-22Al-25Nb was of the same order as conventional titanium alloys and Ti{sub 3}Al-based titanium aluminides at and below 750 C. Between 800 and 1,000 C, the oxidation resistance of Ti-22Al-25Nb was as good as {gamma}-TiAl base aluminides; however, the growth rate changed from parabolic to linear after several tens of hours at 900 and 1,000 C. The mixed oxide scale consisted of TiO{sub 2}, AlNbO{sub 4}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with TiO{sub 2} being the dominant oxide phase. Underneath the oxide scale, a nitride layer formed in the temperature range investigated and, at 1,000 C, internal oxidation was observed below this layer. In all cases, oxygen diffused deeply into the subsurface zone and caused severe embrittlement. Microhardness measurements revealed that Ti-22Al-25Nb was hardened in a zone as far as 300 {micro}m below the oxide scale when exposed to air at 900 C for 500 hr. The peak hardness depended on exposure time and reached five times the average hardness of the bulk material under the above conditions.

  8. Thermal stability of multilayer Ti2AlN-based ohmic contacts to n-GaN in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysiewicz, Michał A.; Myśliwiec, Marcin; Gołaszewska, Krystyna; Jakieła, Rafał; Dynowska, Elżbieta; Kamińska, Eliana; Piotrowska, Anna

    2014-04-01

    A multilayer Ti/Al/TiN/Ti/Al/TiN/Ti/Al/TiN metallization scheme is applied as an ohmic contact to n-GaN (n = 1017 cm-3). After formation of the contact through RTP at 600 °C for 6 min in Ar flow a Ti2AlN layer is created at the interface to n-GaN and Ti/Al layers form AlTi. The specific contact resistance of the as-formed contact is 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm2. The contact remains ohmic and morphologically unaltered for annealing at 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C in ambient air for 100 h each and its resistivity rises to around 1.1 × 10-3 Ω cm2. This stability on one hand can be attributed to Ti2AlN MAX phase presence at the interface which inhibits excessive decomposition of GaN and thus confines the reaction between n-GaN and the metallization, and on the other to the presence of several TiN films in the metallization scheme, which are known to be diffusion barriers.

  9. Reduced bound exciton and surface exciton emissions in Al-doped ZnO nanorods exposed to ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; He, H. P.; Jin, Y. Z.; Zhao, B. H.; Ye, Z. Z.; Tang, H. P.

    2008-11-01

    Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is employed to investigate the effects of exposure to ambient air on the optical property of Al-doped ZnO nanorods. Low temperature PL of the as-grown nanorods shows dominant D0X (excitons bound to neutral donors) emission at 3.363 eV and surface state-related emission at 3.310 eV. After exposure to ambient air, both of them vanish and the first LO phonon replica of free exciton is observed instead. It is proposed that surface adsorption and indiffusion of oxygen in ambient air result in surface modification and destruction of D0X complex.

  10. Electrochemical performances of Al-0.5Mg-0.1Sn-0.02In alloy in different solutions for Al-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingling, Ma; Jiuba, Wen; Hongxi, Zhu; Quanan, Li

    2015-10-01

    In this research, the corrosion behavior and the electrochemical performances of Al-0.5Mg-0.1Sn-0.02In (wt.%) alloy have been investigated in 2 M NaCl, 4 M NaOH ethanol-10% water, 4 M NaOH solutions. The results show that the optimal electrochemical properties are obtained in 4 M NaOH ethanol-water solutions, and the alloy has higher anodic utilization and lower self-corrosion rate in the solutions compared to 2 M NaCl or 4 M aqueous NaOH. SEM and EIS results of the alloy are in good agreement with corrosion characteristics. By comparison with the electrochemical performance of Zn in 4 M NaOH solutions, the feasibility of using Al-0.5Mg-0.1Sn-0.02In alloy as anode material for a high power density Al-air battery in 4 M NaOH ethanol-water solutions is demonstrated.

  11. Case Series Investigation of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Among Former Kelly Air Force Base Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    3 Causes of ALS .............................................. I...Overlap Between Mortality Study and Case Series Investigation, W ith Underlying Causes of Death...ALS series and the general population. o Cases reported a low prevalence of obesity-related diseases. o Cases were also athletic; 6 of the 93 PALS

  12. EMISIONES AL AIRE DE LA COMBUSTION DE LLANTAS USADAS (SPANISH VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  13. EMISIONES AL AIRE DE LA COMBUSTION DE LLANTAS USADAS (SPANISH VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  14. Characterization and Wear Behavior of Heat-treated Ni3Al Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, K.; Rafiq, M. A.; Nusair Khan, A.; Ahmed, F.; Mudassar Rauf, M.

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma spraying was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI-321 steel substrate. The deposited coatings were isothermally heat-treated at various temperatures from 500 to 800 °C for 10, 30, 60, and 100 h. The x-ray diffraction analysis revealed NiO formation in Ni3Al at 500 °C after 100 h, and the percentage of NiO increased with increasing exposure time and temperature. The hardness of the coating increased with the formation of NiO. The DSC test showed the formation of minor phases, Al3Ni and Al3Ni2, within the coating along with the major phase Ni3Al. TGA revealed a slowing down of the oxidation rate upon surface oxide formation. The pin-on-disk wear test on the as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings showed that wear rate and coefficient of friction decreased with an increase in the NiO phase content.

  15. Co3O4/Co-N-C modified ketjenblack carbon as an advanced electrocatalyst for Al-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingsha; Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Kun; Li, Fuzhi; Peng, Zhiguang; Tang, Yougen; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials containing non-precious metal (TM-N-C) and Co-based oxides have been extensively investigated as promising catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, we report a novel Co3O4/Co-N-C modified ketjenblack carbon (KB) catalyst via a one-pot and scalable pyrolysis process using cheap melamine, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate and KB as raw materials. Owing to the high specific surface area and good electrical conductivity, this KB-based catalyst exhibits remarkable catalytic activity with a half-wave potential of 0.798 V (vs RHE) and a limiting current density of 5.10 mA cm-2 in alkaline solution, which are comparable with those of the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C. More importantly, it displays superior stability to Pt/C, which makes it one of the most promising non-noble-metal catalysts. Al-air batteries with this catalyst are also tested and generate a maximum power density of 161.1 mW cm-2, which is close to that with 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst (161.9 mW cm-2). After the discharge for 18 h at 50 mA cm-2, the voltage degradation of Al-air battery with Co3O4/Co-N-C modified KB is 7%, while that using Pt/C is increased to 12%. By virtues of its remarkable performance, low cost and simple fabrication method, Co3O4/Co-N-C modified KB here can be used as an efficient ORR cathode catalyst instead of the commercial Pt/C for practical Al-air batteries.

  16. Al 2O 3 supported Ru catalysts prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 for catalytic wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chaoying; Zhao, Peiqing; Chen, Gexin; Hu, Bin

    2011-06-01

    Low loading catalysts Ru/γ-Al 2O 3 and Ru-Ce/γ-Al 2O 3 were prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 on γ-Al 2O 3. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, XRD and SEM. Two new Ru species (Ru A and Ru B) were detected during the Ru 3(CO) 12 decomposition process due to chemical interaction with the active OH groups on the surface of Al 2O 3 support, and the reduction of them can lead to more dispersed metallic phases. The sample was completely decomposed at 673 K in H 2, and RuO 2 was formed with minor amounts of Ru 0. When the temperature was increased to 773 K to heat the sample, the ratio of Ru 0 to RuO 2 increased. However, after the addition of CeO 2, only RuO 2 was detected on surface. The catalysts exhibited high activities in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of different organic compounds at high concentration such as isopropyl alcohol, phenol, acetic acids and N,N-dimethylformamide, which is attributed to the better dispersion of Ru particles and the addition of CeO 2 further enhanced number of effectively active sites on the cluster-derived catalyst surface.

  17. Performance of Al-0.5 Mg-0.02 Ga-0.1 Sn-0.5 Mn as anode for Al-air battery in NaCl solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingling; Wen, Jiuba; Gao, Junwei; Li, Quanan

    2014-05-01

    In this research, metal-air battery based on Al, Zn, Al-0.5 Mg-0.02 Ga-0.1 Sn and Al-0.5 Mg-0.02 Ga-0.1 Sn-0.5 Mn (wt%) is prepared and the battery performance is investigated by constant current discharge test in 2 mol L-1 NaCl solutions. The characteristics of the anodes after discharge are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior of the anodes is studied by self-corrosion rate measurement and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The results show that Al-Mg-Ga-Sn-Mn is more active than Al, Zn and Al-Mg-Ga-Sn anodes. The self-corrosion rate is found to be in the order: Al < Al-Mg-Ga-Sn-Mn < Al-Mg-Ga-Sn < Zn. It has been observed that the Al-air battery based on Al-Mg-Ga-Sn-Mn offers higher operating voltage and anodic utilization than those with others. SEM and EIS results of the alloy are in good agreement with corrosion characteristics.

  18. Very Long Term Oxidation of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb at 704 C In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, I. E.; Brady, M. P.; MacKay, R. A.; Smith, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction Titanium aluminides are of great interest for intermediate-temperature (600 C - 850 C) aerospace and power generation applications because of their high specific properties. Replacement of conventional superalloys by titanium aluminides offers the potential of significant weight savings. Extensive development efforts over the past IO years have led to the identification of y (TiAl) + alpha(sub 2) (Ti3Al) alloys, such as the G.E. alloy Ti48Al-2Cr-2Nb (all composition in at. %), which offer a balance of room temperature mechanical properties and high-temperature strength retention. The two phase gamma + alpha(sub 2) class of titanium aluminides also offers superior oxidation and embrittlement resistance compared to the alpha(sub 2) and orthorhombic classes of titanium aluminides. However, environmental durability is still a major concern. Significant progress has recently been made in understanding the fundamental aspects of the oxidation behavior of binary gamma + alpha(sub 2) Ti-Al alloys. However, most of this work has concentrated on short term (less than 1000 hours), high temperature (900 C - 1000 C) exposures. Also little data are available in the literature regarding the oxidation behavior of the quaternary and higher order gamma + alpha(sub 2) engineering alloys. This is especially true for the very long-term, low temperature conditions likely to be experienced during engineering applications. The present work addresses this regime to fill this gap by characterizing the oxidation behavior of Ti48Al-2Cr-2Nb for periods up to 9000 h at 704 C in air.

  19. Very Long Term Oxidation of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb at 704 C In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, I. E.; Brady, M. P.; MacKay, R. A.; Smith, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction Titanium aluminides are of great interest for intermediate-temperature (600 C - 850 C) aerospace and power generation applications because of their high specific properties. Replacement of conventional superalloys by titanium aluminides offers the potential of significant weight savings. Extensive development efforts over the past IO years have led to the identification of y (TiAl) + alpha(sub 2) (Ti3Al) alloys, such as the G.E. alloy Ti48Al-2Cr-2Nb (all composition in at. %), which offer a balance of room temperature mechanical properties and high-temperature strength retention. The two phase gamma + alpha(sub 2) class of titanium aluminides also offers superior oxidation and embrittlement resistance compared to the alpha(sub 2) and orthorhombic classes of titanium aluminides. However, environmental durability is still a major concern. Significant progress has recently been made in understanding the fundamental aspects of the oxidation behavior of binary gamma + alpha(sub 2) Ti-Al alloys. However, most of this work has concentrated on short term (less than 1000 hours), high temperature (900 C - 1000 C) exposures. Also little data are available in the literature regarding the oxidation behavior of the quaternary and higher order gamma + alpha(sub 2) engineering alloys. This is especially true for the very long-term, low temperature conditions likely to be experienced during engineering applications. The present work addresses this regime to fill this gap by characterizing the oxidation behavior of Ti48Al-2Cr-2Nb for periods up to 9000 h at 704 C in air.

  20. Overwhelming reaction enhanced by ultrasonics during brazing of alumina to copper in air by Zn-14Al hypereutectic filler.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongjun; Chen, Hao; Li, Mingyu

    2017-03-01

    The ultrasonic-assisted brazing of α-alumina to copper was achieved in air without flux using Zn-14wt%Al hypereutectic filler at 753K within tens of seconds. The effects of ultrasonic time on the microstructures and mechanical properties of joints were investigated. In the joint interlayer, large amounts of intermetallic phases consisted of binary CuZn5 embedded by many ternary Al4.2Cu3.2Zn0.7 particles were formed. At the ceramic interface, newly formed crystalline Al2O3 aggregated. At the Cu interface, acoustic corrosion on the copper resulted in depriving the surface oxides and forming many pits on its surface, which provided saturated Cu in the melted filler alloys during the brazing. The ultrasonic vibrations had distinct effects on the metallurgical reactions of the joints, resulting in intermetallic-phase-filled composite joints with shear strength of 66MPa. The overgrowth of intermetallic compounds, the newly formed crystalline alumina, and the acoustic pits was probably ascribed to the ultrasonic effects.

  1. Highly Efficient and Air Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Using LiF-Modified ITO Cathode and MoO3/AgAl Alloy Anode.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangkun; Jiang, Ziyao; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jianping; Pan, Likun; Zhu, Furong; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Sumei

    2016-02-17

    The performance and air stability of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were greatly improved using a combination of LiF-modified ITO cathode and a MoO3/AgAl alloy anode. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs with AgAl contact reached 9.4%, which is higher than that of the cells with Ag (8.8%) and Al electrode (7.6%). The PCE of AgAl-based PSCs can further increase up to 10.3% through incorporating an ultrathin LiF-modified ITO. AgAl-based cells also exhibit a superior stability compared to the cells with Ag and Al contacts. PCE of the AgAl-based cells without encapsulation remains 78% of its original value after the cells were aged for 380 days in air. The presence of a LiF-modified ZnO interlayer between ITO and the organic active layer improves the charge collection. The improvement in PCE and stability of the AgAl-based cells is primarily attributed to the formation of AlOx at the MoO3/AgAl interface, preventing Ag diffusion and improving the built-in potential across the active layer in the cells.

  2. Microstructural study of as sprayed and heat treated Ni3Al coatings deposited by air plasma spraying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, K.; Rafiq, M. A.; Nusair Khan, A.; Rauf, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Air plasma spraying system was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI 321 steel samples. After plasma spraying the coatings were heat treated at different temperatures i.e. 500 °C to 800 °C for 10 to 100 hours. The characterization tools such as, X-Ray diffraction analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy were used. By comparing the XRD scan data of as sprayed and heat treated coating, it was observed that the formation of NiO increases drastically with time and temperature. Due to the formation of NiO, hardness was also enhanced. The oxidation behavior was observed by using optical microscope and when it was studied that the oxidation was increasing with time and temperature. Further, the SEM tool was utilized to study the detail microstructural behavior such as shrinkage cavity and oxide particles. The other phases like alumina and spinel phases were determined by using Energy dispersive spectrometer method.

  3. Experimental determination of the temperature range of AlO molecular emission in laser-induced aluminum plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Lei, Wenqi; Zheng, Lijuan; Yu, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) usually take place in the atmospheric air. For quantitative analysis of metallic elements, oxidation may represent an important issue which can significantly modify the stoichiometry of the plasma. Molecule formation in plasma should be therefore studied and taken into account in the LIBS practice. In this work, we experimentally investigated the temporal evolution and transformation of the plasma induced on an aluminum target by a nanosecond infrared (1064 nm) laser in the atmospheric air, in terms of its temperatures over a large interval of time from hundreds of nanoseconds to tens of microseconds. Such evolution was then correlated to the temporal evolution of the emission intensity from AlO molecules in the ablation plume. In particular, for a given ablation laser pulse energy, the appearance of the molecular emission while the plume cools down allows determining a minimal delay, τmin, which corresponds to a maximal value of the temperature, Tmax, below which the molecular emission begins to be clearly observed and to grow as a function of the delay. Such delay or such temperature indicates the longest delay or the lowest temperature for laser-induced plasma to be suitable for a correct analysis of metallic elements without significant influence of the alternation of the stoichiometry by oxidation. In our experiment, the values of τmin and Tmax have been determined for a range of ablation laser pulse energies from 5 mJ to 50 mJ. These values lie respectively in the range of 3 to 15 μs for τmin, and 4500 K to 6600 K in terms of the molecule temperature for Tmax. Beyond the practical interest for LIBS, our results provide also insights to the kinetics of the AlO molecule formation in laser-induced plasma.

  4. A low cost, disposable cable-shaped Al-air battery for portable biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotouhi, Gareth; Ogier, Caleb; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Sooyeun; Cao, Guozhong; Shen, Amy Q.; Kramlich, John; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    A disposable cable-shaped flexible battery is presented using a simple, low cost manufacturing process. The working principle of an aluminum-air galvanic cell is used for the cable-shaped battery to power portable and point-of-care medical devices. The battery is catalyzed with a carbon nanotube (CNT)-paper matrix. A scalable manufacturing process using a lathe is developed to wrap a paper layer and a CNT-paper matrix on an aluminum wire. The matrix is then wrapped with a silver-plated copper wire to form the battery cell. The battery is activated through absorption of electrolytes including phosphate-buffered saline, NaOH, urine, saliva, and blood into the CNT-paper matrix. The maximum electric power using a 10 mm-long battery cell is over 1.5 mW. As a demonstration, an LED is powered using two groups of four batteries in parallel connected in series. Considering the material composition and the cable-shaped configuration, the battery is fully disposable, flexible, and potentially compatible with portable biosensors through activation by either reagents or biological fluids.

  5. The effect of microstructure on the tensile and fatigue behavior of Ti-22Al-23Nb in air and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetjering, Stephanie

    Titanium aluminide alloys containing the ordered orthorhombic (O) phase, based on Ti2AlNb, exhibit high specific strengths at elevated temperature along with good room temperature tensile ductility and fracture toughness values. They are thus considered as potential materials for aerospace applications both in their monolithic form and as matrices in metal matrix composites. Microstructure/property relationships have been studied to a great extend with regard to tensile and creep properties. However, only little is known in the key areas of fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation and fatigue life. The main objective of this work therefore is to get a comprehensive understanding of the effects of microstructural parameters (such as volume fraction of the individual phases, their size and distribution) on the cyclic properties of O-based titanium aluminides. Furthermore, the performance of these alloys in aggressive environments, a critical issue for this alloy class, is being addressed. Tensile, isothermal fatigue, and fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests were conducted at 20°C and 540°C both in lab air and vacuum (pressure ≤ 1 x 10-6 torr) on three microstructural conditions of a representative O-based titanium alloy, Ti-22Al-23Nb. Results indicate a strong effect of microstructure on tensile and FCG properties, whereas only a slight influence of microstructure on the fatigue life is evident. The O phase contributes mainly to the material's yield stress. The tensile elongation is predominantly influenced by the beta phase volume fraction. The observed effect of microstructure on the FCG behavior is attributed to crack closure, crack front geometry and crystallographic texture. Environmental effects on the fatigue life are pronounced at elevated temperature and high applied stress amplitudes only. These conditions lead to premature crack initiation at the specimen's surface for testing in air, whereas testing in vacuum results in subsurface crack

  6. Stress rupture and creep behavior of a low pressure plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coating alloy in air and vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Miner, R. V.

    1987-01-01

    The creep behavior of a NiCoCrAlY coating alloy in air and vacuum at 660 and 850 C is studied. The microstructure of the coating alloy is described. Analysis of the creep curves reveal that the secondary creep rates, the transition from secondary to tertiary creep, and the strain-to-failure are affected by the environment, preexposure, stress, and temperature. It is observed that the rupture lives of the NiCoCrAlY alloy at 660 and 850 C are greater in air than in vacuum. Several mechanisms that may explain the lack of crack growth from surface-connected pores during tests in air are proposed.

  7. Strong coupling in non-polar GaN/AlGaN microcavities with air-gap/III-nitride distributed Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Renchun; Arita, Munetaka; Kako, Satoshi; Kamide, Kenji; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-09-01

    Strong coupling between excitons and photons is experimentally demonstrated in m-plane GaN/AlGaN microcavities (MCs) with air/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) at room temperature. Strong coupling is confirmed by momentum space spectroscopy, and a Rabi splitting (Ω) of 84 meV is estimated. A Rabi splitting of 84 meV is the largest value reported in a III-nitride DBR MC to date and is mainly attributed to the shortened effective cavity length resulting from the high index contrast in the air-gap DBRs used here. These results show that III-nitride air-gap DBR MCs have a high potential for realizing high Ω / κ systems (where κ is the cavity loss).

  8. Stress rupture and creep behavior of a low pressure plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coating alloy in air and vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Miner, R. V.

    1987-01-01

    The creep behavior of a NiCoCrAlY coating alloy in air and vacuum at 660 and 850 C is studied. The microstructure of the coating alloy is described. Analysis of the creep curves reveal that the secondary creep rates, the transition from secondary to tertiary creep, and the strain-to-failure are affected by the environment, preexposure, stress, and temperature. It is observed that the rupture lives of the NiCoCrAlY alloy at 660 and 850 C are greater in air than in vacuum. Several mechanisms that may explain the lack of crack growth from surface-connected pores during tests in air are proposed.

  9. Microstructure and Residual Stress of Alumina Scale Formed on Ti2AlC at High Temperature in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Byeon, J; Liu, j; Hopkins, m; Fischer, W; Park, K; Brady, Michael P; Radovic, Miladin; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2007-01-01

    Ti2AlC ternary carbide is being explored for various high temperature applications owing to its high strength at high temperatures, excellent thermal-shock resistance, and high electrical conductivity. In this study, isothermal oxidation at 1000 XC, 1200 XC, and 1400 XC for up to 25 hours, as well as 1,000 1-hour cyclic oxidation at 1200 XC were performed in air to examine the oxidation behavior of Ti2AlC. Characteristics of the oxide scale developed in air, including mass change, residual stress in the -Al2O3 scale, phase constituents and microstructure, were examined as functions of time and temperature by thermogravimetry, photostimulated luminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy via focused ion beam in-situ lift-out. A continuous and adherent -Al2O3 scale underneath a discontinuous-transient rutile-TiO2 scale was identified in the oxide scale developed at 1000 XC and 1200 XC. At 1400 XC, Al2TiO5 was identified as the discontinuous-transient scale above the continuous and adherent -Al2O3 scale. The -Al2O3 scale thickened to more than 15 m after 25 hours of isothermal oxidation at 1400 XC, and after 1,000 1-hour cyclic oxidation at 1200 XC, yet remained adherent and protective. The compressive residual stress determined by photoluminescence for the -Al2O3 scale remained under 0.65 GPa for the specimens oxidized up to 1400 XC for 25 hours. The small magnitude of the compressive residual stress may impart the high spallation-resistance of the protective -Al2O3 scale developed on Ti2AlC.

  10. Effect of ion plating TiN on the oxidation of sputtered NiCrAlY-coated Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb in air at 850-950 C

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, F.C.; Zeng, C. |; Wu, W.

    1998-08-01

    A single sputtered NiCrAlY coating and a complex coating of inner ion-plated TiN and outer sputtered NiCrAlY were prepared on the intermetallic compound Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb. Their oxidation behavior was examined at 850, 900, and 950 C in air by thermal gravimetry combined with XRD, SEM, and EDAX. The results showed that Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb followed approximately parabolic oxidation, forming an outer thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich scale and an inner TiO{sub 2}-rich layer doped with Nb at the three temperatures. The TiO{sub 2}-rich layer doped with Nb dominated the oxidation reaction. The single NiCrAlY coating did not follow parabolic oxidation exactly at 850 and 950 C, but oxidized approximately in a parabolic manner, because the instantaneous parabolic constants changed slightly with time. Besides the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, TiO{sub 2} formed from the coating surface at the coating-substrate interface. The deterioration of the coating accelerated with increasing temperature. The NiCrAlY-TiN coating showed two-stage parabolic oxidation at 850 and 900 C, and an approximate parabolic oxidation at 950 C. The TiN layer was effective as a barrier to inhibit coating-alloy interdiffusion.

  11. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Phosphor Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the high luminescence intensity from a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor enables non-rastered full-field temperature mapping of thermal barrier coating (TBC) surfaces to temperatures above 1000C. In this presentation, temperature mapping by Cr:GdAlO3 based phosphor thermometry of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces is demonstrated for both scaled-up cooling hole geometries as well as for actual components in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  12. Recombination of atomic oxygen on α-Al 2O 3 at high temperature under air microwave-induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balat-Pichelin, M.; Bedra, L.; Gerasimova, O.; Boubert, P.

    2007-11-01

    New ceramic materials are necessary for the design of primary heat shields for future reusable space vehicles re-entering atmospheric planet. During the re-entry phase on earth, one of the most important phenomena occurring on the heat shield is the recombination of atomic species and among them atomic oxygen. The recombination of atomic oxygen is catalyzed by the material of the heat shield. This paper presents some experimental results for the recombination coefficient γ and the thermal flux of recombination transferred to the material in the surface-catalyzed recombination of oxygen atoms based on experiments performed on the MESOX set-up using optical emission spectroscopy, actinometry and calorimetry techniques. Experimental results on the recombination coefficient are presented for three types of α-Al 2O 3 in the temperature range 900-2400 K for 300 Pa total air pressure. The thermal flux of recombination is given for only two representative samples. These three alumina differ essentially by their content of sintering additives. Different behaviors of the recombination coefficient versus temperature are observed according to the impurity level of the α-alumina.

  13. Relationship between Eu{sup 3+} reduction and glass polymeric structure in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-modified borate glasses under air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Qing; Yu, Xue; Xu, Xuhui; Zhou, Dacheng; Qiu, Jianbei

    2013-06-15

    The reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} is realized efficiently in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped borate glasses prepared under air condition by melting-quenching method. Luminescent spectra show an increasing tendency of Eu{sup 2+} emission with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Na{sub 2}O glasses. It is interesting that significant enhancement appeared of Eu{sup 2+} luminescence in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich sample comparing to the samples of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} less than 6 mol%. FTIR and Raman scattering measurements indicated that some new vibration modes assigned to the low-polymerized structure groups decomposed from the slight Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant samples. These results demonstrated that the polymerization of the glass structure decreased with increasing incorporation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into the borate glasses, linking to the efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} self-reduction in air at high temperature. - graphical abstract: A novel europium valence reduction phenomenon occurred in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified borate glasses, FTIR and Raman measurements revealed that high polymeric groups were destroyed to low polymery structures with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. - Highlights: • The efficient reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} is observed in the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Na{sub 2}O glasses. • Eu{sup 2+} luminescence is significant enhanced in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich glasses. • The introduction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} changed the network structure of the borate glasses. • High polymeric borate groups in the glass matrix may be destroyed to the lower ones.

  14. Oxidation Resistance of Materials Based on Ti3AlC2 Nanolaminate at 600 °C in Air.

    PubMed

    Ivasyshyn, Andrij; Ostash, Orest; Prikhna, Tatiana; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Basyuk, Tatiana

    2016-12-01

    The oxidation behavior of Ti3AlC2-based materials had been investigated at 600 °C in static air for 1000 h. It was shown that the intense increase of weight gain per unit surface area for sintered material with porosity of 22 % attributed to oxidation of the outer surface of the specimen and surfaces of pores in the bulk material. The oxidation kinetics of the hot-pressed Ti3AlC2-based material with 1 % porosity remarkably increased for the first 15 h and then slowly decreased. The weight gain per unit surface area for this material was 1.0 mg/cm(2) after exposition for 1000 h. The intense initial oxidation of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be eliminated by pre-oxidation treatment at 1200 °C in air for 2 h. As a result, the weight gain per unit surface area for the pre-oxidized material did not exceed 0.11 mg/cm(2) after 1000 h of exposition at 600 °C in air. It was demonstrated that the oxidation resistance of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be significantly improved by niobium addition.

  15. Rapid ultrasound-induced transient-liquid-phase bonding of Al-50Si alloys with Zn interlayer in air for electrical packaging application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Lin; Yan, Jiuchun; Lai, Zhiwei; Zhao, Pizhi; Bao, Juncheng; Lv, Guicai; You, Chen; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Al-50Si alloys were joined by rapid ultrasound-induced transient-liquid-phase bonding method using Zn foil as interlayer at 390°C in air, below the melt point of interlayer. The fracture of oxide films along the edge of Si particles led to contact and inter-diffusion between aluminum substrate and Zn interlayer, and liquefied Zn-Al alloys were developed. The width of Zn-Al alloys gradually decreased with increasing the ultrasonic vibration time due to liquid squeezing out and accelerated diffusion. A stage of isothermal solidification existed, and the completion time was significantly shortened. In the liquid metal, the acoustic streaming and ultrasonic cavitations were induced. As the process developed, much more Si particles, which were particulate-reinforced phases of Al-50Si, gradually migrated to the center of soldering seam. The highest average shear strength of joints reached to 94.2MPa, and the fracture mainly occurred at the base metal.

  16. Treatment of aniline by catalytic wet air oxidation: comparative study over CuO/CeO2 and NiO/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Gülin; Atalay, Süheyda

    2012-12-30

    The treatment of aniline by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) was studied in a bubble reactor. The experiments were performed to investigate the effects of catalyst loading, temperature, reaction time, air flow rate, and pressure on aniline removal. The catalytic effects of the prepared nanostructured catalysts, CuO/CeO(2) (10% wt) and NiO/Al(2)O(3) (10% wt), on the CWAO treatment efficiency were also examined and compared. The prepared catalysts seem to be active having an aniline removal of 45.7% with CuO/CeO(2) and 41.9% with NiO/Al(2)O(3). The amount of N(2) formed was approximately the same for both of the catalysts.

  17. Co3O4-CeO2/C as a Highly Active Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Al-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Huang, Xiaobing; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Fuzhi; Tang, Yougen; Li, Jingsha; Shao, Minhua

    2016-12-21

    Developing high-performance and low-cost electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a great challenge for Al-air batteries. Herein, CeO2, a unique ORR promoter, was incorporated into ketjenblack (KB) supported Co3O4 catalyst. We developed a facile two-step hydrothermal approach to fabricate Co3O4-CeO2/KB as a high-performance ORR catalyst for Al-air batteries. The ORR activity of Co3O4/KB was significantly increased by mixing with CeO2 nanoparticles. In addition, the Co3O4-CeO2/KB showed a better electrocatalytic performance and stability than 20 wt % Pt/C in alkaline electrolytes, making it a good candidate for highly active ORR catalysts. Co3O4-CeO2/KB favored a four-electron pathway in ORR due to the synergistic interactions between CeO2 and Co3O4. In full cell tests, the Co3O4-CeO2/KB exhibited a higher discharge voltage plateau than CeO2/KB and Co3O4/KB when used in cathode in Al-air batteries.

  18. A preliminary assessment of the Montréal process indicators of air pollution for the United States

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters; Grethchen C. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Air pollutants pose a risk to forest health and vitality in the United States. Here we present the major findings from a national scale air pollution assessment that is part of the United States’ 2003 Report on Sustainable Forests. We examine trends and the percent forest subjected to specific levels of ozone and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium....

  19. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Discharge Behavior of Mg-6wt.%Al-1wt.%Sn Alloy as Anode For Magnesium-Air Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanqing; Zhu, Hualong; Luo, Jie; Yu, Kun; Shi, Chunli; Fang, Hongjie; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Mg-6wt.%Al-1wt.%Sn alloys under different conditions are prepared. Primary magnesium-air batteries are assembled using such experimental Mg-Al-Sn alloys as anodes. The discharge behaviors of different alloys are investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that the solution treatment can facilitate the homogeneous distribution of alloy elements and reduce the accumulation of discharge products. The magnesium-air battery based on the solution-treated Mg-Al-Sn anode presents higher operating voltage and more stable discharge process than those on the as-cast and the aged ones. Although the solution treatment cannot effectively improve the capacity density and the anodic efficiency of the experimental Mg-Al-Sn alloy, it is an effective approach to increasing the power and the energy density during discharge process. Especially at the applied current density of 30 mA cm-2 for 5 h, the solution-treated anode supplies 1.212 V average operating voltage, the anode energy density reaches 1527.2 mWhg-1, while the cast one is 1481.3 mWhg-1 and the aged one is 1478.8 mWhg-1.

  20. Ionic Conductivity and Air Stability of Al-Doped Li₇La₃Zr₂O₁₂ Sintered in Alumina and Pt Crucibles.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenhao; Xu, Biyi; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-03-02

    Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) is a promising electrolyte material for all-solid-state battery due to its high ionic conductivity and good stability with metallic lithium. In this article, we studied the effect of crucibles on the ionic conductivity and air stability by synthesizing 0.25Al doped LLZO pellets in Pt crucibles and alumina crucibles, respectively. The results show that the composition and microstructure of the pellets play important roles influencing the ionic conductivity, relative density, and air stability. Specifically, the 0.25Al-LLZO pellets sintered in Pt crucibles exhibit a high relative density (∼96%) and high ionic conductivity (4.48 × 10(-4) S cm(-1)). The ionic conductivity maintains 3.6 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) after 3-month air exposure. In contrast, the ionic conductivity of the pellets from alumina crucibles is about 1.81 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) and drops to 2.39 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) 3 months later. The large grains and the reduced grain boundaries in the pellets sintered in Pt crucibles are favorable to obtain high ionic conductivity and good air stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the formation of Li2CO3 on the pellet surface is probably another main reason, which is also closely related to the relative density and the amount of grain boundary within the pellets. This work stresses the importance of synthesis parameters, crucibles included, to obtain the LLZO electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and good air stability.

  1. Interrelationships among Grain Size, Surface Composition, Air Stability, and Interfacial Resistance of Al-Substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Wu, Cheng Hao; Jarry, Angelique; Chen, Wei; Ye, Yifan; Zhu, Junfa; Kostecki, Robert; Persson, Kristin; Guo, Jinghua; Salmeron, Miquel; Chen, Guoying; Doeff, Marca

    2015-08-19

    The interfacial resistances of symmetrical lithium cells containing Al-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes are sensitive to their microstructures and histories of exposure to air. Air exposure of LLZO samples with large grain sizes (∼150 μm) results in dramatically increased interfacial impedances in cells containing them, compared to those with pristine large-grained samples. In contrast, a much smaller difference is seen between cells with small-grained (∼20 μm) pristine and air-exposed LLZO samples. A combination of soft X-ray absorption (sXAS) and Raman spectroscopy, with probing depths ranging from nanometer to micrometer scales, revealed that the small-grained LLZO pellets are more air-stable than large-grained ones, forming far less surface Li2CO3 under both short- and long-term exposure conditions. Surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that the better chemical stability of the small-grained LLZO is related to differences in the distribution of Al and Li at sample surfaces. Density functional theory calculations show that LLZO can react via two different pathways to form Li2CO3. The first, more rapid, pathway involves a reaction with moisture in air to form LiOH, which subsequently absorbs CO2 to form Li2CO3. The second, slower, pathway involves direct reaction with CO2 and is favored when surface lithium contents are lower, as with the small-grained samples. These observations have important implications for the operation of solid-state lithium batteries containing LLZO because the results suggest that the interfacial impedances of these devices is critically dependent upon specific characteristics of the solid electrolyte and how it is prepared.

  2. Test methods and response surface models for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with dirty spores of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam.

    PubMed

    Buhr, T L; Young, A A; Barnette, H K; Minter, Z A; Kennihan, N L; Johnson, C A; Bohmke, M D; DePaola, M; Cora-Laó, M; Page, M A

    2015-11-01

    To develop test methods and evaluate survival of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne or Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam on materials contaminated with dirty spore preparations after exposure to hot, humid air using response surface modelling. Spores (>7 log10 ) were mixed with humic acid + spent sporulation medium (organic debris) or kaolin (dirt debris). Spore samples were then dried on five different test materials (wiring insulation, aircraft performance coating, anti-skid, polypropylene, and nylon). Inoculated materials were tested with 19 test combinations of temperature (55, 65, 75°C), relative humidity (70, 80, 90%) and time (1, 2, 3 days). The slowest spore inactivation kinetics was on nylon webbing and/or after addition of organic debris. Hot, humid air effectively decontaminates materials contaminated with dirty Bacillus spore preparations; debris and material interactions create complex decontamination kinetic patterns; and B. thuringiensis Al Hakam is a realistic surrogate for B. anthracis. Response surface models of hot, humid air decontamination were developed which may be used to select decontamination parameters for contamination scenarios including aircraft. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Thickness engineering of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films to suppress interfacial reaction and diffusion of Ni/Au gate metal in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs up to 600 °C in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suria, Ateeq J.; Yalamarthy, Ananth Saran; Heuser, Thomas A.; Bruefach, Alexandra; Chapin, Caitlin A.; So, Hongyun; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of 50 nm atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 to suppress the interfacial reaction and inter-diffusion between the gate metal and semiconductor interface, to extend the operation limit up to 600 °C in air. Suppression of diffusion is verified through Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and is further supported with electrical characterization. An ALD Al2O3 thin film (10 nm and 50 nm), which functions as a dielectric layer, was inserted between the gate metal (Ni/Au) and heterostructure-based semiconductor material (AlGaN/GaN) to form a metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT). This extended the 50 nm ALD Al2O3 MIS-HEMT (50-MIS) current-voltage (Ids-Vds) and gate leakage (Ig,leakage) characteristics up to 600 °C. Both, the 10 nm ALD Al2O3 MIS-HEMT (10-MIS) and HEMT, failed above 350 °C, as evidenced by a sudden increase of approximately 50 times and 5.3 × 106 times in Ig,leakage, respectively. AES on the HEMT revealed the formation of a Ni-Au alloy and Ni present in the active region. Additionally, XRD showed existence of metal gallides in the HEMT. The 50-MIS enables the operation of AlGaN/GaN based electronics in oxidizing high-temperature environments, by suppressing interfacial reaction and inter-diffusion of the gate metal with the semiconductor.

  4. Improvement of performance in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells operated on ethanol and air mixtures using Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M.; Espiell, F.; Segarra, M.

    2015-10-01

    Anode-supported single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells with and without Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst layers deposited on the anode support have been operated on ethanol and air mixtures. The cells consist of gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte, Ni-doped ceria anode, and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ-doped ceria cathode. Catalyst layers with different Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 ratios are deposited and sintered at several temperatures. Since the performance of single-chamber fuel cells strongly depends on catalytic properties of electrodes for partial oxidation of ethanol, the cells are electrochemically characterized as a function of the temperature, ethanol-air molar ratio and gas flow rate. In addition, catalytic activities of supported anode, catalytic layer-supported anode and cathode for partial oxidation of ethanol are analysed. Afterwards, the effect of composition and sintering temperature of catalyst layer on the cell performance are determined. The results indicate that the cell performance can be significantly enhanced using catalyst layers of 30:35:35 and 40:30:30 wt.% Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 sintered at 1100 °C, achieving power densities above 50 mW cm-2 under 0.45 ethanol-air ratio at temperatures as low as 450 °C. After testing for 15 h, all cells present a gradual loss of power density, without carbon deposition, which is mainly attributed to the partial re-oxidation of Ni at the anode.

  5. A new perspective on the Fukushima releases brought by newly available air concentration observations (Tsuruta et al, 2014) and reliable meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne; Sekiyama, Thomas; Kajino, Mizuo; Adachi, Kouji; Bocquet, Marc; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Didier, Damien

    2016-04-01

    In case of nuclear power plant accident, the assessment of the temporal evolution in the amount of radionuclides released (source term) is required to evaluate human health and environment impacts. It is with in mind that IRSN has developed an operational tool based on inverse modeling techniques to evaluate the source term of a radioactive release. If the release amount is sufficiently strong as for the Fukushima accident, dose rate observations are primarily used to assess the source term (Saunier et al. 2013). Secondly, air concentrations measurements can also be used when available. For minor release events, air concentrations measurements are used. Five years after the Fukushima accident, many estimations of the source term based on the use of observations in the environment have been published. There is not yet consensus on the magnitudes on the releases rates, mainly due to the high uncertainties on meteorological fields used to assess the source term. Within the framework of cooperation between IRSN and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), meteorological fields with higher spatial resolution (3 km) have been used (Sekiyama et al. 2013) to improve the simulation of the atmospheric dispersion from the Fukushima accident. Besides, new dataset of Cs137 atmospheric concentration obtained from the sampling tapes of the Suspended Particle Matter (SPM) monitoring network by the method of Tsuruta et al. (2014) are available. These data are very useful since several plumes, unknown until now, could be identified in addition with the two major plumes on March 15 and March 21. Therefore, the inverse modeling method has been applied to assess a new source term using Tsuruta air concentration measurements, dose rate measurements and meteorological fields provided by MRI. The simulations performed using this new inverted source term help enhance our knowledge about the Fukushima accident. Several releases events are better

  6. [Catalytic stability in wet air oxidation of carboxylic acids over ZnFe0.25Al1.75 O4 catalyst].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ai-hua; Yang, Min; Du, Hong-zhang; Peng, Fu-yong; Sun, Cheng-lin

    2007-07-01

    Oxalic, formic and acetic acid are main intermediate products in catalytic wet air oxidation process (CWAO). The catalytic activity and stability in CWAO of the three short-chain organic acids over ZnFe0.25Al1.75O4 catalyst were studied. Oxalic acid is the only oxidizable intermediate and the largest amount of Fe leaching is 9.5 mg L(-1) at 160 degrees C during CWAO process. Formic and acetic acid have little influence on Fe leaching. Due to the strong reducible ability of oxalic acid, the amount of Fe leaching is larger in nitrogen atmosphere than that in oxygen atmosphere. Salicylic acid can be also degraded by ZnFe0.25Al1.75O4 catalyst with a high catalytic activity and stability.

  7. Degradation of cationic red GTL by catalytic wet air oxidation over Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst under room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Li, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Xiang; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Xueye

    2012-03-06

    To overcome the drawback of catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) with high temperature and high pressure, the catalytic activity of Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst for degradation of cationic red GTL under room temperature and atmospheric pressure was investigated. Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation. XRD, TG-DTG, and XPS were used to characterize the resulting sample. Central composition design using response surface methodology was employed to optimize correlation of factors on the decolorization of cationic red GTL. The results show that the optimal conditions of pH value, initial concentration of dye and catalyst dosage were found to be 4.0, 85 mg/L and 2.72 g/L, respectively, for maximum decolorization of 80.1% and TOC removal of 50.9%. Furthermore, the reaction on the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst and degradation mechanism of cationic red GTL was studied by Electron spin resonance (ESR) and GC-MS technique. The possible reaction mechanism was that the Mo-Zn-Al-O catalyst can efficiently react with adsorbed oxygen/H(2)O to produce ·OH and (1)O(2) and finally induce the degradation of cationic red GTL. GC-MS analysis of the degradation products indicates that cationic red GTL was initiated by the cleavage of -N ═ N- and the intermediates were further oxidized by ·OH or (1)O(2).

  8. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb in air and argon environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Verrilli, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of tension-tension, load-controlled thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a titanium aluminide composite in both laboratory air and a flowing argon environment. Results from these tests show that the environment plays an increasingly important role as applied stress levels are decreased. Differences in damage mechanisms between the two environments were observed which corresponds to observed variations in TMF lives.

  9. The mechanism of oxide whisker growth and hot corrosion of hot-dipped Al-Si coated 430 stainless steels in air-NaCl (g) atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsiao-Hung; Cheng, Wei-Jen; Wang, Chaur-Jeng

    2011-10-01

    The mechanisms of oxide whisker growth and hot corrosion of 430 stainless steel (430SS) and aluminide 430 stainless steel hot-dipped in a Al-10 wt.%Si molten bath (430HDAS) were studied at 750 and 850 °C in air mixed with 500 and 990 vppm NaCl (g). The results showed that the loose Cr 2O 3 scale which formed on the 430SS could not prevent the corrosion of 430SS in a 500 vppm NaCl (g) atmosphere, resulting in the formation of Fe 2O 3 scale. Fe 2O 3 whiskers grew at the grain boundary of the Fe 2O 3 scale. However, no Fe 2O 3 whiskers formed on the Fe 2O 3 scale while 430SS was exposed in a 900 vppm NaCl (g) atmosphere. During the initial high-temperature corrosion of 430HDAS in a 500 vppm NaCl (g) atmosphere, a dense Al 2O 3 scale formed on the surface of the specimens. Also, Al 2O 3 whiskers grew on the Al 2O 3 scale. As exposure time increased, cyclic chlorination/oxidation degraded the protective aluminide layer and caused the formation of Fe 2O 3 scale and Fe 2O 3 whiskers. The morphology of Fe 2O 3 whiskers formed at 750 °C is more slender than those formed at 850 °C. The formation and growth of both Fe 2O 3 and Al 2O 3 whiskers may be attributed to the chloridation of both the steel substrate and aluminide layer, accelerating the diffusion rate of metallic ions in the oxide scales.

  10. Evaluation of the reaction rate constants for the gas-phase Al-CH4-air combustion chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharipov, A. S.; Titova, N. S.; Starik, A. M.

    2012-10-01

    The most likely reaction pathways and reaction products in the Al-CH4-O2-N2 system are investigated using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. The B3LYP functional with extended 6-311+G(3df,2p) basis set as well as the CBS-QB3 composite method are mainly utilised. Theoretical analysis of corresponding reaction rate constants is also performed with the use of simple theoretical models. A critical overview of current knowledge on combustion-relevant reactions with aluminium compounds is given. On the basis of critical comparison of available experimental kinetic data with theoretical calculations, the approximations for rate constants for 44 reversible elementary reactions involving Al-containing species are recommended for use in combustion issues.

  11. Operation of ohmic Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer contacts to GaN at 600 °C in air

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Minmin; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2014-08-25

    The high-temperature characteristics (at 600 °C) of Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer contacts to gallium nitride (GaN) in air are reported. Microfabricated circular-transfer-line-method test structures were subject to 10 h of thermal storage at 600 °C. Intermittent electrical characterization during thermal storage showed minimal variation in the contact resistance after 2 h and that the specific contact resistivity remained on the order of 10{sup −5} Ω-cm{sup 2}. In addition, the thermally stored multilayer contacts to GaN showed ohmic I-V characteristics when electrically probed at 600 °C. The microstructural analysis with atomic force microscopy showed minimal changes in surface roughness after thermal storage. Observations of the thermochemical reactions after thermal storage using Auger electron spectroscopy chemical depth profiling showed diffusion of Pt and minimal additional Al oxidation. The results support the use of Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer metallization for GaN-based sensors and electronic devices that will operate within a high-temperature and oxidizing ambient.

  12. Crack Propagation During Sustained-Load Cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys Exposed to Moist Air or Distilled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, N. J. Henry; Scamans, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Intergranular sustained-load cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7xxx series) aluminum alloys exposed to moist air or distilled water at temperatures in the range 283 K to 353 K (10 °C to 80 °C) has been reviewed in detail, paying particular attention to local processes occurring in the crack-tip region during crack propagation. Distinct crack-arrest markings formed on intergranular fracture faces generated under fixed-displacement loading conditions are not generated under monotonic rising-load conditions, but can form under cyclic-loading conditions if loading frequencies are sufficiently low. The observed crack-arrest markings are insensitive to applied stress intensity factor, alloy copper content and temper, but are temperature sensitive, increasing from ~150 nm at room temperature to ~400 nm at 313 K (40 °C). A re-evaluation of published data reveals the apparent activation energy, E a for crack propagation in Al-Zn-Mg(-Cu) alloys is consistently ~35 kJ/mol for temperatures above ~313 K (40 °C), independent of copper content or the applied stress intensity factor, unless the alloy contains a significant volume fraction of S-phase, Al2CuMg where E a is ~80 kJ/mol. For temperatures below ~313 K (40 °C) E a is independent of copper content for stress intensity factors below ~14 MNm-3/2, with a value ~80 kJ/mol but is sensitive to copper content for stress intensity factors above ~14 MNm-3/2, with E a , ranging from ~35 kJ/mol for copper-free alloys to ~80 kJ/mol for alloys containing 1.5 pct Cu. The apparent activation energy for intergranular sustained-load crack initiation is consistently ~110 kJ/mol for both notched and un-notched samples. Mechanistic implications are discussed and processes controlling crack growth, as a function of temperature, alloy copper content, and loading conditions are proposed that are consistent with the calculated apparent activation energies and known characteristics of intergranular sustained-load cracking. It is suggested

  13. Air-stable short-wave infrared PbS colloidal quantum dot photoconductors passivated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chen; Gassenq, Alban; Chen, Hongtao; Roelkens, Günther; Justo, Yolanda; Hens, Zeger; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-10-27

    A PbS colloidal quantum dot photoconductor with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation for air-stable operation is presented. Two different types of inorganic ligands for the quantum dots, S{sup 2−} and OH{sup −}, are investigated. PbS/S{sup 2−} photoconductors with a cut-off wavelength up to 2.4 μm are obtained, and a responsivity up to 50 A/W at 1550 nm is reported. The corresponding specific detectivity is ∼3.4 × 10{sup 8} Jones at 230 K. The 3-dB bandwidth of the PbS/S{sup 2−} and PbS/OH{sup −} photodetectors is 40 Hz and 11 Hz, respectively.

  14. Ni/MgAlO regeneration for catalytic wet air oxidation of an azo-dye in trickle-bed reaction.

    PubMed

    Vallet, Ana; Ovejero, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Araceli; Peres, José A; García, Juan

    2013-01-15

    Active nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg-Al mixed oxides have been recently developed and it has also been demonstrated that they are also highly selective in Catalytic Wet air Oxidation (CWAO) of dyes. CWAO of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been studied using a trickle bed reactor employing temperatures from 100 to 180 °C, liquid flow rates from 0.1 to 0.7 mL min(-1) and initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 ppm. Total pressure and air flow were 25 bar and 300 mL min(-1), respectively. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 24 h on stream with an average TOC conversion of 82% at 150 °C and T(r)=0.098 g(Ni) min mL(-1). After the reaction, a 1.1 wt% C of carbonaceous deposit is formed onto the catalyst and a diminution of 30% of the surface area with respect of the fresh catalyst was observed. An increase in the space time gave higher TOC conversions up to T(r)=0.098 g(Ni) min mL(-1), attaining values of 80% at 180 °C. The performance of TOC and dye removal does not decrease after two regeneration cycles. In total, a 57 h effective reaction has been carried out with no loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimizing chemical oxygen demand removal from synthesized wastewater containing lignin by catalytic wet-air oxidation over CuO/Al2O3 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sriprom, Pongsert; Neramittagapong, Sutasinee; Lin, Chitsan; Wantala, Kitirote; Neramittagapong, Arthit; Grisdanurak, Nurak

    2015-07-01

    In this study, 10% CuO/Al2O3 catalyst was used in a catalytic wet-air oxidation process to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color from experimentally designed wastewater containing lignin. The catalyst was prepared using an impregnation method and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET) for surface area before use. A series of Box-Behnken design (BBD) experiments were used to identify the conditions (temperature, pressure, reaction time, and catalysts) necessary for the COD removal process. The predicted model had R2 and R2adj correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. Pressure only and the interaction effect between temperature and pressure were found to have a significant effect on COD removal (both confidence interval [CI] 95%). Finally, response surface methodology (RSM)-optimized results suggested that 92% of COD could be removed in 1 L of experimental wastewater with a lignin concentration 350 g/L in 120 min under the following conditions: a reaction temperature of 185 °C, a pressure of 10 bars, and catalyst loading of 1 mg/L. The experiment, performed in triplicate, yielded a COD removal of 90±2%. The results are believed to be of importance to pulp and paper industrial wastewater treatment and other similar applications. Catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) has been used as an alternative to overcome problems related to the high temperatures and pressures required by the traditional wet-air oxidation. CWAO has been widely applied to treat various industrial wastewaters. To reduce the overall operational cost, it is necessary to identify the optimal condition required when designing wastewater treatment plant processes. In this work, the authors had successfully demonstrated the application of response surface methodology (RSM) with the Box-Behnken design (BBD) as a means of elucidating the complicated interaction effects between parameters.

  16. Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

  17. Degradation process analysis of the azo dyes by catalytic wet air oxidation with catalyst CuO/γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Ma, Hongrui; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Three azo dyes (Methyl Orange, Direct Brown and Direct Green) were treated by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) with the catalysts CuO/γ-Al(2)O(3) prepared by consecutive impregnation. The relationship of decolorization extent, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal extent and total organic carbon (TOC) in dye solution were investigated. The results indicated that the CuO/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalyst had excellent catalytic activity in treating azo dyes. Almost 99% of color and 70% of TOC were removed in 2h. The high removal extent of color and TOC indicated that the CWAO obtained perfect decomposition for pollutants. The degradation pathway of azo dyes was analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR and MS. According to the examined results, the hydroxyl ((·)OH) radicals induced strong oxidizing effects in the target solution and destroyed the chromophoric groups of azo-benzene conjugated of the molecular structure. Considering characteristics of the dye structure, the azo bond (-N=N-) would first be attacked by the hydroxyl radical and other free radicals. With the continuous oxidization and the long reaction time at high temperature, these intermediates could be oxidized to the final oxidation products, such as water and carbon dioxide.

  18. Microstructure studies of air-plasma-spray-deposited CoNiCrAlY coatings before and after thermal cyclic loading for high-temperature application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dipak; Pandey, K. N.; Das, Dipak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, bond-coats for thermal barrier coatings were deposited via air plasma spraying (APS) techniques onto Inconel 800 and Hastelloy C-276 alloy substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate the phases and microstructure of the as-sprayed, APS-deposited CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings. The aim of this work was to study the suitability of the bond-coat materials for high temperature applications. Confirmation of nanoscale grains of the γ/γ'-phase was obtained by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and AFM. We concluded that these changes result from the plastic deformation of the bond-coat during the deposition, resulting in CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings with excellent thermal cyclic resistance suitable for use in high-temperature applications. Cyclic oxidative stability was observed to also depend on the underlying metallic alloy substrate.

  19. Thermal Shock Behavior of Air Plasma Sprayed CoNiCrAlY/YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi Wei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Jia Jie; Lin, Chu Cheng; Zheng, Xue Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2014-07-01

    The structural changes and failure mechanism of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during thermal shock cycling were investigated. TBCs consisting of CoNiCrAlY bond coat and partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) on a nickel-based alloy substrate and its thermal shock resistance performance was evaluated. TBCs were heated at 1100°C for 15 min followed by cold water quenching to ambient temperature. Microstructural evaluation and elemental analysis of TBCs were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The crack features of YSZ coatings in TBCs during thermal shock cycling, including those of horizontal (parallel to the substrate) and vertical cracks (perpendicular to the substrate), were particularly investigated by means of SEM and image analysis. Results show that horizontal and vertical cracks have different influences on the thermal shock resistance of the coatings. Horizontal cracks that occur at the interface of YSZ and thermally growth oxidation (TGO) cause partial or large-area spalling of coatings. When vertical and horizontal cracks encounter, network segments are formed which lead to partial spalling of the coatings.

  20. Water velocity at water-air interface is not zero: Comment on "Three-dimensional quantification of soil hydraulic properties using X-ray computed tomography and image-based modeling" by Saoirse R. Tracy et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. X.; Fan, X. Y.; Li, Z. Y.

    2016-07-01

    Tracy et al. (2015, doi: 10.1002/2014WR016020) assumed in their recent paper that water velocity at the water-air interface is zero in their pore-scale simulations of water flow in 3-D soil images acquired using X-ray computed tomography. We comment that such a treatment is physically wrong, and explain that it is the water-velocity gradient in the direction normal to the water-air interface, rather than the water velocity, that should be assumed to be zero at the water-air interface if one needs to decouple the water flow and the air flow. We analyze the potential errors caused by incorrectly taking water velocity at the water-air interface zero based on two simple examples, and conclude that it is not physically sound to make such a presumption because its associated errors are unpredictable.

  1. Informe de la EPA muestra que las emisiones de sustancias químicas tóxicas al aire provenientes de instalaciones industriales se redujeron más de la mitad desde el 2005

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comunicado de prensa de la EPA: Informe de la EPA muestra que las emisiones de sustancias químicas tóxicas al aire provenientes de instalaciones industriales se redujeron más de la mitad desde el 2005

  2. X-ray computed microtomography of sea ice - comment on "A review of air-ice chemical and physical interactions (AICI): liquids, quasi-liquids, and solids in snow", by Bartels-Rausch et al. (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, R. W.

    2015-05-01

    This comment addresses a statement made in "A review of air-ice chemical and physical interactions (AICI): liquids, quasi-liquids, and solids in snow" by Bartels-Rausch et al. (2014). Here we rebut the assertion that X-ray computed microtomography of sea ice fails to reveal liquid brine inclusions, by discussing the phases present at the analysis temperature.

  3. X-ray computed microtomography of sea ice - comment on "A review of air-ice chemical and physical interactions (AICI): liquids, quasi-liquids, and solids in snow" by Bartels-Rausch et al. (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, R. W.

    2015-07-01

    This comment addresses a statement made in "A review of air-ice chemical and physical interactions (AICI): liquids, quasi-liquids, and solids in snow" by Bartels-Rausch et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1587-1633, doi:10.5194/acp-14-1587-2014, 2014). Here we rebut the assertion that X-ray computed microtomography of sea ice fails to reveal liquid brine inclusions by discussing the phases present at the analysis temperature.

  4. The Mechanical Property Data Base from an Air Force/Industry Cooperative Test Program on Advanced Aluminum Alloys (IN905XL and AL905XL Forgings)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    H13 Fracture Toughness Results for AL905XL 110 Forging S-L Orientation H14 Fracture Toughness Results for AL905XL 111 Forging S-T Orientation H15 ...7oo C)) + ’r 0 : 0 0 0 0 : 00coI c’j 112 TABLE H15 FATIGUE RESULTS WITH R=0.1 AND Kt=1.0 FOR INCOMAP AL905XL DIE FORGING COMPANY ORIENTATION STRESS...25 HZ o -- 3 - 10 uJ 10 -E C E E 10-6 ._ -66 10 -Z10 R= 0.10 -8 _-75 0F (24- 0 C10 L-T 1010 1R 10 0.10 AK IKS[-i n 1/ Figure 13 Fatigue Crack C:rowth

  5. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  6. Synthesis cathode material LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 with two step solid-state method under air stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shubiao; Zhang, Yingjie; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    A facile generic strategy of solid-state reaction under air atmosphere is employed to prepare LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 layer structure micro-sphere as cathodes for Li-ion batteries. The impurity phase has been eliminated wholly without changing the R-3m space group of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2. The electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes depend on the sintering step, temperature, particle size and uniformity. The sample pre-sintered at 540 °C for 12 h and then sintered at 720 °C for 28 h exhibits the best electrochemical performance, which delivers a reversible capacity of 180.4, 165.8, 154.7 and 135.6 mAhg-1 at 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C and 5 C, respectively. The capacity retention keeps over 87% after 76 cycles at 1 C. This method is simple, cheap and mass-productive, and thus suitable to large scale production of NCA cathodes directly used for lithium ion batteries.

  7. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  8. Synergistic effects of carboxymethyl cellulose and ZnO as alkaline electrolyte additives for aluminium anodes with a view towards Al-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2016-12-01

    The synergistic effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been investigated as alkaline electrolyte additives for the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode in aluminium-air battery by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of CMC and ZnO effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. A complex film is formed via the interaction between CMC and Zn2+ ions on the alloy surface. The carboxyl groups adsorbed on the surface of aluminium make the protective film more stable. The cathodic reaction process is mainly suppressed significantly. AA5052 alloy electrode has a good discharge performance in the applied electrolyte containing the composite CMC/ZnO additives.

  9. Catalytic behaviour and copper leaching of Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel for catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aihua; Sun, Chenglin

    2012-06-01

    A Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method was tested for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol. The catalyst showed high activity for phenol degradation. During successive test at 170 degrees C, 100% phenol conversion and 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were observed. Results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalyst structure remained unchanged during reaction. From the analysis of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis) and activity assay at basic solution pH, it can be suggested that the highly dispersed copper ions on the catalyst surface were almost completely dissolved into the reaction solution, whereas the tetra-coordinated copper ions were not only stable against leaching but also active towards phenol degradation.

  10. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  11. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  12. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. Welcome to the Air Force Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    Instruction (AFI) 36- 2015 , Air Force Recruiting Advertising, May 1994. Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36-2612, United States Air Force Reserve (USAFR...Operations Structures Coursebook. Edited by Patricia A. Self and Gwen Story. Maxwell AFB, AL. Air Command and Staff College, November 1996. Muradian, Vago

  14. RadNet Air Data From Fairbanks, AK

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fairbanks, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. Pattern for Victory: Forging and Leading Air Power at War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Power Thinkers ( Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 2009), 82. 4 Air Forces as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans.17 The only memoir Kuter...the Albert F. Simpson Historical Research Center, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. Finally, Generals Ira C. Eaker’s papers from the...and Ground Armies: Essays on the Evolution of Anglo-American Air Doctrine, 1940-43, ed. Daniel R. Mortensen ( Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press

  16. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  17. Freiluftschulen: Eine Historisch-Padagogische Randerscheinung als Reflex Sozial-Historischer Modernisierungsprozesse? Das Beispiel Belgiens (Open-Air Schools: A Marginal Appearance in Pedagogical History as a Reflection of Socio-Historical Processes of Modernization? The Example of Belgium).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaepe, Marc; Simon, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the history of open-air schools using an evaluation of Belgian schools. Expounds on the complex relationship between educational space and the educational act, and between traditional and progressive education. Demonstrates that open-air schools provided the same education as traditional schools and were not a real alternative for…

  18. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  19. Seltzer_et_al_2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset supports the modeling study of Seltzer et al. (2016) published in Atmospheric Environment. In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields without correcting toward higher resolution observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model are used to simulate regional climate and air quality over the contiguous United States for 2000-2010. The air quality simulations for that historical period are then compared to observations from four national networks. Comparisons are drawn between defined performance metrics and other published modeling results for predicted ozone, fine particulate matter, and speciated fine particulate matter. The results indicate that the historical air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled meteorology are typically within defined modeling performance benchmarks and are consistent with results from other published modeling studies using finer-resolution meteorology. This indicates that the regional climate and air quality modeling framework utilized here does not introduce substantial bias, which provides confidence in the method??s use for future air quality projections.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Seltzer, K., C

  20. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  1. Water vapor effect on high-temperature oxidation behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Sebastian; Juzon, Pitor; Przybylski, Kazimierz; Larpin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Fe3Al intermetallics (Fe3Al, Fe3Al-Zr, Fe3Al-Zr,Mo and Fe3Al-Zr, Mo, Nb) were oxidized at 950 °C in dry and humid (11 vol% water) synthetic air. Thermogravimetric measurements showed that the oxidation rates of the tested intermetallics were lower in humid air than in dry air (especially for Fe3Al-Zr, Mo and Fe3Al-Zr, Mo, Nb). The addition of small amounts of Zr, Mo or Nb improved the kinetics compared with that of the undoped Fe3Al. Fe3Al showed massive spallation, whereas Fe3Al-Zr, Fe3Al-Zr, Mo and Fe3Al-Zr, Mo, Nb produced a flat, adherent oxide layer. The rapid transformation of transient alumina into alpha alumina may explain the decrease in the oxidation rate in humid air. PMID:27877306

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  4. High efficiency aqueous and hybrid lithium-air batteries enabled by Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 ceramic anode-protecting membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safanama, Dorsasadat; Adams, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Due to their extremely high specific energy, rechargeable Li-air batteries could meet the demand for large-scale storage systems to integrate renewable sources into the power grid. Li-air batteries with aqueous catholytes with high solubility of discharge products have a higher potential to reach their slightly lower theoretical limits in practical devices. In this work, we demonstrate aqueous and hybrid Li-air batteries with NASICON-type Li1+xAxGe2-x(PO4)3 ceramic as anode-protecting membrane. The LAGP ceramic pellets with room temperature conductivity >10-4 S cm-1 are synthesized by melt quenching and subsequently annealed based on our optimized heat treatment cycle. Hybrid Li-air batteries are assembled by sandwiching LAGP membranes between Li-anode chamber and catholyte solutions (of various pH values) with CNT/Pt as air-cathode. When the two electron reduction mechanism prevails, overpotentials below 0.2 V are achieved for currents up to 0.07 mA cm-2 leading to energy efficiencies exceeding 98%.

  5. Discovering Air Force Identity: Airpower and Innovations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    Change Culture, Reverse Careerism.” Joint Force Quarterly, 58, 3rd Qtr 2010, 82-88; Carl H. Builder, The Icarus Syndrome : The Role of Air Power Theory...Themes in Messages from Top Air Force Leaders, 2005-2008, Documented briefing to United States Air Force (Arlington, VA: RAND, 2010); Colin S . Gray...its Impact on Retention, Research Report (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 1 April 2002); Philip S . Meilinger, Airpower Myths and Facts

  6. Air Force Logistics: A Historical Perspective (1940 to 1983)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    War College, Maxwell AFB AL, 1969. (4) Smithies , Arthur. PPBS, Suboptimization, and Decentralization. Rand Report No. RM-6178-PR, The Rand Corporation...of Maintenance Performance," Air Force Journal of Logistics, Fall 81, pp. 20-24. (15) King, Oliver E. "Why Not Specialization in the Air Corps," Air... Oliver P. President, Air Industry Association. "Mobiliza- tion Planning and Logistical Preparation of the Air Forces for World War II." Address to Air War

  7. A Return on Investment Analysis of Air Force Officer Accessions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A RETURN ON INVESTMENT ANALYSIS OF AIR FORCE OFFICER ACCESSIONS by David O’Malley, LtCol, USAF...Lieutenant Colonel David O’Malley is assigned to the Air War College , Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. Before attending the Air War College , LtCol O’Malley...the candidate’s junior and senior years of college , and a non-scholarship program. 3 Upon graduating from college , all ROTC candidates receive a four

  8. 71. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIQUID AIR BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIQUID AIR BUILDING, LOOKING AT A BANK OF AIR COMPRESSORS. JANUARY 29, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  10. Microstructure and Oxidation Behavior of Al and Al/NiCrAlY Coatings on Pure Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xue; Zhang, Nannan; Zhang, Zhongli; Chen, Ruirun; Lin, Danyang

    2017-06-01

    To improve the oxidation resistance of Ti alloys, a NiCrAlY coating was deposited as diffusion barrier between aluminum overlay coating and pure Ti substrate by air plasma spraying method. The microstructure and oxidation behavior of Al coatings with and without NiCrAlY diffusion barrier were investigated in isothermal oxidation tests at 800 °C for 100 h. The results indicate that the weight gain of the Al/NiCrAlY coating was 4.16 × 10-5 mg2 cm-4 s-1, whereas that of the single Al coating was 9.52 × 10-5 mg2 cm-4 s-1 after 100 h oxidation. As compared with single Al coating, the Al/NiCrAlY coating revealed lower oxidation rate and excellent oxidation resistance by forming thin Al2O3 + NiO scales at overlaying coating/diffusion barrier and diffusion barrier/substrate interfaces. Meanwhile, the inward diffusion of Al and the outward diffusion of Ti were inhibited effectively by the NiCrAlY diffusion barrier.

  11. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Hun, Diana E.; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Childs, Phillip W.

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  15. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  16. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  17. 77 FR 40492 - Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class D Airspace at Andalusia, AL, as the Air Traffic...

  18. The optimization of Ga (1-x)Al (x)As-GaAs solar cells for air mass zero operation and a study of Ga (1-x)Al (x)As-GaAs solar cells at high temperatures, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The three types of solar cells investigated were: (1) one consisting of a nGaAs substrate, a Zn doped pGaAs region, and a Zn doped Ga(1-x)Al(x)As layer, (2) one consisting of an nGaAs substrate, a Ge doped pGaAs region, and a pGa(1-x)Al(x)As upper layer, and (3) one consisting of an n+GaAs substrate, an nGa(1-x)Al(X)As region, a pGa(1-x)Bl(X) As region, and a pGa(1-y)Al(y)As upper layer. In all three cases, the upper alloy layer is thin and of high Al composition in order to obtain high spectral response over the widest possible range of photon energies. Spectral response, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, diffusion length, sunlight (or the equivalent)-efficiency, and efficiency-temperature measurements were made as a function of device parameters in order to analyze and optimize the solar cell behavior.

  19. Air Plasma-Sprayed La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 Composite Thermal Barrier Coating Subjected to CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lili; Ma, Wen; Ma, Bole; Guo, Feng; Chen, Weidong; Dong, Hongying; Shuang, Yingchai

    2017-08-01

    La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were prepared by air plasma spray (APS). The La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs covered with calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) powder, as well as the powder mixture of CMAS and spray-dried La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite powder, were heat-treated at 1250 °C in air for 1, 4, 8, and 12 h. The phase constituents and microstructures of the reaction products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that the La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs had higher CMAS resistance than 8YSZ coating. A dense new layer developed between CMAS and La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs during interaction, and this new layer consisted mostly of apatite (Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2) and c-ZrO2. The newly developed layer effectively protected the La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs from further CMAS attack.

  20. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  2. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  3. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    jihadi doctrine, al-Libi enrolled himself in the recently erected and highly popular al-Faruq 2 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III...February 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7220823.stm. 3 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III,’” Global Terrorism Research Project...5 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III,’” Global Terrorism Research Project. 6 Ibid. The date provided in the video is 1410

  4. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javits, actor David Niven, “Sesame Street” creator Jon Stone, boxing champion Ezzard Charles, NBA Hall of Fame ... Help for People with ALS and Caregivers Read stories from families living with ALS Forms of ALS ...

  5. The Effects of Army and Air Force Institutional Theories of Victory on Operation Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE , ALABAMA JUNE 2015 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution...Air Force Base , Oklahoma. During that assignment, Lieutenant Colonel Ganske was selected to join the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman Air Force Base ...assigned to the 609th Combined Air and Space Operations Center at Al Udeid Air Base , Qatar, where he served as the Chief of the Target Effects Team

  6. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  7. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW Heterostructure for High-Temperature Applications.

    PubMed

    Legrani, Ouarda; Aubert, Thierry; Elmazria, Omar; Bartasyte, Ausrine; Nicolay, Pascal; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Boulet, Pascal; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Mangin, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have evidenced that Pt/AlN/Sapphire surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are promising for high-temperature high-frequency applications. However, they cannot be used above 700°C in air atmosphere as the Pt interdigital transducers (IDTs) agglomerate and the AlN layer oxidizes in such conditions. In this paper, we explore the possibility to use an AlN protective overlayer to concurrently hinder these phenomena. To do so, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire heterostructures undergo successive annealing steps from 800°C to 1000°C in air atmosphere. The impact of each step on the morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of AlN and Pt films is evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Finally, acoustical performance at room temperature of both protected and unprotected SAW devices are compared, as well as the effects of annealing on these performance. These investigations show that the use of an overlayer is one possible solution to strongly hinder the Pt IDTs agglomeration up to 1000°C. Moreover, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW heterostructures show promising performances in terms of stability up to 800°C. At higher temperatures, the oxidation of AlN is more intense and makes it inappropriate to be used as a protective layer.

  9. Oxidation of TiAl3 and L12 Coatings on Ti-45Al-5Nb Alloy at 1173K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Takumi; Kitajima, Yuri; Hayashi, Shigenari; Narita, Toshio

    Oxidation behavior of TiAl3 and L12 coated Ti-45at%Al-5at%Nb alloys at 1173K in air was investigated using mass gain measurement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, glow discharge optical electron spectroscopy, and glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis. The TiAl3 formed meta-stable alumina θ-Al2O3, while the oxide scale on the L12 consisted of a duplex structure with an outer rutile TiO2 and an inner α-Al2O3. During the very initial stages of oxidation both Ti and Al in the L12 coating could be oxidized, and then the faster diffusing Ti goes out to form an outer, continuous Ti-rich oxide which covers the slow growing Al2O3. In case of the TiAl3 an outer, continuous TiO2 layer was not observed because of the smaller amount of Ti in the TiAl3. It could be concluded that the outer, Ti-rich oxide enhanced a phase transformation of Al2O3 from θ to α. To elucidate the Ti effect, Ti-vapor treated TiAl3 and Ni-50at%Al were oxidized at 1173K in air, and showed formation of an α-Al2O3, in contrast to θ-Al2O3 on their bare alloys.

  10. Targeting, Air Force Doctrine Document 2-1.9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-08

    this ability at the beginning of a future national emergency might prove disastrous! —John Glock “The Evolution of Air Force...Washington, DC: US GPO). 1992. Glock , John, “The Evolution of Air Force Targeting,” Airpower Journal, Fall 1994 (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University (AU

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  13. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  14. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, D.; Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H.; Aguilar, J.; Schmitz, G. J.; Drevermann, A.; Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N.; Kelm, K.; Irsen, S.

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich γ-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al60Ti40 and Al62Ti38 was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar γ-TiAl + r-Al2Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al60Ti40, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al62Ti38 alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al60Ti40 alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al62Ti38 material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in γ-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  15. Charting the Course for a New Air Force Inspection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    practices elsewhere that the Air Force might emulate, and providing direct support to SAF/IG and to the cross-functional Headquarters Air Force (HAF...al., Implementing Proactive Environmental Management: Lessons Learned from Best Commercial Practice , MR-1371-OSD, 2001 • Cynthia R. Cook et al...2010, pp. 371–388 • Nancy Y. Moore et al., Implementing Best Purchasing and Supply Management Practices : Lessons from Innovative Commercial Firms, DB

  16. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  17. Environmental Assessment: Military Family Housing Privatization Maxwell Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Water Resources) Montgomery Chamber of Commerce George , Randall (President) Montgomery County – City Public Library Montgomery County...Force Base Personnel, Interviewer; Tamara Carroll. Zervos , Spero G. 2001. A Brief History of Maxwell AFB. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University History...35486- 6999 205-247-3589 Montgomery Chamber of Commerce President Randall George 41 Commerce Street Montgomery, AL 36101 PO Box 79 Montgomery, AL

  18. Managing Air Quality - Air Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  19. /Cu-Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  20. Operational Alternatives for Air Assault Forces in the 1990s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    their past experience and continuing interest in air assault operations. 2his analysis recognizes existing concepts and ideas, but the conclusions and...War College for this opor- tunity for research, travel, and analysis . -i Al i-V EaEanrvE sUUARY This five chapter study analyzes three components of...Units ParES. The analysis concludes that the air assault differential is cru- cial, that only the air assault division currently has a standing air

  1. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk factors for veterans include exposure to lead, pesticides, and other environmental toxins. ALS is recognized as ... from scientific studies suggests that both genetics and environment play a role in the development of ALS. ...

  2. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1930s. People in England and Australia call ALS motor neurone disease (MND). The French refer to it ... about ALS in 1869. Lou Gehrig's disease damages motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Motor ...

  3. Switching on the Aire conditioner.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Aire has been cloned as the gene responsible for a hereditary type of organ-specific autoimmune disease. Aire controls the expression of a wide array of tissue-restricted Ags by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), thereby leading to clonal deletion and Treg-cell production, and ultimately to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism responsible for the control of Aire expression itself. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Haljasorg et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 3246-3256] have reported the presence of an enhancer element for Aire that binds with NF-κB components downstream of the TNF receptor family member, RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB). The results suggest that RANK has a dual mode of action in Aire expression: one involving the promotion of mTEC differentiation and the other involving activation of the molecular switch for Aire within mature mTECs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters State of the Air Ask ...

  5. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  6. H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2012-09-01

    It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

  7. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  8. Phase relations in the pseudobinary systems RAO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: rare earth element and Y, A: Fe, Ga, Al, Cr and Mn) and syntheses of new compounds R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (2/3≤x≤3/4) at elevated temperatures in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Francisco; Jacobo-Herrera, Ivan; Alvarez-Montaño, Victor; Kimizuka, Noboru; Kurashina, Keiji; Michiue, Yuichi; Matsuo, Yoji; Mori, Shigeo; Ikeda, Naoshi; Medrano, Felipe

    2017-07-01

    Phase relations in the pseudo-binary systems RFeO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: Lu, Ho and Dy), RGaO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: Lu and Er), LuAlO3-Lu2Ti2O7 and RAO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: Lu and Yb. A: Cr and Mn) at elevated temperatures in air were determined by means of a classic quenching method. There exist Lu(Fe1-xTix)O3+x/2, R(Ga1-xTix)O3+x/2 (R: Lu and Er) and Lu(Al1-xTix)O3+x/2 (2/3≤ x≤3/4) having the Yb(Fe1-xTix)O3+x/2-type of crystal structure (x=0.72, space group: R3m, a(Å)=17.9773 and c(Å)=16.978 as a hexagonal setting) in these pseudo binary systems. Eighteen compounds R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (R: Lu-Sm and Y, A: Fe, Ga and Al) were newly synthesized and their lattice constants as a hexagonal setting were measured by means of the X-ray powder diffraction method. The R occupies the octahedral site and both A and Ti does the trigonalbipyramidal one in these compounds. Relation between lattice constants for the rhombic R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 and the monoclinic In(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 are as follows, ah≈5 x bm, ch≈3 x cm x sin β and am=31/2 x bm, where ah and ch are the lattice constants as a hexagonal setting for R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 and am, bm, cm and β are those of the monoclinic In(A1-xTix)O3+x/2. Crystal structural relationships among α-InGaO3 (hexagonal, high pressure form, space group: P63/mmc), InGaO3 (rhombic, hypothetical), (RAO3)n(BO)m and RAO3(ZnO)m (R: Lu-Ho, Y and In, A: Fe, Ga, and Al, B: divalent cation element, m, n: natural number), the orthorhombic-and monoclinic In(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (A: Fe, Ga, Al, Cr and Mn) and the hexagonal-and rhombic R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (R: Lu-Sm and Y, A: Fe, Ga and Al) are schematically presented. We concluded that the crystal structures of both the α-InGaO3 (high pressure form, hexagonal, space group: P63/mmc) and the hypothetical InGaO3 (rhombic) are the key structures for constructing the crystal structures of these compounds having the cations with CN=5.

  9. Ambient Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 2, Summer 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    plans for Air Force isr include establishing an analysis center of excellence at the National Air and space intel- ligence Center, which will...the Marine Corps “published an unsupported analysis suggesting that some Air Force JTACs’ [joint terminal attack controllers’] unfamil- iarity with...as a ground forward air controller (FAC) and division air officer. I have worked with and instructed Navy SeALs , combat controllers, Air Force

  11. AirData

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about where air pollution comes from (emissions) and how much pollution is in the air outside our homes and work places (monitoring).

  12. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  13. Simulation and Experiment of Air Quality Effects of Prescribed Fires in the Southeast

    Treesearch

    Yongqiang Liu; Gary Achtemeier; Scott Goodrick

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires can cause degradation of air quality by releasing large amounts of particulate matter (PM) and precursors of ozone (Sandberg et al., 1999; Riebau and Fox, 2001). EPA has issued the Interim Air Quality Policy on Wildland and Prescribed Fire to protect public health and welfare by mitigating the impacts of air pollutant emissions from wildland fires on air...

  14. Is stratospheric air getting younger with time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Chipperfield, Martyn; Dee, Dick; Simmons, Adrian; Stiller, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Most climate models have predicted that with the increase in greenhouse gases concentrations, the stratospheric circulation will intensify, showing younger age-of-air (AoA) values in this region (e.g. Butchart et al., 2010; WMO, 2011). However, balloon and satellite observations do not agree with the widespread modelled trend towards younger age-of-air (Engel et al., 2009; Stiller et al., 2012). To increase our confidence in climate-chemistry projections, the causes for the apparent age-of-air disagreement between observations and most models need to be identified. Here we have carried out stratospheric simulations with a chemistry transport model (CTM) to evaluate the stratospheric circulation with the ERA-Interim dataset produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The ERA-Interim reanalysis provides age-of-air (AoA) distributions in very good agreement with observations in the lower stratosphere. Given this agreement, we have used our simulations to quantify interannual variability and trends in the stratospheric AoA for the whole ERA-Interim period (1979-present). Our model results with ERA-Interim fields disagree with the decreasing tendency in age-of-air widespread in most models, but are in good agreement with the recent age-of-air studies based on observations. To explore potential causes for the AoA trends in our model, Lagrangian calculations are also performed to assess mixing processes for the ERA-Interim period. Potential links between our modelled AoA trends and stratospheric ozone evolution are also shown. References: Butchart, et al., 2010. J. Climate, 23, 5349-5374, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3404.1. Engel et al., 2009. Nat. Geosci. 2: 28-31, doi:10.1038/ngeo388. Stiller et al., 2012. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12: 3311-3331, doi:10.5194/acp-12-3311-2012. WMO. 2011. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project -Report No. 52.

  15. Analysis of Aircraft Evasion Strategies in Air-to-Air Missille Effectiveness Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    AD-A015 238 ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT EVASION STRATEGIES IN AIR-TO-AIR MISSILE EFFECTIVENESS MObri ’ G. Carpenter, et al Grumman Aerospace Corporation ...overall tep t Es CIS*atiet d) Oft ’IsNA 1tTNG AC ?v I TV ? corpor te author) 2S. REPORT SECUNITY CLASSIrICA TION Unclassified ;rummn Aerospace... Corporation b RoU N/A I NEPOA’ I ?LE nalysis of Aircraft Evasion Strategies in Air-to-Air Missile Effectiveness Models 4 DESCRIP T IVE *40TS ’Type of repct

  16. Thermal oxidation of the intermetallic phases Al8Mo3 and AlMo3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Michael; Tapp, Joshua; Hagenow, Alexander; Möller, Angela

    2017-07-01

    The thermal oxidation reactions of the intermetallic phases Al8Mo3 and AlMo3 were investigated and analyzed by ex-situ powder-x-ray diffraction (XRD), difference thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TGA), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The initial oxidation reactions in air were found to yield Al2O3 and AlMo3 in the case of Al8Mo3 (Tonset =725 °C), and MoO3 as well as Al8-xMo3 (Tonset =435 °C) for the pure intermetallic phase AlMo3, respectively. Thus, both intermetallic phases are coexisting in an equilibrium within a temperature range of 300 °C under oxidizing conditions. The formation of β-Al2(MoO4)3 followed the second oxidizing process of the respective minority component at elevated temperatures. Decomposition and evaporation of the volatile MoO3 yielded α-Al2O3 as the residue at 1000 °C.

  17. Simulated Air Launch Environment. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    of solid propellant rocket motors when subjected to transient thermal conditions representing air launch operational environments were recordeý and...propellant rocket motors when subjected to transient thermal conditions representing air launched operational environments. A further goal of this program is...the current inability to mathematically analyze the -trut tur- al behavior of a propell-ant grain under transient thermal conditions.F 1 UNCLASSIFIED

  18. Al-Al2O3-Pd junction hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, K.; Takinami, N.; Chiba, Y.; Ohshima, S.; Kambe, S.

    1994-07-01

    Al-Al2O3-Pd MIM (metal insulator metal) junctions fabricated on a glass substrate were tested as hydrogen sensors. The I-V (current versus voltage) characteristics of the junctions were measured at room temperature in a vacuum of 10-5 Torr and in H2 gas of 10-2-100 Torr. A significant increase in the current was observed upon introduction of H2 gas. This phenomenon is believed to occur due to the work function lowering of the hydrogen-absorbed Pd top electrode. The rise time was on the order of minutes, while the recovery time when hydrogen was purged was more than 20 h. However, when the junction was placed in an oxidizing ambient such as air, the recovery time was drastically reduced to the order of minutes, indicating that the device is operative as a hydrogen sensor in the atmospheric ambient. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption behavior of the Pd film was also investigated using a Pd coated quartz microbalance, and the results explained the current response of the Pd MIM junction to hydrogen in the presence of oxygen.

  19. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor…

  20. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor…

  1. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

  2. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  3. Tuned air gun array

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, W.H.

    1983-05-10

    The present invention provides a method for determining the spacing and size of air guns in a tuned air gun array. Volume ratios are calculated based upon a predetermined maximum volume for any individual air gun. The volumes are cross-referenced to spacings for optimum air gun interaction. The resulting air gun array operates as a broadband high-energy point source.

  4. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  5. Air supply valve for seismic air gun

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, B.

    1989-07-25

    This paper describes an improvement in a marine seismic array adapted to be towed by a vessel wherein the array is comprised of a plurality of air guns spaced along an array bundle which includes a central air hose assembly that supplies compressed air to each of the air guns through individual air passages which extend between the central air hose assembly and each of the air guns. The improvement comprising: an air supply valve positioned in each of the individual air passages, the air supply valve comprising: a housing having inlet and an outlet and a passage in the housing connecting the inlet and the outlet; valve means positioned in the passage in the housing; valve actuating means in the housing for moving the valve means from an open position to a closed position and from a closed position to an open position; means for remotely actuating the valve actuating means from the vessel to close the valve to deactivate the air gun and to reopen the valve to reactivate the air gun whereby each of the plurality of air guns can be individually inactivated and reactivated remotely from the vessel.

  6. Air Pollution Instrumentation: A Trend toward Physical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1972-01-01

    Reviews reasons for the trend from wet chemical'' analytic techniques for measuring air pollutants toward physical methods based upon chemiluminescence, electrochemical transduction, flame ionization coupled with gas chromotography, and spectroscopy. (AL)

  7. Independent Evaluaton of Air Filter Media From Chornobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Mark D.; Fencl, Alice F.; Vargo, George J.

    1999-09-10

    Independent Evaluation of Air Filter Media from Chornobyl Research performed for the U.S. Department of Energy under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC04-96AL76406 Edited by Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

  8. Kerr effect enhancement and corrosion resistance improvement by AlN and AlSiN films (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Z. Y.; Miao, X. S.; Liu, X. J.; Lin, G. Q.; Wan, D. F.; Hu, Y. S.

    1990-05-01

    RE-TM amorphous thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are promising for use in erasable optical recording media. In order to improve the drawback of easy oxidation and lower C/N of RE-TM films, some protective layers such as SiO, SiO2, ZnS, AlN, and Si3N4 films were studied.1,2 We have studied the Kerr effect enhancement and corrosion resistance improvement by AlN and AlSiN films. AlN and AlSiN films were prepared on glass, PC, and PMMA substrates by a rf magnetron sputtering system with three targets using low sputtering power. The films have a high refractive index (2-2.15), high optical transparency (over 90%), and high stability. The relation between optical properties and rf reactive sputtering conditions (Ar: N2 ratio, total pressure, sputtering power, sputtering time), composition, spectral transmittance, and uniformity of sputtering AlN and AlSiN films were studied. The Kerr rotation angle was up to 1.5° in AlN/TbFeCo/glass and AlSiN/TbFeCo/glass multilayer structures (laser is incident from air). We also studied AlN/TbFeCo/AlN/glass, AlN/TbFeCo/AlN/Al/glass, AlSiN/TbFeCo/AlSiN/glass and multilayer structure films. The results show that AlN and AlSiN films provide sufficient Kerr effect enhancement and superior corrosion resistance improvement to the RE-TM films. The microstructure of those films were also studied by JEM, XRD, and XPS.

  9. Genetic testing in ALS

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Russell L.; Heverin, Mark; Thorpe, Owen; Abrahams, Sharon; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree of consensus among clinicians on the clinical use of genetic testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the factors that determine decision-making. Methods: ALS researchers worldwide were invited to participate in a detailed online survey to determine their attitudes and practices relating to genetic testing. Results: Responses from 167 clinicians from 21 different countries were analyzed. The majority of respondents (73.3%) do not consider that there is a consensus definition of familial ALS (FALS). Fifty-seven percent consider a family history of frontotemporal dementia and 48.5% the presence of a known ALS genetic mutation as sufficient for a diagnosis of FALS. Most respondents (90.2%) offer genetic testing to patients they define as having FALS and 49.4% to patients with sporadic ALS. Four main genes (SOD1, C9orf72, TARDBP, and FUS) are commonly tested. A total of 55.2% of respondents would seek genetic testing if they had personally received a diagnosis of ALS. Forty-two percent never offer presymptomatic testing to family members of patients with FALS. Responses varied between ALS specialists and nonspecialists and based on the number of new patients seen per year. Conclusions: There is a lack of consensus among clinicians as to the definition of FALS. Substantial variation exists in attitude and practices related to genetic testing of patients and presymptomatic testing of their relatives across geographic regions and between experienced specialists in ALS and nonspecialists. PMID:28159885

  10. 77 FR 45237 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Airspace at Fort Rucker, AL, by updating the geographic coordinates of Cairns Army Air Field to aid in the... of instrument flight rules (IFR) operations within the Fort Rucker, AL airspace area....

  11. Ventilatory Control in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Van Dyke, J.; Nashold, L.; Satriotomo, I.; Suzuki, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease. ALS selectively causes degeneration in upper and lower (spinal) motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. Although ventilatory failure is generally the cause of death in ALS, little is known concerning the impact of this disorder on respiratory motor neurons, the consequences of respiratory motor neuron cell death, or the ability of the respiratory control system to “fight back” via mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. Here we review known effects of ALS on breathing, including possible effects on rhythm generation, respiratory motor neurons, and their target organs: the respiratory muscles. We consider evidence for spontaneous compensatory plasticity, preserving breathing well into disease progression despite dramatic loss of spinal respiratory motor neurons. Finally, we review current and potential therapeutic approaches directed toward preserving the capacity to breathe in ALS patients. PMID:23692930

  12. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  13. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  14. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  15. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  16. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  17. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  18. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  19. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  20. Indoor air: Contemporary sources, exposures and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawska, Lidia; Salthammer, Tunga

    2015-04-01

    Recent 'Global Burden of Disease' studies have provided quantitative evidence of the significant role air pollution plays as a human health risk factor (Lim et al., The Lancet, 380: 2224-2260, 2012). Tobacco smoke, including second hand smoke, household air pollution from solid fuels and ambient particulate matter are among the top risks, leading to lower life expectancy around the world.

  1. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  2. Is the Current Royal Australian Air Force an Air Force of Strategic Influence?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air War College,,Air University,,Maxwell AFB,AL 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Government. This paper will define strategic influence and explore the scope and context of the present and future Australian strategic environment

  3. Growth and Oxidation of Thin Film Al(2)Cu

    SciTech Connect

    SON,KYUNG-AH; MISSERT,NANCY A.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; HREN,J.J.; COPELAND,ROBERT GUILD; MINOR,KENNETH G.

    2000-01-18

    Al{sub 2}Cu thin films ({approx} 382 nm) are fabricated by melting and resolidifying Al/Cu bilayers in the presence of a {micro} 3 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivating layer. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measures a 1.0 eV shift of the Cu2p{sub 3/2} peak and a 1.6 eV shift of the valence band relative to metallic Cu upon Al{sub 2}Cu formation. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) show that the Al{sub 2}Cu film is composed of 30-70 {micro}m wide and 10-25 mm long cellular grains with (110) orientation. The atomic composition of the film as estimated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) is 67 {+-} 2% Al and 33 {+-} 2% Cu. XPS scans of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}Cu taken before and after air exposure indicate that the upper Al{sub 2}Cu layers undergo further oxidation to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} even in the presence of {approx} 5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The majority of Cu produced from oxidation is believed to migrate below the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers, based upon the lack of evidence for metallic Cu in the XPS scans. In contrast to Al/Cu passivated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, melting/resolidifying the Al/Cu bilayer without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in phase-segregated dendritic film growth.

  4. The cyclic oxidation resistance at 1200 C of beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl alloys with selected third element additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds Beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl were tested in cyclic oxidation with selected third element alloy additions. Tests in static air for 200 1-hr cycles at 1200 C indicated by specific weight change/time data and x-ray diffraction analysis that the 5 at percent alloy additions did not significantly improve the oxidation resistance over the alumina forming baseline alloys without the additions. Many of the alloy additions were actually deleterious. Ta and Nb were the only alloy additions that actually altered the nature of the oxide(s) formed and still maintained the oxidation resistance of the protective alumina scale.

  5. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combine your passion and commitment to finding a cure for ALS while achieving physical challenges through athletic events Register ... - 1275 K Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned ...

  6. Genetic Testing for ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some medical centers may require a neurological exam, psychological assessment and counseling before predictive testing. If a person in the family with ALS has a negative genetic test result (no identified genetic mutation), testing family members ...

  7. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it becomes necessary. For instance, a power wheelchair can enable a paralyzed person with ALS to ... done these things despite being confined to a wheelchair for many years, being able to move only ...

  8. Rub al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-08-08

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Rub al Khali, one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula; it includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

  9. Mechanical Properties of High Strength Al-Mg Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bong-Jae; Hong, Kyung-Eui; Kim, Young-Jig

    The aim of this research is to develop the high strength Al alloy sheet for the automotive body. For the fabrication Al-Mg alloy sheet, the composition of alloying elements was designed by the properties database and CALPHAD (Calculation Phase Diagram) approach which can predict the phases during solidification using thermodynamic database. Al-Mg alloys were designed using CALPHAD approach according to the high content of Mg with minor alloying elements. After phase predictions by CALPHAD, designed Al-Mg alloys were manufactured. Addition of Mg in Al melts were protected by dry air/Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) mixture gas which can control the severe Mg ignition and oxidation. After rolling procedure of manufactured Al-Mg alloys, mechanical properties were examined with the variation of the heat treatment conditions.

  10. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  11. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  12. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  13. Building Air Monitoring Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The different components of air monitoring networks, the status of air monitoring in the United States, and the services and activities of the three major American network builders are detailed. International air monitoring networks and alert systems are identified, with emphasis on the Dutch air monitoring network. (BT)

  14. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  15. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  16. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... long do people with familial ALS live? Do clusters of ALS possibly exist? (I have been told ... related?) What are the problems with studying possible clusters of ALS? What are motor neuron (nerve cell) ...

  18. Air Sanctuaries in Limited War: A Korean War Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    these restrictions, however, FEAF managed to maintain air superiority throughout Korea for the duration of the war. It routinely bombed North Korean air...and National Policy. Vol III, The Korean War, part 2. Washington, Mar 1979. 555p. PERIODICALS Foot, Rosemary. The Sino American Conflict in Korea : The...A07 844 AlR SANCTUARIES IN LIMITED WAR. A KOREAN WAR CASE STWJY i/I (UJ) AIR WAR COLL MAXMd LL AFB AL C M HINKLE MAR 8 AUJ-AWC-86-898

  19. Advances in air to air refuelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Peter R.; Bhandari, Ujjar; Bullock, Steve; Richardson, Thomas S.; du Bois, Jonathan L.

    2014-11-01

    An increasing interest over the last decade in developing unmanned aerial systems' technologies has prompted research into methods for automating air to air refuelling processes. Furthermore, for systems with increased autonomy the necessary logic and flight control systems to perform autonomous air to air refuelling is now being pursued. There has already been significant research in position tracking, rendezvous scheduling, apparatus modelling, wake effects, and vision-based sensors to support refuelling of unmanned systems and to increase the autonomy in manned aircraft refuelling. Many of these build upon considerable research and understanding that has matured for manned air to air refuelling. This paper reviews the current, and future, state of research in this area.

  20. Epidemiology of ALS.

    PubMed

    Nelson, L M

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. ALS onset is rare before age 40 and increases with age thereafter. Men are at higher risk than women (ratio 1.3:1). Other than age and gender, the only indisputable risk factor for ALS is genetic susceptibility, with familial cases occurring in about 10% of most case series. Genetic linkage studies have provided evidence that a mutant form of the gene that codes for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, an endogenous free radical scavenger, is important in 15-20% of familial cases. Epidemiologic studies have identified associations of sporadic ALS with work in occupations that involve toxicant exposure. Environmental toxicants may act against a background of increased genetic susceptibility; however, genetically acquired biochemical defects have not been identified in sporadic ALS patients. Other epidemiologic theories of disease etiology have emphasized the potential role of physical trauma, electrical shock, and vigorous physical exertion, but evidence regarding these factors is inconsistent.

  1. Corrosion and Discharge Behaviors of Al-Mg-Sn-Ga-In in Different Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanqing; Yin, Xiang; Yan, Yang; Dai, Yilong; Fan, Sufeng; Qiao, Xueyan; Yu, Kun

    2016-08-01

    Al-0.5 wt.%Mg-0.08 wt.%Sn-0.05 wt.%Ga-0.05 wt.%In and Al-0.5 wt.%Mg-0.08 wt.%Sn-0.05 wt.%Ga alloys were prepared by melting, casting and cold rolling. Corrosion and discharge behaviors of the two experimental alloys were investigated by electrochemical measurement, self-corrosion rate measurement, air battery testing, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Al-Mg-Sn-Ga-In alloy exhibited higher electrochemical activity than Al-Mg-Sn-Ga alloy in 2 M NaCl solution, while it showed lower electrochemical activity than Al-Mg-Sn-Ga alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. By comparison with the air battery based on Al-Mg-Sn-Ga alloy, the battery with Al-Mg-Sn-Ga-In alloy cannot exhibit better discharge performance in 4 M NaOH electrolyte. However, the performance of the air battery based on Al-Mg-Sn-Ga-In alloy was greatly improved due to the In-rich inclusions and the uniform corroded morphology in 2 M NaCl electrolyte. Thus, Al-Mg-Sn-Ga-In alloy was a good anode material for Al-air battery in 2 M NaCl electrolyte.

  2. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... D. References Sorensen HT, et al. Statins and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The level of evidence for an association. Journal ...

  3. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

    2013-03-01

    We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2-, AlH3-, Al2H6-, Al3H9-, and Al4H12-. From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2-, AlH3-, and Al2H6- were also compared with previous predictions by theory.

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Collins, Evan; Lim, Alane; Ganteför, Gerd; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan; Bowen, Kit

    2013-03-28

    We report measurements of the negative ion photoelectron spectra of the simple aluminum hydride anions: AlH2(-), AlH3(-), Al2H6(-), Al3H9(-), and Al4H12(-). From these spectra, we measured the vertical detachment energies of the anions, and we estimated the electron affinities of their neutral counterparts. Our results for AlH2(-), AlH3(-), and Al2H6(-) were also compared with previous predictions by theory.

  5. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  6. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  7. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  8. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 8. Phillips Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Research Program Phillips Laboratory Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque. New Mexico Sponsored by...Best Available Copy UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM -- 1993 SUMMER RESEARCH PROGRAM FINAL REPORTS VOLUME 8 PHILLIPS LABORATORY ...Alabama Box 870344 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344 Final Report for: Graduate Student Research Program Phillips Laboratory , Hanscom AFB Sponsored by: Air

  9. A comparative wear study on Al-Li and Al-Li/SiC composite

    SciTech Connect

    Okumus, S. Cem Karslioglu, Ramazan Akbulut, Hatem

    2013-12-16

    Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (Al-8090) alloy and Al-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms{sup −1} and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the Al-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the Al-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the Al-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.

  10. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013.

    PubMed

    Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Boquellah, Nahla; Kaff, Nadia Al; Ahmadi, Majid Al

    2017-01-01

    Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%). The other fungal genera identified (Alternaria triticina, Emericella nidulans, Emericella striata, Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium minioluteum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum) had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions) exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person's immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  11. Mercury embrittlement of Cu-Al alloys under cyclic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, T. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mercury on the room temperature, high cycle fatigue properties of three alloys: Cu-5.5 pct Al, Cu-7.3 pct Al, and Cu-6.3 pct Al-2.5 pct Fe has been determined. Severe embrittlement under cyclic loading in mercury is associated with rapid crack propagation in the presence of the liquid metal. A pronounced grain size effect is noted under mercury, while fatigue properties in air are insensitive to grain size. The fatigue results are discussed in relation to theories of adsorption-induced liquid metal embrittlement.

  12. Thermal stability of sputtered intermetallic Al-Au coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, M.; Mayrhofer, P. H.; Ross, I. M.; Rainforth, W. M.

    2007-09-15

    Recently, the authors have shown that single-phase Al{sub 2}Au coatings, prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering, exhibit a dense columnar structure and highest hardness and indentation moduli of 8 and 144 GPa, respectively, within the Al-Au films investigated. This study focuses on the thermal stability of Al{sub 2}Au with respect to films containing more Al and Au having Al/Au at. % ratios of 4.32 and 1.85, respectively. Single-phase Al{sub 2}Au has the highest onset temperature for recovery of 475 deg. C and recrystallization of 575 deg. C. Upon annealing Au- and Al-rich films, their stresses deviate from the linear thermoelastic behavior at temperatures (T) above 200 and 450 deg. C, respectively, due to pores and metallic phases present. Metastable Au within the as-deposited Au-rich film is consumed by the growing intermetallic AlAu and AlAu{sub 2} phases at T{>=}450 deg. C, which themselves melt at {approx}625 deg. C. Due to nanometer scale segregations of Al, encapsulated by Al{sub 2}Au in Al-rich coatings, their melting point is reduced by {approx}85 deg. C to 575 deg. C. Dynamic thermal analyses up to 1100 deg. C in synthetic air reveal the single-phase Al{sub 2}Au films with a superior thermal stability and only negligible oxidation. At 750 deg. C, the mass gain is {approx}1.5 mg/cm{sup 2} after 50 h isothermal exposure. Based on the investigations, the authors can conclude that single-phase intermetallic Al{sub 2}Au films have a high potential for oxidation protection of sensitive materials.

  13. Air Pollution Emissions Overview | Air Quality Planning & ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  14. Air Heating Associated with Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Bourdon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of ambient gas heating processes initiated by needle-shaped filaments of ionization, called streamers, embedded in originally cold air (near room temperature) represents a long standing problem, which is of interest for studies of long laboratory sparks and natural lightning discharges [e.g., Gallimberti et al., C. R. Physique, 3, 1335, 2002]. The observed phenomenology of a subset of the recently observed transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere, which originate from thundercloud tops [e.g, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 21549, 2001; Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1, 233, 2008; Cummer et al., Nature Geoscience, 2, 617, 2009, Riousset et al., JGR, 10.1029/2009JA014286, 2009, in press], indicate that these events may be related to conventional lightning leader processes and therefore are associated with significant heating of the air in the regions of atmosphere through which they propagate [Pasko and George, JGR, 107, 1458, 2002]. Many of the small scale features observed in sprites at higher altitudes [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 104, L11105, 2007, and references therein] can be interpreted in terms of corona streamers, which, after appropriate scaling with air density, are fully analogous to those, which initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several cm) gaps at near ground pressure [Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009, and references therein] and which constitute building blocks of streamer zones of conventional lightning leaders in long gaps [Gallimberti et al., 2002]. The recent reports of infrasound bursts originating from 60-80 km altitudes in sprites, with durations consistent with the optical widths of the sprites [e.g., Farges, in Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, p. 417, Betz et al., (eds.), Springer, 2009], provide an additional motivation for studies of the heating of the ambient air and associated chemical effects

  15. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  16. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  17. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) Chemical Assessment Summary U.S . Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Environmental Assessment This IRIS Summary has been removed from the IRIS database and is available for historical reference purposes . ( July 2016 ) Fosetyl - al ; CASRN

  18. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  19. Oxidation characteristics of Ti-33Al-6Nb-1.4Ta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, T. A.; Clark, R. K.; Sankaran, S. N.; Wiedemann, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    Static oxidation kinetics of the gamma titanium-aluminide alloy Ti-33Al-6Nb-1.4Ta (wt pct) have been investigated in air from 700 to 1000 C and in oxygen from 800 to 1000 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation kinetics were controlled by the presence of alumina for all oxygen exposures and in air below 800 C, while the kinetics in air above 800 C were more complex. Oxidation products were identified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Oxide scale morphology was examined by SEM and TEM of the surfaces and across sections of oxidized specimens. The oxidation products formed depended on the exposure: Al2O3 and TiO2 were identified on all specimens exposed in and air and oxygen; the nitride phases TiN and Ti2AlN were also found on specimens exposed in air.

  20. Oxidation characteristics of Ti-33Al-6Nb-1.4Ta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, T. A.; Clark, R. K.; Sankaran, S. N.; Wiedemann, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    Static oxidation kinetics of the gamma titanium-aluminide alloy Ti-33Al-6Nb-1.4Ta (wt pct) have been investigated in air from 700 to 1000 C and in oxygen from 800 to 1000 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation kinetics were controlled by the presence of alumina for all oxygen exposures and in air below 800 C, while the kinetics in air above 800 C were more complex. Oxidation products were identified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Oxide scale morphology was examined by SEM and TEM of the surfaces and across sections of oxidized specimens. The oxidation products formed depended on the exposure: Al2O3 and TiO2 were identified on all specimens exposed in and air and oxygen; the nitride phases TiN and Ti2AlN were also found on specimens exposed in air.

  1. Al Sumelat Water Network. Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION AL SUMELAT WATER NETWORK VILLAGE OF AL SUMELAT, IRAQ...Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Al Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq Synopsis Introduction. This report was previously provided on a limited distribution basis

  2. Air Power and Warfare: A Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    1998. (Report Lit ADA 356 663) Chua, Allan F. How to Employ Airpower on the Battlefield. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University, [1990]. (UGB 907 .A433 90...1991; Report Lit ADA 227 343) Raines, Edgar F., Jr. Eyes of Artillery: The Origins of Modem U.S. Army Aviation in World War H. Washington: Army...DS 920.2 .U5 017 1998) Poe , Bryce. II. "Korea, Vietnam, and NATO: An Airman’s Perspective from First Lieutenant to Four-Star General." In Air Power

  3. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... are especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of air pollution. Cleaning up pollution in their schools will help ... nothing else matters ® . Help us fight to reduce pollution in the air we breathe. Donate

  4. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  5. Air Data - Concentration Map

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  7. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  8. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  9. SWAB Air sampling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    ISS014-E-09422 (8 Dec. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter, Expedition 14 flight engineer, conducts a Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) air sampling in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  11. Air Quality Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the Environmental Protection Agency’s Transport Rule proposal (now known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule).

  12. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  13. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  14. National Air Toxics Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NATA is an ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S. As a screening tool, it helps air agencies prioritize pollutants, emission sources and locations of interest for further study to gain a better understanding of risks.

  15. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating < the stainless steel with Al-Si coating < the stainless steel without any coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  16. A Li-O₂/air battery using an inorganic solid-state air cathode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhu, Ding; Song, Ming; Cai, Shengrong; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yungui

    2014-07-23

    The "(-) lithium (Li) anode|organic anolyte + inorganic catholyte|solid-state cathode (+)" Li-O2/air battery based on an inorganic solid-state air cathode was fabricated with a simple method. The electrochemical performance and reaction products of the Li-O2/air batteries under pure O2 and ambient air were investigated, respectively. The inorganic Li-ion conductive solid-state electrolyte Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 was stable during cycling and avoided the decomposition and volatilization problems that conventional organic electrolytes faced. Moreover, the porous air cathode provided a sufficient gas-phase O2-transport channel, facilitating the achievement of a high capacity of 14192 or 7869 mA h g(-1) under pure O2 or ambient air, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the Li-O2/air battery using an inorganic porous air cathode has a great potential for practical application.

  17. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  18. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  19. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  20. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  1. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  2. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  3. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  4. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  5. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  6. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar has been constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  7. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar is being constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  8. SWAB Air sampling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    ISS014-E-09425 (8 Dec. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter, Expedition 14 flight engineer, conducts a Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) air sampling in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Reiter holds a pair of scissors and the SWAB Air Sampling Device (ASD) floats freely near him.

  9. Internal coating of air-cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. L.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four modified aluminide coatings were developed for IN-792 + Hf alloy using a powder pack method applicable to internal surfaces of air-cooled blades. The coating compositions are Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, Ni-17Al-20Cr, and Ni-12Al-20Cr. Cyclic burner rig hot corrosion (900 C) and oxidation (1050 C) tests indicated that Ni-Al-Cb coatings provided better overall resistance than Ni-Al-Cr coatings. Tensile properties of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated test bars were fully retained at room temperature and 649 C. Stress rupture results exhibited wide scatter around uncoated IN-792 baseline, especially at high stress levels. High cycle fatigue lives of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated bars (as well as RT-22B coated IN-792) suffered approximately 30 percent decrease at 649 C. Since all test bars were fully heat treated after coating, the effects of coating/processing on IN-792 alloy were not recoverable. Internally coated Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, and Ni-12Al-20Cr blades were included in 500-hour endurance engine test and the results were similar to those obtained in burner rig oxidation testing.

  10. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  11. ALS insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1991-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system.

  12. Preparation and Pore Structure Stability at High Temperature of Porous Fe-Al Intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, P. Z.; Gao, H. Y.; Song, M.; He, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    Porous Fe-Al intermetallics with different nominal compositions (from Fe-8 wt.% Al to Fe-50 wt.% Al) were fabricated by Fe and Al elemental powders through reaction synthesis. The effects of the Al content on the pore structure properties, and the comparison of pore structure stabilities at high-temperatures among the porous Fe-Al intermetallics and porous Ti, Ni, 316L stainless steel samples, were systematically studied. Results showed that the open porosity, maximum pore size, and permeability vary with the Al content. Porous Fe-(25-30 wt.%) Al intermetallics show good shape controllability and excellent pore structure stability at 1073 K in air, which suggests that these porous Fe-Al intermetallics could be used for filtration at high temperatures.

  13. Aerospace air pollution issues.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R E; Rayman, R B

    1996-02-01

    Practitioners of aerospace medicine are mindful of the environmental effects, particularly air pollution, caused by aviation and spaceflight operations. To an aerospace medicine specialist, the environment includes not only the air, water, and soil of the earth, but also the cabin milieu of aircraft and space vehicles where crews must work, sleep, and in some cases, live. Consequently, this article will address the following areas of concern: cabin air quality of aircraft, cabin air quality of space vehicles, noise, air pollution, and aerial spraying.

  14. Air Superiority And The Anti Access/Area Denial Environment In The Asia pacific In 2044

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    new imprint, Washington, DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998), 117. 2 Ibid., 117-119. 3 Department of Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global...Hammond, The Mind of War: John Boyd and American Security (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2001), 72-73. 47 AAP-06 Edition 2013, NATO...Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998. Fanning, Eric, acting secretary, US Air Force. Address. Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL

  15. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  16. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  17. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  18. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  19. Development and fracture mechanics data for 6Al-6V-2 Sn titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiftal, C. F.; Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fracture mechanics properties of 6Al-6V-2Sn titanium in the annealed, solution-treated, and aged condition are presented. Tensile, fracture toughness, cyclic flaw growth, and sustained-load threshold tests were conducted. Both surface flaw and compact tension-specimen geometries were employed. Temperatures and/or environments used were -65 F (220 K) air, ambient, 300 F (422 K) air, and room-temperature air containing 10 and 100% relative humidity.

  20. Radon in outdoor air in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.G.; Rigby, J.G.; Christensen, L.

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. The state-wide median of 15 Bq m{sup -3} (0.4 pCi L{sup -1}) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m{sup -3} (0.07-1.40 pCi L{sup -1}). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which >20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations >48 Bq m{sup -3} (4 pCi L{sup -1}) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Radon in outdoor air in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Price, J G; Rigby, J G; Christensen, L; Hess, R; LaPointe, D D; Ramelli, A R; Desilets, M; Hopper, R D; Kluesner, T; Marshall, S

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. (1991). The statewide median of 15 Bq m-3 (0.4 pCi L-1) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m-3 (0.07-1.40 pCi L-1). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which > 20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations > 48 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both.

  2. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  3. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonská, Jana Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  4. Noncontact Acousto-Thermal Evaluation of Evolving Fatigue Damage in Polycrystalline Ti6Al-4V (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    25 June 2009 – 14 April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONCONTACT ACOUSTO-THERMAL EVALUATION OF EVOLVING FATIGUE DAMAGE IN POLYCRYSTALLINE Ti-6Al...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing...Directorate Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7750 Air Force Materiel Command United States Air Force 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  5. Observations on the Air War in Syria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute (AFRI),155 N. Twining Street,Maxwell AFB,AL,36112-6026 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...more finicky MiG jets, their compara- tively better performance at lower altitudes and airspeed, or simply the presence of more pilots proficient and

  6. Alloy development and processing of FeAl: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.; Viswanathan, S.

    1997-03-01

    In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in developing B2-phase FeAl alloys with improved weldability, room-temperature ductility, and high-temperature strength. Controlling the processing-induced microstructure is also important, particularly for minimizing trade-offs in various properties. FeAl alloys have outstanding resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, and corrosion in various kinds of molten salts due to formation of protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales. Recent work shows that FeAl alloys are carburization-resistant as well. Alloys with 36 to 40 at. % Al have the best combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Minor alloying additions of Mo, Zr, and C, together with microalloying additions of B, produce the best combination of weldability and mechanical behavior. Cast FeAl alloys, with 200 to 400 {mu}m grain size and finely dispersed ZrC, have 2 to 5% tensile ductility in air at room-temperature, and a yield strength > 400 MPa up to about 700 to 750{degrees}C. Extruded ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) materials with refined grain sizes ranging from 2 to 50 {mu}m, can have 10 to 15% ductility in air and be much stronger, and can even be quite tough, with Charpy impact energies ranging from 25 to 105 J at room-temperature. This paper highlights progress made in refining the alloy composition and exploring processing effects on FeAl for monolithic applications. It also includes recent progress on developing FeAl weld-overlay technology, and new results on welding of FeAl alloys. It summarizes some of the current industrial testing and interest for applications.

  7. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  8. ALUMINUM AIR BRAZING FOR JOINING CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum foils were used to braze ceramic plates directly in air. Since aluminum forms an inert oxide layer, aluminum air brazing can provide significant benefits in ceramic joining such as chemical tolerance in dual atmospheres. In using aluminum to air braze, the key factor is optimizing the brazing conditions in order to obtain good interface between braze and substrates by controling the kinetics of melting and oxidation of aluminum and sintering of oxide scale. In this study, joint strength was found to be largely dependent on brazing conditions such as temperature and hold time. Effects of these conditions on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the Al-brazed ceramic joints will be discussed in this paper.

  9. Effect of thermomechanical processing on mechanical properties of Fe-16 at. % Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1994-12-31

    An iron-aluminum alloy containing 16 at. % Al, which is essentially free from environmental effect on its ductility, has been developed. This alloy has over 20% elongation at room temperature. This paper presents in detail the effect of vacuum versus air melting on the properties of Fe-16 at. % Al alloy. The comparative results have shown air-induction melting to produce lower room-temperature ductility for the identical processing steps. Additional processing steps required to improve the ductility of air-melted material are also identified.

  10. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  13. Draft air deflecting device

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.E.

    1982-05-18

    A draft air deflecting device is mountable proximate to a window contained in a firebox and serves as a conduit which directs draft air across the inner surface of the window prior to its supporting combustion of the fuel in the firebox. In this respect , the draft air deflecting device is formed as a box which communicates with draft air holes located in the firebox and which includes a forwardly extending lip serving to define a nozzle for both increasing the velocity and directing the incoming draft air across the firebox window. The incoming draft air is thus utilized to cool and to prevent soot, creosote and other particulates from accumulating on the window.

  14. Al Qaeda as a System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    either as welcome guests or parasites . As welcome guests, Al Qaeda members take sanctuary in sponsor states. Sponsor states provide Al Qaeda with...sponsorship, Al Qaeda takes sanctuary as parasites either overtly or covertly. They take overt sanctuary in countries that publicly claim a policy...39 Yehudit Barsky, “Al Qa’ida, Iran, and Hezbollah: A Continuing Symbiosis ,” The American Jewish Committee Series on Terrorism , February 2004, 2-3

  15. Vertical-Injection AlGaInP LEDs with n-AlGaInP Nanopillars Fabricated by Self-Assembled ITO-Based Nanodots.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ho-Soung; Park, Min Joo; Oh, Seung Kyu; Oh, Hwa-Sub; Baek, Jong-Hyeob; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2015-12-01

    The light output power of AlGaInP-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes (VI-LEDs) can be enhanced significantly using n-AlGaInP nanopillars. n-AlGaInP nanopillars, ~200 nm in diameter, were produced using SiO2 nanopillars as an etching mask, which were fabricated from self-assembled tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)-based nanodots formed by the wet etching of as-deposited ITO films. The AlGaInP-based VI-LEDs with the n-AlGaInP nanopillars provided 25 % light output power enhancement compared to VI-LEDs with a surface-roughened n-AlGaInP because of the reduced total internal reflection by the nanopillars at the n-AlGaInP/air interface with a large refractive index difference of 1.9.

  16. Microstructure and composition of annealed Al/Ti-metallization layers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M; Gemming, T; Wetzig, K

    2004-06-01

    Al/Ti multilayers with columnar grains were deposited by electron-beam evaporation on piezoelectric LiNbO(3) substrates. After annealing in air and under vacuum conditions dissolution of the Ti interlayer was observed for all samples. The original Ti interlayer dissolved completely and globular Al(3)Ti grains were formed within an Al matrix. All samples had an oxidized adhesive Ti bottom layer and a 10 nm thin Al layer below this adhesive Ti bottom layer, which remains intact after the applied heat treatment. This resistance against dissolution by interdiffusion could be caused by the oxidation. These changes in the microstructure and in the chemical composition were investigated by conventional and analytical TEM.

  17. Laser-Ultrasonic Inspection of MG/AL Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Alain; Levesque, Daniel; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Baril, Eric; Fischersworring-Bunk, Andreas

    2005-04-09

    Laser-ultrasonics is used to assess the metallurgical bond between Mg/Al materials in die-cast Magnesium/Aluminum composite. The acoustic impedances of Mg, Al and air are such that the amplitude of ultrasonic echoes reflected back from a void is many times larger than the amplitude of those reflected back from a well-bonded interface. In addition, the polarity of echoes from a void is inverted compared to that from a well-bonded interface. Laser-ultrasonic F-SAFT is also used for imaging tilted Mg/Al interfaces. Experimental setup, signal processing and results for detecting voids in the Mg/Al interface of cast parts are presented.

  18. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World...members, yet weapons and avionics systems grow increasingly more complex. At an airpower symposium in 1977, Air Chief Marshal Sir Frederick Rosier...Grant, 1990. Skinner , Michael and George Hall. Red Flae: Air Combat for the 90s. Osceola, WL: Motorbooks International Publishers & Wholesalers

  19. Maxillary air cyst.

    PubMed

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-12-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options.

  20. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  1. Al(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodupe, M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structure and determine the binding energies of Al(+) to a series of ligands. For Al(+)-CN, the bonding was found to have a large covalent component. For the remaining ligands, the bonding is shown to be electrostatic in origin. The results obtained for Al(+) are compared with those previously reported for Mg(+).

  2. Air Force Project Risk Management - The Impact of Inconsistent Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    and the Air Force is the January 1986 explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger 73 seconds after liftoff (Altabbakh et al., 2013). Though...Variations in Risk Management Models: A Comparative Study of the Space Shuttle Challenger Disasters. Engineering Management Journal, 25(2), 13-24. APM...PRM. This is especially ironic when one considers that in earlier years, Air Force missions to spearhead complex programs like space access and

  3. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  4. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  5. Solar Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Nation's first solar-cell-powered air monitoring station was installed at Liberty State Park, New Jersey. Jointly sponsored by state agencies and the Department of Energy, system includes display which describes its operation to park visitors. Unit samples air every sixth day for a period of 24 hours. Air is forced through a glass filter, then is removed each week for examination by the New Jersey Bureau of Air Pollution. During the day, solar cells provide total power for the sampling equipment. Excess energy is stored in a bank of lead-acid batteries for use when needed.

  6. Clean Air Excellence Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These non-monetary awards honor sustainable efforts toward pollutant emissions reduction from innovators in clean air technology, community action and outreach, policy development, and transportation efficiency.

  7. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  8. Does Current Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses Doctrine Support Air Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    Blowpipe, or Stinger missiles. Hybrid SHORAD systems, such as the 2S6M " Tunguska " and the Avenger system, combine both guns and short-range SAMs on the...Archie, Flak, AAA. and SAM, (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1988), 115. 4Monch Publishing Group, ŖS6M Tunguska : The world’s first gun...NVA offensive. Events would prove that this timetable was too ambitious for the ARVN. Intelliaence At the start of the battle, the NVA in Laos

  9. Tribological performances of CrAlN coating coupled with different ceramics in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Lei; Wang, Yongxin; Zhang, Yangrong; Miao, Qiong; Xue, Qunji

    2017-09-01

    This paper attempts to present a comparative study of tribological performances of chromium aluminum nitride (CrAlN) coating coupled with Si3N4, SiC, WC, Al2O3 and ZrO2 balls in air and seawater. The comparison results show that the tribological performance of different tribopairs is determined by the property of ceramics. Seawater plays an important role in reducing the coefficient of friction (COF) by forming tribochemical films and developing a hydrodynamic lubrication regime. The wear rates of CrAlN/SiC in air and seawater are much lower than that of the combination of CAIN and other tribopairs because of the integrated effect of tribochemical film and micro-dimples on SiC ball. It is therefore apparent that CrAlN/SiC has the smallest COF and lowest wear rate in both air and seawater.

  10. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere als Mineralisationstemplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparova, Pavla

    2002-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von doppelthydrophilen Blockcopolymeren und ihrer Anwendung in einem biomimetischen Mineralisationsprozeß von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere bestehen aus einem hydrophilen Block, der nicht mit Mineralien wechselwirkt und einem zweiten Polyelektrolyt-Block, der stark mit Mineraloberflächen wechselwirkt. Diese Blockcopolymere wurden durch ringöffnende Polymerisation von N-carboxyanhydriden (NCA's) und a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 als Initiator hergestellt. Die hergestellten Blockcopolymere wurden als effektive Wachstumsmodifikatoren für die Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat Mineralien eingesetzt. Die so erhaltenen Mineralpartikel (Kugeln, Hantel, eiförmige Partikel) wurden durch Lichtmikroskopie in Lösung, SEM und TEM charakterisiert. Röntgenweitwinkelstreuung (WAXS) wurde verwendet, um die Modifikation von Calciumcarbonat zu ermitteln und die Größe der Calciumcarbonat- und Bariumsulfat-Nanopartikel zu ermitteln. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of double hydrophilic block copolymers and their use in a biomimetic mineralization process of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate. Double hydrophilic block copolymers consist of a hydrophilic block that does not interact with minerals and another hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block that strongly interacts with mineral surfaces. These polymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), and the first hydrophilic block a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 was used as an initiator. The prepared block copolymers were used as effective crystal growth modifiers to control the crystallization of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate minerals. The resulting mineral particles (spheres, dumbbells, egg-like particles) were characterised by light microscopy in solution, by SEM, and by TEM. X-Ray scattering

  11. Submicron Nb-Al/Al oxide-Nb tunnel junctions sandwiched between Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, D.; Rothermel, H.; Gundlach, K. H.; Zimmermann, R.

    1996-02-01

    A process has been developed to embed Nb-Al/Al oxide-Nb junctions in planar structures of Al films. The submicron junctions are defined by photoresist lines. Motivation for this effort is a possible application of Nb junctions confined between normal conducting Al films as mixers above 700 GHz where Nb films loose their superconductive properties and tuning circuits made out of Nb therefore exhibit losses. First mixer results at 816 GHz are presented.

  12. Growth and Optical Properties of Al rich AlN/AlGaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahtamouni, T. M. Al; Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2006-03-01

    Al rich AlGaN alloys are promising materials for the applications in the optoelectronic devices such as deep ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors in the spectral range down to 200 nm. AlGaN based UV emitters (λ<340nm) has applications in bio-chemical agent detection and medical research/ health care. To realize deep UV emission (λ< 280 nm) Al rich AlGaN based quantum wells (QWs) are required. We report here the growth of AlN/AlxGa1-xNQWs (x>0.65) on AlN/sapphire templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Deep UV photoluminescence (PL) was employed to study the optical properties of the QWs. Well width (Al composition) dependence was studied by varying the QW thickness (Al composition) with fixed x ˜ 0.65 (well width at 3 nm). Optical properties of these QWs such as the effects of alloy fluctuation, temperature, strain and piezoelectric field, carrier and exciton localizations on the quantum efficiency have been studied. Carrier and exciton dynamics were probed. Implications of our findings on the applications of Al rich AlN/AlGaN QWs for UV emitters and detectors will also be discussed.

  13. Studies of 27Al NMR in SrAl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niki, Haruo; Higa, Nonoka; Kuroshima, Hiroko; Toji, Tatsuki; Morishima, Mach; Minei, Motofumi; Yogi, Mamoru; Nakamura, Ai; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Harima, Hisatomo

    A charge density wave (CDW) transition at TCDW = 243 K and a structural phase (SP) transition at approximately 100 K occur in SrAl4 with the BaAl4-type body center tetragonal structure, which is the divalent and non-4f electron reference compound of EuAl4. To understand the behaviors of the CDW and SP transitions, the 27Al NMR measurements using a single crystal and a powder sample of SrAl4 have been carried out. The line width below TCDW is modulated by an electrical quadruple interaction between 27Al nucleus and CDW charge modulation. The incommensurate CDW state below TCDW changes into a different structure below TSP. The temperature dependences of Knight shifts of 27Al(I) and 27Al(II) show the different behaviors. The temperature variation of 27Al(I) Knight shift shows anomalies at the CDW and SP transition temperatures, revealing the shift to negative side below TCDW, which is attributable to the core polarization of the d-electrons. However, 27Al(II) Knight shift keeps almost constant except for the small shift due to the SP transition. The 1/T1T of 27Al(I) indicates the obvious changes due to the CDW and SP transitions, while that of 27Al(II) takes a constant value. The density of state at the Fermi level at Al(I) site below 60 K would be about 0.9 times less than that above TCDW.

  14. Surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazines: Environmental chamber studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilduff, Jan E.; Davis, Dennis D.; Koontz, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The surface-catalyzed air oxidation reactions of fuel hydrazines were studied in a 6500-liter fluorocarbon-film chamber at 80 to 100 ppm concentrations. First-order rate constants for the reactions catalyzed by aluminum, water-damaged aluminum (Al/Al2O3), stainless steel 304L, galvanized steel and titanium plates with surface areas of 2 to 24 sq m were determined. With 23.8 sq m of Al/Al2O3 the surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazine had a half-life of 2 hours, diimide (N2H2) was observed as an intermediate and traces of ammonia were present in the final product mixture. The Al/Al2O3 catalyzed oxidation of monomethylhydrazine yielded methyldiazine (HN = NCH3) as an intermediate and traces of methanol. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine gave no detectable products. The relative reactivities of hydrazine, MMH and UDMH were 130 : 7.3 : 1.0, respectively. The rate constants for Al/Al2O3-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and MMH were proportional to the square of the surface area of the plates. Mechanisms for the surface-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and diimide and the formation of ammonia are proposed.

  15. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  16. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  17. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  18. Air Force Officer Cohesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    and Staff College, 1980. 11. Craver , M.L., "No Surprise in Why Pilots Leave Service." Air Force Times, June 4, 1979, p. 23. 12. Wood, Frank R., U.S...34Institution Building In The All- Volunteer Force." Air University Review, September- October 1983, pp. 38-49. Craver , M.L., "No Surprise In Why Pilots Leave

  19. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  20. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  2. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  3. AIR HEATER EXPERIMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The test program described in this report was designed to determine the feasibility of using a vitiated air heater for the PLUTO facility from the...profiles across the outlet proved relatively flat. The feasibility of using this burner for PLUTO facility air heating was established. (Author)

  4. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  5. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  6. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  7. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  8. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  9. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  10. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  11. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  12. Secondary air filter assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Ortonville, A.J.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes a filter cartridge assembly used for filtering air of a crankcase ventilating system of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: first (108) and second (110) air permeable filter platforms; vertical support columns; leg members; and a filter retainer.

  13. Air drying of lumber.

    Treesearch

    1999-01-01

    This report describes how lumber can be air-dried most effectively under outdoor conditions and illustrates the principles and procedures of air-drying lumber that were developed through field investigations and observations of industrial practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the yarding of lumber in unit packages. Included are topics such as why lumber is dried...

  14. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  15. Protective air lock

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  16. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  17. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  18. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  19. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  20. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  1. Air quality [Chapter 8

    Treesearch

    R. C. Musselman

    1994-01-01

    Air quality is monitored continuously at GLEES. Air pollutants are considered an important component of the atmosphere that can have an effect on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric deposition of gases, wet deposition of chemicals in precipitation including snow and rain, and dry deposition of chemicals are all monitored at GLEES. Although GLEES is a...

  2. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  3. Air Traffic Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas; Lebacqz, Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The steady growth in air travel will lead to heightened demands for additional airspace capacity, particularly in the vicinity of terminals. New computer-aided processing of aircraft and navigational capability exemplified by the Global Positioning System will allow more sophisticated management of air traffic. Additional altitudes and over-flight areas may be necessary to effectively use the newer technology,

  4. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  5. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  6. Developing of a New Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, John M.; deAngelis, Giovanni; Goldhagen, Paul; Wilson, John W.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of the research leading to the 1998 AIR workshop and the subsequent analysis, the neutron issues posed by Foelsche et al. and further analyzed by Hajnal have been adequately resolved. We are now engaged in developing a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for use in epidemiological studies and air transportation safety assessment. A team was formed to examine a promising code using the basic FLUKA software but with modifications to allow multiple charged ion breakup effects. A limited dataset of the ER-2 measurements and other cosmic ray data will be used to evaluate the use of this code.

  7. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  8. Invited commentary: Assessment of air pollution and suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is a serious public health issue worldwide, with multiple risk factors, such as severe mental illness, alcohol abuse, a painful loss, exposure to violence, or social isolation. Environmental factors, particularly chemical and meteorological variables, have been examined as risk factors for suicide, but less evidence is available on whether air pollution is related to suicide. In this issue of the Journal, Bakian et al. ( publish findings from a study that found a short-term increased risk of suicide associated with increased air pollution. This study bolsters a small body of research linking air pollution exposure to suicide risk. If the association between air pollution and suicide is confirmed, it would broaden the scope of the already large disease burden associated with air pollution.

  9. High specific energy and specific power aluminum/air battery for micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindler, A.; Matthies, L.

    2014-06-01

    Micro air vehicles developed under the Army's Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology program generally need a specific energy of 300 - 550 watt-hrs/kg and 300 -550 watts/kg to operate for about 1 hour. At present, no commercial cell can fulfill this need. The best available commercial technology is the Lithium-ion battery or its derivative, the Li- Polymer cell. This chemistry generally provides around 15 minutes flying time. One alternative to the State-of-the Art is the Al/air cell, a primary battery that is actually half fuel cell. It has a high energy battery like aluminum anode, and fuel cell like air electrode that can extract oxygen out of the ambient air rather than carrying it. Both of these features tend to contribute to a high specific energy (watt-hrs/kg). High specific power (watts/kg) is supported by high concentration KOH electrolyte, a high quality commercial air electrode, and forced air convection from the vehicles rotors. The performance of this cell with these attributes is projected to be 500 watt-hrs/kg and 500 watts/kg based on simple model. It is expected to support a flying time of approximately 1 hour in any vehicle in which the usual limit is 15 minutes.

  10. Morton et al. Reply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms could lead to up-regulation of dry-season photosynthesis in Amazon forests, including canopy phenology and illumination geometry. We specifically tested two mechanisms for phenology-driven changes in Amazon forests during dry-season months, and the combined evidence from passive optical and lidar satellite data was incompatible with large net changes in canopy leaf area or leaf reflectance suggested by previous studies. We therefore hypothesized that seasonal changes in the fraction of sunlit and shaded canopies, one aspect of bidirectional reflectance effects in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, could alter light availability for dry-season photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity of Amazon forests without large net changes in canopy composition. Subsequent work supports the hypothesis that seasonal changes in illumination geometry and diffuse light regulate light saturation in Amazon forests. These studies clarify the physical mechanisms that govern light availability in Amazon forests from seasonal variability in direct and diffuse illumination. Previously, in the debate over light limitation of Amazon forest productivity, seasonal changes in the distribution of light within complex Amazon forest canopies were confounded with dry-season increases in total incoming photosynthetically active radiation. In the accompanying Comment, Saleska et al. do not fully account for this confounding effect of forest structure on photosynthetic capacity.

  11. Morton et al. Reply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms could lead to up-regulation of dry-season photosynthesis in Amazon forests, including canopy phenology and illumination geometry. We specifically tested two mechanisms for phenology-driven changes in Amazon forests during dry-season months, and the combined evidence from passive optical and lidar satellite data was incompatible with large net changes in canopy leaf area or leaf reflectance suggested by previous studies. We therefore hypothesized that seasonal changes in the fraction of sunlit and shaded canopies, one aspect of bidirectional reflectance effects in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, could alter light availability for dry-season photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity of Amazon forests without large net changes in canopy composition. Subsequent work supports the hypothesis that seasonal changes in illumination geometry and diffuse light regulate light saturation in Amazon forests. These studies clarify the physical mechanisms that govern light availability in Amazon forests from seasonal variability in direct and diffuse illumination. Previously, in the debate over light limitation of Amazon forest productivity, seasonal changes in the distribution of light within complex Amazon forest canopies were confounded with dry-season increases in total incoming photosynthetically active radiation. In the accompanying Comment, Saleska et al. do not fully account for this confounding effect of forest structure on photosynthetic capacity.

  12. Rub' al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

    The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. 19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR CLEANER (BLEW DUST/LINT DOWNWARD WHILE TRAVELING ON TRACK OVER MILL MACHINERY). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  14. Evaluation of corrosion behavior of Al-Mg-Li alloys in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Abdul Aleem, B. J.

    1996-04-01

    Weldalite 050, a high-strength Al-Mg-Li alloy, was evaluated for its corrosion resistance in deaerated and air saturated Arabian Gulf water to determine its suitability for marine applications. Weight loss and electrochemical studies showed that the alloy had minimum corrosion rates of 1.82 and 4.82 mpy (mils per year), respectively, in deaerated and air saturated Arabian Gulf water with very high total dissolved solids (TDS) content. Weldalite 050 exhibited good resistance to corrosion at velocities up to 3.9 m/s. The formation of Al2MgLi, Al-Li, Al12Mg17, and Al-Li precipitates has a pronounced effect on its corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of Weldalite 050 compares favorably with that of alloys 5052 and 5054, wrought alloys 6061 and 6013, and silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced alloys 6061 and 6013.

  15. Al-Manar and Alhurra: Competing Satellite Stations and Ideologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    conclude that al-Manar does not air commercials on its satellite version because advertisers desire to hide their support of the station from the...stations elsewhere, Arab satellite television does not generally subsist through its advertising . Stations are politically geared and funded...Particularly in Lebanon, each major political trend has its own station, which at times the leader personally finances. Revenue from advertising does not

  16. Tensile properties of Fe-16 at. % Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1995-02-01

    A newly developed melting method for Fe-16 at. % Al alloy (FAPY) is described. Tensile data on the air-induction-melted (AIM) and vacuum-induction-melted (VIM) heats of FAPY after identical processing are presented. Optical, scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and microprobe analysis were carried out to explain the lower room-temperature ductility and more scatter in the data for the AIM material as opposed to the VIM material.

  17. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  18. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  19. A synthetic zero air standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  20. Air washer/scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.H.; Gerdes, D.F.; Telchuk, S.E.

    1982-05-04

    An air washer or scrubber, particularly for paint spray booths and especially adapted for removing paint particles from air passing downwardly through the grille floor of a paint spray booth and against a water-washed subfloor, comprises an elongated v-shaped slot in the subfloor extending along the longitudinal centerline of the booth. The inner edges of the walls forming the v-shaped slot are upturned to form ledges so that water flowed over the subfloor and the walls of the slot impinges against the ledges and is thrown upwardly and inwardly to form a curtain of water completely covering the slot. Exhaust means pulls paintladen air from the spray chamber through the water curtain and the slot and into an expansion chamber, the bottom walls of which form a second v-shaped slot contiguous with the first mentioned slot. The water, in which virtually all of the paint particles are entrained, and the air are discharged from the second slot and impinged against a baffle sheet angling downwardly away from the expansion chamber. The end of the sheet is upturned at a small angle to deflect the water and form an umbrella of water through which the air must pass for a final cleaning action. An optional curved deflector plate positioned beneath the umbrella of water aids in separating the water and air so that only clean, dry air is exhausted to atmosphere.

  1. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  2. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  3. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  4. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  5. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  6. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. AQI: Moderate (51 - ... number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. AQI: Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (101 - 150) Although ...

  7. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  8. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  9. The Evolution of Al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    www.carleton.ca/cciss/res_docs/itac/gendron_e.pdf; Internet. 26Muhammad Abd al-salam Faraj, Al-Farīdah al-Ghā’ibah, trans. Johannes J.G. Jansen and... Theo Van Gogh.91 Hoffman also supports the idea proposed by other experts like Benjamin Orbach and Keith Blanchard of the Congressional Research...religious intolerance over cartoons in Danish newspapers, the assassination of Theo Van Goeh, and increasing discontent among disassociated Muslim

  10. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  11. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  12. Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Air Force Research Laboratory 8 June 2009 Mr. Leo Marple Ai F R h L b t r orce esearc a ora ory Leo.Marple@wpafb.af.mil DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Research Laboratory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory ,Wright

  13. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  14. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  15. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  16. Air Power and Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    New York: .E.P. Dutton& Co., Inc., 1942. (UGS 291 M6SG) . The-wild blue yonder; sons of the prophet carry on. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company; Inc...Historical Society Journal 14:1-IJ Sp- ring 1969. Wheeler, Gerald E. Mitchell, koffett, and air power. Air Power Historian 8:79787, April 1961. Williams, A...Caldwell. Cy. Airpower and the Russian octopus . Aero Digest 61: S6+, October 1950. 80 Carlton, Richard. Canada’s new concept of continental air power

  17. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  18. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  19. Liquid air mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

  20. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  1. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  2. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  3. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  4. Moisture correspondence between lower and upper troposphere over oceans using AIRS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Hengchun; Fetzer, E. J.; Granger, S.; Lee, S. -Y.; Olsen, E. T.; Lambridgtsen, B. H.; Chen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mounted on Aqua space craft measures vertical profiles of air temperature and humidity using both microwaves and infrared irradiance. The AIRS' level III data that provide gridded values of 1(sup o) latitude by 1(sup o) longitude for the highest temporal resolution of twice per day became available recently (Granger et al. 2005). This level III data were derived from the level II Version 4.0 AIRS retrieval algorithm. This study uses this level III AIRS moisture profile data to reveal geographical correspondences of atmospheric moisture content between the lower and upper troposphere.

  5. Moisture correspondence between lower and upper troposphere over oceans using AIRS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Hengchun; Fetzer, E. J.; Granger, S.; Lee, S. -Y.; Olsen, E. T.; Lambridgtsen, B. H.; Chen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mounted on Aqua space craft measures vertical profiles of air temperature and humidity using both microwaves and infrared irradiance. The AIRS' level III data that provide gridded values of 1(sup o) latitude by 1(sup o) longitude for the highest temporal resolution of twice per day became available recently (Granger et al. 2005). This level III data were derived from the level II Version 4.0 AIRS retrieval algorithm. This study uses this level III AIRS moisture profile data to reveal geographical correspondences of atmospheric moisture content between the lower and upper troposphere.

  6. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 29, Number 5, September-October 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-09-2015 to 00-10-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 29, Number 5, September-October 2015...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute,Air & Space Power Journal ,155 N. Twining Street,Maxwell AFB,AL,36112-6026 8...permission. If it is reproduced, the Air and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. September–October 2015 | 3 Dr. Christian F. Anrig Swiss Air Force

  7. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  8. Is there a paraneoplastic ALS?

    PubMed

    Corcia, Philippe; Gordon, Paul H; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to examine the strength of evidence in support of the paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) as one cause of ALS and, if the association appears more likely than chance, determine which features of ALS imply concurrent malignancy. We reviewed the literature on concurrent ALS and neoplasia assessing the strength of evidence for the association. Most accounts of ALS and neoplasm are case reports or small uncontrolled series. In order of strength of evidence, three clinical situations that support a paraneoplastic aetiology for ALS are: 1) laboratory evidence of well-characterized onconeuronal antibodies, most often anti-Hu, anti-Yo or anti-Ri; 2) co-occurrence of ALS and a neoplasm known to cause PNS, usually lymphoma or cancer of the breast; and 3) combined ALS and a neoplasm not classically associated with PNS, without detectable onconeuronal antibodies. Clinical features that warrant evaluation of neoplasm include upper motor neuron disease in elderly females, rapid progression, non-motor signs, and young onset. In conclusion, most examples of ALS and neoplasm do not constitute a classically established PNS. Rare instances of elevated onconeuronal antibody titres or typical neoplasm, implies that, albeit rare, the PNS is one of a multitude of causes of ALS.

  9. Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Musarò, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  10. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Authorized licensed use limited to: Air Force Institute of Technology. Downloaded on April 19,2010 at 19:40:39 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply...all three cases the azimuth angle estimation is based on two receive antennas and the monopulse technique. 1-4244-1 539-X/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE ...December 2005. 4. Blackman, Samuel. “Multiple Hypothesis Tracking for Multiple Target Tracking”. IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, 19:5–18

  11. Vapour phase oxidation of toluene over CeAlPO-5 molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Devika, S; Sundaravel, B; Palanichamy, M; Murugesan, V

    2014-04-01

    Single-site CeAlPO-5 with Al/Ce ratios 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 were synthesized hydrothermally in fluoride medium. The XRD patterns of CeAlPO-5 exhibited characteristic reflections of AlPO-5. 27Al MAS-NMR of CeAIPO-5(25) showed two unusual peaks at -20.78 and -71.35 ppm due to delocalization of cerium unpaired electron. However, 31P MAS-NMR exhibited the usual characteristic peak similar to that of AlPO-5. Vapour phase oxidation of toluene in air over CeAlPO-5 yielded benzaldehyde with high toluene conversion. The time on stream study established the stability of the catalyst. This catalyst can also be used for the selective oxidation of other alkyl aromatics.

  12. Properties of air-aluminum thermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Y.; Gleizes, A.; Riquel, G.

    2012-07-01

    We present the calculation and the main results of the properties of air-aluminum thermal plasmas, useful for complete modelling of arc systems involving aluminum contacts. The properties are calculated assuming thermal equilibrium and correspond to the equilibrium composition, thermodynamic functions, transport coefficients including diffusion coefficients and net emission coefficient representing the divergence of the radiative flux in the hottest plasma regions. The calculation is developed in the temperature range between 2000 and 30 000 K, for a pressure range from 0.1 to 1 bar and for several metal mass proportions. As in the case of other metals, the presence of aluminum vapours has a strong influence on three properties at intermediate temperatures: the electron number density, the electrical conductivity and the net emission coefficient. Some comparisons with other metal vapour (Cu, Fe and Ag) properties are made and show the original behaviour for Al-containing mixtures: mass density at high temperatures is low due to the low Al atomic mass; high electrical conductivity at T < 10 000 K due to low ionization potential (around 2 V less for Al than for the other metals); very strong self-absorption of ionized aluminum lines, leading to a net emission coefficient lower than that of pure air when T > 10 000 K, in contrast to copper or iron radiation.

  13. Impurity Enhancement of Al_2O_3/Al Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Zhang, Wenqing; Evans, Anthony

    2003-03-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al_2O_3/Al interface is relatively weak - weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  14. Interfacial characterization of Al-Al thermocompression bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.; Carvalho, P. A.; Poppe, E.; Finstad, T. G.

    2016-05-28

    Interfaces formed by Al-Al thermocompression bonding were studied by the transmission electron microscopy. Si wafer pairs having patterned bonding frames were bonded using Al films deposited on Si or SiO{sub 2} as intermediate bonding media. A bond force of 36 or 60 kN at bonding temperatures ranging from 400–550 °C was applied for a duration of 60 min. Differences in the bonded interfaces of 200 μm wide sealing frames were investigated. It was observed that the interface had voids for bonding with 36 kN at 400 °C for Al deposited both on Si and on SiO{sub 2}. However, the dicing yield was 33% for Al on Si and 98% for Al on SiO{sub 2}, attesting for the higher quality of the latter bonds. Both a bond force of 60 kN applied at 400 °C and a bond force of 36 kN applied at 550 °C resulted in completely bonded frames with dicing yields of, respectively, 100% and 96%. A high density of long dislocations in the Al grains was observed for the 60 kN case, while the higher temperature resulted in grain boundary rotation away from the original Al-Al interface towards more stable configurations. Possible bonding mechanisms and reasons for the large difference in bonding quality of the Al films deposited on Si or SiO{sub 2} are discussed.

  15. Design and analysis of aluminum/air battery system for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaohua; Knickle, Harold

    Aluminum (Al)/air batteries have the potential to be used to produce power to operate cars and other vehicles. These batteries might be important on a long-term interim basis as the world passes through the transition from gasoline cars to hydrogen fuel cell cars. The Al/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to gasoline powered cars. From our design analysis, it can be seen that the cost of aluminum as an anode can be as low as US 1.1/kg as long as the reaction product is recycled. The total fuel efficiency during the cycle process in Al/air electric vehicles (EVs) can be 15% (present stage) or 20% (projected) comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEs) (13%). The design battery energy density is 1300 Wh/kg (present) or 2000 Wh/kg (projected). The cost of battery system chosen to evaluate is US 30/kW (present) or US$ 29/kW (projected). Al/air EVs life-cycle analysis was conducted and compared to lead/acid and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) EVs. Only the Al/air EVs can be projected to have a travel range comparable to ICEs. From this analysis, Al/air EVs are the most promising candidates compared to ICEs in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life-cycle cost.

  16. Will the Larger Air Force Ever Accept the Space Cadre

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    training requirements of new and different forces tend to work against the integration of their practitioners. In the history of arms, novel...those who express certain points of view may be whin- ing dinosaurs . The Air Force is creating its future as we sit here, having al- ready accepted the

  17. Coercive Air Strategy in Post-Cold War Peace Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Muslim overlords and were supported by Serbia and Montenegro . Russia entered into the conflict on the side of the Christian peasants and crushed the...on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations. May 1994. Corsini, Roberto . The Balkan War: What Role for Air Power? Maxwell AFB, AL: April 1995. Doyle

  18. Cleared to Engage: Improving Joint Close Air Support Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Flyer Papers Air Command and Staff College (ACSC/ DEI ) 225 Chennault Circle, Bldg. 1402 Maxwell AFB AL 36112-6426 Tel: (334) 953-6810 Fax: (334) 953...I think the confi- dence of the 0311 that’s behind the mortar hole, 23 with RPGs [rocket propelled grenades] (bouncing) off sandbags, I think it’s

  19. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  20. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  1. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  2. Air Traffic Network Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

  3. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  4. Calidad del aire interior

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues including health risks and means by which human exposures can be reduced. Content on this site will be focused on Spanish translated resources for information about indoor air quality.

  5. Walking On Air

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video features a series of time lapse sequences photographed by the Expedition 30 crew aboard the International Space Station. Set to the song "€œWalking in the Air,"€ by Howard Blake, the v...

  6. Images in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-05-01

    This article discusses two 'magic tricks' in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a 'ghost' in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors.

  7. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  8. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  9. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  10. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  11. Modelling hot air balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimicombe, N. W.

    1991-07-01

    Hot air balloons can be modelled in a number of different ways. The most satisfactory, but least useful model is at a microscopic level. Macroscopic models are easier to use but can be very misleading.

  12. Air Force Junior ROTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, James A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the Junior Air Force Reserve Officers Training Corps (AFROTC) program presently being operated in 275 units across the country. It is basically a three year course in aerospace studies and leadership education. (BR)

  13. Air Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides access to emissions data, regulations and guidance, electronic system access, resources and tools to support trends analysis, regional, and local scale air quality modeling, regulatory impact assessments.

  14. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  16. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  17. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  18. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  19. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  20. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  1. Temporal solitons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  2. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  3. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  4. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  5. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  6. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  7. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  8. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  9. Climate and Conflict: A Comment on Hsiang et al.s Reply to Buhaug et al

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    a wide range of climatic events, from heat waves via excess rainfall to global ENSO cycles; and a wide range of spatial scales, from municipalities...again analytical consistency; The Hsiang et al. (2011) study considers a global ENSO effect whereas the studies in the valid sample investigate a local...some of the studies described in Hsiang et al. (2013). Specifically, Buhaug et al. exclude the effects of ENSO and PDSI when estimating the aggregate

  10. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  11. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  12. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  13. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  14. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  15. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  16. Multipollutant air quality management.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  17. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  18. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  19. Fretting Wear of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the wear behavior of gamma titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb in atomic percent) in contact with a typical nickel-base superalloy under repeated microscopic vibratory motion in air at temperatures from 296-823 K. The surface damage observed on the interacting surfaces of both Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and superalloy consisted of fracture pits, oxides, metallic debris, scratches, craters, plastic deformation, and cracks. The Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb transferred to the superalloy at all fretting conditions and caused scuffing or galling. The increasing rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures led to a drop in Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear at 473 K. Mild oxidative wear was observed at 473 K. However, fretting wear increased as the temperature was increased from 473-823 K. At 723 and 823 K, oxide disruption generated cracks, loose wear debris, and pits on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear surface. Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear generally decreased with increasing fretting frequency. Both increasing slip amplitude and increasing load tended to produce more metallic wear debris, causing severe abrasive wear in the contacting metals. Keywords

  20. Explosive destruction of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Kim, D. H.; Moon, J. Y.; Park, S. Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The γ -ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of 26Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic ^{26} Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of ^{26} Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on ^{26} Al, such as (n,p) and (n, α , have among the largest impacts on the total ^{26} Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of ^{26} Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n_TOF at CERN with an ^{26} Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the ^{26} Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  1. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  2. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies. Its component data sets have been collected over the years from approximately 10,000 monitoring sites, of which approximately 5,000 are currently active. OAR's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) and other internal and external users, rely on this data to assess air quality, assist in Attainment/Non-Attainment designations, evaluate State Implementation Plans for Non-Attainment Areas, perform modeling for permit review analysis, and other air quality management functions. Air quality information is also used to prepare reports for Congress as mandated by the Clean Air Act. This data covers air quality data collected after 1980, when the Clean Air Act requirements for monitoring were significantly modified. Air quality data from the Agency's early years (1970s) remains available (see OAR PRIMARY DATA ASSET: Ambient Air Quality Data -- Historical), but because of technical and definitional differences the two data assets are not directly comparable. The Clean Air Act of 1970 provided initial authority for monitoring air quality for Conventional Air Pollutants (CAPs) for which EPA has promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Requirements for monitoring visibility-related parameters were added in 1977. Requiremen

  3. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races, describe...

  4. Control of the Air: The Primary Air Power Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    air, p 8-9. 23. R Cargill Hall. Case Studies in Strategic Bombardment, Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998, “British Strategic Air...Relations with Special Reference to Kashmir. Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi. 2003. Hall, R. Cargill . Case Studies in Strategic Bombardment. Air

  5. Automatic air flow control in air conditioning ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Device is designed which automatically selects air flow coming from either of two directions and which can be adjusted to desired air volume on either side. Device uses one movable and two fixed scoops which control air flow and air volume.

  6. Microstructure/Oxidation/Microhardness Correlations in Gamma-Based and Tau-Based Al-Ti-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, J. L.; Humphrey, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The relationships between alloy microstructure and air oxidation kinetics and alloy microstructure and microhardness in the Al-Ti-Cr system for exposures at 800 C and 1000 C were investigated. The relevant phases were identified as tau (Ll2), gamma (LIO), r-Al2Ti, TiCrAl (laves), and Cr2AI. Protective alumina formation was associated with tau, Al-rich TiCrAl, and gamma/TiCrAl mixtures. Brittleness was associated with the TiCrAl phase and tau decomposition to A12Ti + Cr2AI. It was concluded that two-phase gamma + TiCrAl alloys offer the greatest potential for oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility in the Al-Ti-Cr system.

  7. Measurements of the Air-Sea Interface from an Instrumented Small Buoy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ASIT Air Sea Interaction Tower ASIS Air-sea Interaction Spar...or the Air-sea Interaction Tower (ASIT, Edson et al. 2007). Research buoys are an alternative to the stabilized platforms. One such buoy is the...instrument suite was deployed on the R/V Sproul in both 2009 and 2010. The basic instruments included one or two flux measurement towers , a

  8. Bypass Ratio: The US Air Force and Light-Attack Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Advanced Air And Space Studies,,Air University,,Maxwell Air Force Base,,AL, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9 . SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...countries take this approach, they compound a “security dilemma” where each tries to outspend the other in an escalating arms race. 9 China appears...2-theaters-fewer-bases/ (accessed 19 May 2013). 9 Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton

  9. Optimizing an F-16 Squadron Weekly Pilot Schedule for the Turkish Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    implementation of Construction Heuristic (Aslan 2003) ................................ 13 Figure 3. Monday AM Network Flow Model (Boyd et al., 2006...author claims that a weekly schedule can be created using the heuristic (Aslan,2003). 13 . Figure 2. Software implementation of Construction...FORCE THESIS Murat Yavuz, First Lieutenant, TUAF AFIT-OR-MS-ENS-10-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF

  10. Luminescence of delafossite-type CuAlO2 fibers with Eu substitution for Al cations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Gong, Yuxuan; Mellott, Nathan P.; Wang, Bu; Ye, Haitao; Wu, Yiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract CuAlO2 has been examined as a potential luminescent material by substituting Eu for Al cations in the delafossite structure. CuAlO2:Eu3+ nanofibers have been prepared via electrospinning for the ease of mitigating synthesis requirements and for future optoelectronics and emerging applications. Single-phase CuAlO2 fibers could be obtained at a temperature of 1100 °C in air. The Eu was successfully doped in the delafossite structure and two strong emission bands at ~405 and 610 nm were observed in the photoluminescence spectra. These bands are due to the intrinsic near-band-edge transition of CuAlO2 and the f-f transition of the Eu3+ activator, respectively. Further electrical characterization indicated that these fibers exhibit semiconducting behavior and the introduction of Eu could act as band-edge modifiers, thus changing the thermal activation energies. In light of this study, CuAlO2:Eu3+ fibers with both strong photoluminescence and p-type conductivity could be produced by tailoring the rare earth doping concentrations. PMID:27877870

  11. Characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, C.; Nevirkovets, I.P.; Chernyashevskyy, O.; Hu, R.; Ketterson, J.B.; Sarma, B.K.

    2009-03-03

    We report characteristics of CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Nb and CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al tunnel junctions fabricated on the (0 0 1) surface of CeCoIn{sub 5} crystal platelets. The main result of this work is the observation of a low Josephson current (as compared with that expected from the Ambegaokar-Baratoff formula), which is consistent with idea that the order parameter in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn{sub 5} has unconventional pairing symmetry.

  12. Reply to A. G. C. A. Meesters et al.'s comment on "Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture as driver of the hydrological cycle on land"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarieva, A. M.; Gorshkov, V. G.

    2009-07-01

    Condensation removes water vapor molecules from the gas phase and reduces the weight of the air column. This disturbs hydrostatic equilibrium and makes air circulate under the action of the recently described evaporative force. Meesters, Dolman and Bruijnzeel (2009) criticized the physical bases of the new circulation driver with a major claim that the ascending air motions induced by the evaporative force should rapidly restore the hydrostatic equilibrium and become extinguished. Here we respond that in fact these air motions sustain the disequilibrium of air pressure through the reduction of the weight of the air column via condensation that continuously occurs as the ascending moist air cools. In the traditional meteorological paradigm condensation is primarily considered in terms of the effect it has, via latent heat release, on air density, while its immediate effect on the weight of air column is not accounted for. The critique of Meesters et al.~is therefore informative in highlighting the traditional lines of thought that should be re-visited to incorporate the new physical knowledge. Such an effort is arguably worthy of undertaking as the evaporative force concept bears tangible potential for solving some of the key problems that are challenging modern atmospheric science.

  13. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  14. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  15. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels: The AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002 together with ASMU-A and HSB to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmosphere sounding system (Pagano et al 2003). The theoretical approach used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of clouds in the AIRS Science Team Version 3 at-launch algorithm, and that used in the Version 4 post-launch algorithm, have been published previously. Significant theoretical and practical improvements have been made in the analysis of AIRS/AMSU data since the Version 4 algorithm. Most of these have already been incorporated in the AIRS Science Team Version 5 algorithm (Susskind et al 2010), now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains three significant improvements over Version 4. Improved physics in Version 5 allowed for use of AIRS clear column radiances (R(sub i)) in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations were used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances (R(sub i)) for all channels. This new approach allowed for the generation of accurate Quality Controlled values of R(sub i) and T(p) under more stressing cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contained a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 contained for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Susskind et al 2010 shows that Version 5 AIRS Only sounding are only slightly degraded from the AIRS/AMSU soundings, even at large fractional cloud

  16. Flux-assisted wetting and spreading of Al on TiC.

    PubMed

    López, V H; Kennedy, A R

    2006-06-01

    The effect of a K-Al-F-based flux on the spreading of Al on TiC, at temperatures up to 900 degrees C, in Ar and in air has been studied. Whilst obtuse contact angles were observed without flux, the flux facilitated rapid spreading to a perfect wetting condition, in both Ar and in air. The atmosphere was found to have a weak effect on the spreading kinetics as the liquid flux provides a locally protective atmosphere by spreading over the TiC surface and also on the solid surface of Al. The flux dissolves the aluminium oxide, covering Al, so that when Al melts, and the oxide layer has been removed or weakened, intimate contact occurs between liquid Al and the TiC substrate facilitating spontaneous spreading and instantaneous wetting of liquid Al on TiC. Since flux-assisted spreading is very rapid and occurs without the formation of a reaction layer at the Al/TiC interface, this process is very different to the reactive wetting behaviour previously reported in the Al-TiC system.

  17. Hydrogen diffusivity in boron-doped polycrystalline Ni[sub 3]Al

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, X.J.; Zhu, J.H.; Jing, K.L. ); Liu, C.T. . Metals and Ceramics Div.)

    1994-09-15

    Recent studies have shown that Ni[sub 3]Al, like many other ordered intermetallics, exhibit severe environmental embrittlement in air at ambient temperatures. Polycrystalline Ni[sub 3]Al shows a tensile ductility as high as 23% when tested in ultra-high vacuum at room temperature, whereas the same alloy exhibits a low ductility of only 3% in laboratory air. The loss in ductility is due to air moisture, which reacts with aluminum and generates atomic hydrogen at crack tips. These results clearly indicate that the grain boundaries in Ni[sub 3]Al are not brittle at all, and that moisture-induced hydrogen causes severe embrittlement. It has been known for 15 years that additions of boron in ppm levels suppress brittle grain-boundary fracture and dramatically improve the tensile ductility of polycrystalline Ni[sub 3]Al. The ductilizing effect of boron, however, is still not well understood at present. Several researchers have suggested that boron strongly segregates to Ni[sub 3]Al grain boundaries and reduces hydrogen penetration along these boundaries. Nevertheless, there is a lack of critical experimental data to support this mechanism. The objective of this work is to provide an experimental evidence that the doping of boron in Ni[sub 3]Al substantially reduces the hydrogen diffusivity at the grain boundaries, thereby suppressing moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement in Ni[sub 3]Al doped with sufficient amounts of boron.

  18. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Δ17O(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janina Mrozek, Dorota; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Röckmann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20 m long 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing that is separated by eleven valves to divide the tubing into 10 identical segments, but it can be easily adapted to collect smaller or larger samples. In the collection phase the SAS is directly connected to the outlet of an optical analyzer that measures the mole fractions of CO2, CH4 and CO from an AirCore sampler. The stratospheric part (or if desired any part of the AirCore air) is then directed through the SAS. When the SAS is filled with the selected air, the valves are closed and the vertical profile is maintained in the different segments of the SAS. The segments can later be analysed to retrieve vertical profiles of other trace gas signatures that require slower instrumentation. As an application, we describe the coupling of the SAS to an analytical system to determine the 17O excess of CO2, which is a tracer for photochemical processing of stratospheric air. For this purpose the analytical system described by Mrozek et al. (2015) was adapted for analysis of air directly from the SAS. The performance of the coupled system is demonstrated for a set of air samples from an AirCore flight in November 2014 near Sodankylä, Finland. The standard error for a 25 mL air sample at stratospheric CO2 mole fraction is 0.56 ‰ (1σ) for δ17O and 0.03 ‰ (1σ) for both δ18O and δ13C. Measured Δ17O(CO2) values show a clear correlation with N2O in agreement with already published data.

  19. The Next-Generation Expeditionary Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Journal, which was selected as the journal’s second-best article for 2010 and was published in the Spanish, Portuguese , and Chinese editions of ASPJ...literature review and personal interviews provided the core research methodology for this study. A literature review identi- fied current AEF policy and...comments: Thank you for your assistance. C u t al o n g d o tt ed li n e Place Stamp Here AFRI/DE Dean, Air Force Research Institute 155 N

  20. 77 FR 43614 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2012, a proposed consent decree in United States, et al. v. Chevron U.S.A. Inc., et al., Civil Action.... The proposed consent decree will settle claims by the United States and the State of New...

  1. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  2. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  3. In vitro evaluation of human osteoblast adhesion to a thermally oxidized gamma-TiAl intermetallic alloy of composition Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%).

    PubMed

    Bello, Samir A; de Jesús-Maldonado, Idaris; Rosim-Fachini, Esteban; Sundaram, Paul A; Diffoot-Carlo, Nanette

    2010-05-01

    Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) (gamma-TiAl), a gamma titanium aluminide alloy originally designed for aerospace applications, appears to have excellent potential as implant material. Thermal treatment of gamma-TiAl renders this alloy extremely corrosion resistant in vitro, which could improve its biocompatibility. In this study, the surface oxides produced by thermal oxidation (at 500 degrees C, and at 800 degrees C for 1 h in air) on gamma-TiAl were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). hFOB 1.19 cell adhesion on thermally oxidized gamma-TiAl was examined in vitro by a hexosaminidase assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after 1, 7 and 14 days. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were used for comparison. Hexosaminidase assay data and CLSM analysis of focal contacts and cytoskeleton organization showed no differences in cell attachment on autoclaved and both heat-treated gamma-TiAl surfaces at the different time points. SEM images showed well organized multi-layers of differentiated cells adhered on thermally oxidized gamma-TiAl surfaces at day 14. Unexpectedly, thermally oxidized Ti-6Al-4V surfaces oxidized at 800 degrees C exhibited cytotoxic effects on hFOB 1.19 cells. Our results indicate that thermal oxidation of gamma-TiAl seems to be a promising method to generate highly corrosion resistant and biocompatible surfaces for implant applications.

  4. Effect of polymorphism of Al2O3 on the sintering and microstructure of transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dan; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Peng; Wang, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics were fabricated by reactive sintering in air followed by hot isostatic press treatment using commercial Al2O3 powder (γ-Al2O3 or α-Al2O3) and MgO powder as raw materials. The densification rate, microstructure and optical properties of the ceramics were investigated. Densification temperature of the sample from γ-Al2O3/MgO was lower than that from α-Al2O3/MgO. However, in-line transmission (2 mm thick) of the sample from α-Al2O3/MgO at the wavelength of 600 nm and 1100 nm were respectively 77.7% and 84.3%, higher than those (66.7%, 81.4%) of the sample from γ-Al2O3/MgO. SEM observation revealed that the sample from α-Al2O3/MgO exhibited a homogeneous and pore-free microstructure, while, the sample from γ-Al2O3/MgO showed an apparent bimodal microstructure containing pores.

  5. Air diverter for supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1986-10-28

    An engine supercharger is described which consists of a turbine housing, a main turbine wheel of the radial-inflow type located within the turbine housing, a compressor housing having an air entrance passageway, and a compressor wheel of the centrifugal type located within the compressor housing. It also includes a main shaft of annular construction interconnecting the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel whereby the two wheels rotate as a unit, an auxiliary turbine wheel of the axial flow type located downstream from the main turbine wheel, and a fan of the axial flow type located upstream from the compressor wheel. An auxiliary shaft extends within the main shaft between the auxiliary turbine and fan whereby the auxiliary turbine and fan rotate as a unit. An annular air collector chamber means is located immediately downstream from the fan in surrounding relation to the aforementioned entrance passageway for diverting some of the fan air from the compressor wheel. The fan comprises a hub and blades radiating outwardly therefrom. The air collector chamber is defined in part by an annular wall having a free edge located within the fan blade axial profile whereby the annular wall intercepts air discharged from outer tip areas of the fan blades to divert same away from the compressor wheel into the collector chamber.

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a... enforced by the Commander, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Seattle, Washington, or such agencies as he...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a... enforced by the Commander, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Seattle, Washington, or such agencies as he...

  11. Medical application of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  12. Nitrogen-doped carbonaceous catalysts for gas-diffusion cathodes for alkaline aluminum-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, E. S.; Atamanyuk, I. N.; Ilyukhin, A. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt tetramethoxyphenyl porphyrin and polyacrylonitrile - based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction were synthesized and characterized by means of SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, limited evaporation method, rotating disc and rotating ring-disc electrode methods. Half-cell and Al-air cell tests were carried out to determine the characteristics of gas-diffusion cathodes. Effect of active layer thickness and its composition on the characteristics of the gas-diffusion cathodes was investigated. Power density of 300 mW cm-2 was achieved for alkaline Al-air cell with an air-breathing polyacrylonitrile-based cathode.

  13. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints received by Region 7. It contains information about the complaint along with how the complaint was addressed. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 1) for Clean Air & Global Climate Change, which are to achieve healthier outdoor air.

  14. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  15. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  16. Al Qaeda, Caliphate and Antonio Gramsci: One State, One Region, then One World?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    AU/ACSC/3778/AY09 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AL QAEDA, CALIPHATE AND ANTONIO GRAMSCI : ONE STATE, ONE REGION, THEN ONE WORLD...Caliphate and Antonio Gramsci : One State, One Region, then One World? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...manages relationships in comparison to the ideas and thoughts of Antonio Gramsci . Gramsci was a prolific Italian Socialist writer whose thoughts on

  17. Growth and oxidation of thin film Al{sub 2}Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Son, K.A.; Missert, N.A.; Barbour, J.C.; Hren, J.J.; Copeland, R.G.; Minor, K.G.

    1999-11-09

    Al{sub 2}Cu thin films ({approximately}382 nm) are fabricated by melting and resolidifying Al/Cu bilayers in the presence of a {approximately}3 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivating layer. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measures a 1.0 eV shift of the Cu2p{sub 3/2} peak and a 1.6 eV shift of the valence band relative to metallic Cu upon Al{sub 2}Cu formation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) show that the Al{sub 2}Cu film is composed of 30--70 {mu}m wide and 10--25 mm long cellular grains with (110) orientation. The atomic composition of the film as estimated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) is 67{+-}2% Al and 33{+-}2% Cu. XPS scans of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}Cu taken before and after air exposure indicate that the upper Al{sub 2}Cu layers undergo further oxidation to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} even in the presence of {approximately}5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The majority of Cu produced from oxidation is believed to migrate below the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers, based upon the lack of evidence for metallic Cu in the XPS scans. In contrast to Al/Cu passivated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, melting/resolidifying the Al/Cu bilayer without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in phase-segregated dendritic film growth.

  18. Fireman's Air Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Together with NASA's Johnson Space Center, A-T-O Inc.'s Scott Aviation has developed light-weight firefighter's air tanks. New backpack system weighs only 20 pounds for 30 minute air supply, 13 pounds less than conventional firefighting tanks. They are pressurized at 4,500 psi, (twice current tanks). Made of aluminum liner wrapped by resin-impregnated glass fibers, eliminating corrosion as well as lightening the load. Redesigned face mask permits better vision. Warning device to tell fireman he is running out of air is personalized so it can't be heard by others reducing confusion in an already hectic environment. Structural Composites Inc., The Boeing Co., and Martin- Marietta Corp. have developed uses for this technology.

  19. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  20. Air Sparging Design Paradigm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-12

    that the air distribution in the aquifer is non-uniform about the air injection, exhibiting tendencies to flow along the axis defined by MP6 , MP12...MW2 MW9 MW7 MW1 MW3 MP9, N9 MP11, N11 MP5, N5 MP7, N7 MP12, N12 MP6 , N6 MP3, N3MP1, N1 - Multi-level sampler and neutron access tube - Air...MP9 and MP12. This hypothesis is supported by the high saturations at MP3, MP6 , MP9 and MP12 in the upper part of the aquifer (3 to 4 m BGS) and low

  1. A Maximum Expected Covering Problem for Locating and Dispatching Two Classes of Military Medical Evacuation Air Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    of American Scientists. Uh -60 black hawk, uh - 60l black hawk, uh -60q medevac, mh-60g pave hawk, hh-60g pave hawk, ch-60 sea hawk. Accessed November 13...treated within 24 hours. The fleet includes two classes of air assets to manage: – U.S. Army helicopters such as the UH -60A/L Black Hawk or HH-60...Specifically, the U.S. Army air assets ( UH -60A/L and HH-60 MEDEVAC) and the U.S. Air Force air asset (HH-60G Pave Hawk) are primarily responsible for

  2. Stress Development and Relaxation in Al2O3 during Early StageOxidation of beta-NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    2005-04-20

    Using a glancing synchrotron X-ray beam (Advanced Photon Source, Beamline 12BM, Argonne National Laboratory), Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from thermally grown oxides on NiAl samples were recorded during oxidation at 1000 or 1100 C in air. The diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine strain and phase changes in the oxide scale as it developed and evolved. Strain was obtained from measurements of the elliptical distortion of the Debye-Scherrer rings, where data from several rings of a single phase were used. Results were obtained from {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as from the transition alumina, in this case {theta}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which formed during the early stage. Compressive stress was found in the first-formed transition alumina, but the initial stress in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was tensile, with a magnitude high enough to cause Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fracture. New {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} patches nucleated at the scale/alloy interface and spread laterally and upward. This transformation not only puts the alpha alumina in tension, but can also cause the transition alumina to be in tension. After a complete {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer formed at the interface, the strain level in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} became compressive, reaching a steady state level around -75 MPa at 1100 C. To study a specimen's response to stress perturbation, samples with different thickness, after several hours of oxidation at 1100 C, were quickly cooled to 950 C to impose a compressive thermal stress in the scale. The rate of stress relaxation was the same for 1 and 3.5 mm thick samples, having a strain rate of {approx} 1 x 10{sup -8}/s. This behavior indicates that oxide creep is the major stress relaxation mechanism.

  3. Auxiliary air injector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, R.L.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes an auxiliary air injector assembly kit for replacement use to connect a secondary air line from an engine air pump to an exhaust pipe in a variety of combustion engine exhaust systems. The exhaust pipe has an auxiliary air receiving hole formed in a wall thereof. The assembly comprises a flexible conduit adapted to be readily cut to length and connected at one end to the secondary air line, a metal tube, means for connecting a first end of the metal tube to the other end of the flexible conduit, and a hollow fitting with an air flow-through passage and having a conical portion adapted to fit in the hole in a leak resistant manner. The fitting has a bearing portion with a convex spherical surface located outside the exhaust pipe when the conical portion is in the hole. A second end of the metal tube has a flange with a concave spherical surface to seat against the convex spherical surface in a leak resistant manner. A clamp means connects the metal tube to the exhaust pipe and applies pressure on the metal tube flange against the bearing portion of the fitting to hold the fitting in the hole. The clamp means includes a saddle having an opening larger than the tube but smaller than the tube flange. The tube extends through the saddle opening. The clamp means also includes a U-bolt assembly for extending around the exhaust pipe and forcing the saddle against the tube flange and toward the exhaust pipe.

  4. Arctic air may become cleaner as temperatures rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The air in the Arctic is cleaner during summer than during winter. Previous studies have shown that for light-scattering pollutants, this seasonal cycle is due mainly to summer precipitation removing pollutants from the air during atmospheric transport from midlatitude industrial and agricultural sources. With new measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and Alert, Nunavut, Canada, Garrett et al. extended previous research to show that light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon are also efficiently removed by seasonal precipitation. Precipitation removes these particles from the air most efficiently at high humidities and relatively warm temperatures, suggesting that as the Arctic gets warmer and wetter in the future, the air and snow might also become cleaner.

  5. Reply to Gopalswamy et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Gopalswamy et al. (thereafter GMY) relates to a letter discussing coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary ejecta and geomagnetic storms. GMY contend that Cane et al. incorrectly identified ejecta (interplanetary CMEs) and hypothesize that this is because Cane et al. fail to understand how to separate ejecta from "shock sheaths" when interpreting solar wind and energetic particle data sets. They (GMY) are wrong be cause the relevant section of the paper was concerned with the propagation time to 1 AU of any potentially geoeffective structures caused by CMEs, i.e. upstream compression regions with or without shocks, or ejecta. In other words, the travel times used by Cane et al. were purposefully and deliberately distinct from ejecta travel times (except for those slow ejecta, approx. 30% of their events, which generated no upstream features), and no error in identification was involved. The confusion of GMY stems from the description did not characterize the observations sufficiently clearly.

  6. In memory of Al Cameron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  7. Experimental study of thermal oxidation of nanoscale alloys of aluminium and zinc (nAlZn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Fahad; Wen, Dongsheng

    2015-10-01

    Aluminium-based alloys have wide applications but little is known about the thermal-chemical kinetics of nanoalloys. This work investigated the thermal oxidation of Zn and Al nanoalloys (nAlZn) with a BET equivalent diameter of 141 nm through the simultaneous TGA/DSC method. The thermal analysis was combined with elemental, morphology and crystalline structure analysis to elucidate the reaction mechanisms. It was found that the complete oxidation of nAlZn in air can be characterised by a three-stage process, including two endothermic and three exothermic reactions. With the help of ex-situ XRD, different reaction pathways were proposed for different stages, forming the end products of ZnO and ZnAl2O4. The reactivity comparison between Al and nAlZn suggested that different criteria should be used for different applications.

  8. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  9. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  10. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  11. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  12. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  13. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  14. Al-Co-Fe (030)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Co-Fe (030)' with the content:

  15. Al-La-Nb (068)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-La-Nb (068)' with the content:

  16. Al-Cu-Zr (050)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Cu-Zr (050)' with the content:

  17. Al-La-Ni (069)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-La-Ni (069)' with the content:

  18. Al-Au-La (010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Au-La (010)' with the content:

  19. Al-Ce-V (029)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Ce-V (029)' with the content:

  20. ALS: focus on purinergic signalling.

    PubMed

    Volonté, Cinzia; Apolloni, Savina; Carrì, Maria Teresa; D'Ambrosi, Nadia

    2011-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common neuromuscular diseases. It is devastating and fatal, causing progressive paralysis of all voluntary muscles and eventually death, while sparing cognitive functions. A pathological hallmark of ALS is neuroinflammation mediated by non-neuronal cells in the nervous system, such as microglia and astrocytes that accelerate the disease progression. Scientists have neither found a unique key mechanism, nor an effective treatment against ALS, supposedly because it is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Extracellular purines and pyrimidines are widespread and powerful physiopathological molecules, signalling to most cell types and directing cell-to-cell communication networks. They are instrumental for instance for neurotransmission, muscle contraction and immune surveillance. Recent work has reported the crucial involvement of purinergic pathways in many neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, comprising ALS. Especially P2 receptors for ATP, P1 receptors for adenosine, and nucleotide transporters were found to be modulated in ALS cells and tissues, playing a potential role in the disease. Given the composite cellular cross-talk occurring during ALS and the established action of extracellular purines/pyrimidines as neuron-to-glia alarm signal in the nervous system, a mutual query in these two fields should now be whether, how and when purinergic would meet ALS. In this review, we will highlight the early cellular and molecular purinergic cross-talk that participates to ALS etiopathology, with the conviction that better understanding of purinergic dynamics might provide original research perspectives, stimulate alternative disease modelling, and the design and testing of more powerful targeted therapeutics against this relentlessly progressive disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Removal of SO2 with a Mg-Al oxide slurry via reconstruction of a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Kodama, Aki; Fubasami, Yuki; Kumagai, Shogo; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2012-06-01

    Although effective treatments of SO(x) are essential for preventing air pollution, current methods pose other environmental problems such as increased amounts of desulfurized gypsum and reduced landfill lifetimes. We report a process for removing SO(2) from waste streams using a Mg-Al oxide slurry. The ability of the mixed oxide to remove SO(2) increased with slurry quantity and temperature but decreased with time. SO(2) was removed through the reconstruction of a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) intercalated with SO(3)(2-), which was derived from the dissociation of H(2)SO(3) upon dissolution of SO(2) in the slurry. SO(2) was not adsorbed onto the surface of the Mg-Al oxide. These results suggest that SO(2) removal using a Mg-Al oxide slurry may be possible without the concomitant problems of conventional treatment methods.

  2. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  4. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Al Jazeera and the DoD: The Need for Greater Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Facebook, Instagram , Pinterest and Google Plus to generate instant audience- based commentary and feedback. Highly popular among the young and educated...2003, Al Jazeera broadcasted video footage of five captured American Soldiers from the 507th Maintenance Company answering questions from their Iraqi...as Americans like Cliff Kincaid, the director of the AIM Center for Investigative Journalism, who was urging American cable companies to not air Al

  6. Urban Air Quality Modelling with AURORA: Prague and Bratislava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldeman, N.; Viaene, P.; De Ridder, K.; Peelaerts, W.; Lauwaet, D.; Muhammad, N.; Blyth, L.

    2012-04-01

    ) for air pollution and human exposure statistics for an entire year. So far we concentrated on Brussels, Belgium and the Rotterdam harbour area, The Netherlands. In this contribution we focus on the operational forecast services. Reference Lefebvre W. et al. (2011) Validation of the MIMOSA-AURORA-IFDM model chain for policy support: Modeling concentrations of elemental carbon in Flanders, Atmospheric Environment 45, 6705-6713

  7. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  8. Oxidation behavior of arc evaporated Al-Cr-Si-N thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tritremmel, Christian; Daniel, Rostislav; Mitterer, Christian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.; Lechthaler, Markus; Polcik, Peter

    2012-11-15

    The impact of Al and Si on the oxidation behavior of Al-Cr-(Si)-N thin films synthesized by arc evaporation of powder metallurgically prepared Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x} targets with x = Al/(Al + Cr) of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 and (Al{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}){sub 1-z}Si{sub z} targets with Si contents of z = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 in N{sub 2} atmosphere was studied in detail by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamical measurements in synthetic air (up to 1440 Degree-Sign C) revealed the highest onset temperature of pronounced oxidation for nitride coatings prepared from the Al{sub 0.4}Cr{sub 0.4}Si{sub 0.2} target. Isothermal TGA at 1100, 1200, 1250, and 1300 Degree-Sign C highlight the pronounced improvement of the oxidation resistance of Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x}N coatings by the addition of Si. The results show that Si promotes the formation of a dense coating morphology as well as a dense oxide scale when exposed to air.

  9. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  10. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  11. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  12. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  13. Sticking with air

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, S.N.

    2005-06-01

    A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

  14. An Air of Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Terry E.; Shonkwiler, Tonja; Birr, David

    1998-01-01

    Examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) problems can create difficulties for a school both administratively, and legally. Discusses how to identify the IAQ symptoms and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's industry standards for IAQ, as well as tips for reducing liability risk. (GR)

  15. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  16. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A 85 aboard unpressurized aircraft. These two patients, both of whom suffered from a bowel obstruction , were transported aboard unpressurized...services can safely transport patients with conditions (i.e. bowel obstruction , facial fractures, pneumothorax, intracranial air) which are clearly

  17. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  18. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  19. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  20. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730