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Sample records for aires metropolitan area

  1. EDUCATION IN METROPOLITAN AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAVIGHURST, ROBERT J.

    THIS BOOK DISCUSSES THE EFFECT OF METROPOLITANISM ON EDUCATION. METROPOLITANISM IS VIEWED BOTH AS A SET OF "EVENTS" AND AS A SET OF "GOALS" OR "TASKS" WHICH CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY SHOULD ACHIEVE. ONE PART OF THE BOOK DISCUSSES THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF METROPOLITAN AREAS AND THE OPERATION OF METROPOLITAN SCHOOL SYSTEMS. SUCH ISSUES AS…

  2. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the results of an investigation into the possible association between air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This investigation employed multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method) for infant mortality from pneumonia in 1980, including the study population's areas of residence, incomes, and pollution exposure as independent variables. With the income variable included in the regression, a statistically significant association was observed between the average annual level of particulates and infant mortality from pneumonia. While this finding should be accepted with caution, it does suggest a biological association between these variables. The authors' conclusion is that air quality indicators should be included in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  3. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  4. Air pollution trends and countermeasures of Seoul metropolitan area last 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.P.; Kim, J.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Seoul is a mega-city with the area of 605 km{sup 2} (0.6% of the total area of South Korea) but has about 25% (11 million) of the total population, 32% of the total vehicles, and more than 40% of the total national production. As a result, severe environmental problems have arisen in Seoul including frequent visibility impairment episodes and signs of photochemical smog. The visibility, air quality and gaseous characteristics of Seoul metropolitan were measured during the last several years, and investigated the air pollution trends and causes of last twenty years. The major parameters such as particle size distribution, light extinction budget, meteorological parameters and particle characteristics were measured and simulated. For this study, many different measurements of previous researchers' results were used in order to analyze the causes and counter measures. The yearly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particles were decreased due to strong Korean government air quality control and clean fuel supplying policies. But the yearly average concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide have not been decreased due to the drastically increased the number of vehicles and other impacts, such as transport of air pollutants from outside of Seoul. The smog phenomena and visibility impairment causes are to be more investigated in near future.

  5. Propane and butane emission sources to ambient air of Mexico City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Jaimes, L; Sandoval, J

    2002-04-22

    Samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in a smog chamber in order to determine whether automotive exhausts or LP Gas emissions play a greater role in the source of propane and butane, which affect ozone formation and other pollutants in the ambient air of the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA). These samples were collected in April 1995 during mornings and evenings. The testing methodology used for measuring exhaust emission were FTP or EPA-74 tests, and SHED type tests were also conducted in order to evaluate evaporative emissions. The finding from analysis of the VOCs collected in the morning demonstrate that in the atmosphere, propane concentrations are higher than that of butane but the reverse in evaporative and exhaust emissions, with the concentration of propane lower than that of butane. Our conclusion is that most of C3 and C4 in the ambient air comes from LP gas and not vehicle exhaust or evaporative emission, due to the higher levels of propane than butane in its formulation. The analysis of VOCs also indicates that although the conversion (in the smog chamber) of alkanes is low during the day, due to the high initial concentration, their contribution in the reaction mechanism to produce ozone can be appreciable.

  6. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  7. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  8. Method to Select Metropolitan Areas of Epidemiologic Interest for Enhanced Air Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s current Speciation Trends Network (STN) covers most major U.S. metropolitan areas and a wide range of particulate matter (PM) constituents and gaseous co-pollutants. However, using filter-based methods, most PM constituents are measured ...

  9. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  10. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control.

  11. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control. PMID:24649687

  12. Air pollution control in the Mexico City Metropolitan area. Results for the short-term program. Consolidated final report (revised). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The report represents the efforts of teams of experts from Mexico, Germany, France, and the United States in the area of air pollution control for the Mexico City metropolitan area. Specific tasks performed were: emissions data analysis; air quality monitoring program; control measure evaluation; and air quality modelling and analysis.

  13. Separate and Unequal: Residential Segregation and Estimated Cancer Risks Associated with Ambient Air Toxics in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Jesdale, Bill M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines links between racial residential segregation and estimated ambient air toxics exposures and their associated cancer risks using modeled concentration estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. We combined pollutant concentration estimates with potencies to calculate cancer risks by census tract for 309 metropolitan areas in the United States. This information was combined with socioeconomic status (SES) measures from the 1990 Census. Estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics were highest in tracts located in metropolitan areas that were highly segregated. Disparities between racial/ethnic groups were also wider in more segregated metropolitan areas. Multivariate modeling showed that, after controlling for tract-level SES measures, increasing segregation amplified the cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics for all racial groups combined [highly segregated areas: relative cancer risk (RCR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–107; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28–1.36]. This segregation effect was strongest for Hispanics (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.17; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.61–1.88) and weaker among whites (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24–1.33), African Americans (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98–1.21; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24–1.53), and Asians (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97–1.24; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16–1.51). Results suggest that disparities associated with ambient air toxics are affected by segregation and that these exposures may have health significance for populations across racial lines. PMID:16507462

  14. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  15. Assessment of a Megacity Air Quality Management Policy using the GAINS-Korea : Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Ahn, Y. H.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Amann, M.; Wagner, F.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution in and near megacities are very severe because of their massive pollutant emissions and high population density. Korea has ambitiously set its 2nd phase capitol air quality improvement program called Seoul metropolitan area Air Quality Management Plan(SAQMP), targeting the year 2024. The air quality improvement targets for the year 2024 are 30 ug/m3 and 20 ug/m3 for PM10 and pm2.5, respectively and planned expenditure are almost 4 billion US dollar. Emissions of PM10, PM2.5 are required to be decreased up to 35%, 45%, respectively, from their future baseline level. Various special measures, such as cap-and-trade, LNB, EURO standards program, will be implemented to control emissions over Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do area. Smart approach of reducing air pollution and GHGs are, however, required to maximize improvement of metropolitan air quality and climate change. IIASA's Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies(GAINS) modeling framework is an widely used tool to design and manage smart emission control strategies that can achieve air quality/climate improvements with least costs. We have developed the national version of GAINS for Korea (GAINS-Korea) to set up those strategies for national and regional scale. In this study, we have implemented SAQMP in the GAINS-Korea Model and assess its effects of emissions reduction and air quality improvements. Various analysis results using the framework will be presented at site.

  16. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  17. Roles of Uncontrollable VOC Emissions in the Regional Air Quality of the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Jeong, D.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Kim, H. Y.; Park, J.; Park, H.; Kim, S.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    Roles of natural (uncontrollable) reactive gas emissions in the suburbs of East Asian megacities have been highlighted in determining secondary pollutant formation processes. We will discuss oxidation capacity controlled by anthropogenic-biogenic interactions by presenting a trace gas observational dataset from a forest research site near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). As uncertainty in isoprene-OH interaction from low to intermediate NO conditions has not been fully resolved yet, we will particularly highlight implications of uncertainty in OH levels to ozone production regimes and OVOC production potentials using an observationally constrained 0-D box model (UWCM v 2.1). Multiple scenarios such as different isopreneperoxy radical photochemistry schemes are adapted for the assessments. In addition, the evaluation of NO2 overestimation by a conventional chemiluminescence instrument with a Mo-converter routinely utilized NO2 observations in East Asia will be also discussed by comparing observational datasets from a Thermo 42i NOx analyzer and a LGR CRDS NO2 instrument from summer to fall. The discussion will be evolved to assess potential uncertainty caused by the overestimation from the previous regional photochemistry assessment studies.

  18. The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Respiratory Disease: Maryland/DC Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushiva, A.; Strong, S. B.; Babin, S. M.; Paxton, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ground level ozone, or tropospheric ozone, forms smog and becomes directly harmful to humans by exacerbating respiratory conditions, primarily asthma (Knowlton et al. 2004). As climate change progresses, increased ozone concentrations emerge as a major public health concern (Gardiner et al. 2011). Increasing ground level ozone concentrations have been directly correlated with rising temperatures (Patz et al. 2005). The projected increase in ozone concentration caused by climate induced temperature change is 1-2 ppb in 2020 and 2-7 ppb in 2050, with associated temperature increases of 1-2 degrees Fahrenheit and 2-5.5 degrees Fahrenheit, respectively (UCS, 2011). Those with existing respiratory conditions, children and the elderly, and those who spend a significant amount of time outdoors are the most sensitive to ground level ozone pollution (Schlink et al. 2006). In Maryland, there would be approximately 68,894 occurrences of acute respiratory symptoms associated with a 2 ppb climate penalty in 2020, and the total costs for health impacts associated with this would be approximately $133,398,027 (UCS, 2011). In their 2011 "State of the Air" report, the American Lung Association rated the Washington/Baltimore/Northern Virginia region as one of the 25 most ozone polluted regions nationwide (ALA, 2011). We examine asthma hospital admissions data for the Maryland/DC metropolitan region between 2005 and 2010 and identify possible correlations with the reported ozone measurements provided by the EPA (CASTNET). We examine trends between the archived temperatures from NCEP reanalysis data, the EPA ozone data, and reported asthma cases. We utilize these trends to investigate the future impact of changes in ozone concentration based on the IPCC AR4 and SRES emissions scenarios and attempt to quantify the financial burden of its implications. Visualizations from this data can serve as important educational and planning tools for decision makers in the Maryland, DC, and

  19. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    PubMed

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996.

  20. Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, José M.; Gonçalves, María; Soret, Albert; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h -1 on motorways in a large city by using a novel methodology combining traffic assimilation data and modelling systems implemented in a supercomputing facility. Albeit the methodology has been non-specifically developed and can be extrapolated to any large city or megacity, the case study of Barcelona is presented here. Hourly simulations take into account the entire year 2008 (when the 80 km h -1 limit has been introduced) vs. the traffic conditions for the year 2007. The data has been assimilated in an emission model, which considers hourly variable speeds and hourly traffic intensity in the affected area, taken from long-term measurement campaigns for the aforementioned years; it also permits to take into account the traffic congestion effect. Overall, the emissions are reduced up to 4%; however the local effects of this reduction achieve an important impact for the adjacent area to the roadways, reaching 11%. In this sense, the speed limitation effects assessed represent enhancements in air quality levels (5-7%) of primary pollutants over the area, directly improving the welfare of 1.35 million inhabitants (over 41% of the population of the Metropolitan Area) and affecting 3.29 million dwellers who are potentially benefited from this strategy for air quality management (reducing 0.6% the mortality rates in the area).

  1. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  2. ["I was like a ticking bomb": Experiences of severe maternal morbidity in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Szulik, Dalia; Szwarc, Lucila

    2015-12-01

    With the objective of recording and analyzing women's experiences with severe maternal morbidity from their perspective, between February and May 2011, 16 semi-structured interviews with women treated in the public hospitals of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area who suffered from severe maternal morbidity were carried out. In their testimonies, women report a number of delays in care, such as difficulties in identifying the problem on time, obstacles in accessing health centers and important faults in the management of obstetric emergencies. They describe the event as surprising, distressing and painful, a perception reinforced by the violation of their rights and significant communication problems. These findings are meant as a step towards the holistic and comprehensive study of severe maternal morbidity, as well as to confirm the urgent need for further research from a gender and humans rights perspective. PMID:26676597

  3. Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of

  4. Impact of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of tuberculosis in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-sik; Kang, Sungchan; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Sung Koo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Although indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), the possible link between outdoor air pollution and TB development has not been examined fully. We assessed the impact of outdoor air pollution on TB development in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea. Methods The mean concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels in Seoul, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006, were determined. Furthermore, their association with the risk of developing TB after adjusting for socioeconomic status, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, was investigated. Results Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, a total of 41,185 TB cases were reported in Seoul. Concentrations of PM10, O3, CO, and NO2 were not associated with TB incidence in males or females. However, the interquartile increase in SO2 concentration was associated with a 7% increment in TB incidence (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.03 to 1.12) in males but not in females (RR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.98 to 1.07). Conclusions Long-term exposure to ambient SO2 increased the risk of TB in males. PMID:24648801

  5. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  6. Investigation Into the Use of Satellite Data in Aiding Characterization of Particulate Air Quality in the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Erica J.; Sokolik, Irina, N.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intra-city PM2.5 concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. Both PM2.5 and MODIS AOD show more increases in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. A majority of OMI AI is below 0.5. Using this value as an ambient measure of carbonaceous aerosols in the urban area, aerosol transport events can be identified. Our results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the AQI through the use of past AOD for a specific area. We use the NAAQS to classify the AOD into different AQI codes, and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent the majority of a specific AQI category. For example, the majority 80% of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 - 0.6. The development of thresholds could be a tool used to evaluate air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  7. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  8. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  9. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  10. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  11. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  12. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  13. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children. PMID:25543546

  14. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  15. The Arts in Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Elizabeth M.

    A consideration of the arts and cultural life is indispensable to any study of the quality of life in U.S. metropolitan areas. However, literature reviews reveal that the arts are often omitted in quality of life studies, and, if included, the assessment may not be derived from sound empirical analysis. This document describes and evaluates "The…

  16. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  17. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  18. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  19. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  20. 40 CFR 81.200 - Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.200 Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial area...

  1. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Marquezini, Mônica V.; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Santos, Ubiratan P.; Braga, Alfésio L. F.; Alves, Milton R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, among them nineteen professionals who work on streets (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, Group 1) and eleven workers of a Forest Institute (Group 2, lower pollutants exposure compared to group 1) were evaluated twice, 15 days apart. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter equal or smaller than 2.5 μm) was 24 hour individually collected and the collection of tears was performed to measure interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 5 and 10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. Data from both groups were compared using Student’s t test or Mann- Whitney test for cytokines. Individual PM2.5 levels were categorized in tertiles (lower, middle and upper) and compared using one-way ANOVA. Relationship between PM2.5 and cytokine levels was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results PM2.5 levels in the three categories differed significantly (lower: ≤22 μg/m3; middle: 23–37.5 μg/m3; upper: >37.5 μg/m3; p<0.001). The subjects from the two groups were distributed unevenly in the lower category (Group 1 = 8%; Group 2 = 92%), the middle category (Group 1 = 89%; Group 2 = 11%) and the upper category (Group 1 = 100%). A significant relationship was found between IL-5 and IL-10 and PM2.5 levels of the group 1, with an average decrease of 1.65 pg/mL of IL-5 level and of 0.78 pg/mL of IL-10 level in tear samples for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusion High levels of PM2.5 exposure is associated

  2. [Genomic heterogeneity of hepatitis B virus, genotype A circulating in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Mariana; de Torres, R A

    1996-01-01

    HVB DNA was extracted from highly purified Dane particles, from sera of HBV viremic patients, collected in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina). HBV DNA was cloned in pUC18 vector, amplified in Escherichia coli DH5 F'. Plasmids were recovered and analyzed for HBV DNA inserts. Three recombinant plasmids, pHB4, pHB7 and pHB20 were selected, and HBVDNA inserts sequenced. The resulted sequences were incorporated at the GenBank, with the following accession numbers: PHB4P3=U33188; PHB4P5=U33189; PHB7P3=U33190; PHB7P5=U33191 and PHB20=U33190; PHB7P5=U33191 and PHB20=U33187. All belongs to the genotype A, pHB4 and pHB20 have a very close relation in between each other and with L13994 sequence, from North America origin. pHB7 have a significant distance from pHB4 and pHB20 and have a discrete homology with m57633 detected in Philippines. pHB4 shows a mutation at the T 3182-Leu in the preS1 region that change Pro for Leu, this mutation is absent in 125 sequences selected (having a 65% or more of homology) from NCBI by Blast algortm. The sequence of the pre C regions of all three inserts do not show any evidence to belong to the e-or scape mutants. Type A genotypes shows to be common in the area, but a hight degree of divergence have been demonstrate between two circulating strains. PMID:9335928

  3. [Genomic heterogeneity of hepatitis B virus, genotype A circulating in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Mariana; de Torres, R A

    1996-01-01

    HVB DNA was extracted from highly purified Dane particles, from sera of HBV viremic patients, collected in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina). HBV DNA was cloned in pUC18 vector, amplified in Escherichia coli DH5 F'. Plasmids were recovered and analyzed for HBV DNA inserts. Three recombinant plasmids, pHB4, pHB7 and pHB20 were selected, and HBVDNA inserts sequenced. The resulted sequences were incorporated at the GenBank, with the following accession numbers: PHB4P3=U33188; PHB4P5=U33189; PHB7P3=U33190; PHB7P5=U33191 and PHB20=U33190; PHB7P5=U33191 and PHB20=U33187. All belongs to the genotype A, pHB4 and pHB20 have a very close relation in between each other and with L13994 sequence, from North America origin. pHB7 have a significant distance from pHB4 and pHB20 and have a discrete homology with m57633 detected in Philippines. pHB4 shows a mutation at the T 3182-Leu in the preS1 region that change Pro for Leu, this mutation is absent in 125 sequences selected (having a 65% or more of homology) from NCBI by Blast algortm. The sequence of the pre C regions of all three inserts do not show any evidence to belong to the e-or scape mutants. Type A genotypes shows to be common in the area, but a hight degree of divergence have been demonstrate between two circulating strains.

  4. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  5. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  6. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  7. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  8. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  9. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  10. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  15. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  17. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  18. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  19. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  1. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  2. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  3. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  7. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  10. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  11. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  12. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  14. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  17. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  19. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  20. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  1. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  2. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  6. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  7. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  8. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  9. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  10. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  12. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  17. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.86 Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region....

  18. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.86 Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region....

  19. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.86 Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region....

  20. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.86 Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region....

  1. Metropolitan Areas as Redistributors of Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Curtis C.; McHugh, Kevin E.

    This paper reports on a demographic study that focuses on the patterns of migration to and from specific metropolitan areas which contribute to nonmetropolitan growth and decline. For background, the paper examines some general properties of the United States migration system. Then the concept of metropolitan areas as redistributors of population…

  2. 40 CFR 81.25 - Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.25 Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality...

  3. 40 CFR 81.25 - Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.25 Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality...

  4. 40 CFR 81.25 - Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.25 Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality...

  5. 40 CFR 81.25 - Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.25 Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality...

  6. Characterization of the NOx-Ox relationship in a mountain gap rural area of interchange of air masses southeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Garcia-Yee, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.; Barrera Huertas, H.; Torres-Jaramillo, A.; Ortinez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Varying levels of oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2) with respect to NOx were registered at three sites in a mountain southeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in February and March 2011. The Ox-NOx ratio was used to gain a better understanding of the photochemical and transport processes happening over this mountain pass. Relatively high concentrations of O3 (moving average concentrations of 8 hours) exceeded maximum levels of the World Health Organization, and the European Union. The cumulative exceedances above background level of O3 in the one month-long campaign also exceeded the three months accumulative UN-ECE AOT40 critical level for crop protection. It was observed that the level of Ox in the mountain gap sites consisted of two contributions: One, independent of NOx emissions, extremely dominant and considered equivalent to the regional background O3 concentration; the second and much smaller was dependent of NOx local concentrations. Evidence was found that the oxidation of NO provided the major contribution of NO2 to Ox, rather than direct NO2 emissions. The contribution of regional Ox dominated from midmorning to noon when the boundary layer height began to increase due to sunlight heating of the surface leading to the mixing of higher concentrations of O3 above the nighttime thermal inversion. After noon, when the ozone vertical distribution was uniform, the Ox and O3 concentrations reached their maximum; they were very similar with very low levels of NO2. The analysis of wind data collected at the monitoring sites showed that from mid-morning to early afternoon, a northerly weak flow was common. Afterwards stronger southerly winds became dominant bringing in O3 rich air parcels into the atmospheric basin where MCMA is located. The high regional ozone concentrations add evidence for the need of coordinated air quality management policies for the complete central part of Mexico. Keywords: mountain gap, oxidant, ground level ozone, Central Mexico

  7. Assessing Public Health Impacts of Heat and Air Quality Under a Changing Climate in the New York City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, K.; Kinney, P. L.; Rosenthal, J. E.; Lynn, B.; Gaffin, S.; Hogrefe, C.; Biswas, J.; Civerolo, K.; Ku, J.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.

    2003-12-01

    New tools are needed for assessing public health impacts of climate change. This paper describes the results of an integrated assessment of the health impacts of global climate change in the New York metropolitan region, projected for the decade of the 2050s. The model systems used for this study are the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global Atmosphere-Ocean Model; the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale meteorological model; the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE); and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for simulating air quality. Simulations are performed for five summer seasons each during the 1990s and the 2050s, using greenhouse gas emissions projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 scenario. The GISS global climate model at 4 x 5 degree horizontal resolution is used as input to the MM5 model run at nested grids down to 36 km resolution. The MM5 at 36 km subsequently serves as input for the CMAQ ozone simulations. A risk assessment modeling framework is used to estimate summer heat- and ozone-related mortality in the region, with a focus on comparing respective estimates for the 1990s versus the 2050s. These endpoints represent two potentially appreciable public health impacts resulting from climate change-induced alterations in regional temperature and air quality profiles. Concentration-response functions from the epidemiological literature describing temperature-mortality and ozone-mortality relationships are applied in the risk assessment, to estimate numbers of regional deaths in a typical 1990s summer and a typical 2050s summer. An evaluation to define ozone-related mortality uses a minimum-value threshold applied across the 1-hour daily maximum ozone model outputs, to identify days that pose an elevated relative risk of ozone mortality. A parallel evaluation of heat-related mortality applies a 23.08° C (73.54° F) threshold value, above which the relative risk of heat

  8. A low cost Mobile Network System for monitoring climate and air quality of urban areas at high resolution: a preliminary application in Florence (IT) metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibari, Camilla; Moriondo, Marco; Matese, Alessandro; Sabatini, Francesco; Trombi, Giacomo; Zaldei, Alessandro; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The combination of the "Heat island effect" coupled with higher frequencies of extreme events (e.g. heat waves) due to climate change is of great concern for human health in urban areas. Anomalies of summer 2003, mentioned as possible typical climate for the near future summers (Schär et al., 2004), caused about 7,000 deaths in Italy and over 35,000 in the whole Europe. Furthermore, more than 50% of world's population is living in urban areas and, given the unprecedented urbanization rate that is expected in the next future, cities will likely be exposed to a growing environmental pressure in the following decades. Accordingly, climate monitoring of urban areas is gradually becoming a key element of planning that cannot be disregarded for an efficient public health management and for the development of a city scale Heat Waves Warning System tool, which is based on meteorological forecast of both air temperatures and humidity at a synoptic scale (Pascal et al., 2006). Building on these premises, a low cost Mobile Weather Station (MWS), to be placed on urban public transport, has been assembled. This mobile station logs every minute both meteorological variables (i.e. temperature and air humidity) and air quality parameters (i.e. atmospheric CO2 concentration and noise detection); the geographical position of each MWS's measurement is also recorded thanks to the built-in GPS antenna. The system, equipped with a data logger for data storage based on the open-source hardware platform Arduino, can also transmit data in real time via GPRS. The quality of meteorological and environmental data acquired by MWS was evaluated both on pre-existing steady meteorological stations of the metropolitan area of Florence (Petralli et al., 2010), and on professional research-grade data logger (Campbell CR800), logging air temperature in a non-aspirated shield by means of sensors at fast (thermocouple) and slower (digital) time response. Two prototypes of stations were thus designed

  9. Development of a speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system--a case study on the precursors of photochemical smog in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, J W

    2000-03-01

    A speciated, hourly, and gridded air pollutants emission modeling system (SHEMS) was developed and applied in predicting hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) levels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). The primary goal of the SHEMS was to produce a systemized emission inventory for air pollutants including ozone precursors for modeling air quality in urban areas. The SHEMS is principally composed of three parts: (1) a pre-processor to process emission factors, activity levels, and spatial and temporal information using a geographical information system; (2) an emission model for each source type; and (3) a post-processor to produce report and input data for air quality models through database modeling. The source categories in SHEMS are point, area, mobile, natural, and other sources such as fugitive emissions. The emission database produced by SHEMS contains 22 inventoried compounds: sulfur dioxide, NO2, carbon monoxide, and 19 speciated volatile organic compounds. To validate SHEMS, the emission data were tested with the Urban Airshed Model to predict NO2 and O3 concentrations in the SMA during selected episode days in 1994. The results turned out to be reliable in describing temporal variation and spatial distribution of those pollutants.

  10. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area...

  11. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: results for 1988 and 1989 summers

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D.; Ito, K.; Kinney, P.L.; Lippmann, M. )

    1992-10-01

    As part of a multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in the Buffalo, Albany, and New York City, New York, metropolitan areas, filter samples were collected daily at suburban air monitoring sites and analyzed for their content of particulate phase aerosol strong acidity (i.e., hydrogen ion, H+) and sulfate (SO4 =). In addition, daily hospital admissions for respiratory causes, other community air pollutant measurements (e.g., ozone, O3), and meteorological data (e.g., temperature) were also obtained for these metropolitan areas. The summer months (June-August) were selected for analysis because that is when the highest H+ (and O3) are usually experienced at these sites, and because these months are rarely complicated by other major influences (e.g., high pollen counts). Thus, any pollution-admissions relationships were expected to be most clearly discernible in this season. Prior to the health effects analysis, the summer admissions and environmental data were first detrended to eliminate long-wave autocorrelations, and day-of-week effects were removed via regression. Cross-correlations of the filtered 1988 and 1989 admissions and environmental data revealed strong associations between elevated summer haze pollution (i.e., H+, SO4 =, and O3) and increased total respiratory and asthma admissions on the same day and/or on subsequent days in Buffalo and New York City, especially during the summer of 1988 (when pollution levels were more extreme). Regression analyses indicated that the pollution-admissions associations remained significant (p < 0.05) even after the simultaneous inclusion of lagged daily maximum temperature. Mean effects calculations for these cities indicated that summertime haze can play a significant role in the occurrence of respiratory admissions in that season: accounting for an average 6 to 24% of 1988 Buffalo and NYC asthma admissions. O3 consistently had the highest mean effects estimates.

  12. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: results for 1988 and 1989 summers.

    PubMed

    Thurston, G D; Ito, K; Kinney, P L; Lippmann, M

    1992-01-01

    As part of a multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in the Buffalo, Albany, and New York City, New York, metropolitan areas, filter samples were collected daily at suburban air monitoring sites and analyzed for their content of particulate phase aerosol strong acidity (i.e., hydrogen ion, H+) and sulfate (SO4 = ). In addition, daily hospital admissions for respiratory causes, other community air pollutant measurements (e.g., ozone, O3), and meteorological data (e.g., temperature) were also obtained for these metropolitan areas. The summer months (June-August) were selected for analysis because that is when the highest H+ (and O3) are usually experienced at these sites, and because these months are rarely complicated by other major influences (e.g., high pollen counts). Thus, any pollution-admissions relationships were expected to be most clearly discernible in this season. Prior to the health effects analysis, the summer admissions and environmental data were first detrended to eliminate long-wave autocorrelations, and day-of-week effects were removed via regression. Cross-correlations of the filtered 1988 and 1989 admissions and environmental data revealed strong associations between elevated summer haze pollution (i.e., H+, SO4 =, and O3) and increased total respiratory and asthma admissions on the same day and/or on subsequent days in Buffalo and New York City, especially during the summer of 1988 (when pollution levels were more extreme). Regression analyses indicated that the pollution-admissions associations remained significant (p < 0.05) even after the simultaneous inclusion of lagged daily maximum temperature. Mean effects calculations for these cities indicated that summertime haze can play a significant role in the occurrence of respiratory admissions in that season: accounting for an average 6 to 24% of 1988 Buffalo and NYC asthma admissions (depending on the pollutant index employed). O3 consistently had the highest mean

  13. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and the impact outside the source region, mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross-section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements axially along the flow of the city's pollution plume to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume, are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  14. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2013-08-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and impact outside the source region mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements radially away from the city center to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  15. NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Since 2007, more than half of the world's population live in urban areas. Urban atmospheres are dominated by pollutants associated with vehicular emissions. Transport emissions are an important source of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions, species of high interest because of their negative health effects and their contribution to the formation of secondary pollutants responsible for photochemical smog. NMVOCs emissions are generally not very well represented in emission inventories and their speciation presents a high level of uncertainty. In general, emissions from South American countries are still quite unknown for the international community, and usually present a high degree of uncertainty due to the lack of available data to compile emission inventories. Within the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI, www.iai.int) projects, UMESAM (Urban Mobile Emissions in South American Megacities) and SAEMC (South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate, http://saemc.cmm.uchile.cl/), the effort was made to compute on-road transport emission inventories for South American megacities, namely Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, Sao Paulo and Santiago de Chile, considering megacities as urban agglomerations with more than 5 million inhabitants. The present work is a continuation of these projects, with the aim to extend the calculated NMVOCs emissions inventory into the individual species required by CTMs. The on-road mobile sector of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina, accounted for 70 Gg of NMVOCs emissions for 2006, without considering two-wheelers. Gasoline light-duty vehicles were responsible for 64% of NMVOCs emissions, followed by compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles (22%), diesel heavy-duty vehicles (11%) and diesel light-duty vehicles (7%). NMVOCs emissions were speciated according to fuel and technology, employing the European COPERT (Ntziachristos & Samaras, 2000) VOCs speciation scheme for

  16. [Costs of air pollution in Brazilian metropolitan regions].

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of health events associated with air pollution in Brazilian metropolitan regions. From the estimated mortality attributable to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in 29 metropolitan areas, with a total of 20,050 deaths, the costs associated with mortality were calculated by means of the use of DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years) methodology. The cost of premature deaths in Brazil resulted in $ 1.7 billion annually. Translating losses in public health to economic values served to compare this data with the expense budget of the Ministry of Health and highlight priorities in decision-making of public policies that minimize the magnitude of these impacts.

  17. Nitrogen deposition in the greater Tehran metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Salahi, A; Geranfar, S; Korori, S A

    2001-12-01

    An investigation of air pollution in the Tehran metropolitan area between 1992-2000 indicated that there are significant amounts of nitrate ion (NO3-), over 30 kg/ha/year, deposited as wet deposition, compared to 13 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland near the Tehran metropolitan area. The amount of NO3- in warm seasons is twofold that of cold seasons, and there was a significant difference between cold and warm seasons. Annual wet deposition of ammonia (NH3) was 10 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland.

  18. Saturation sampling for spatial variation in multiple air pollutants across an inversion-prone metropolitan area of complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterizing intra-urban variation in air quality is important for epidemiological investigation of health outcomes and disparities. To date, however, few studies have been designed to capture spatial variation during select hours of the day, or to examine the roles of meteorology and complex terrain in shaping intra-urban exposure gradients. Methods We designed a spatial saturation monitoring study to target local air pollution sources, and to understand the role of topography and temperature inversions on fine-scale pollution variation by systematically allocating sampling locations across gradients in key local emissions sources (vehicle traffic, industrial facilities) and topography (elevation) in the Pittsburgh area. Street-level integrated samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were collected during morning rush and probable inversion hours (6-11 AM), during summer and winter. We hypothesized that pollution concentrations would be: 1) higher under inversion conditions, 2) exacerbated in lower-elevation areas, and 3) vary by season. Results During July - August 2011 and January - March 2012, we observed wide spatial and seasonal variability in pollution concentrations, exceeding the range measured at regulatory monitors. We identified elevated concentrations of multiple pollutants at lower-elevation sites, and a positive association between inversion frequency and NO2 concentration. We examined temporal adjustment methods for deriving seasonal concentration estimates, and found that the appropriate reference temporal trend differs between pollutants. Conclusions Our time-stratified spatial saturation approach found some evidence for modification of inversion-concentration relationships by topography, and provided useful insights for refining and interpreting GIS-based pollution source indicators for Land Use Regression modeling. PMID:24735818

  19. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  20. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  1. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  2. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  3. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  4. Seasonal evaluation of bioaerosols from indoor air of residential apartments within the metropolitan area in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyong Whan; Huh, Eun Hae; Jeong, Ho Chul

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the levels of bioaerosols including airborne culturable bacteria (total suspended bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative bacteria), fungi, endotoxin, and viruses (influenza A, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus types A/B, parainfluenza virus types 1/2/3, metapnemovirus, and adenovirus) and their seasonal variations in indoor air of residential apartments. Of the total suspended bacteria cultured in an indoor environment, Staphylococcus was dominant and occupied 49.0 to 61.3% of indoor air. Among Staphylococcus, S. aureus were detected in 100% of households' indoor air ranging from 4 to 140 CFU/m(3), and 66% of households were positive for MRSA ranging from 2 to 80 CFU/m(3). Staphylococcus and S. aureus concentrations correlated with indoor temperature (adjusted β: 0.4440 and 0.403, p < 0.0001). Among respiratory viruses, adenovirus was detected in 14 (14%) samples and influenza A virus was detected in 3 (3%) samples regarding the indoor air of apartments. Adenovirus concentrations were generally higher in winter (mean concentration was 2,106 copies/m(3)) than in spring (mean concentration was 173 copies/m(3)), with concentrations ranging between 12 and 560 copies/m(3). Also, a strong negative correlation between adenovirus concentrations and relative humidity in indoor air was observed (r = -0.808, p < 0.01). Furthermore, temperature also negatively correlated with adenovirus concentrations (r = -0.559, p < 0.05).

  5. In-vehicle exposures to particulate air pollution in Canadian metropolitan areas: the urban transportation exposure study.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kulka, Ryan; Sun, Liu; Wallace, Lance; Joseph, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Commuters may be exposed to increased levels of traffic-related air pollution owing to close proximity to traffic-emissions. We collected in-vehicle and roof-top air pollution measurements over 238 commutes in Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, Canada between 2010 and 2013. Voice recordings were used to collect real-time information on traffic density and the presence of diesel vehicles and multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the impact of these factors on in-vehicle pollutant concentrations (and indoor/outdoor ratios) along with parameters for road type, land use, and meteorology. In-vehicle PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations consistently exceeded regional outdoor levels and each unit increase in the rate of encountering diesel vehicles (count/min) was associated with substantial increases (>100%) in in-vehicle concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, and PM2.5 as well as strong increases (>15%) in indoor/outdoor ratios. A model based on meteorology and the length of highway roads within a 500 m buffer explained 53% of the variation in in-vehicle UFPs; however, models for PM2.5 (R(2) = 0.24) and black carbon (R(2) = 0.30) did not perform as well. Our findings suggest that vehicle commuters experience increased exposure to air pollutants and that traffic characteristics, land use, road types, and meteorology are important determinants of these exposures.

  6. Changing racial composition of metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of Hispanics and Asians or Pacific Islanders residing in the largest metropolitan areas increased by a remarkable 60 percent and 127 percent, respectively. In April 1990, there were 4.9 million persons of Asian or Pacific Islander origin and 14.1 million of Hispanic background living in the 25 most populous urban centers; they constituted roughly two-thirds of the nation's total population of these ethnic groups. For the most part, the destinations of these newcomers were primarily the big metropolitan areas of the West and Southwest regions of the country, although the urban centers of the Northeast and North Central attracted large numbers. By contrast, in this period the number of blacks--the largest minority group--rose by only one-seventh.

  7. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  8. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  9. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  10. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  11. 40 CFR 81.18 - Metropolitan St. Louis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan St. Louis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.18 Section 81.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  12. 40 CFR 81.86 - Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Sioux City Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.86 Section 81.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  13. 40 CFR 81.25 - Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Kansas City Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.25 Section 81.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  14. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.102 Section 81.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  15. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  16. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  17. 12 CFR 1010.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption... (REGULATION J) General Requirements § 1010.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility... fewer than 300 lots since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical...

  18. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use changes give effects to physical properties such as albedo, moisture availability and roughness length in the atmosphere, but future urban growth has not been considered widely to predict the future regional climate change because it is hard to predict the future land-use changes. In this study, we used the urban growth model called SLEUTH (Slope, Land-use, Excluded, Urban, Transportation, Hill-shade) based on Cellular Automata (CA) technique to predict the future land-use (especially, urban growth) changes. Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the research area in this study, is the most explosively developed region in the Korean peninsula due to the continuous industrialization since 1970s. SLEUTH was calibrated to know the pattern and process of the urban growth and expansion in SMA with historical data for 35 years (1975-2000) provided from WAter Management Information System (WAMIS) in Korea and then future urban growth was projected out to 2050 assuming three different scenarios: (1) historical trends of urban growth (SC1), (2) future urban policy and plan (SC2), (3) ecological protection and growth (SC3). We used the FNL data of NCEP/NCAR for one month, Oct. in 2005 to evaluate the performance of the WRF on the long-term climate simulation and compared results of WRF with the ASOS/AWS (Automated Surface Observing Systems and Automated Weather System) observation data of the Korea Meteorology Administration. Based on the accuracy of the model, we performed various numerical experiments by the urban growth scenarios using the 6 hourly data of ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios generated by Max-Plank Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany on Oct. for 5 years (2046-2050), respectively. The difference of urban ratio under various urban growth scenarios in SMA consequently caused the spatial distributions of temperature to change, the average temperature to increase in the urban area. PBL height with a maximum of about 200m also appeared locally in newly

  19. Evaluation of the changes in the Madrid metropolitan area influencing air quality: Analysis of 1999-2008 temporal trend of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, P.; Artíñano, B.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2012-09-01

    During the 1999-2008 period a statistically significant downward trend in the concentrations of SO2, NOx, CO and PM2.5 was determined at most of the urban and urban-background monitoring sites in the Madrid metropolitan area. However, no statistically significant trend was detected in PM10 concentrations at any urban and rural site and in NO2 concentrations at the urban sites. The reduction in the annual coal consumption and in the number of gasoline vehicles and the use of particle filters for diesel engines in this area, have contributed to this reduction of SO2, CO and fine PM concentrations, but the increase of the diesel fleet is probably the cause of an increase of the NO2/NOx ratio and the lack of a decreasing trend of NO2 concentrations. Chemical characterisation and receptor modelling analysis results showed that mean contributions to PM10 and PM2.5 levels attributed to anthropogenic sources throughout the 1999-2008 period, decreased at the Madrid urban areas mainly by reductions in their carbonaceous and SO42- contents. However, the contribution of mineral dust to PM10 bulk levels did not significantly decrease at the urban sites. Thus, strategies aimed at reducing levels of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations focussing mainly on road traffic and coal consumption, can be insufficient to reduce the number of days exceeding the PM10 Daily Limit Value (50 μg m-3) at some metropolitan areas, such as Madrid, where crustal content due to anthropogenic activities and natural phenomena is elevated even when the African dust contribution during episodic days is excluded. Changes in the structure of the metropolitan area such as the increase of the Madrid car fleet and of its proportion of diesel vehicles, could also contribute to keep or increase the concentration of other pollutants (NO2) which resulted in increases of the NO3- contribution to PM10 and PM2.5 levels.

  20. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.102 Section 81.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING...

  1. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.102 Section 81.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING...

  2. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.102 Section 81.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING...

  3. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.102 Section 81.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING...

  4. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality...

  5. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.

  6. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced

  7. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 CFR 1710.13 have been met in the sale or lease of the lot(s) described above. I also affirm that I... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 CFR 1710.13 have been met in the sale or lease of the lot(s) described above. I also affirm that I... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 CFR 1710.13 have been met in the sale or lease of the lot(s) described above. I also affirm that I... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  11. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions Pt....

  15. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Opportunities for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report intended for officials responsible for solving metropolitan problems identifies ways that telecommunications could improve the delivery of public services to metropolitan communities during the 1980's. Areas included in this study are delivery of public services to the home, operation of mobile public services, personal security…

  16. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  17. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  18. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  19. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  20. 23 CFR 450.312 - Metropolitan planning area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan planning area boundaries. 450.312 Section 450.312 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  1. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  2. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  3. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  4. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  5. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  6. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  7. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  8. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  9. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  10. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to...

  11. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  12. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  13. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  14. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  15. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metropolitan...

  16. 40 CFR 81.40 - Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.40 Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been revised...

  17. 40 CFR 81.40 - Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.40 Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been revised...

  18. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  19. Local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Many cities around the world are located in mountainous areas. Understanding local circulations in mountainous urban areas is important for improving local weather and air quality prediction as well as understanding thermally forced mesoscale flow dynamics. In this study, we examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, metropolitan area using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model. Ulaanbaatar lies in an east-west-oriented valley between the northern base of Mt. Bogd Khan and the southern base of branches of the Khentiin Nuruu mountain range. Idealized summertime fair-weather conditions with no synoptic winds are considered. In the daytime, mountain upslope winds, up-valley winds, and urban breeze circulation form and interact with each other. Mountain upslope winds precede up-valley winds. It is found that the transition of upslope winds to downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan occurs and the downslope winds in the afternoon strengthen due to urban breezes. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds are prominent and strong channeling flows form over the city. The sensitivities of local circulations to urban fraction, atmospheric stability, and soil water content are examined. As urban fraction increases, daytime up-valley winds over the city and daytime downslope winds on the urban-side slope of Mt. Bogd Khan strengthen. Daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city strengthen with increasing atmospheric stability. As soil water content decreases, daytime near-surface up-valley winds in the city weaken. The daytime urban atmospheric boundary-layer height is found to be sensitive to atmospheric stability and soil water content. This study is a first attempt to examine local circulations in and around the Ulaanbaatar metropolitan area and demonstrates that the city alters mountain slope winds and up-/down-valley winds.

  20. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  1. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  2. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas. PMID:26618317

  3. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  4. Expanding metropolitan highways: Implications for air quality and energy use. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This study is focused on the effects of investment in highway capacity on air quality and energy use in metropolitan areas. Its primary audience is metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), state officials, legislators, and courts with oversight responsibilities. The purpose of this study is to review the current state of knowledge, evaluate the scientific evidence, and narrow the areas of disagreement about the impacts of highway capacity additions on traffic flow characteristics, travel demand, land use, vehicle emissions, air quality, and energy use. The state of modeling practice is also examined to assess the reliability of forecasting tools available to planning agencies; research, modeling improvements, and data collection are recommended to help narrow the gap between regulatory requirements and analytic capabilities.

  5. [The metropolitan area of Monterrey in the year 2020].

    PubMed

    Garza, G

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses possible future trends in economic development and urbanization in the city of Monterrey, Mexico. Information is provided on metropolitan growth from 1940 to 1995; population size and growth rate; extension of the urban area; deconcentration; and projections according to land use.

  6. Private School Choice in the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of private school choice in the Chicago metropolitan area are examined. Particular attention is given to the effects of race and ethnicity. Results include non-Hispanic White, Blacks, and Hispanics having a higher demand for private schools where there are higher concentrations of Blacks. Non-Hispanic Whites also have a higher…

  7. Ethnic Settlement in a Metropolitan Area: A Typology of Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agocs, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of changing ethnic residential distributions from 1940-1970 to identify recently evolved forms of ethnic settlement in the Detroit (Michigan) metropolitan area. Identifies and classifies contemporary types of ethnic communities to expand the knowledge of ethnic settlement. (MK)

  8. US Metropolitan-area Variation in Environmental Inequality Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Downey, Liam

    2007-05-01

    Over the past 20 years a steadily increasing number of researchers have investigated the relationship between neighbourhood demographic composition and environmental hazard presence. However, relatively few researchers have attempted to determine why the distribution of social groups around environmental hazards takes the form that it does or why some studies find strong evidence of environmental racial inequality while others do not. One possible explanation for this is that environmental racial inequality levels vary from one location to another. In order to see if this is the case, the article compares environmental racial inequality levels in the 61 largest metropolitan areas in the continental US, holding the unit of analysis, type of hazard, type of region and comparison population constant across metropolitan areas. Analyses demonstrate that environmental racial inequality levels do vary across metropolitan areas. Thus, after presenting these analyses, hypotheses are tested that make predictions about the determinants of this variation. These hypothesis tests show that neither residential segregation nor racial income inequality does a good job of explaining metropolitan-area variation in environmental inequality outcomes in the US.

  9. Law and Order in the Metropolitan Area: Issues and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Matthew, Jr.

    One of the major objectives of the University Urban Interface Program (UUIP) at the University of Pittsburgh was to develop some long-range goals for the city of Pittsburgh to improve the community. This document is specifically concerned with law and order in the metropolitan area with regard to reforms needed in the machinery. If people were to…

  10. Changes in the Distribution of Poverty across and within the US Metropolitan Areas, 1979-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Janice Fanning

    1996-01-01

    This study measures the effects of changes in social, demographic, economic, and structural characteristics of metropolitan areas on the changes in metropolitan poverty rates and in the spatial concentrations of poverty in their central cities. Findings support the view that metropolitan economic growth reduces metropolitan poverty. (Author/SLD)

  11. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of...

  12. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial...

  13. 77 FR 47581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  14. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  15. A COMPARISON OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS BETWEEN TWO APPARENT SOCIO-ECONOMICALLY DIVERSE POPULATIONS IN THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to certain size fractions of ambient air Particulate Matter (PM) have been related to apparent associations in increased mortality and morbidity in the U.S. population. This risk association would appear to be relevant to the general population and even more pro...

  16. Erratum to "Temperature and hydrological variations of the urban environment in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan".

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wen-Zer; Peng, Tsung-Ren; Tsai, Hsiao-Chung

    2009-04-15

    In this study, the temperature, precipitation and groundwater level variations and changing patterns with varied time scales are presented for Taipei metropolitan area which consists of the capital city with neighboring counties. Along with the continuous city expansion during the past decades, global warming and heat island effect have generated perceivable negative impacts on environmental and reflect on the climatic and hydrological parameters. In addition to accelerating climate warming, hydrological extremity becomes more evident during the past decades and greatly elevates the risks of drought and floods in the study area. These observations in the Taipei metropolitan area support the common hypothesis that climate variability would increase as climate warms. The air temperature records, in conjunction with hydrological data, provide useful and invaluable information for the ongoing study of subsurface environmental changes resulting from nature and anthropogenic influences in Taipei metropolitan area. The continuing climatic warming and hydrological extremity would create observable impacts on the subsurface environment of Taipei metropolitan area and need to pursue in a fast and efficient pace.

  17. Temperature and hydrological variations of the urban environment in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wen-Zer; Peng, Tsung-Ren; Tsai, Hsiao-Chung

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the temperature, precipitation and groundwater level variations and changing patterns with varied time scales are presented for Taipei metropolitan area which consists of the capital city with neighboring counties. Along with the continuous city expansion during the past decades, global warming and heat island effect have generated perceivable negative impacts on environmental and reflect on the climatic and hydrological parameters. In addition to accelerating climate warming, hydrological extremity becomes more evident during the past decades and greatly elevates the risks of drought and floods in the study area. These observations in the Taipei metropolitan area support the common hypothesis that climate variability would increase as climate warms. The air temperature records, in conjunction with hydrological data, provide useful and invaluable information for the ongoing study of subsurface environmental changes resulting from nature and anthropogenic influences in Taipei metropolitan area. The continuing climatic warming and hydrological extremity would create observable impacts on the subsurface environment of Taipei metropolitan area and need to pursue in a fast and efficient pace.

  18. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  19. Incidence and severity of acute respiratory illness in families exposed to different levels of air pollution, New York metropolitan area, 1971-1972

    SciTech Connect

    Love, G.J.; Lan, S.P.; Shy, C.M.; Struba, R.J.

    1981-03-01

    The incidence and severity of acute respiratory disease was studied in families in three New York communities with different ambient levels of SO/sub 2/ and particulate air pollution. Upper, lower, and total respiratory disease rates in fathers, mothers, and school children tended to be higher in the communities with higher pollution levels. Similar higher rates, however, were not observed among preschool children. Regression analyses were used to adjust rates for socioeconomic status, parental smoking, chronic bronchitis in parents, and possible indoor pollution resulting from the use of a gas stove for cooking. After these adjustments the community differences were still significant (P < .01), for school children. The indoor pollution related to gas stoves was a significant covariate among children. The effects of smoking were inconsistent. It was not possible to attribute the higher rates observed to any specific pollutant, since both SO/sub 2/ and particulate matter levels were higher in the high pollution communities, nor was it possible to attribute the excesses to current levels of exposure or to a residual effect of previous higher exposure concentrations. The fact that young children did not follow the patern suggests the latter. It was concluded, however, that current or previous exposures to the complexity of air pollutants in New York City was at least partially responsible for increased incidences of acute respiratory disease.

  20. Epidemic process over the commute network in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival.

  1. 75 FR 39052 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... BUDGET 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Correction In... Statistical Areas and New England City and Town Areas, in the last line of paragraph (a), ``75'' should read... column, in paragraph (f), in the first and second lines, ``Metropolitan and Metropolitan Statistical...

  2. Household dust metal levels in the Sydney metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Lin, Kevin Chi-Pei; Feitz, Andrew J

    2003-11-01

    Household dust was collected from 82 residential homes within the Sydney metropolitan area. The geometric mean concentrations of metals in the household dust were Cd, 1.9 microg/g; Cr, 64.3 microg/g; Cu, 103 microg/g; Fe, 2740 microg/g; Mn, 54 microg/g; Ni, 15.6 microg/g; Pb, 85.2 microg/g; and Zn, 437 microg/g. Differences in household income level, dwelling type, or the number of occupants were not statistically significant for the majority of metals. The exceptions were higher amounts of Zn (P=0.033) and Fe (P=0.047) found in households with only 1-2 residents compared to those with 3-4 or >4 residents, and slightly higher Mn levels (P=0.033) were found in low-income households (AUD 0-30,000 dollars/year). Region was highly significant for Pb levels in Sydney but not significant for other metals. Large variations in Pb levels were found in household dust (16-16,600 microg/g), with the inner-west region associated with significantly higher Pb levels (P<0.001). Comparisons with a study from a decade earlier have revealed that the household dust Pb levels have remained constant despite substantial improvements in air quality in the inner-west area of Sydney. New epidemiological studies are required to determine whether Pb blood levels have also remained unchanged and whether accumulated Pb in household dust represents a significant health risk to children in this region.

  3. Principal faults in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Summary -- This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, documents and refines the locations of principal faults mapped in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area in previous studies. Numerous subsurface faults have been documented beneath the Houston metropolitan area at depths of 3,200 to 13,000 feet. Some of these subsurface faults have affected shallower sediments, offset the present land surface (which has resulted in substantial, costly damage), and produced recognizable fault scarps. Evidence from previous studies indicates that these faults are natural geologic features with histories of movement spanning tens of thousands to millions of years. Present-day scarps reflect only the most recent displacements of faults that were active long before the present land surface of the area was formed. The precision of previously mapped fault locations was enhanced by overlaying mapped faults on a digital elevation model (DEM) of Harris County derived using light detection and ranging (Lidar). Lidar is a high-precision, laser-based system that enables collection of high-resolution topographic data. Previously mapped faults were adjusted to coincide with surface features that clearly indicate faults, which were made visible by the high-resolution topography depicted on the Lidar-derived DEM. Results of a previous study, supported by this study, indicate that faults in the southeastern part of the metropolitan area primarily occur in well-defined groups of high fault density. Faults in northern and western parts of the metropolitan area tend to occur either individually or in pairs with little tendency to cluster in high-density groups.

  4. Racial inequality and child neglect: findings in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E J; Nelson, K; Landsman, M J

    1993-01-01

    Despite contradictory evidence, child neglect is often believed to occur more frequently in the African American than in the Caucasian population. This article reports findings on the racial differences among 182 families referred for neglect in a large metropolitan area. Although almost all of the families were poor, African American families in the neglect sample suffered even more from economic inequality than those in the general population. Implications of the findings for social welfare policy and child welfare practice are discussed.

  5. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  6. Pharmacogenomics in diverse practice settings: implementation beyond major metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Elizabeth H; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Morales, Chelsea T; Howlett, Kevin; Burke, Wylie; Woodahl, Erica L

    2015-01-01

    Aim The limited formal study of the clinical feasibility of implementing pharmacogenomic tests has thus far focused on providers at large medical centers in urban areas. Our research focuses on small metropolitan, rural and tribal practice settings. Materials & methods We interviewed 17 healthcare providers in western Montana regarding pharmacogenomic testing. Results Participants were optimistic about the potential of pharmacogenomic tests, but noted unique barriers in small and rural settings including cost, adherence, patient acceptability and testing timeframe. Participants in tribal settings identified heightened sensitivity to genetics and need for community leadership approval as additional considerations. Conclusion Implementation differences in small metropolitan, rural and tribal communities may affect pharmacogenomic test adoption and utilization, potentially impacting many patients. PMID:25712186

  7. Income inequality and weight status in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Chang, Virginia W; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2005-07-01

    Prior empirical studies have demonstrated an association between income inequality and general health endpoints such as mortality and self-rated health, and findings have been taken as support for the hypothesis that inequality is detrimental to individual health. Unhealthy weight statuses may function as an intermediary link between inequality and more general heath endpoints. Using individual-level data from the 1996-98 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examine the relationship between individual weight status and income inequality in US metropolitan areas. Income inequality is calculated with data from the 1990 US Census 5% Public Use Microsample. In analyses stratified by race-sex groups, we do not find a positive association between income inequality and weight outcomes such as body mass index, the odds of being overweight, and the odds of being obese. Among white women, however, we do find a statistically significant inverse association between inequality and each of these weight outcomes, despite adjustments for individual-level covariates, metropolitan-level covariates, and census region. We also find that greater inequality is associated with higher odds for trying to lose weight among white women, even adjusting for current weight status. Although our findings are suggestive of a contextual effect of metropolitan area income inequality, we do not find an increased risk for unhealthy weight outcomes, adding to recent debates surrounding this topic.

  8. Latin America's supercity--the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Big and still growing, Mexico City and its environs is soon to be the world's largest metropolitan area. The lure of city amenties--jobs, health care, schooling, and cheap food--and the hope of a better life bring 1000 rural migrants to Mexico City every day. Between 1950 and 1980, Mexico City grew at an annual average rate of 5.4%. Mexico City is typical of Latin American supercities, holding an impressive portion of the nation's population and commanding the lion's share of the country's economic activities. It is primarily due to the rapid growth in the northern periphery of the municipalities that Mexico City is expected to grow into the world's largest metropolitan area by the year 2000. Given the high proportion of youth relative to the total population, it is not suprising that average household sizes in Mexico City are large. About 60% to 70% of all families have no access to the formal housing market; much of the urban expansion has occurred through the emergence of squatter communities. Water may indeed be the most serious of all of Mexico City's infrastructural problems. Other problems include: 1) the government cannot meet the demands for educational buildings and personnel; 2) in 1982, 10.3% of the metropolitan population lived in extreme poverty and an additional 22.6% were unable to satisfy their basic needs; and 3) transport is a central problem. Demographic sources for Mexico are discussed.

  9. Water data for metropolitan areas a summary of data from 222 areas in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, William Joseph

    1968-01-01

    Expansion of metropolitan areas poses persistent problems in management of the hydrologic environment. Adequate hydrologic data are prerequisite to proper planning and engineering design of urban environments. Some such data are available and are tabulated for each Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States. Information for each area consists of (1) data on size and population, (2) a short statement of the hydrology of the area, (3) a summary of current data-collection activities in the area, (4) a listing of current U.S. Geological Survey investigational projects in the area, and (5) a short listing of reports relating to the hydrology of the area.

  10. 76 FR 61069 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District, and Placer County Air... (SMAQMD), Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), and Placer County Air Pollution...

  11. Urban expansion in Tokyo metropolitan area between 1972 and 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to World Bank Report, more than half of the world’s population is now living in cities and over two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions come from cities worldwide. The Kanto Plain is the largest plain in Japan, which experienced the greatest urban expansion in the 20th century. Satellite images collected over a span of years can be used to identify and characterize both natural and anthropogenic changes over large areas of land. Landsat satellite images are ideal for this purpose; imagery recorded over nearly four decades provides a unique resource for temporal analysis of urban area land cover change. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal urban area changes in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (include the neighboring regions). and to investigate the possible causes of those changes. To do this, we applied land-cover classification schemes to Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor images recorded between 1972 and 2002, which we acquired from the Landsat archive. We used two supervised classification methods, the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network method and the subspace method, to accurately classify land cover on Landsat images recorded in 1972, 1985, and 2002. This allowed us to quantitatively present urban area changes between 1972 and 2002, and allowed us to analyze its relation with multi-time 1 kilometer grid population density census data to further report on the trends of urban expansion. Figure 1 shows the urban area in 1972, and figure 2 shows the urban area in 2002. From the two maps, along with the high economic growth of the Japanese economy, the concentration of the population in Tokyo extremely increased over the period from 1972 to 2002. As a result, these factors lead to urban sprawl in the suburban areas of Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Figure 1. Urban area in 1972. Figure 2. Urban area in 2002.

  12. Racial segregation, income inequality, and mortality in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2011-04-01

    Evidence of the association between income inequality and mortality has been mixed. Studies indicate that growing income inequalities reflect inequalities between, rather than within, racial groups. Racial segregation may play a role. We examine the role of racial segregation on the relationship between income inequality and mortality in a cross-section of US metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10% black (N = 107). Deaths for the time period 1991-1999 were used to calculate age-adjusted all-cause mortality rates for each metropolitan statistical area (MSA) using direct age-adjustment techniques. Multivariate least squares regression was used to examine associations for the total sample and for blacks and whites separately. Income inequality was associated with lower mortality rates among whites and higher mortality rates among blacks. There was a significant interaction between income inequality and racial segregation. A significant graded inverse income inequality/mortality association was found for MSAs with higher versus lower levels of black-white racial segregation. Effects were stronger among whites than among blacks. A positive income inequality/mortality association was found in MSAs with higher versus lower levels of Hispanic-white segregation. Uncertainty regarding the income inequality/mortality association found in previous studies may be related to the omission of important variables such as racial segregation that modify associations differently between groups. Research is needed to further elucidate the risk and protective effects of racial segregation across groups.

  13. 76 FR 34576 - Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area; OMB Approval of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Flights Rules Area'' was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76195). In that rule, the FAA codified... Area Special Flight Rules Area; OMB Approval of Information Collection AGENCY: Federal Aviation... certain information collection. The rule titled ``Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight...

  14. Ryan White CARE Act and Eligible Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Title I of the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act provides emergency assistance to eligible metropolitan areas (EMAs) to provide a continuum of care and services to people living with HIV disease. This article presents the results of a 2000-2001 survey of the 51 Title I Planning Councils. EMAs are serving significant numbers of females, with black and Hispanic persons constituting a majority of people served in 33 EMAs. Among the difficult to serve are substance abusers, people with chronic mental illness, multi-diagnosed people, the homeless, black males who have sex with males, and Hispanic persons. PMID:12500476

  15. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  16. Hail events across the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2015-05-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales (NSW). The study area is a sprawling suburban area with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropoles. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hail event frequencies and magnitudes (sizes) for each of recognized and vastly inhabited local government areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was then applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, severe hail (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) was cautiously selected for relevant analysis. The database includes 357 hail events with sizes 2-11 cm which occurred in 169 hail days (a day in which a hail event at least more than 2 cm reported) across the region during the past 25 years. The hail distribution patterns are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occur predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. Australian eastern standard time (EST). They are particularly common in spring and summer, reaching maximum frequency in November and December. There is an average of 14.3 events per year, but a significant decreasing trend in hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial analyses also established three main distribution patterns over the study area which include the Sydney metropolitan, the coastal and the most pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability

  17. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  18. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    PubMed Central

    Klas, Regina; Lacerda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male), with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15); all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%), school difficulties (39.6%), and midlevel hearing problems (32%). Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%). The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3%) to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%), as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%). A significant relationship (p = 0.0000) between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens. PMID:25992085

  19. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  20. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1). PMID:25944962

  1. 77 FR 63743 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These...

  2. Increasing spatiotemporal resolution of several major pollutant species in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosius, A. L.; Luong, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The American Lung Association cited Atlanta, Georgia, as one of the top 20 most polluted U.S. cities in 2014. Heavy air and ground transportation traffic contribute to the production of carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and tropospheric ozone (O3) for the Atlanta Metropolitan Area (AMA). Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport contributes significantly to the emission of these pollutants and their precursors. This study focuses on enhancing spatiotemporal resolution of CO2, PM, and O3in near-surface (ground to 50m) air columns by using Arduino-based sensors. The city of Decatur, due to its proximity to the airport, is the study site for the investigation of target pollutant concentrations. The results of this study, combined with other metropolitan air quality data sets, can be used to verify projected trends and append seasonal data. An understanding of the pollutant concentration distributions throughout the near-surface air column is vital to providing insight into the fluctuation of urban area pollutants.

  3. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  4. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process. PMID:25161275

  5. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  6. Employment income of immigrants in metropolitan areas of Canada, 1980.

    PubMed

    Verma, R B; Basavarajappa, K G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the economic achievements of immigrant groups and compares them with those of the Canadian-born population. Employment income in this study is income for members of the labor force who worked 40 weeks or more, full time, during 1980. The information is from the 1981 Census. The 15 birthplace groups considered in this study are classified into 2 major groups: those from traditional sources and those from non-traditional or new sources. Traditional sources are the US, UK, and Europe. The new sources are Africa, Asia, South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. More than 1/2 of the immigrants from traditional sources arrived before 1960, whereas more than 1/2 of immigrants from new sources arrived after 1970. The analysis is only for those areas called Census Metropolitan Areas. Results of analysis show that 1) immigrant men and women in metropolitan areas earned 1.9% and 5.9% respectively less than their Canadian-born counterparts; 2) when differences in age and educational attainment were considered, incomes of immigrant men and women were about 7.5% below those of their Canadian-born counterparts; 3) the new immigrant groups earned far less than those of the Canadian-born counterparts; 4) traditional-source immigrants' incomes were equal to or slightly higher than Canadians'; and 5) as length of residence increases, most immigrant groups improve their relative economic position and achieve incomes comparable to Canadians'. The authors discuss the economic adaptation of immigrants in the light of various models: assimilation, Marxist class conflict, ethnic stratification and segmentation, structural pluralism, and structural change. No theory can be applied to the economic adaptation of all types of immigrants. Finally, refugees and sponsored relatives, who are not admitted on the basis of education and occupational need, are likely to have more difficulties than independent immigrants. PMID:12282409

  7. Gasoline distribution cycle and vapor emissions in Mexico City metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Secora, I.S.; Gallegos, J.R.M.; Grapain, V.M.G.; Villegas, F.M.R.; Flores, L.A.M.

    1997-12-31

    Ozone in the main air pollutant in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). This kind of pollution is induced by the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. According to Official Statistics National Air Pollution Quality Standard is exceeded over 300 days a year. Volatile hydrocarbons are generated in the cycle of storage transport and distribution of fuel (Gasoline Distribution Cycle). Above 17 millions of liters are handled daily in MCMA. Evaporative emission control is a complex task involving: floating roof tanks and vapor recovery units installation at bulk terminals and implementation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 vapor recovery systems at service stations. Since 1990, IMP has been involved in researching vapor emissions associated to gasoline storage and distribution cycle. Besides, the authors evaluate several technologies for bulk terminals and service stations. In this job, the authors present the results of an evaluation according to Mexican Official Standard of 500 vehicles. The gasoline vapors are trapped during refueling of cars and they are conduced to an equipment that includes an activated charcoal canister in order to adsorb them. Another Activated charcoal canister adsorbs ambient air as a reference. Experimental results showed that refueling hydrocarbon emissions are between 0.4 and 1.2 grams per liter with averages of 0.79 and 0.88 grams per liter according with two different gasoline types. These results were applied to Mexico City Vehicular fleet for the gasoline distribution cycle in order to obtain a total volatile hydrocarbon emission in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  8. Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

    2011-08-01

    A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

  9. Convective weather hazards in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, Kenneth A.

    This dissertation investigates the frequency and intensity of severe convective storms, and their associated hazards, in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minnesota. Using public severe weather reports databases and high spatial density rain gauge data, annual frequencies and return-periods are calculated for tornadoes, damaging winds, large hail, and flood-inducing rainfall. The hypothesis that severe thunderstorms and tornadoes are less likely in the central TCMA than in surrounding areas also is examined, and techniques for estimating 100-year rainfall amounts are developed and discussed. This research finds that: (i) storms capable of significant damage somewhere within the TCMA recur annually (sometimes multiple times per year), while storms virtually certain to cause such damage recur every 2-3 years; (ii) though severe weather reports data are not amenable to classical comparative statistical testing, careful treatment of them suggests all types and intensity categories of severe convective weather have been and should continue to be approximately as common in the central TCMA as in surrounding areas; and (iii) applications of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistics and areal analyses of rainfall data lead to significantly larger (25-50%) estimates of 100-year rainfall amounts in the TCMA and parts of Minnesota than those currently published and used for precipitation design. The growth of the TCMA, the popular sentiment that downtown areas somehow deter severe storms and tornadoes, and the prior underestimation of extreme rainfall thresholds for precipitation design, all act to enhance local susceptibility to hazards from severe convective storms.

  10. Educational Cooperative Service Unit of the Metropolitan Twin Cities Area. 1985-86 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Cooperative Service Unit of the Metropolitan Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minn.

    The accomplishments of the Educational Cooperative Service Unit of the Metropolitan Twin Cities Area (Minnesota) are described. The unit serves a seven-county metropolitan area, 13 associate member agencies, and 48 member public school districts and provides effective programs for school and educational personnel. During the 1985-86 school year,…

  11. A Regional Approach to Rail Transit Training for the New York Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Claire E.; Rotter, Naomi

    A study examined the feasibility of a regional approach to rail transit training in the New York metropolitan area. First, case studies were collected to document existing training practices at the five agencies currently responsible for training rail transit workers in the New York metropolitan area and to identify mutual training needs that…

  12. 75 FR 37245 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    .... Furthermore, the Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Standards do not produce an urban-rural... included in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and many other counties may contain both urban...'s residents commute to urban centers for work. OMB urges agencies, organizations, and policy...

  13. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  14. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  15. Imaging of seismogenic source faults in metropolitan areas in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Hirata, N.; Abe, S.; Iwasaki, T.; Ito, K.; Okaya, D.; Ito, T.; Kasahara, K.; Koketsu, K.; Kato, N.; Hagiwara, H.; Kawanaka, T.; Ikawa, T.

    2006-12-01

    Location and geometry of a seismogenic source fault, and crustal velocity structure, provide the basic information for more precise estimation of strong ground motions with devastative earthquakes. For this purpose, deep seismic profiling has been performed in the Kanto (Metropolitan Tokyo) and Kinki areas for five years from 2002. In the Kanto area, five seismic lines were deployed to obtain images of the subduction megathrust at the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plates (PHS). In all of the seismic lines, reflections from the upper surface of PHS were clearly identified. The new deep seismic reflection profile across the northwestern part of the Izu collision zone acquired in 2005 revealed the existence of aseismic slab of PHS down to 40 km in depth. Together with the results of seismic tomography, the geometry of the top of PHS was determined including the seismic gap of northwest of the Izu collision zone. The newly determined depth to the PHS is much shallower than the previous estimates and the PHS slab continues to the west without showing a large gap at the NW of Izu collision zone at the shallow depth (>30 km). Such deeper images of the subduction megathrust including an out-of-sequence thrust, such as the Kozu-Matsuda fault, contribute for the realistic estimation of seismic risk. The determination of precise geometry of the PHS megathrust clearly demonstrated the occurrence of earthquakes below the PHS megathrust, which have potential to cause serious damages to the Tokyo metropolitan area. The Kinki area is marked by dense distribution of active faults. To real deep geometry of active faults, seismic reflection profiling was performed across the major active faults, such as the Median Tectonic Line active fault system, Uemachi and Ikoma faults in Osaka plain, Suzuka-toen fault in the western Ise plain. The obtained seismic sections delineate the down dip extension of active faults down to about 15 km in depth. The mid-crustal reflectors, which

  16. Modeling Tropical Cyclone induced inland flooding for Houston metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are an important source of extreme precipitation and they have caused destructive inland floods in Texas. The Houston metropolitan area is a highly populated region with rapid economic development. The Bayou River basin was selected as the study area because it covers most of Houston. This study will employ HEC-HMS (a hydrological model) simulate the flood discharge from tropical storm Alison in 2001. The simulated discharge will be compared with observed discharge values for model adjustment and calibration. An iterative process will be used to calibrate the model. Then the flood discharge of another extreme precipitation event (Hurricane Ike) will be calculated from the fitted HEC model. Modeled discharge from both events will be used as inputs for HEC-RAS (a hydraulic model) to generate regional inundation maps. The purposes of this study are: (1) to understand how an urbanized hydrological system in Texas reacts to extreme precipitation brought by Tropical Cyclones, and (2) to construct a reliable model of inland flooding for future applications. Questions will be answered by this study are: What are the similarities and differences in flooding caused by two recent tropical storms that have affected the Houston metro area? Which factor plays a more important role in determining the TC floods intensity, variations in precipitation or changes in land use? Key words: Tropical Cyclone, Hydrological Model, Floods, Houston

  17. Evapotranspiration from irrigated turfgrass in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, E.; Bijoor, N. S.; Pataki, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the United States, turfgrasses cover an area larger than any cultivated crop. In arid and semiarid cities, where up to 75% of household water is used for irrigation, turfgrass may contribute to a substantial portion of evapotranspiration (ET) from urban landscapes. However, urban ET and the role of turfgrass have seldom been directly quantified. Using portable chambers, we directly measured ET from irrigated turfgrass in 8 locations in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We addressed the following questions: (1) How does ET from irrigated turfgrass compare with transpiration of urban trees in the study region? (2) What are the major environmental controls on turfgrass ET? (3) How variable is turfgrass ET spatially and temporally? We found summertime ET from irrigated turfgrass to vary from 2.2 ± 0.2 mm/d to 8.8 ± 0.8 mm/d, which exceeded the maximum, plot-level transpiration of irrigated trees in the study region. The main driver of spatial variability of turfgrass ET was incoming solar radiation. This allowed us to evaluate ET from turfgrass partially shaded by trees as a function of tree canopy cover. Our results contribute to an improved representation of irrigated lawns in urban water budgets and can inform decisions about water-wise landscape planning, which is vital in semi-arid cities facing water shortages.

  18. Deprivation and mortality in non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, E G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the relationship between deprivation and mortality is weaker among residents of non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales than among residents of metropolitan areas. DESIGN: This study compared mortality, expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), in residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan districts at three levels of deprivation classified by an electoral ward deprivation score and by home and car ownership. SMRs were computed for all causes of death, for bronchitis and asthma (ICD9 codes 490-493), and for accident, violence, and poisoning (ICD9 codes 800-999). SETTING: England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the longitudinal study of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a quasi-random 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. MAIN RESULTS: There was an association between deprivation and mortality which was clear for all cause mortality, more noticeable for respiratory disease, and less clear for deaths from accident, violence, and poison. In general, the results showed a remarkable similarity between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the hypothesis that the relationship between mortality and deprivation differs between residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales. PMID:8944858

  19. Urban irrigation effects on WRF-UCM summertime forecast skill over the Los Angeles metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, we explicitly address the impacts of urban irrigation on the local hydrological cycle by integrating a previously developed irrigation scheme within the coupled framework of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Canopy Models (WRF-UCM) over the semiarid Los Angeles metropolitan area. We focus on the impacts of irrigation on the urban water cycle and atmospheric feedback. Our results demonstrate a significant sensitivity of WRF-UCM simulated surface turbulent fluxes to the incorporation of urban irrigation. Introducing anthropogenic moisture, vegetated pixels show a shift in the energy partitioning toward elevated latent heat fluxes. The cooling effects of irrigation on daily peak air temperatures are evident over all three urban types, with the largest influence over low-intensity residential areas (average cooling of 1.64°C). The evaluation of model performance via comparison against CIMIS (California Irrigation Management Information System) evapotranspiration (ET) estimates indicates that WRF-UCM, after adding irrigation, performs reasonably during the course of the month of July, tracking day-to-day variability of ET with notable consistency. In the nonirrigated case, CIMIS-based ET fluctuations are significantly underestimated by the model. Our analysis shows the importance of accurate representation of urban irrigation in modeling studies, especially over water-scarce regions such as the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We also illustrate that the impacts of irrigation on simulated energy and water cycles are more critical for longer-term simulations due to the interactions between irrigation and soil moisture fluctuations.

  20. Listing of the 20 areas with the most severe air pollution problems among the 65 standard metropolitan statistical areas having an industrial population of 40,000 or more

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Air sampling data for the 65 SMSA's considered is available from which a fairly accurate measure can be derived of the levels of particulates, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. However, only a very rough index of photochemical smog is available. In spite of this gap in the total pollution measurement, the importance of the information that is available on the particulates and sulfur oxides, and to a lesser extent on hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, is great enough to justify using it to compile this list. It should be noted that work is going forward in measuring photochemical smog, and the National Center for Air Pollution Control expects to have smog data on the larger SMSA's within 2 years.

  1. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects.

    PubMed

    Strano, Emanuele; Shai, Saray; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of coupling different modes and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralizing force creating congestion in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London—but not for New York—there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multilayer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions. PMID:26400198

  2. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S.; Hernandez, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  3. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects.

    PubMed

    Strano, Emanuele; Shai, Saray; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of coupling different modes and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralizing force creating congestion in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London—but not for New York—there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multilayer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions.

  4. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    PubMed Central

    Strano, Emanuele; Shai, Saray; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of coupling different modes and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralizing force creating congestion in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London—but not for New York—there is an optimal subway speed in terms of global congestion. These results show that it is crucial to consider the full, multimodal, multilayer network aspects of transportation systems in order to understand the behaviour of cities and to avoid possible negative side-effects of urban planning decisions. PMID:26400198

  5. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Krissi M; Gerba, Charles P; Maxwell, Sheri L; Kelley, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009). PMID:22666400

  6. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Krissi M; Gerba, Charles P; Maxwell, Sheri L; Kelley, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples). 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city) and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils). There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009).

  7. New ozone standard in the U.S.A. applied to Mexico City metropolitan air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo A, H. Sosa E, R.; Sanchez A, P.; Jaimes P, M.

    1998-12-31

    The air quality of the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) is recognized as one of the worst air pollution problems in the world. At the present, ozone is the most critical atmospheric pollutant in the area. According to the air quality data of the monitoring station at the University of Mexico, the ozone problem started in 1986. Mexican Ozone Air Quality Standard (MOAQS) specifies that a concentration of 0.11 ppm must not be exceeded more than one hour a day, one day a year in the term of three years. The Official Air Quality Data (RAMA) from 19 monitoring stations in the MCMZ coincides with the University station`s data, presenting the same atmospheric pollution problem. In the most critical sites the MOAQS is exceeded more than 1,300 hours in a year. Now, the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (EPA) is working to establish the new ozone standard. EPA is setting the standard at 0.08 ppm on an average of 8 hours, considering the 3 year average of the annual 4th highest daily maximum 8 hour ozone concentration. The purpose of this paper is to present the tendency and comparison between two standards (1 hour and 8 hours) of the ozone concentrations in the MCMZ, since 1986 to 1996. Although Mexico does not yet have the 8 hour standard for ozone, it is very important to analyze the existing air quality data with this new standard. In this way the aim is to protect the health of more than 20 million inhabitants in the MCMZ.

  8. Local markets and systems: hospital consolidations in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, R D; Ozcan, Y A; Olden, P C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examines the formation of local hospital systems (LHSs) in urban markets by the end of 1992. We argue that a primary reason why hospitals join LHSs is to achieve improved positions of market power relative to threatening rivals. DATA SOURCES/DATA COLLECTION. The study draws from a unique database of LHSs located in and around metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Data were obtained from the 1991 AHA Annual Hospital Survey, updated to the year 1992 using information obtained from multiple sources (telephone contacts of systems, systems lists of hospitals, published changes in ownership, etc.). Other measures were obtained from a variety of sources, principally the 1989 Area Resources File. STUDY DESIGN. The study presents cross-sectional analyses of rival threats and other factors bearing on LHS formation. Three characteristics of LHS formation are examined: LHS penetration of urban areas, LHS size, and number of LHS members located just outside the urban boundaries. LHS penetration is analyzed across urban markets, and LHS size and rural partners are examined across the LHSs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Major hypothesized findings are: (1) with the exception of the number of rural partners, all dependent variables are positively associated with the number of hospitals in the markets; the rural partner measure is negatively associated with the number of hospitals; (2) the number of doctors per capita is positively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; and (3) the percentage of the population in HMOs is positively associated with local cluster penetration and negatively associated with rural system partners. Other findings: (1) average income in the markets is negatively associated with all but the rural penetration measure; (2) LHS size and rural partners are both positively associated with nonprofit system ownership; and (3) they are also both negatively associated with the degree to which their multihospital systems are

  9. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  10. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  11. Evaluation of lead concentration over Tehran metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasharrofi, S.; Dahaghin, A. R.; Kazemi, H.

    2003-05-01

    Considering the traffics volume in Tehran, the lead measurement in city's atmosphere is of prime important. The source of lead in cities atmosphere is either in inorganic fonn, resulting from combustion of leaded gasoline, or in organic form, from unburned evaporated gasoline. For the first time in Iran a procedure was adopted for organic lead determination in air by the department of air pollution in Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI). The determination of lead in air, organic and inorganic, were carried out in five locations for the period ofnine months. The results indicated that concentration of inorganic and organic lead ranged respectively from 0.24 to 3.4 μg/m^3 and Trace amount to 15.15 μg/m^3 as Pb. Concentrations were generally highest in densely traffic areas, intermediate in commercial areas, and lowest in residential areas. The effect of inversion phenomena and metrological parameters were the main reasons for increasing of average lead concentrations in autumn and winter.

  12. 76 FR 28942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... submitted for the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of... approved on June 19, 1985 (50 FR 25417). The SMAQMD originally adopted new Rule 203 on February 26,...

  13. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  14. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Near-Term Needs and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This study, conducted by the Metropolitan Communications Steering Committee for the Board on Telecommunications-Computer Applications of the National Research Council, identifies telecommunications technologies that could provide useful services for homes, businesses, and governments up to the year 1980. The present state of telecommunication…

  15. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. The data show that most ground water is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and that major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual ground-water-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type, including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Emissions of VPOC from residences in the metropolitan Toronto area

    SciTech Connect

    Fellin, P.; Otson, R.

    1997-12-31

    Airborne vapor phase organic compound (VPOC) concentrations were determined indoors and outdoors concurrently over 24 h periods for 44 randomly selected residences in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Indoor to outdoor air exchange rates, measured by means of a perfluorocarbon tracer technique, averaged 0.45 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.2 air changes per hour (ach). For compounds occurring above the method detection limits (MDL), indoor sources contributed significantly to the occurrence of 7 of the 30 target VPOC since indoor to outdoor concentration ratios were greater than 1 for more than 50% of the homes for these compounds. Emissions from residences to the ambient air were calculated, and ranged up to 725 g/yr/residence for the sum of the target compounds for the residence with the largest emissions and averaged 96 g/yr/residence for all residences. The four compounds with the largest emissions averaged 53 (maximum, 500), 41 (maximum, 220), 22 (maximum, 110) and 20 (maximum, 240) g/yr/residence, respectively, for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, d-limonene, naphthalene and toluene. In a previous study, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and toluene were among the three VPOC with the greatest emissions from residences. However, the emissions were calculated from measured indoor concentrations, outdoor values were obtained at different times or by different methods, and average rather than individually measured air exchange rates were used. The emissions estimated in this study were compared to those from the previous study, and their impact on ambient air quality was estimated.

  17. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  18. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  19. Income inequality and self-rated health in US metropolitan areas: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ

    2004-12-01

    Income inequality has been found to affect health in a number of international and cross-national studies. Using data from a telephone survey of adults in the United States, this study analyzed the effect of metropolitan level income inequality on self-rated health. It combined individual data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System with metropolitan level income data from the 2000 Census. After controlling for smoking, age, education, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, sex, household income, and metropolitan area per capita income, this study found that for each 1 point rise in the GINI index (on a hundred point scale) the risk of reporting Fair or Poor self-rated health increased by 4.0% (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.5%). Given that self-rated health is a good predictor of morbidity and mortality, this suggests that metropolitan area income inequality is affecting the health of US adults.

  20. Intake fraction distributions for benzene from vehicles in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Miranda M.; Soares, Joana; Karppinen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Kangas, Leena; Riikonen, Kari; Kousa, Anu; Asikainen, Arja; Jantunen, Matti J.

    The intake fraction (iF) gives a measure of the portion of a source's emissions that is inhaled by an exposed population over a defined period of time. This study examines spatial and population-based iF distributions of a known human carcinogen, benzene, from a ubiquitous urban source, local vehicular traffic, in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area using three computational methods. The first method uses the EXPAND model (EXPosure to Air pollution, especially to Nitrogen Dioxide and particulate matter), which incorporates spatial and temporal information on population activity patterns as well as urban-scale and street canyon dispersion models to predict spatial population exposure distributions. The second method uses data from the personal monitoring study EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distributions of Adult Urban Populations in Europe) to estimate the intake fractions for individuals in the study. The third method, a one-compartment box model provides estimates within an order-of-magnitude or better for non-reactive agents in an urban area. Population intake fractions are higher using the personal monitoring data method (median iF 30 per million, mean iF 39 per million) compared with the spatial model (annual mean iF 10 per million) and the box model (median iF 4 per million, mean iF 7 per million). In particular, this study presents detailed intake fraction distributions on several different levels (spatial, individual, and generic) for the same urban area.

  1. Wintertime winds in and around the Ulaanbaatar metropolitan area in the presence of a temperature inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Temperature inversions are frequently observed in mountainous urban areas and can cause severe air pollution problems especially in wintertime. This study investigates wintertime winds in and around the Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, metropolitan area in the presence of a temperature inversion using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model (SNUUCM). Ulaanbaatar is located in complex terrain and in a nearly east-west-oriented valley. A wintertime scenario with clear skies, weak synoptic winds, and a temperature inversion under the influence of a Siberian high-pressure system is selected. Local winds are weak in the presence of the temperature inversion. In the daytime, weak mountain upslope winds develop, up-valley winds appear to be stronger in the urban area than in the surrounding areas, and channeling winds are produced in the main valley. The bottom of the temperature inversion layer rises up in the urban area, and winds below the bottom of the temperature inversion layer strengthen. In the nighttime, mountain downslope winds and down-valley winds develop. Urban effects in the presence of the temperature inversion are examined by comparing the results of simulations with and without the city. It is shown that in the daytime the urban area acts to elevate the bottom of the temperature inversion layer and weaken the strength of the temperature inversion layer. Winds east of the city weaken in the afternoon and down-valley winds develop later in the simulation with the city.

  2. Evaluation of WRF-CHEM Model: A case study of Air Pollution Episode in Istanbul Metropolitan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydınöz, Esra; Gürer, Kemal; Toros, Hüseyin

    2014-05-01

    Istanbul is the largest city in Europe with a population of about 14 million and nearly 3.2 million registered vehicles. Considering that the city is at the junction of major transportation routes on both land and sea, emissions from all motor vehicles operating in the city and those that are in transit is the major source of pollution. The natural gas is used as the major heat source and the impact of other heating sources on the pollution episodes is not clearly known. During 19-29 December 2013 İstanbul metropolitan area experienced a severe PM10 episode with average episode concentration of 127µgm-3 . The episode was associated with a high pressure system with center pressure of 1030 mb residing over Balkans and north of Black Sea and thereby influencing Istanbul. We carried out simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-CHEM) v3.5 to examine the meteorological conditions and to produce estimates of PM10 over Istanbul for 17-31 December 2013. The three nested domains was setup using 18, 6 and 2 km horizontal grid spacing with (90x90), (115x115) and (130x130) grid points in 1st, 2nd and 3rd domains, respectively. The each domain was run using one way nesting option after preparing the results from the mother domain as an input to subsequent inner domain. 34 vertical levels were used with the lowest layer depth of 15 m above the surface and extending to 15 km at the model top. The model was configured using the model options after many tests to find optimal model parameters and was initialized using global emissions data available publicly. The local emissions database is still in works and is not available to use in the model instead of global data. The estimated PM10 concentrations were compared against the observed conditions. This work shows the first attempt of using WRF-CHEM in Turkey to estimate the pollutant concentrations instead of using other air pollution models such as WRF/CMAQ combination. At the time of

  3. Particulate Organic Source Markers in the New York City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; McDow, S. R.; Mazurek, M. A.; Duvall, R.; Norris, G.

    2006-12-01

    A large fraction of the U.S. population lives in urban areas along the Northeast corridor, where concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exceed or approach the national ambient air quality standard. PM2.5 in this region consists of a regional background of sulfate and organic matter with an urban excess enriched in organic matter. A sampling network of four sites was established for the Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM2.5 (SOAP) project during 2002-2003 to investigate composition, seasonal and spatial variability, and source contributions to particulate organic matter in the New York City metropolitan area. A total of 63 organic species were selected for analysis based on their promise for distinguishing anthropogenic, biogenic, primary, and secondary sources. Considerable effort was devoted to minimizing contamination and interference of organic species, and demonstrating sufficiently low blank levels and analytical uncertainty as well as sufficiently high sensitivity for successful source apportionment applications. Results suggested differences in spatial variability for different sources of particulate organic matter within the metropolitan area. For example, hopanes exhibited substantially higher concentrations at urban and near road sites than suburban and background sites, demonstrating a local influence for motor vehicle contributions. In contrast, dicarboxylic acids were more spatially uniform, suggesting that secondary organic aerosol was more regional in nature. Detailed source apportionment of SOAP results using multiple approaches is continuing as a part of EPA's in-house research program for Reducing Uncertainty in Source Apportionment, and will include investigation of uncertainties related to motor vehicles, cooking, biomass burning, secondary organic aerosol sources, and other important sources. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official EPA policy.

  4. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental changes associated with urbanization in nine metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Cuffney, Thomas F; Brightbill, Robin A; May, Jason T; Waite, Ian R

    2010-07-01

    Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates along gradients of urban intensity were investigated in nine metropolitan areas across the United States. Invertebrate assemblages in metropolitan areas where forests or shrublands were being converted to urban land were strongly related to urban intensity. In metropolitan areas where agriculture and grazing lands were being converted to urban land, invertebrate assemblages showed much weaker or nonsignificant relations with urban intensity because sites with low urban intensity were already degraded by agriculture. Ordination scores, the number of EPT taxa, and the mean pollution-tolerance value of organisms at a site were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition. Diversity indices, functional groups, behavior, and dominance metrics were not good indicators of urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urban effects than were abundance metrics, and qualitative samples collected from multiple habitats gave similar results to those of single habitat quantitative samples (riffles or woody snags) in all metropolitan areas. Changes in urban intensity were strongly correlated with a set of landscape variables that was consistent across all metropolitan areas. In contrast, the instream environmental variables that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses varied among metropolitan areas. The natural environmental setting determined the biological, chemical, and physical instream conditions upon which urbanization acts and dictated the differences in responses to urbanization among metropolitan areas. Threshold analysis showed little evidence for an initial period of resistance to urbanization. Instead, assemblages were degraded at very low levels of urbanization, and response rates were either similar across the gradient or higher at low levels of urbanization. Levels of impervious cover that have been suggested as protective of streams (5-10%) were associated with significant

  5. Effects of Urbanization on Floods in the Houston, Texas Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Steven L.; Sayre, Douglas M.

    1973-01-01

    Rainfall and runoff data from drainage basins in the Houston metropolitan area and a 60-year rainfall record for the National Weather Service station, Houston-City, were used to simulate 60 annual flood peaks at 26 sites. Selected frequency characteristics, based on these simulated annual peaks, are related to drainage area and percentage of impervious area. These relations, which may be used to estimate the flood characteristics at ungaged sites, indicate that in the Houston metropolitan area, complete urbanization increases the magnitude of a 2-year flood nine times and increases the magnitude of a 50-year flood five times.

  6. Air quality in Metropolitan Manila: Inferences from a questionable data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, James P.

    Metropolitan Manila, Republic of the Philippines, is one of the more polluted cities in the world. It may be unique in that, to all appearances, the air pollutant loading is virtually all particulate. The Philippine government is now, with support from a number of international agencies, attempting to set priorities and control the most serious of its environmental problems. There have been numerous attempts to estimate the relative contributions of various sources of air pollutants, but the lack of emission factors applicable to the specific technologies used in Manial makes these suspect. Air monitoring data are available, but are seriously compromised by the lack of quality assurance capabilities and calibration facilities for the monitors. During years 1987-1989 several data sets were taken at stations in the area. The sampling/monitoring equipment consisted of the survivors from a larger number of devices bought a number of years earlier, and kept running by progressive cannibalization of less viable instruments to provide parts for the balance. Hence neither the accuracy nor the precision of the data were known. Accuracy could not, of course, be ascertained. However, a number of statistical techniques (some only marginally applicable in the strict statistical sense, since the data were almost certainly not normally distributed) showed the data to have about the expected dispersion, to have some interesting coherences, and to reveal that the airborne particles had, on average, a quite constant iron content. Almost certainly this indicated a significant soil source for particulate matter, not previously identified. On the whole, the data set was probably better than most visiting scientists had believed, and could be used for planning further studies, though not for setting control priorities.

  7. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, R.M.; Dorsey, M.E.; Gordon, J.D.; Mitchell, R.N.; Gaylord, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area. In 1975, the program was expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. In 1978, the program was expanded to include a groundwater resources study of the south Austin metropolitan area in the Balcones fault zone. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yeild and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. The major streams in the study area are the Colorado River, Onion Creek, Barton Creek, Walnut Creek, Bull Creek, Boggy Creek, Shoal Creek, Williamson Creek, Slaughter Creek, Bear Creek, and Waller Creek. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for eight storm periods during the 1979 water year. Water-quality data for sites in the Austin metropolitan area are also given in this report. (USGS)

  8. [Characteristic analysis of a multi-day pollution event in Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area during October 2013].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi-heng; Fan, Shao-jia; Huang, Juan; Sun, Jia-ren

    2014-11-01

    Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area experienced a typical multi-day pollution event in October 2013. Based on the air pollution index, conventional pollutants observations, surface meteorological observations and sounding data, the relationships of air pollution, large-scale circumfluence and boundary layer meteorology of this event were comprehensively analyzed. Additionally, the sources and transport paths of pollutions were investigated by application of satellite remote sensing data and HYSPLIT4 model. The results showed that pollutants gradually accumulated in the earlier stage of the event (October 21th to 26th) , while in the later stage (October 27th to 31th) the characteristic pollutants of crop residue burning (PM2.5, CO, NO2) sharply increased. The deterioration of air quality in the later stage was mainly related to the remote transport of pollutants caused by straw burning. Analysis of simulations of HYSPLIT4 model and fire spots showed that the currents mainly came from Anhui and Hubei Province in the earlier stage, while in the later stage they were mainly from Jiangxi Province where fire spots were intensively located. Stable atmospheric stratification caused by steady uniform high-pressure field and slight wind due to the confrontation of cold and warm currents greatly contributed to the development, maintainability and reinforcement of the pollution event. The remote transport of pollutants had a significant impact on ambient air quality of Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area.

  9. [Characteristic analysis of a multi-day pollution event in Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area during October 2013].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi-heng; Fan, Shao-jia; Huang, Juan; Sun, Jia-ren

    2014-11-01

    Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area experienced a typical multi-day pollution event in October 2013. Based on the air pollution index, conventional pollutants observations, surface meteorological observations and sounding data, the relationships of air pollution, large-scale circumfluence and boundary layer meteorology of this event were comprehensively analyzed. Additionally, the sources and transport paths of pollutions were investigated by application of satellite remote sensing data and HYSPLIT4 model. The results showed that pollutants gradually accumulated in the earlier stage of the event (October 21th to 26th) , while in the later stage (October 27th to 31th) the characteristic pollutants of crop residue burning (PM2.5, CO, NO2) sharply increased. The deterioration of air quality in the later stage was mainly related to the remote transport of pollutants caused by straw burning. Analysis of simulations of HYSPLIT4 model and fire spots showed that the currents mainly came from Anhui and Hubei Province in the earlier stage, while in the later stage they were mainly from Jiangxi Province where fire spots were intensively located. Stable atmospheric stratification caused by steady uniform high-pressure field and slight wind due to the confrontation of cold and warm currents greatly contributed to the development, maintainability and reinforcement of the pollution event. The remote transport of pollutants had a significant impact on ambient air quality of Chang-Zhu-Tan Metropolitan Area. PMID:25639077

  10. Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

  11. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Dallas, Texas, metropolitan area, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, C.M.; Butler, H.S.; Benton, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1979 water year for drainage basins of Joes Creek, Bachman Branch, Turtle Creek, Coombs Creek, Cedar Creek, White Rock Creek, Elam Creek, Fivemile Creek, Whites Branch, Prairie Creek, Tenmile Creek, Buck Creek, and South Mesquite Creek in the Dallas metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Rainfall-runoff computations are presented for eight storm periods during the 1979 water year. The report for the 1979 water year completes the Dallas urban project. Hydrologic data contained in this report and in all previous reports of the Dallas and Fort Worth metropolitan areas are being used to prepare an interpretive report entitled ' Effects of urbanization on floods in the Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan areas, ' which will be released in 1981. (USGS)

  12. Inter-City Virtual Water Transfers Within a Large Metropolitan Area: A Case Study of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Water footprints have been proposed as potential sustainability indicators, but these analyses have thus far focused at the country-level or regional scale. However, for many countries, especially the United States, the most relevant level of water decision-making is the city. For water footprinting to inform urban sustainability, the boundaries for analysis must match the relevant boundaries for decision-making and economic development. Initial studies into city-level water footprints have provided insight into how large cities across the globe—Delhi, Lagos, Berlin, Beijing, York—create virtual water trade linkages with distant hinterlands. This study hypothesizes that for large cities the most direct and manageable virtual water flows exist at the metropolitan area scale and thus should provide the most policy-relevant information. This study represents an initial attempt at quantifying intra-metropolitan area virtual water flows. A modified commodity-by-industry input-output model was used to determine virtual water flows destined to, occurring within, and emanating from the Phoenix metropolitan area (PMA). Virtual water flows to and from the PMA were calculated for each PMA city using water consumption data as well as economic and industry statistics. Intra-PMA virtual water trade was determined using county-level traffic flow data, water consumption data, and economic and industry statistics. The findings show that there are archetypal cities within metropolitan areas and that each type of city has a distinct water footprint profile that is related to the value added economic processes occuring within their boundaries. These findings can be used to inform local water managers about the resilience of outsourced water supplies.

  13. Urban Effects in Numerical weather prediction model at Saint-Petersburg Metropolitan Area for winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, Yulia; Mahura, Alexander; Smyshlaev, Sergei; Baklanov, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of meteorological fields due to influence of the thermal and dynamical urban effects of the metropolitan area was estimated for St. Petersburg (Russia). Dependence of these fields on the temporal variability of meteorological variables in the lower surface layer (wind at 10 m and air temperature at 2 m fields) was estimated as a function of modified parameters - roughness, anthropogenic heat flux, and albedo. The urban modifications were made in the Interaction Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface scheme of the numerical weather prediction model (NWP). As NWP model a research version of the Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used in simulations. To select an urban case study for the modelling domain, the meteorological conditions during 2008-2009 were analyzed based on available archived synoptical maps, vertical sounding diagrams, ground stations observations; and several specific dates - with low and typical wind conditions - in more details. The winter period of 29 Jan - 1 Feb 2009 (characterized by dominating low wind conditions and prevailing strong deep inversion and isothermal layers extending even up to almost 700 Mb) was chosen for evaluation of the thermal and dynamical effects of the St. Petersburg metropolitan area. For selected specific dates several independent runs were performed for: (i) no modifications in scheme (control run) and (ii) modified run. In the later, the combined effects of the anthropogenic heat flux (ranging from 50 up to 200 W/m2), urban roughness parameter of 2 m, and albedo increased were included. These modifications were done only for the urban cells taking into account the urban class fractions in each cell. Due to presence of a snow cover in urban areas the albedo was also increased up to 0.65 comparing with other free snow seasons. The Enviro-HIRLAM runs were performed for 48 hour forecast length, taking into account a spin up of

  14. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...) Metropolitan Area (King and Snohomish Counties) AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... proposed extension of the Central Link Light Rail system from Seattle in King County to the city of... Snohomish and King Counties and the City of Seattle. It is within a geographically constrained area...

  15. History of the negotiations of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Alper, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    This work chronicles events leading to a recommendation that an agency be created by compact among Maryland, Virginia and the District of Columbia to provide a regional rail-transportation system. The body of text describes the process through which framers of the compact finally brought the recommendation to fruition. Many issues arose during the course of negotiations, but each was resolved satisfactorily, leading to a successful political instrument that has enabled the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority to design and construct a rapid-rail transit system for the metropolitan area.

  16. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  17. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  18. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region.

  19. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...—Cumberland, Sagadahoc, York. Towns—Brownfield, Denmark, Fryeburg, Hiram, Porter....

  20. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...—Cumberland, Sagadahoc, York. Towns—Brownfield, Denmark, Fryeburg, Hiram, Porter....

  1. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...—Cumberland, Sagadahoc, York. Towns—Brownfield, Denmark, Fryeburg, Hiram, Porter....

  2. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...—Cumberland, Sagadahoc, York. Towns—Brownfield, Denmark, Fryeburg, Hiram, Porter....

  3. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...—Cumberland, Sagadahoc, York. Towns—Brownfield, Denmark, Fryeburg, Hiram, Porter....

  4. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  5. The Transportation Energy and Carbon Footprints of the 100 Largest U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon; Brown, Marilyn A

    2008-01-01

    We present estimates of the automobile and truck travel based energy and carbon footprints of the largest 100 U.S. metropolitan areas. The footprints are based on the estimated vehicle miles traveled and the transportation fuels consumed. Results are presented on an annual basis and represent end use emissions only. Total carbon emissions, emissions per capita, and emissions per dollar of gross metropolitan product are reported. Two years of annual data were examined, 2000 and 2005, with most of the in-depth analysis focused on the 2005 results. In section 2 we provide background data on the national picture and derive some carbon and energy consumption figures for the nation as a whole. In section 3 of the paper we examine the metropolitan area-wide results based on the sums and averages across all 100 metro areas, and compare these with the national totals and averages. In section 4 we present metropolitan area specific footprints and examine the considerable variation that is found to exist across individual metro areas. In doing so we pay particular attention to the effects that urban form might have on these differences. Finally, section 5 provides a summary of major findings, and a list of caveats that need to be borne in mind when using the results due to known limitations in the data sources used.

  6. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Gregory, M. Brian; May, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental variables with strong associations (rs ≥ 0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended to have strong associations with urbanization. Relations of urbanization with fish assemblages and fish traits were weaker in Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Raleigh, North Carolina. Environmental variables associated with fishes varied among the metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas with poor relations may have had a limited range of possible response because of previous landscape disturbances. Given the complexities of urban landscapes in different metropolitan areas, our results indicate that caution is warranted when generalizing about biological responses to urbanization.

  7. Relative Food Prices and Obesity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: 1976-2001

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Variyam, Jayachandran N.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of food price on obesity, by exploring the co-occurrence of obesity growth with relative food price reduction between 1976 and 2001. Analyses control for female labor participation and metropolitan outlet densities that might affect body weight. Both the first-difference and fixed effects approaches provide consistent evidence suggesting that relative food prices have substantial impacts on obesity and such impacts were more pronounced among the low-educated. These findings imply that relative food price reductions during the time period could plausibly explain about 18% of the increase in obesity among the U.S. adults in metropolitan areas. PMID:25502888

  8. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  9. Flood of May 24-25, 1981, in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.C.; Reeves, W.E.; Lear, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic data pertaining to the magnitude and areal extent of flooding that occurred on May 24-25, 1981, along Shoal, Walnut, and Little Walnut Creeks in the Austin, Texas, metropolitan area are presented in this atlas.  The flood boundary maps and other flood data provide a technical data base for land-use planning.

  10. OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR NONFARM AGRICULTURAL JOBS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREAS OF LOUISIANA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, C.M.; MONDART, C.L.

    A SURVEY OF 1,067 BUSINESSES OR AGENCIES HANDLING FARM PRODUCTS OR PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICE IN SEVEN METROPOLITAN AREAS IDENTIFIED PRESENT AND EMERGING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING AND RANCHING FOR WHICH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE. DATA PROVIDED EMPLOYEE INFORMATION FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL…

  11. Inequality and Police Strength: Conflict Theory and Coercive Control in Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David

    1979-01-01

    One implication of conflict theory is that law enforcement personnel should be most numerous in metropolitan areas where differences in economic resources are greatest. Data from 1960 did not always support this hypothesis, but 1970 data showed that unequal SMSAs were likely to have more law enforcement personnel. (Author/GC)

  12. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement. 511.313 Section 511.313 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  13. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement. 511.313 Section 511.313 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  14. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement. 511.313 Section 511.313 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  15. 23 CFR 511.313 - Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metropolitan Area real-time information program supplement. 511.313 Section 511.313 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT REAL-TIME SYSTEM MANAGEMENT INFORMATION PROGRAM Real-Time...

  16. Jobs: Employment Opportunities in the Washington Metropolitan Area for Persons with Limited Employment Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendick, Marc, Jr.; Egan, Mary Lou

    Employment data for the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area were analyzed to determine jobs available to people who had not graduated from high school. Three hundred nine occupations offered at least some openings. These occupations encompassed 584,000 jobs and offered 14,000 openings in an average week. These numbers overestimated jobs available…

  17. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  18. Employment Profiles of Women and Minorities in 23 Metropolitan Areas, 1974. Research Report No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Joan, Ed.

    This study, which analyzes employment patterns of women and minorities in 23 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs), is based on reports (required by the EEOC--Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) from private employers (EEO-1 Reports) and State and local governments (EEO-4 Reports). For each SMSA, EEO-1 data are presented for 1970…

  19. Coordination of Workshops for the Mentally Retarded in a Metropolitan and Suburban Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shushan, Robert D.

    A demonstration project was conducted to determine the programmatic, economic, and administrative advantages of a coordinated system of sheltered workshops strategically located in a metropolitan and suburban area which placed 51 (15 percent) out of 330 trainees. Thirty-eight were placed in either competitive or on-the-job training programs. Nine…

  20. A STUDY OF THE NEED FOR A JUNIOR COLLEGE IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, RALPH B.

    A POPULATION INCREASE OF 71 PERCENT IS EXPECTED IN UTAH BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980. THE GREATEST GROWTH IS EXPECTED IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA. THE COLLEGE AGE GROUP (18 TO 21 YEARS) WILL INCREASE BY 80 PERCENT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1970. IF CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATES ARE USED, THE PROPOSED JUNIOR COLLEGE COULD EXPECT AN ENROLLMENT OF APPROXIMATELY…

  1. A Systemwide Approach to Improving Early Childhood Program Quality in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, A. Clay; Epstein, Ann S.

    This document is the final report of the McGregor-funded High/Scope training initiative, a system-wide approach to improving the quality of early childhood programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. The 3-year project was based on the validated High/Scope educational approach and training model, which advocates hands-on active learning for both…

  2. Mate Availability and Family Structure among African Americans in U.S. Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossett, Mark A.; Kiecolt, K. Jill

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed census and vital statistics for U.S. metropolitan areas in 1980 to investigate effects of mate availability, socioeconomic status and employment, public assistance, population size, and region on several aspects of family formation and family structure among African Americans. Mate availability had positive effect on marriage prevalence…

  3. Requirements and Design of a Labor Market Information System for a Large Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thal-Larsen, Margaret; And Others

    This study sought to determine the need for labor market information in the San Francisco-Oakland and San Jose Metropolitan areas of California. Respondents included representatives of public and private employment agencies, community antipoverty agencies, school administrators and counselors, employers, union members and high school students. Top…

  4. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Dowd, Scot E.; Wise, Andy; Kedia, Sapna; Vohra, Varun; Banerjee, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities) may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users. PMID:25479039

  5. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  6. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  7. Environment, wealth, inequality and the burden of disease in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-06-01

    The study examines environmental problems and adverse impacts on the health of urban households in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Accra is faced with severe inadequacy of urban infrastructure in the face of rapid population growth in the metropolis. More than half of the city's population do not have access to solid waste collection services. Only 39.8% of households have indoor pipe and over 35.0% of households depend on unsanitary public latrines whilst 2.5% do not have access to toilet facilities. Human excrement, garbage and wastewater are usually deposited in surface drains, open spaces and streams in poor neighbourhoods. The resultant poor sanitation has serious health impacts as more than half of reported diseases are related to poor environmental sanitation. The majority of households depend on solid fuels for cooking and this leads to indoor air pollution and high incidence of respiratory infections. Poor households bear a disproportionately large share of the burden of environmental health hazards than their wealthy counterparts, due to their particular vulnerability resulting from inadequate access to environmental health facilities and services. PMID:16134482

  8. Platinum in PM2.5 of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Martínez-Trejo, Lida; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; García-Arreola, María Elena

    2014-10-01

    The increase in platinum (Pt) in the airborne particulate matter with size ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) in urban environments may be interpreted as result of the abrasion and deterioration of automobile catalyst. Nowadays, about four million vehicles in Mexico City use catalytic converters, which means that their impact should be considered. In order to evaluate the contribution of Pt to environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), airborne PM2.5 was collected at five different sites in the urban area (NW, NE, C, SW, SE) in 2011 during April (dry-warm season), August (rainy season) and December (dry-cold season). Analytical determinations were carried out using a ICP-MS with a collision cell and kinetic energy discrimination. The analytical and instrument performance was evaluated with standard road dust reference material (BCR-723). Median Pt concentration in the analyzed particulate was is 38.4 pg m(-3) (minimal value 1 pg m(-3) maximal value 79 pg m(-3)). Obtained Pt concentrations are higher than those reported for other urban areas. Spatial variation shows that SW had Pt concentration significantly higher than NW and C only. Seasonal variation shows that Pt median was higher in rainy season than in both dry seasons. A comparison of these results with previously reported data of PM10 from 1991 and 2003 in the same studied area shows a worrying increase in the concentration of Pt in the air environment of MAMC. PMID:24729077

  9. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  10. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  11. Current Land Subsidence in the Houston Metropolitan Area, Texas, Derived from GPS Observations (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, T.; Wang, G.; Jia, X.; Jiang, J.; Lee, D.

    2014-12-01

    This article summarizes recent land subsidence that has occurred in the Houston metropolitan area. Subsidence measurements derived from observations at 11 borehole extensometers and 90 GPS sites during the past 20 years (1993-2012) were investigated in this study. Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution employed by the GIPSY-OASIS software package (V6.2) was applied to calculate daily positions of GPS antennas. GPS and extensometer observations indicate that the overall subsidence rate in the Houston metropolitan area has been decreasing since the 1970s, which was when groundwater withdrawal regulations started to be enforced by the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District (HGSD). Currently, the subsidence in the southeast of the Houston metropolitan area has almost ceased. Slight rebound has been observed at several sites along the Houston Ship Channel area since 2005. Nonetheless, a relatively small area within the Houston Ship Channel area that runs northwest from approximately Texas City to League City has continued to subside. There is some evidence that suggest that this subsidence is the result of local oil and gas withdrawal rather than groundwater withdrawal. Subsidence also continues in the west and northwest of the Houston metropolitan area, where groundwater regulations have only recently been implemented. The maximum rate is 2.5 cm/year. It is evident that the groundwater withdrawal regulations enforced by HGSD have successfully reduced the subsidence in the Houston metropolitan area. Long-term GPS observations also indicate that subsidence rates vary spatially and temporally depending on local groundwater withdrawals and the clay-to-sand ratio in subsurface sediments. The ground water and aquifer systems respond slowly to human actions. It took almost two decades (1980s and 1990s) to halt the subsidence in the east part of the Houston metropolitan area after groundwater regulations were implemented in the late

  12. Regionalization in local public health systems: public health preparedness in the Washington metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Stoto, Michael A; Morse, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    The Washington metropolitan area was closely examined to understand how these regional preparedness structures have been organized, implemented, and governed, as well as to assess the likely impact of such regional structures on public health preparedness and public health systems more generally. It was found that no single formal regional structure for the public health system exists in the Washington metropolitan area, although the region is designated by the Department of Homeland Security as the National Capital Region (NCR). In fact, the vast majority of preparedness planning and response activities in this area are the result of voluntary self-organization through both governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Some interviewed felt that this was an optimal arrangement, as personal relationships prove crucial in responding to a public health emergency and an informal response is often more timely than a formal response. The biggest challenge for public health preparedness in the NCR is incorporating all federal government agencies in the area in NCR preparedness planning.

  13. Ambient, indoor and personal exposure relationships of volatile organic compounds in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Trespalacios, Paulina I; Ryan, Louise; Spengler, John D

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution standards and control strategies are based on ambient measurements. For many outdoor air pollutants, individuals are closer to their sources (especially traffic) and there are important indoor sources influencing the relationship between ambient and personal exposures. This paper examines the relationship between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at central site monitoring stations and personal exposures in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Over a 1-year period, personal exposures to 34 VOCs were measured for 90 volunteers from 30 families living close to one of five central monitoring stations. Simultaneous 24-h indoor, outdoor and central site measurements were also taken. Dual packed thermal desorption tubes and C(18) DNPH-coated cartridges were used for sampling VOCs and these were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, respectively. A factor analysis of the personal exposure data aided in grouping compounds by the most likely source type: vehicular (BTEX, styrene and 1,3-butadiene), secondary formed or photochemical (most aldehydes), building materials and consumer products (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde), cleaning solvents (tetrachloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane), volatilization from water (chloroform and trichloroethene) and deodorizers (1,4-dichlorobenzene). Mean ambient, indoor and personal concentrations were 7/7/14 microg/m(3) for benzene, 1/3/3 for 1,3-butadiene, 6/20/20 for formaldehyde and 3/9/50 for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Geometric mean (GM) ambient concentrations of trichloroethene and carbon tetrachloride were similar to GM personal exposures. While outdoor and indoor home GM concentrations for most vehicular related compounds (benzene, MTBE, xylenes and styrene) were comparable, the GM personal exposures were twice as high. Indoor concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, chloroform, formaldehyde, valeraldehyde, propionaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde were comparable to personal exposures. For certain

  14. Spatial analysis of PM10 and cardiovascular mortality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yu-Ra; Bae, Hyun-Joo; Lim, Youn-Hee; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Geun-Bae; Cho, Yong-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous studies have revealed the adverse health effects of acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The aim of the present study was to examine the spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations and cardiovascular mortality and to investigate the spatial correlation between PM10 and cardiovascular mortality using spatial scan statistic (SaTScan) and a regression model. Methods From 2008 to 2010, the spatial distribution of PM10 in the Seoul metropolitan area was examined via kriging. In addition, a group of cardiovascular mortality cases was analyzed using SaTScan-based cluster exploration. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to investigate the correlation between PM10 concentrations and cardiovascular mortality. Results An examination of the regional distribution of the cardiovascular mortality was higher in provincial districts (gu) belonging to Incheon and the northern part of Gyeonggido than in other regions. In a comparison of PM10 concentrations and mortality cluster (MC) regions, all those belonging to MC 1 and MC 2 were found to belong to particulate matter (PM) 1 and PM 2 with high concentrations of air pollutants. In addition, the GWR showed that PM10 has a statistically significant relation to cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions To investigate the relation between air pollution and health impact, spatial analyses can be utilized based on kriging, cluster exploration, and GWR for a more systematic and quantitative analysis. It has been proven that cardiovascular mortality is spatially related to the concentration of PM10. PMID:25116367

  15. Ambient, indoor and personal exposure relationships of volatile organic compounds in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Trespalacios, Paulina I; Ryan, Louise; Spengler, John D

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution standards and control strategies are based on ambient measurements. For many outdoor air pollutants, individuals are closer to their sources (especially traffic) and there are important indoor sources influencing the relationship between ambient and personal exposures. This paper examines the relationship between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at central site monitoring stations and personal exposures in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Over a 1-year period, personal exposures to 34 VOCs were measured for 90 volunteers from 30 families living close to one of five central monitoring stations. Simultaneous 24-h indoor, outdoor and central site measurements were also taken. Dual packed thermal desorption tubes and C(18) DNPH-coated cartridges were used for sampling VOCs and these were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, respectively. A factor analysis of the personal exposure data aided in grouping compounds by the most likely source type: vehicular (BTEX, styrene and 1,3-butadiene), secondary formed or photochemical (most aldehydes), building materials and consumer products (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde), cleaning solvents (tetrachloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane), volatilization from water (chloroform and trichloroethene) and deodorizers (1,4-dichlorobenzene). Mean ambient, indoor and personal concentrations were 7/7/14 microg/m(3) for benzene, 1/3/3 for 1,3-butadiene, 6/20/20 for formaldehyde and 3/9/50 for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Geometric mean (GM) ambient concentrations of trichloroethene and carbon tetrachloride were similar to GM personal exposures. While outdoor and indoor home GM concentrations for most vehicular related compounds (benzene, MTBE, xylenes and styrene) were comparable, the GM personal exposures were twice as high. Indoor concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, chloroform, formaldehyde, valeraldehyde, propionaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde were comparable to personal exposures. For certain

  16. Population Change Within Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas: Lessons from New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dan E.

    According to the results of an in-depth study of the process of population change in New York State, the less densely settled an area, the more likely it is to grow in the 1970's. This is more evidence of the recent major U.S. demographic phenomenon of a revival of population growth in non-metropolitan areas. Population data for the sixty-two…

  17. Assessing the Impacts of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport on Particulate Matter and Ozone in Atlanta Metropolitan Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Alper; Odman, M. Talat; Russell, Armistead G.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine, through modeling, the impact of aircraft emissions on regional air quality, especially in regard to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) as well as ozone and other pollutants. For this, we focused on Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport which is the busiest airport in the world based on passenger traffic (AIC, 2003). Hartsfield-Jackson serves the metropolitan Atlanta area where air quality does not meet national standards. Emissions from mobile and industrial sources (including several large electric power generating utilities) are the major contributors to the area's air pollution. In this study, we assessed the impact of Hartsfield-Jackson Airport on air quality around Atlanta, Georgia, and compared it to the impacts of other emission sources in the area. The assessment was built upon other, related air quality studies involving both field and modeling components. To achieve the objectives, first a detailed inventory was developed for aircraft and other emissions at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then, air quality simulations were performed to relate these emissions to regional air quality around Atlanta. The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) was used as the modeling platform. The period of August 11-20 2000 was selected as the episode to be modeled in this study. Prior modeling of this episode during the Fall Line Air Quality Study (FAQS) and availability of additional PM(2.5) measurements for evaluation played a major role in this selection. Meteorological data for this episode as well as emission data for sources other than aircrafts were already available from FAQS.

  18. Black Families Under Stress: A Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Comparison of Individual and Family Disability in a Southern Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Earl A.; Byrd, Flossie M.

    The report explored the extent to which differential access to health, medical and hospital facilities in metropolitan (M) and nonmetropolitan (NM) areas related to differentials in number and degree of disabilities among Black family members. Data were obtained from Black families in a large metropolitan center, a small town (about 5,000…

  19. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed.

  20. Shifting balances in U.S. metropolitan and nonmetropolitan area growth.

    PubMed

    Garnick, D H

    1984-12-01

    "This paper assesses some of the recent attempts to explain the perceived growth reversal between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in the United States during the 1970s. The paper argues that the reversal in population trends was not a one-time, radical shift in settlement trends, but rather the result of more continuous underlying industrial trends. Indeed, since 1979, population growth has again become faster in metropolitan than nonmetropolitan areas." The paper includes three sections. Regional and area population and industrial earnings growth patterns are first summarized for the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Theories of polarization and polar reversal are then evaluated and found to be inadequate. Finally, a reconstruction of the neoclassical model is proposed.

  1. Greater Milwaukee Metropolitan Area Career Education Project. Phase 3 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI.

    The third report of the greater Milwaukee area career education project documents the phase 3 activities and accomplishments of the project, from October 1974 to July 1975. The following objectives were accomplished. Contact persons have been established in each district to promote career education. Three one-week workshops, two adult career…

  2. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  4. Miami, Florida metropolitan area as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A view looking east shows the cities from Hollywood to Homestead in the greater Miami area. The photograph is centered directly over the city of Miami at approximately 25.5 degrees north and 80.5 degrees west. The average elevation of the area is 6 feet above mean sea level. Extensive drainage has taken place since the late 19th century to prevent massive flooding. The Miami River is one of the main drainage structures and is visible as a straight diagonal line near the center of the picture. Many of the small lakes in the lower portion of the view are catch ponds for runoff water. Many of the major roads are visible: Highway A1A follows the coast and ends at Miami Beach. Interstate 95 parallels the coast. The Taniami trail to the west across the Everglades (center-bottom) links Miami Beach to the mainland.

  5. Simulations of the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in an Arid Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Liu, Yubao; Zehnder, Joseph A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2008-03-15

    Characteristics of the summertime urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated for the arid Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region using simulated data as well as observations from two field campaigns conducted in May/June 1998 and June 2001. A version of the fifth-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was applied that included a refined land cover classification and updated land use/cover data for Phoenix as well as bulk approaches of characteristics of the urban surface energy balance. Planetary boundary layer processes were simulated by a modified version of MM5¹s non-local closure Medium Range Forecast (MRF) scheme that was enhanced by new surface flux and non-local mixing approaches to better capture near-surface wind speeds and the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Simulated potential temperature profiles were tested against radiosonde data, indicating that the PBL scheme was able to simulate the evolution and height of the PBL with good accuracy and better than the original MRF scheme. During both simulation periods, MM5¹s performance for near-surface meteorological variables in the urban area was consistently improved by the modifications applied to the standard MM5. The results showed that the urban PBL evolved faster after sunrise than the rural PBL due to the reminiscence of the nighttime urban heat island and its influence on the flow field and surface sensible heat fluxes. During afternoon hours the urban PBL was lower than the rural PBL due to the higher water availability for evaporation in the urban area and accompanying lower sensible heat fluxes. No consistent differences between the urban and rural PBL were detected during nighttime because of deviations in air flow and accompanying wind shear.

  6. An hourly PM10 diagnosis model for the Bilbao metropolitan area using a linear regression methodology.

    PubMed

    González-Aparicio, I; Hidalgo, J; Baklanov, A; Padró, A; Santa-Coloma, O

    2013-07-01

    There is extensive evidence of the negative impacts on health linked to the rise of the regional background of particulate matter (PM) 10 levels. These levels are often increased over urban areas becoming one of the main air pollution concerns. This is the case on the Bilbao metropolitan area, Spain. This study describes a data-driven model to diagnose PM10 levels in Bilbao at hourly intervals. The model is built with a training period of 7-year historical data covering different urban environments (inland, city centre and coastal sites). The explanatory variables are quantitative-log [NO2], temperature, short-wave incoming radiation, wind speed and direction, specific humidity, hour and vehicle intensity-and qualitative-working days/weekends, season (winter/summer), the hour (from 00 to 23 UTC) and precipitation/no precipitation. Three different linear regression models are compared: simple linear regression; linear regression with interaction terms (INT); and linear regression with interaction terms following the Sawa's Bayesian Information Criteria (INT-BIC). Each type of model is calculated selecting two different periods: the training (it consists of 6 years) and the testing dataset (it consists of 1 year). The results of each type of model show that the INT-BIC-based model (R(2) = 0.42) is the best. Results were R of 0.65, 0.63 and 0.60 for the city centre, inland and coastal sites, respectively, a level of confidence similar to the state-of-the art methodology. The related error calculated for longer time intervals (monthly or seasonal means) diminished significantly (R of 0.75-0.80 for monthly means and R of 0.80 to 0.98 at seasonally means) with respect to shorter periods.

  7. An hourly PM10 diagnosis model for the Bilbao metropolitan area using a linear regression methodology.

    PubMed

    González-Aparicio, I; Hidalgo, J; Baklanov, A; Padró, A; Santa-Coloma, O

    2013-07-01

    There is extensive evidence of the negative impacts on health linked to the rise of the regional background of particulate matter (PM) 10 levels. These levels are often increased over urban areas becoming one of the main air pollution concerns. This is the case on the Bilbao metropolitan area, Spain. This study describes a data-driven model to diagnose PM10 levels in Bilbao at hourly intervals. The model is built with a training period of 7-year historical data covering different urban environments (inland, city centre and coastal sites). The explanatory variables are quantitative-log [NO2], temperature, short-wave incoming radiation, wind speed and direction, specific humidity, hour and vehicle intensity-and qualitative-working days/weekends, season (winter/summer), the hour (from 00 to 23 UTC) and precipitation/no precipitation. Three different linear regression models are compared: simple linear regression; linear regression with interaction terms (INT); and linear regression with interaction terms following the Sawa's Bayesian Information Criteria (INT-BIC). Each type of model is calculated selecting two different periods: the training (it consists of 6 years) and the testing dataset (it consists of 1 year). The results of each type of model show that the INT-BIC-based model (R(2) = 0.42) is the best. Results were R of 0.65, 0.63 and 0.60 for the city centre, inland and coastal sites, respectively, a level of confidence similar to the state-of-the art methodology. The related error calculated for longer time intervals (monthly or seasonal means) diminished significantly (R of 0.75-0.80 for monthly means and R of 0.80 to 0.98 at seasonally means) with respect to shorter periods. PMID:23247520

  8. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  9. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  10. A Comparison of Homeless Male Veterans in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas in Nebraska: A Methodological Caveat.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Bhatia, Subhash C; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This study explored differences between homeless male veterans in metropolitan and micropolitan cities in Nebraska on sociodemographic, housing, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics as well as health service use. A convenience sample of 151 homeless male veterans (112 metropolitan, 39 micropolitan) were recruited from Veterans Affairs facilities and area shelters in Omaha, Lincoln, Grand Island, and Hastings in Nebraska. Research staff conducted structured interviews with homeless veterans. Results showed that compared to homeless veterans in metropolitans, those in micropolitans were more likely to be White, unmarried, living in transitional settings, and were far more transient but reported greater social support and housing satisfaction. Veterans in micropolitans also reported more medical problems, diagnoses of anxiety and personality disorders, and unexpectedly, were more likely to report using various health services and less travel time for services. Together, these findings suggest access to homeless and health services for veterans in micropolitan areas may be facilitated through Veterans Affairs facilities and community providers that work in close proximity to one another. Many homeless veterans in these areas are transient, making them a difficult population to study and serve. Innovative ways to provide outreach to homeless veterans in micropolitan and more rural areas are needed.

  11. Modeling and predicting urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area based on cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  12. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Dr Harrison; Li, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  13. Improved parameters metropolitan area network supported with all-optical network's technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradkowska, Magdalena; Kalita, Mariusz

    2006-03-01

    The advantages of all-optical network's technics make them one of main elements of the metropolitan area networks. They enable different applications in high quality mulitimedia services and guarantee a constant and reliable access to the Internet. As the growing expansion of the Internet continues in an unpredictable direction, many new solutions are expected. The major challenge is the increasing demand for flexible, transparent and customised bandwidth services for both private and business customers.

  14. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    Samples for analysis of 32 chemical, physical, and biological constituents will be collected at varying frequencies, with emphasis on storm sampling for suspended solids and nutrients. A data-management system being designed for the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Hydrology Studies Program will facilitate data processing. Data interpretation will be aimed at defining the quantity and quality characteristics of runoff from study watersheds. These findings will be extrapolated to unsampled watersheds in the metropolitan area.

  15. 40 CFR 81.18 - Metropolitan St. Louis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... County. In the State of Missouri: Franklin County, Jefferson County, St. Charles County, St. Louis...

  16. 40 CFR 81.18 - Metropolitan St. Louis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... County. In the State of Missouri: Franklin County, Jefferson County, St. Charles County, St. Louis...

  17. 40 CFR 81.18 - Metropolitan St. Louis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... County. In the State of Missouri: Franklin County, Jefferson County, St. Charles County, St. Louis...

  18. 40 CFR 81.18 - Metropolitan St. Louis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... County. In the State of Missouri: Franklin County, Jefferson County, St. Charles County, St. Louis...

  19. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  20. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  1. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  2. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  3. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  4. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    PubMed

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases. PMID:27038903

  5. Coronary heart disease prevalence and occupational structure in U.S. metropolitan areas: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Nagy, Christine; Peterson, Tina

    2013-05-01

    This research explored the link between coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and metropolitan-area level occupational structure among 137 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) in the United States. Using data from the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2007 County Business Patterns, logistic mixed models were developed to estimate CHD prevalence between MMSAs controlling for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and various types of occupational structure. Results showed that CHD prevalence was lower in MMSAs where their economy was dominated by 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' and higher in MMSAs dominated by 'manufacturing', 'transportation and warehousing', and 'mining'. MMSA-level effects on CHD were found in 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' having lower risk and 'mining' having higher risk of CHD. Although these effects prevailed in many MMSAs, some MMSAs did not fit into these effects. Additional analysis indicated a possible link between metropolitan population loss and higher CHD prevalence especially in the coal mining region of the Appalachian Mountains.

  6. Density Zoning and Class Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Jonathan T.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Socioeconomic segregation rose substantially in U.S. cities during the final decades of the 20th century and we argue zoning regulations are an important cause for this increase. Methods We measure neighborhood economic segregation using the Gini Coefficient for neighborhood income inequality and the poor-affluent exposure index. These outcomes are regressed on an index of density zoning developed from the work of Pendall for 50 U.S. metropolitan areas, while controlling for other metropolitan characteristics likely to affect urban housing markets and class segregation. Results For both 2000 and changes from 1990 to 2000, OLS estimates reveal a strong relationship between density zoning and income segregation, and replication using 2SLS suggests that the relationship is causal. We also show that zoning is associated with higher inter-jurisdictional inequality. Conclusions Metropolitan areas with suburbs that restrict the density of residential construction are more segregated on the basis of income than those with more permissive density zoning regimes. This arrangement perpetuates and exacerbates racial and class inequality in the United States. PMID:21117332

  7. Coronary heart disease prevalence and occupational structure in U.S. metropolitan areas: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Nagy, Christine; Peterson, Tina

    2013-05-01

    This research explored the link between coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and metropolitan-area level occupational structure among 137 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) in the United States. Using data from the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2007 County Business Patterns, logistic mixed models were developed to estimate CHD prevalence between MMSAs controlling for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and various types of occupational structure. Results showed that CHD prevalence was lower in MMSAs where their economy was dominated by 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' and higher in MMSAs dominated by 'manufacturing', 'transportation and warehousing', and 'mining'. MMSA-level effects on CHD were found in 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' having lower risk and 'mining' having higher risk of CHD. Although these effects prevailed in many MMSAs, some MMSAs did not fit into these effects. Additional analysis indicated a possible link between metropolitan population loss and higher CHD prevalence especially in the coal mining region of the Appalachian Mountains. PMID:23511976

  8. Pollution by psychoactive pharmaceuticals in the Rivers of Madrid metropolitan area (Spain).

    PubMed

    González Alonso, Silvia; Catalá, Myriam; Maroto, Raúl Romo; Gil, José Luis Rodríguez; de Miguel, Angel Gil; Valcárcel, Yolanda

    2010-02-01

    There are a number of reports in the literature which describe the occurrence of so-called emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, in surface water. Few of these studies have reported values from large cities in relatively arid areas, such as in Spain. The persistence of some pharmaceuticals to usual wastewater treatments allows their discharge into surface waters. It is increasingly evident that mental health problems are of special concern for public health since psychiatric drugs are used in large amounts. Compared to other countries, Spain has a high pharmaceutical consumption rate, and Madrid metropolitan area is one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of different psychoactive pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the main rivers of Madrid metropolitan area: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadarrama, Henares and Tajo. Sampling was done downstream of ten sewage treatment plants (STP) discharging into these rivers. Control points upstream of STPs discharge points were also sampled. Pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites for analysis were selected according to human consumption and prescription rates in Madrid, and the availability of valid techniques for detection. We observed residues of the antidepressants fluoxetine (80% of the sampling sites), citalopram (60%) and venlafaxine (100%), the anxiolytics nordiazepam (90%), oxazepam (80%) and 7-aminoflunitrazepam (10%) and the anticonvulsant carabamazepine (70%). Measured concentrations equalled or exceeded those reported for other geographical areas, although there is a pronounced lack of information for the anxiolytics and venlafaxine. This is of special concern given that Wyeth-Ayerst's venlafaxine, Effexor, was the 10th greatest selling pharmaceutical worldwide in 2006. We conclude that the origin of pharmaceutical pollution in the rivers of Madrid is mainly the discharge of sewage treatment plants in Madrid's metropolitan area and a

  9. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  10. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  11. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from nine sites in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Johnnie W.

    1981-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data were collected April through September 1980, from nine urbanrunoff sites in the Denver metropolitan area, and are presented in this report. The sites consist of two single-family residential areas, two multi-family residential areas, one commercial area (shopping center), one mixed commercial and multi-family residential area, one native area (open space), and two detention ponds. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, coliform bacteria, solids, and trace elements) and basin-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model, Version II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used to characterize runoff pollution loading for various land-use types in Denver and other semi-arid regions. (USGS)

  12. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)

  13. Metro U.S.A. Data Sheet: Population Estimates and Selected Demographic Indicators for the Metropolitan Areas of the United States. Special edition of the United States Population Data Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This poster-size data sheet presents population estimates and selected demographic indicators for the nation's 281 metropolitan areas. These areas are divided into 261 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), reporting units which replace the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs)…

  14. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  15. The study of ozone variations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, has grown rapidly in the past fifty years. Associated with this growth has been a change in landscape from natural cover types to developed urban land mixed with planned vegetation canopy throughout in the metropolitan area. Air quality in the Las Vegas Valley has been affected by increases in anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Ozone concentration in the region is generally influenced by synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions, as well as regional transport of pollutants from the western side of Las Vegas. Local influences from ground-level nitrogen oxide emissions and vegetation canopy coverage also affect ozone concentration. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations in Clark County, Nevada, indicate that ozone maximums develop in May and June, while minimums exist primarily from November to February. Ozone concentrations are high on the west and northwest sides of the valley. A nighttime ozone reduction in the urban area characterizes the heterogeneous features of spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas urban area. The urban vegetation canopy has a locally positive effect by reducing ozone in urban areas. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggests that the highest ozone concentrations are associated with medium- to low-density urban development in Las Vegas.

  16. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  17. Exploratory Investigation of Concentrations of Total Gaseous Mercury in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, S.; de La Rosa, D. A.; Márquez, C.; Solórzano, G.; Martínez, A.

    2004-12-01

    Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in ambient air at several locations within Mexico Valley Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, ZMVM, in Spanish) was measured during the Fall of 2002 and the first quarter of 2003. Among these locations were Tecamachalco (19°26'N; 99°13'W), San Agustín (19°31'N; 99°01'W), Xalostoc (19°31'N; 99°04'W) and Iztapalapa (19°21'N; 99°04'W). San Agustín and Xalostoc border the State of Mexico. Iztapalapa contains CENICA's monitoring station, and Mercury was one of the parameters measured here during the MCMA-2003 field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in ZMVM in April of 2003. This last site was used to monitor Mercury during three different seasons. The reported concentrations of Mercury vapor were measured continuously using cold vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Tekran 2537A analyzer), with a detection limit of 0.10 ng·m-3 and a monitoring frequency of five minutes. The average TGM concentrations reported were 13.42, 10.22, 8.46 and 34.2 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa in the months of September, October and November of 2002 and April of 2003 during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, respectively. For Tecamachalco, a concentration of 49.67 ng·m-3 was reported in January, 11.3 ng·m-3, for San Agustín in February and 31.99 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc in March of 2003.The daily maximums, 24 hourly average, for the same periods are 223.5, 78.2, 31.4 and 503.75 ng·m-3 for Iztapalapa, 118.62 ng·m-3 for Tecamachalco, 83.4 ng·m-3 for San Agustín and 261.2 ng·m-3 for Xalostoc. According to Ontario's air quality standards, the threshold value for mercury vapor in ambient air is 2 mg·m-3 on a 30 day average (Mercury situation in Canada, Report # 2, Environment Canada, May 2002). According to these criteria, then, the data reported for Mexico City are within the allowed limits for ambient air, but still 22 times higher than those reported as background concentrations at pristine locations (de la Rosa D

  18. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from three localities in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Sherman R.

    1978-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data, collected from 1975 to 1977, on three catchment areas in the Denver, Colo., metropolitan area are presented. The catchment are predominantly a single-family residential catchment area in Littleton, a multifamily residential and commercial catchment area in Lakewood, and a high-density residential and commercial catchment area in Denver. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, snowmelt-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, coliform bacteria, and solids, trace elements, and pesticides), and catchment-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Storm Water Management Model II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used by planning, water-management, and environmental-protection agencies to assess the impact of urban storm runoff on the hydrologic system. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  20. Shallow ground-water quality in the Boston, Massachusetts metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, S.M.; Montgomery, D.L.; Ayotte, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected from 29 wells across the Boston metropolitan area indicate that shallow ground water in recently urbanized settings often contains trace amounts of nutrients, fuel, and industrial-based organic compounds. Most of the samples that contained detectable amounts of organic compounds also had elevated levels of iron and total dissolved solids. Nitrate was detected in 83 percent of the samples, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter nitrate was exceeded in just one sample. Low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in 76 percent of the samples, with as many as 13 different VOCs detected in a single sample. The concentration of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in one sample was 267 micrograms per liter, which exceeds the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection drinking-water guideline of 70 micrograms per liter. Chloroform and MTBE were the two most frequently detected VOCs. MTBE was detected at the same frequency in ground water in the Boston metropolitan area as in other urban areas of New England. Chloroform is detected at higher frequency in old, densely populated areas in New England than in more recently developed, less densely populated areas. Pesticide detections were few, but only at trace concentrations, and none of the concentrations exceeded any drinking-water standard.

  1. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  2. Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157

  3. On Scaling of Scientific Knowledge Production in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants) compared to larger cities. The latter result is indicative of the critical mass required to establish a scientific center in a particular discipline. Finally, we observe that the largest cities publish much less than the scaling law would predict, indicating that the largest cities are relatively unattractive locations for scientific research. PMID:25353686

  4. Statistical interpretation of pollution data from satellites. [for levels distribution over metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The NIMBUS-G environmental monitoring satellite has an instrument (a gas correlation spectrometer) onboard for measuring the mass of a given pollutant within a gas volume. The present paper treats the problem: How can this type measurement be used to estimate the distribution of pollutant levels in a metropolitan area. Estimation methods are used to develop this distribution. The pollution concentration caused by a point source is modeled as a Gaussian plume. The uncertainty in the measurements is used to determine the accuracy of estimating the source strength, the wind velocity, diffusion coefficients and source location.

  5. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Dallas, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, B.B.; Wood, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1978 water year for drainage basins of Joes Creek, Bachman Branch, Turtle Creek, Coombs Creek, Cedar Creek, White Rock Creek, Elam Creek, Fivemile Creek, Newton Creek, Whites Branch, Prairie Creek, Tenmile Creek, Duck Creek, and South Mesquite Creek in the Dallas, Texas metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for ten storm periods during the 1978 water year. (USGS)

  6. First Results From The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Lightning Mapping Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, B.; Zubrick, S.

    2006-12-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6, 54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4, 2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  7. tir- and stx-positive Escherichia coli in stream waters in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James A; Belt, Kenneth T; Karns, Jeffrey S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Shelton, Daniel R

    2005-05-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, which may include the enteropathogenic E. coli and the enterohemorrhagic E. coli, are a significant cause of diarrheal disease among infants and children in both developing and developed areas. Disease outbreaks related to freshwater exposure have been documented, but the presence of these organisms in the urban aquatic environment is not well characterized. From April 2002 through April 2004 we conducted weekly surveys of streams in the metropolitan Baltimore, Md., area for the prevalence of potentially pathogenic E. coli by using PCR assays targeting the tir and stx(1) and stx(2) genes. Coliforms testing positive for the presence of the tir gene were cultured from 653 of 1,218 samples (53%), with a greater prevalence associated with urban, polluted streams than in suburban and forested watershed streams. Polluted urban streams were also more likely to test positive for the presence of one of the stx genes. Sequence analysis of the tir amplicon, as well as the entire tir gene from three isolates, indicated that the pathogenic E. coli present in the stream waters has a high degree of sequence homology with the E. coli O157:H7 serotype. Our data indicate that pathogenic E. coli are continually deposited into a variety of stream habitats and suggest that this organism may be a permanent member of the gastrointestinal microflora of humans and animals in the metropolitan Baltimore area.

  8. First Results from the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area Lighting Map Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Hall, John; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, Bill; Zubrick, Steven

    2007-01-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6,54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4,2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  9. Racial Residential Segregation and Low Birth Weight in Michigan's Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Michael D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of racial residential segregation, independent of neighborhood economic factors, on the overall and specific etiological risks of low birth weight. Methods. We geocoded all singleton births in Michigan metropolitan areas during 2000 to census tracts. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate the association between low birth weight (< 2500 g) and neighborhood-level economic and racial segregation, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed competing risks of the 2 etiologies of low birth weight: intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Results. Living in a Black segregated area was associated with increased odds (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.29; P < .05) of low birth weight after adjusting for individual- and tract-level measures. The analysis suggested that the association between low birth weight and racial segregation was attributable primarily to increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.37; P < .05). Conclusions. Odds of low birth weight are higher in racially segregated Black neighborhoods in Michigan's metropolitan areas, independent of economic factors. The association appears to operate through intrauterine growth restriction rather than preterm birth. PMID:21778487

  10. Lack of spatial variation of endotoxin in ambient particulate matter across a German metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Verena; Carty, Cara L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Cyrys, Josef; Bischof, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    In this study, we describe the spatial variation of endotoxin across an urban setting using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods. We also identify potential sources of endotoxin that account for between-site variability and compare endotoxin levels in particulate matter with a 50% aerodynamic cut-off diameter of 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) and of 10 μm (PM 10). In 1999-2000, we collected PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Munich urban air and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Using Teflon filters and Harvard impactors, PM 2.5 was collected at 40 outdoor monitoring sites across Munich and PM 10 at a subset of these sites ( n=12). Approximately four samples were collected at each site for a total of 158 PM 2.5 samples and 48 PM 10 samples. We visited and characterized the surrounding 100 m of each site for potential endotoxin sources. The geometric mean endotoxin concentration for all sites was 1.46 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.21-1.77) and at the subset of the sites was 1.30 EU mg -1 PM 2.5 (95% CI: 1.01-1.67 EU mg -1 PM 2.5). Endotoxin levels in PM 10 were higher, 3.91 EU mg -1 PM 10 (95% CI: 3.03-5.03 EU mg -1 PM 10), than in PM 2.5 and were moderately correlated, r=0.51. All endotoxin concentrations measured in this study were <5.5 EU m -3 and thus lower than the accepted thresholds for acute adverse health effects for occupational exposures. Sites with more potential sources ( n⩾3) had slightly higher mean endotoxin levels (MR: 1.30 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and 1.13 for EU m -3 PM 2.5) than sites with no identified sources. Based on the ranges of endotoxin levels at the different sites, we found very little spatial variation in ambient endotoxin concentrations across the metropolitan area of Munich using inverse distance weighting method (IDW) methods ( R2=0.013 for EU mg -1 PM 2.5 and R2=0.020 for EU m -3 PM 2.5). Potential sources of endotoxin surrounding the sites only partly explained the variation seen.

  11. Seismic microzoning in the metropolitan area of Port - au-Prince - complexity of the subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, R.; Bertil, D.; Belvaux, M.; Roulle, A.; Noury, G.; Prepetit, C.; Jean-Philippe, J.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude 7.3 earthquake that struck Haiti in January 12, 2010 has caused a lot of damages in surrounding areas epicenter. These damages are due to a lack of knowledge of the Haitian subsoil. To overcome this problem, the LNBTP, the BME and BRGM have agreed to implement a project of seismic microzonation of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince which is financed by the Fund for the reconstruction of the country. The seismic microzonation is an important tool for knowledge of seismic risk. It is based on a collection of geological, geotechnical, geophysical and measures and recognition and the campaign of numerous sites. It describes a class of specific soils with associated spectral response. The objective of the microzoning is to identify and map the homogeneous zones of lithology, topography, liquefaction and ground movements. The zoning of lithological sites effect is to identify and map areas with geological and geomechanical consistent and homogeneous seismic response; the objective is to provide, in each area, seismic movements adapted to the ground. This zoning is done in about five steps: 1- Cross-analysis of geological, geotechnical and geophysical information; 2- Such information comprise the existing data collected and the data acquired during the project; 3- Identification of homogeneous areas. 4- Definition of one or more columns of representative soils associated with each zone; 5 - Possible consolidation of area to get the final seismic zoning. 27 zones types were considered for the study of sites effects after the analysis of all geological, geotechnical and geophysical data. For example, for the formation of Delmas, there are 5 areas with soil classes ranging from D to C. Soil columns described in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince are processed with the CyberQuake software, which is developed at the BRGM by Modaressi et al. in 1997, to calculate their response to seismic rock solicitation. The seismic motion is determined by 4

  12. The impact of volcanic gases from Miyake island on the chemical constituents in precipitation in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-04-01

    The volcano on Miyake Island first erupted in July 2000 and continuous emission of volcanic gas from the collapsed caldera has been observed from the middle of August 2000. The large volcanic emission of SO2 had a strong influence on Tokyo metropolitan area, which is located approximately 150 km north of Miyake Island. We measured major ions in precipitation and dry deposition samples which had been collected at five sampling sites (Yokohama, Kashiwa, Fujisawa, Yokosuka, and Hachioji) in the Tokyo metropolitan area for 12 years since 1990. We have evaluated quantitatively the impact of the volcanic SO2 gas emitted from Miyake Island on the Tokyo metropolitan area by comparing depositional ionic constituents in the volcanic degassing period (from September 2000 to August 2001) with those in the normal period of the past 10 years (September 1990 to August 2000). nss-SO4(2-) concentrations in precipitation at the sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area were 59.5-77.0 microeq/L during the degassing period, and 33.3-44.1 microeq/L during the normal period, respectively. The difference of nss-SO4(2-) concentrations between the two periods was statistically significant. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of the other major ions (NH4+, nss-Ca2+, Cl-, and NO3-) between the two periods. The impact of volcanic degassing from Miyake Island on the ionic concentrations in the precipitation of the Tokyo metropolitan area was seen only in the H+ and nss-SO4(2-) concentrations. The annual wet deposition amount of volcanic nss-SO4(2-) into the Tokyo metropolitan area has been quantitatively estimated. The annual wet deposition amounts were calculated as 701+/-277 Meq/year (22.4+/-8.9 kt SO2/year) on the total area of the Tokyo metropolitan area (14,000 km2). The wet deposition amount of nss-SO4(2-) corresponds to only 0.15% of the total annual amount of volcanic SO2 (15 Mt/year) emitted from Miyake Island from September 2000 to August

  13. University and Local Government in Metropolitan Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffite, Nicolas Baya

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the role of universities in the sustainable management of metropolitan areas, drawing on the outputs from a workshop that brought together academics, professionals and politicians responsible for the urban environmental management of the metropolitan areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Urban…

  14. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  15. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... identified by EPA on July 20, 2011 (76 FR 43183). \\2\\ New or modified major stationary sources of air... version of Rule 214 into the SIP on July 20, 2011 (76 FR 43183). There are no previous versions of Rule... fully approved into the California SIP on July 20, 2011. See 76 FR 43183. II. EPA's Evaluation...

  16. Diagnosis of sea breeze cases over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, C.; Freitas, E. D.

    2013-05-01

    The sea breeze is a great responsible for the organization of severe weather events, climate patterns and air pollution dispersion over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), being the knowledge about its correct predictability very important in the region. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model was used to simulate some events of sea breeze propagation over the MASP during the winter season of 2009 (18th and 20th june, 29th august, 02nd September) with the objective to analyze the skill of the model on the predictability of this events using the default parameterizations available in the model and identify some flaws and possible adjustments to be made in the model. For this purpose, the simulation results were compared with the observed velocity and wind direction collected in the "Campo de Marte" Airport - SP. The model had a good response for all simulated days, where the horizontal wind and the vapor mixing ratio indicating correctly the sea breeze arrival over the region. Another important feature observed in the wind moisture fields was the moments that the sea breeze reaches different parts of MASP in response to the Urban Heat Island effect, which can accelerate or prevent the sea breeze propagation depending on location, as observed in other studies, and the relative position of the metropolitan area with respect to the sea-shore and the topography of the region. It was observed that the sea-breeze front reaches the southwest portion of MASP approximately two hours before it reaches the northwest portion.

  17. The Nutrition and Dietetics Workforce Needs Skills and Expertise in the New York Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Gaba, Ann; Shrivastava, Apoorva; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an increased demand in the Nutrition and Dietetics field which has fostered credentialing to ensure competent graduates. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory analysis to identify nutrition/dietetics workforce needs, skills and expertise in the New York metropolitan area as exemplified in position announcements over a 4 year period. Methods: We recorded position announcements for jobs in nutrition and dietetics from the New York State Registered Dietitian Yahoo group, and the Hunter College Nutrition and Food Sciences student and alumni listserv (NFS-L) over a 4 year period. Keywords were identified using job categories defined by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) compensation and benefits survey. This served as a starting point to enumerate the types of positions that have been posted for the New York metropolitan area in recent years. Results: Four hundred and twelve (412) unique job postings were recorded. Various educational levels, credentials, and skills desired by these employers were identified, assessed, and compared with similar data from the “supply side” reports from AND. Conclusions: The credentials and skills most desired by employers are similar to some of the learning objectives set forth for DPD and DI programs by ACEND, but not entirely congruent. The need for both client/customer focus and computer literacy may be implicit in the standards, but a more overt inclusion of these skills would likely be of benefit to ensure these are inculcated into every program and student. PMID:26755482

  18. Epidemiologic Properties of Pediatric Fractures in a Metropolitan Area of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Issin, Ahmet; Kockara, Nizamettin; Oner, Ali; Sahin, Vedat

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of fractures is highly dependent on lifestyle. Domestic data should be used when needed. In this cross-sectional study, the authors aim to find the most recent distribution of pediatric fracture types and the attributes of fracture occurrence within a large sample size in a metropolitan area of Turkey.This study consists of 4879 pediatric age patients with a fracture who took advantage of the emergency service of a trauma center in a metropolitan area between March 2010 and December 2013 (1397 days). Date, hour, age, sex, fracture type, and social security status of the patients were studied.A total of 65% of the patients were men and 35% were women. A total of 81% of the fractures were in the upper extremities, whereas 19% of them were in the lower extremities. In 22 patients (0.5%), there were open fractures. Fractures showed some seasonal, daily, and circadian variations. Different types of fractures showed some specific patterns in different age groups. Ankle, elbow, and shoulder fractures were more common in girls, whereas wrist and forearm fractures were more in boys and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Fractures in pediatric ages vary depending on the age, sex, season, and the hour of the day. Types of fractures show some obvious patterns especially depending on the age. This data can be useful in making optimizations in fracture care units. Considering these specific patterns would enable more effective planning of providing preventive measures for pediatric injuries. PMID:26512602

  19. Gender differences in psychological reactions to Hurricane Sandy among New York Metropolitan Area residents.

    PubMed

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2015-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a natural disaster of large proportions--a category 3 storm at its peak intensity that struck New York Metropolitan Area on October, 2012. The death and destruction caused by a hurricane can rise numerous of mental health vulnerabilities such as, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Gender has been identified as one critical variable that can impact vulnerability to adverse effects of trauma, as well as how these reactions are managed. The present research provides an evaluation of gender differences regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms, recollections of national disasters and fears of future negative life events. It also aims to explore information seeking and sources of assistance that were utilized during Hurricane Sandy. An online survey sample of 1,000 people from New York Metropolitan Area completed a battery of self-report questionnaires four weeks after the storm. Results revealed that recollections of national disaster and fear of future events were found to be significantly different among women compared to men. Additionally, women were more inclined toward information seeking through Facebook than men, although no gender differences emerged when examining sources of support. The results indicate that disaster practitioners should tailor gender sensitive interventions.

  20. Model experiments on climate change in the Tokyo metropolitan area using regional climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, N.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is a possibility that the future atmospheric warming leads to more frequent heavy rainfall in the metropolitan area, thereby increasing the risk of floods. As part of REsearch Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, we started numerical model experiments for investigating the vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in water hazard assessments in the metropolitan area by the use of regional climate scenarios. The model experiments adopt dynamical downscaling techniques. Future climate projections obtained from regional climate model simulations at 20 km horizontal grid spacing are downscaled into finer grids (less than 5 km resolutions) of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0 modified by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED-RAMS). Prior to performing the dynamical downscaling experiments, the NIED-RAMS model biases are evaluated by comparing long-term surface meteorological observations with results of the model simulations that are carried out by using the Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA) data and Japan Meteorological Agency Meso-Scale Model outputs as the initial and boundary conditions.

  1. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Daiane; Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Vetoratto, Gerson; Amaro, Taís Guarienti; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malassezia yeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease.

  2. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  3. Gender differences in psychological reactions to Hurricane Sandy among New York Metropolitan Area residents.

    PubMed

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2015-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a natural disaster of large proportions--a category 3 storm at its peak intensity that struck New York Metropolitan Area on October, 2012. The death and destruction caused by a hurricane can rise numerous of mental health vulnerabilities such as, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Gender has been identified as one critical variable that can impact vulnerability to adverse effects of trauma, as well as how these reactions are managed. The present research provides an evaluation of gender differences regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms, recollections of national disasters and fears of future negative life events. It also aims to explore information seeking and sources of assistance that were utilized during Hurricane Sandy. An online survey sample of 1,000 people from New York Metropolitan Area completed a battery of self-report questionnaires four weeks after the storm. Results revealed that recollections of national disaster and fear of future events were found to be significantly different among women compared to men. Additionally, women were more inclined toward information seeking through Facebook than men, although no gender differences emerged when examining sources of support. The results indicate that disaster practitioners should tailor gender sensitive interventions. PMID:25428781

  4. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Poessel, Sharon A; Breck, Stewart W; Fox, Karen A; Gese, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used in urban areas to control rodent pests and are responsible for secondary poisoning in many nontarget wildlife species. We tested the livers of five coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, US, for anticoagulant rodenticides. All five livers were positive for brodifacoum, with values ranging from 95 ppb to 320 ppb, and one liver was positive for bromadiolone, with a value of 885 ppb. Both of these rodenticides are second-generation anticoagulants, which are more potent and more likely to cause secondary poisoning than first-generation anticoagulants due to their accumulation and persistence in the liver. We concluded that exposure to these rodenticides may have caused the death of at least two of the five coyotes, and urban coyotes in our study area are commonly exposed to rodenticides.

  5. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Poessel, Sharon A; Breck, Stewart W; Fox, Karen A; Gese, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used in urban areas to control rodent pests and are responsible for secondary poisoning in many nontarget wildlife species. We tested the livers of five coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, US, for anticoagulant rodenticides. All five livers were positive for brodifacoum, with values ranging from 95 ppb to 320 ppb, and one liver was positive for bromadiolone, with a value of 885 ppb. Both of these rodenticides are second-generation anticoagulants, which are more potent and more likely to cause secondary poisoning than first-generation anticoagulants due to their accumulation and persistence in the liver. We concluded that exposure to these rodenticides may have caused the death of at least two of the five coyotes, and urban coyotes in our study area are commonly exposed to rodenticides. PMID:25380355

  6. Metropolitan area income inequality and self-rated health--a multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Tony A; Lochner, Kimberly; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2002-01-01

    We examined the association of income inequality measured at the metropolitan area (MA) and county levels with individual self-rated health. Individual-level data were drawn from 259,762 respondents to the March Current Population Survey in 1996 and 1998. Income inequality and average income were calculated from 1990 census data, the former using Gini coefficients. Multi-level logistic regression models were used. Controlling for sex, age, race, and individual-level household income, respondents living in high, medium-high, and medium-low income inequality MAs had odds ratios of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.38), 1.07 (0.95-1.21), and 1.02 (0.91-1.15), respectively, compared to people living in the MAs with the lowest income inequality. However, we found only a small association of MA-level income inequality with fair/poor health when controlling further for average MA household income: odds ratios were 1.10 (0.95-1.28), 1.01 (0.89-1.14), and 1.00 (0.89-1.12), respectively. Likewise, we found only a small association of county-level income inequality with self-rated health although only 40.7% of the sample had an identified county on CPS data. Regarding the association of state-level income inequality with fair/poor health, we found the association to be considerably stronger among non-metropolitan (i.e. rural) compared to metropolitan residents.

  7. Identification of quarries rehabilitation scenarios: a case study within the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy).

    PubMed

    Dal Sasso, Pasquale; Ottolino, Maria Antonella; Caliandro, Lucia Patrizia

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses quarries rehabilitation issue within a Metropolitan Area. Areas where mining activity is carried out have been subjected to physical and environmental degradation linked both to pursue the building materials extraction and to the city expansion continuously asking for new areas to be developed with residential and service functions. These changes also occurred where environmental and landscape values are present. It has been therefore pointed out the issue of such areas redevelopment that, to be functionally reintegrated, must be consistently linked to the activities and the territorial local contexts characteristics. In this paper the quarries reuse issue is carried out through parameters identification able to define the quarries relationship with the neighboring towns and with their surroundings besides to identify their physical, environmental and landscaping characteristics. Quarry reuse alternatives have been identified among those consistent with the rehabilitation goals, as defined by the planning sector and internationally approved, while their selection is derived from the application of a two-step methodology: a multi-criteria analysis related to punctual parameters at a "site-specific" level, followed by a further territorial indicators checking over the wide area. This application has led to socially accepted results identifying the examined quarries for reuses ranging from agricultural-forestry and urban to functional or naturalistic. The proposed method has also proved to be suitable to address the abandoned quarries reuse problem with a systemic and consultative approach, as it is able to correlate the many variables present in the social and spatial complexity of the Metropolitan Areas. PMID:22481597

  8. Identification of Quarries Rehabilitation Scenarios: A Case Study Within the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Sasso, Pasquale; Ottolino, Maria Antonella; Caliandro, Lucia Patrizia

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses quarries rehabilitation issue within a Metropolitan Area. Areas where mining activity is carried out have been subjected to physical and environmental degradation linked both to pursue the building materials extraction and to the city expansion continuously asking for new areas to be developed with residential and service functions. These changes also occurred where environmental and landscape values are present. It has been therefore pointed out the issue of such areas redevelopment that, to be functionally reintegrated, must be consistently linked to the activities and the territorial local contexts characteristics. In this paper the quarries reuse issue is carried out through parameters identification able to define the quarries relationship with the neighboring towns and with their surroundings besides to identify their physical, environmental and landscaping characteristics. Quarry reuse alternatives have been identified among those consistent with the rehabilitation goals, as defined by the planning sector and internationally approved, while their selection is derived from the application of a two-step methodology: a multi-criteria analysis related to punctual parameters at a "site-specific" level, followed by a further territorial indicators checking over the wide area. This application has led to socially accepted results identifying the examined quarries for reuses ranging from agricultural-forestry and urban to functional or naturalistic. The proposed method has also proved to be suitable to address the abandoned quarries reuse problem with a systemic and consultative approach, as it is able to correlate the many variables present in the social and spatial complexity of the Metropolitan Areas.

  9. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  10. Social and Political Factors Predicting the Presence of Syringe Exchange Programs in 96 US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Tempalski, Barbara; Flom, Peter L.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Judith J.; McKnight, Courtney; Friedman, Risa

    2007-01-01

    Community activism can be important in shaping public health policies. For example, political pressure and direct action from grassroots activists have been central to the formation of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United States. We explored why SEPs are present in some localities but not others, hypothesizing that programs are unevenly distributed across geographic areas as a result of political, socioeconomic, and organizational characteristics of localities, including needs, resources, and local opposition. We examined the effects of these factors on whether SEPs were present in different US metropolitan statistical areas in 2000. Predictors of the presence of an SEP included percentage of the population with a college education, the existence of local AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) chapters, and the percentage of men who have sex with men in the population. Need was not a predictor. PMID:17267732

  11. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout. PMID:1785054

  12. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Dallas, Texas metropolitan area, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, B.B.; Wood, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains rainfall and runoff data collected during the 1976 water year for drainage basins of Joes Creek, Bachman Branch, Turtle Creek, Coombs Creek, Cedar Creek, White Rock Creek, Elam Creek, Fivemile Creek, Newton Creek, Whites Branch, Prairie Creek, Tenmile Creek, Duck Creek, and South Mesquite Creek in the Dallas metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the extent to which progressive urbanization will affect the yield and mode of occurrence of storm runoff. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations, including hydrographs and mass curves, are presented for six storm periods during the 1976 water year. During the 1976 water year, one continuous stream-gaging station and two flood-hydrograph partial-record stations were added to the study area. These stations are located in the Prairie Creek basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Hydrology of Johnson Creek Basin, a Mixed-Use Drainage Basin in the Portland, Oregon, Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area and through rural and agricultural land in unincorporated Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. Johnson Creek has had a history of persistent flooding and water-quality problems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted streamflow monitoring and other hydrologic studies in the basin since 1941.

  14. Population Deconcentration in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States, 1950-1975. Population Series 70-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuguitt, Glenn V.; And Others

    Focusing on changes in differential growth in areas inside and outside places of 2,500 and highlighting recent patterns of concentration/deconcentration, this report documents trends in population redistribution within metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of the United States between 1950 and 1975. In sum, the report shows apparent…

  15. Intraurban Spatiotemporal Variability of Ambient Air Pollutants across Metropolitan St. Louis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li

    Ambient air monitoring networks have been established in the United States since the 1970s to comply with the Clean Air Act. The monitoring networks are primarily used to determine compliance but also provide substantive support to air quality management and air quality research including studies on health effects of air pollutants. The Roxana Air Quality Study (RAQS) was conducted at the fenceline of a petroleum refinery in Roxana, Illinois. In addition to providing insights into air pollutant impacts from the refinery, these measurements increased the St. Louis area monitoring network density for gaseous air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation and thus provided an opportunity to examine intraurban spatiotemporal variability for these air quality parameters. This dissertation focused on exploring and assessing aspects of ambient air pollutant spatiotemporal variability in the St. Louis area from three progressively expanded spatial scales using a suite of methods and metrics. RAQS data were used to characterize air quality conditions in the immediate vicinity of the petroleum refinery. For example, PM2.5 lanthanoids were used to track impacts from refinery fluidized bed catalytic cracker emissions. RAQS air toxics data were interpreted by comparing to network data from the Blair Street station in the City of St. Louis which is a National Air Toxics Trends Station. Species were classified as being spatially homogeneous (similar between sites) or heterogeneous (different between sites) and in the latter case these differences were interpreted using surface winds data. For PM 2.5 species, there were five concurrently operating sites in the St. Louis area - including the site in Roxana - which are either formally part of the national Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) or rigorously follow the CSN sampling and analytical protocols. This unusually large number of speciation sites for a region the size of St. Louis motivated a detailed examination of

  16. Sachet drinking water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

  17. Aerosol acidity characterization of large metropolitan areas: Pilot and planning for Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Koutrakis, P.; Burton, R.; Wilson, W.E.; Purdue, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The report described the EPA's multi-year program to investigate the specific issues surrounding human exposures to aerosol activity. Philadelphia, a large metropolitan area in the heart of the northeastern seaboard afflicted with photochemical regional smog during the summertime, was chosen as the first city in the program. A pilot study of ambient concentrations was conducted in July 1991. An annular denuder system (ADS) sampler was operated for two weeks near downtown Philadelphia, with a second unit operated in central, suburban New Jersey, the same location of measurements in past years. The Philadelphia site was found to have higher concentrations of most major aerosol species, ammonia and acidic particles than in New Jersey, showing that aerosol neutralization within the urban center will not necessarily totally eliminate acidic particle exposures.

  18. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  19. Obesity and overweight in ethnic minorities of the Detroit metropolitan area of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet J; Rajan, Ambili Kariaparambil; Grzybowski, Mary; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Bengt

    2014-04-01

    Race, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors influence the prevalence of obesity and overweight, which are major public health problems. Our objectives were (1) to calculate the prevalence of self-reported obesity and overweight in whites, blacks, Chaldeans, and Arabs in the Detroit metropolitan area; and (2) to examine the odds for self-reported overweight and obesity in the racial and ethnic minorities when compared to whites. The responses to a self-administered survey conducted among the adult residents (n = 2,883) of the Detroit metropolitan area of Michigan were analyzed. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were 47.4 and 34.6 % respectively for the whole sample, while it was 39.9 and 43.6 % for whites, 42.3 and 47.8 % for blacks, 46.2 and 30.3 % for Chaldeans, and 52.2 and 28.5 % for Arabs. The odds for obesity was significantly lower in Arabs [odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.72] and Chaldeans (OR 0.14; 95 % CI 0.06-0.33) when compared to whites. Chaldeans (OR 0.36; 95 % CI 0.15-0.86) had significantly decreased likelihood for being overweight compared to whites. Odds for obesity and overweight can vary in the different ethnic minorities within whites. Sharing similar living conditions decreases the differences in the odds for overweight and obesity between whites and blacks. Taking into consideration the racial and ethnic differences of the target population may help in developing better programs for fighting overweight and obesity.

  20. Rates of DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders Among Adolescents in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2009-01-01

    We present prevalence data for adolescents in a large metropolitan area in the U.S. and the association of DSM-IV diagnoses to functional impairment and selected demographic correlates. We sampled 4,175 youths aged 11–17 years from households enrolled in large health maintenance organizations. Data were collected using questionnaires and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (DISC-IV). Impairment was measured using the Child Global Assessment Scale and diagnostic specific impairment in the DISC-IV. 17.1% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for one or more disorders in the past year; 11% when only DISC impairment was considered and 5.3% only using the CGAS. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety (6.9%), disruptive (6.5%), and substance use (5.3%) disorders. The most prevalent specific disorders were agoraphobia, conduct and marijuana abuse/dependence, then alcohol use and oppositional defiant disorder. Younger youths and females had lower odds for any disorder, as did youths from two parent homes. There was increased odds associated with lower family income. Females had greater odds of mood and anxiety disorders, males of disruptive and substance use disorders. There were greater odds of mood and disruptive disorders for older youths. Prevalences were highly comparable to recent studies using similar methods in diverse non-metropolitan populations. We found associations with age, gender, and to a lesser extent, socioeconomic status reported in previous studies. The inclusion of both diagnosis-specific impairment and global impairment reduced prevalence rates significantly. Our results suggest commonality of prevalences and associated factors in diverse study settings, including urban and rural areas. PMID:17107689

  1. Validation of walk score for estimating neighborhood walkability: an analysis of four US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Dustin T; Aldstadt, Jared; Whalen, John; Melly, Steven J; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-11-01

    Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score(®) for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective) indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances (i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters). Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733). GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant's residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p < 0.05). The magnitude varied by the GIS indicator of neighborhood walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score(®) is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score(®) is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales.

  2. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  3. Ensemble simulations of the urban effect on a summer rainfall event in the Great Beijing Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shi; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2015-02-01

    The Great Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA), located in North China, is one of the most rapidly developing regions in the world. In this study, ensemble simulations are conducted to investigate the urban effects on a summertime heavy rainfall event in the GBMA. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that couples with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used for the ensemble simulation. Results show that the ensemble simulation with a realistic land-use representation of urban areas (i.e. control run) can well reproduce the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the rainfall event. The simulated total precipitation agrees well with observation. Compared with the sensitivity ensemble simulation, in which the urban area is replaced by cropland, the control run generates more precipitation over the southwest of Beijing, while less rainfall is found in the area to the northeast of Beijing. This result suggests that the underlying urban surface and urban canopy physics in the surface layer have remarkable impacts on precipitation. The stronger upward motion along with larger convergence and more moisture transportation caused by the urban dynamic and thermodynamic effects directly contribute to the differences in rainfall distribution between the control run and the sensitivity run. In addition, the urban effects are found to slow the cold front movement due to the intense warm air over the urban area, leading to a delayed occurrence of the peak rainfall. However, the slow-moving cold front over the urban area enhances the maximum precipitation intensity. The evolution of the rainfall pattern during the intensification period of the precipitation event is dependent on the movement of the cold front in both the control and sensitivity experiments, indicating that urban effects tend to modify the precipitation distribution and influence the temporal variation of the rainfall process.

  4. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  5. Annual and Long-Range Program Planning in Metropolitan Areas in Accordance with the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968. Volume IV, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Seelig

    The goals of this institute were: (1) to develop guidelines and a matrix for short- and long-range planning of vocational education programs in metropolitan areas, and (2) to apply the matrix in planning for a single metropolitan area. In the first phase of the institute, guidelines were developed for planning both direct and ancillary services to…

  6. Imaging Ground Motions in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Based on MeSO-net Using Lasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusako, S.; Nagao, H.; Kano, M.; Hirose, K.; Hori, M.

    2014-12-01

    A rapid prediction of damage to structures due to a large earthquake is important to prevent secondary disasters. Ground motion at the base of each construction to be input to a numerical simulation is to be estimated from seismograms. An accurate damage prediction requires such ground motions with spatially-high resolution although the seismometers much sparsely distribute comparing with the required resolution. We have been developing a procedure based on sparse modeling to image the ground motions from seismic array data. Our target is the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, in which the seismic array "MeSO-net" (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) is in operation. Mizusako[2013, graduation thesis] applied an algorithm based on the Taylor expansion to MeSO-net data when the Earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku occurred on March 11, 2011. This method was found to never account for ground motions in frequencies higher than 0.15Hz, which was insufficient taking into consideration that the typical eigenfrequency of a construction is usually between 1-10Hz. Moreover, this method requires a priori assumed truncation order in differential and groups of observatories called "cluster", in order to determine the unknown partial differential coefficients. Mizusako[2013] suggested that the truncation order was one and each cluster included five nearest observatories. We propose a new algorithm using lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, Tibshirani[1996]) in order to obtain an image of spatially-high-resolution ground motions objectively determining the truncation differential order and clusters. The truncation order for a given cluster is automatically determined by lasso owing to the L1-norm regularization, and an appropriate cluster is selected based on an information criterion. Our initial result indicates that the ground motion determined by using the information criterion EBIC (Chen and Chen[2008]) is successfully reproduced in frequencies

  7. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  8. The Changing Spatial Concentration of Income and Poverty among Suburbs of Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Janice Fanning

    2003-01-01

    Used 1970-90 Census data to examine changes in spatial concentrations of income and poverty within large metropolitan areas. The filtering of older residential buildings to lower-income groups contributed to increased poverty and decreased median household incomes within central cities and certain inner suburbs. White flight and the non-poor's…

  9. Household Location and Schools in Metropolitan Areas with Heterogeneous Suburbs; Tiebout, Alonso, and Government Policy. NBER Working Paper No. 15915

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Yilmaz, Kuzey

    2010-01-01

    An important element in considering school finance policies is that households are not passive but instead respond to policies. Household behavior is especially important in considering how households affect the spatial structure of metropolitan areas where different jurisdictions incorporate bundles of advantages and disadvantages. This paper…

  10. Trends in the Level and Distribution of Income in Metropolitan Areas, 1959-1969. Discussion Paper 316-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon

    An overview of the level and distribution of income for a sample of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) during the period 1959-1969, using data on pretax pretransfer incomes published by the Internal Revenue Service, is presented in this paper. Several results are described. (1) The level and distribution of income vary widely among…

  11. Higher Education in the Boston Metropolitan Area. A Report of the Board of Higher Education of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Board of Higher Education, Boston.

    This special study of higher education in the Boston metropolitan area was one of several efforts to evaluate the present total system of higher education in the state. These studies will be the bases for the formulation of a comprehensive state plan for public higher education. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop reasonable estimates of…

  12. Needs Assessment of the Healthcare Sector in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area. Research Report. Business Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the growing population of elderly citizens will result in an increased demand for healthcare services that will rise for a full 50 years. This study assesses the need for healthcare sector workers in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Information on the skills, education, and experience that…

  13. 78 FR 9044 - Adequacy Status of the Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Metropolitan Washington DC Area (DC-MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Metropolitan Washington DC Area (DC-MD... public that the Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and... 12, 2007 by both the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VADEQ) and the District...

  14. Mitigating "Milliken"? School District Boundary Lines and Desegregation Policy in Four Southern Metropolitan Areas, 1990-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Over the past half century, law and policy have helped cement tremendous inequities into the structure of our cities. District boundary lines separating multiple, unequal school systems within a single metropolitan (metro) area play a central role in structuring racial and economic isolation. Using data from the National Center for Education…

  15. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  16. Analysis on the flood vulnerability in the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area, Korea using spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mung-Jin

    2015-04-01

    In the future, temperature rises and precipitation increases are expected from climate change due to global warming. Concentrated heavy rain, typhoons, flooding, and other weather phenomena bring hydrologic variations. In this study, the flood susceptibility of the Seoul and Busan metropolitan area was analyzed and validated using a GIS based on a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model with training and validation datasets of the flooded area. The flooded area in 2010 was used to train the model, and the flooded area in 2011 was used to validate the model. Using data is that topographic, geological, and soil data from the study areas were collected, processed, and digitized for use in a GIS. Maps relevant to the specific capacity were assembled in a spatial database. Then, flood susceptibility maps were created. Finally, the flood susceptibility maps were validated using the flooded area in 2011, which was not used for training. To represent the flood susceptible areas, this study used the probability-frequency ratio. The frequency ratio is the probability of occurrence of a certain attribute. Logistic regression allows for investigation of multivariate regression relations between one dependent and several independent variables. Logistic regression has a limit in that the calculation process cannot be traced because it repeats calculations to find the optimized regression equation for determining the possibility that the dependent variable will occur. In case of Seoul, The frequency ratio and logistic regression model results showed 79.61% and 79.05% accuracy. And the case of Busan, logistic regression model results showed 82.30%. This information and the maps generated from it could be applied to flood prevention and management. In addition, the susceptibility map provides meaningful information for decision-makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies.

  17. A benefit-cost analysis of retrofitting diesel vehicles with particulate filters in the Mexico City metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gretchen; Wilson, Andrew; Hammitt, James K

    2005-08-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area, poor air quality is a public health concern. Diesel vehicles contribute significantly to the emissions that are most harmful to health. Harmful diesel emissions can be reduced by retrofitting vehicles with one of several technologies, including diesel particulate filters. We quantified the social costs and benefits, including health benefits, of retrofitting diesel vehicles in Mexico City with catalyzed diesel particulate filters, actively regenerating diesel particulate filters, or diesel oxidation catalysts, either immediately or in 2010, when capital costs are expected to be lower. Retrofit with either type of diesel particulate filter or an oxidation catalyst is expected to provide net benefits to society beginning immediately and in 2010. At current prices, retrofit with an oxidation catalyst provides greatest net benefits. However, as capital costs decrease, retrofit with diesel particulate filters is expected to provide greater net benefits. In both scenarios, retrofit of older, dirtier vehicles that circulate only within the city provides greatest benefits, and retrofit with oxidation catalysts provides greater health benefits per dollar spent than retrofit with particulate filters. Uncertainty about the magnitude of net benefits of a retrofit program is significant. Results are most sensitive to values used to calculate benefits, such as the concentration-response coefficient, intake fraction (a measure of exposure), and the monetary value of health benefits.

  18. On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

  19. High resolution mapping of gaseous pollutants from on-road vehicles in four major U.S. metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    In urban settings, motor vehicles are a dominant source for a range of air pollutants including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). On-road emissions are difficult to estimate due to changes in the vehicle fleet, uncertainties in emission factors, and variable spatial and temporal activity patterns. This study focuses on four major U.S. metropolitan areas: Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, and Houston. A top-down fuel-based approach is used to estimate CO2, CO, and NOx for light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. Emissions are mapped at high spatial resolution (4 km grid) using available traffic data, and the analysis is repeated for years between 2000 and 2010. Fuel-based estimates are compared to ambient CO/NOy ratios to assess decadal emission trends and the spatial apportionment of light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions. Emissions maps from this study are compared with gridded National Emissions Inventory estimates for 2005.

  20. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Poulain, L.; Freutel, F.; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; Di Marco, C. F.; Elsasser, M.; Nicolas, J. B.; Marchand, N.; Abidi, E.; Wiedensohler, A.; Drewnick, F.; Schneider, J.; Borrmann, S.; Nemitz, E.; Zimmermann, R.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30-36%) and nitrate (28-29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14-16%), ammonium (12-14%) and black carbon (7-13%). Organic source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization, resulting in a set of organic factors corresponding both to primary emission sources and secondary production. The dominant primary sources are traffic (11-15% of organic mass), biomass burning (13-15%) and cooking (up to 35% during meal hours). Secondary organic aerosol contributes more than 50% to the total organic mass and includes a highly oxidized factor from indeterminate and/or diverse sources and a less oxidized factor related to wood burning emissions. Black carbon was apportioned to traffic and wood burning sources using a model based on wavelength-dependent light absorption of these two combustion sources. The time series of organic and black carbon factors from related sources were strongly correlated. The similarities in aerosol composition, total mass and temporal variation between the three sites suggest that particulate pollution in Paris is dominated by regional factors, and that the emissions from Paris itself have a relatively low impact on its surroundings.

  1. Comparison of pesticide concentrations in streams at low flow in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, L.A.; Nowell, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of urban development on pesticide concentrations in streams under low-flow conditions, water samples were collected at stream sites along an urban land use gradient in six environmentally heterogeneous metropolitan areas of the United States. In all six metropolitan areas, total insecticide concentrations generally increased significantly as urban land cover in the basin increased, regardless of whether the background land cover in the basins was agricultural, forested, or shrub land. In contrast, the response of total herbicide concentrations to urbanization varied with the environmental setting. In the three metropolitan areas with predominantly forested background land cover (Raleigh-Durham, NC, USA; Atlanta, GA, USA; Portland, OR, USA), total herbicide concentrations increased significantly with increasing urban land cover. In contrast, total herbicide concentrations were not significantly related to urban land cover in the three remaining metropolitan areas, where total herbicide concentrations appeared to be strongly influenced by agricultural as well as urban sources (Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI, USA; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, USA), or by factors not measured in the present study, such as water management (Denver, CO, USA). Pesticide concentrations rarely exceeded benchmarks for protection of aquatic life, although these low-flow concentrations are likely to be lower than at other times, such as during peak pesticide-use periods, storm events, or irrigation discharge. Normalization of pesticide concentrations by the pesticide toxicity index - an index of relative potential toxicity - for fish and cladocerans indicated that the pesticides detected at the highest concentrations (herbicides in five of the six metropolitan areas) were not necessarily the pesticides with the greatest potential to adversely affect aquatic life (typically insecticides such as carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and fipronil). ?? 2008 SETAC.

  2. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Markus; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Lamb, Michael E.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction vary by residential location (i.e., personality–neighborhood interactions). Residential area was recorded at the level of postal districts (216 districts, n = 56,019 participants). Results indicated that the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction depended on neighborhood characteristics. Higher openness to experience was more positively associated with life satisfaction in postal districts characterized by higher average openness to experience, population density, and ethnic diversity. Higher agreeableness and conscientiousness were more strongly associated with life satisfaction in postal districts with lower overall levels of life satisfaction. The associations of extraversion and emotional stability were not modified by neighborhood characteristics. These findings suggest that people’s life satisfaction depends, in part, on the interaction between individual personality and particular features of the places they live. PMID:25583480

  3. Lessons for major system change: centralization of stroke services in two metropolitan areas of England

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Angus; Perry, Catherine; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Morris, Stephen; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony; Tyrrell, Pippa; Wolfe, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to identify the factors influencing the selection of a model of acute stroke service centralization to create fewer high-volume specialist units in two metropolitan areas of England (London and Greater Manchester). It considers the reasons why services were more fully centralized in London than in Greater Manchester. Methods In both areas, we analysed 316 documents and conducted 45 interviews with people leading transformation, service user organizations, providers and commissioners. Inductive and deductive analyses were used to compare the processes underpinning change in each area, with reference to propositions for achieving major system change taken from a realist review of the existing literature (the Best framework), which we critique and develop further. Results In London, system leadership was used to overcome resistance to centralization and align stakeholders to implement a centralized service model. In Greater Manchester, programme leaders relied on achieving change by consensus and, lacking decision-making authority over providers, accommodated rather than challenged resistance by implementing a less radical transformation of services. Conclusions A combination of system (top-down) and distributed (bottom-up) leadership is important in enabling change. System leadership provides the political authority required to coordinate stakeholders and to capitalize on clinical leadership by aligning it with transformation goals. Policy makers should examine how the structures of system authority, with performance management and financial levers, can be employed to coordinate transformation by aligning the disparate interests of providers and commissioners. PMID:26811375

  4. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  5. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Markus; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Lamb, Michael E; Gosling, Samuel D; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-20

    Residential location is thought to influence people's well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction vary by residential location (i.e., personality-neighborhood interactions). Residential area was recorded at the level of postal districts (216 districts, n = 56,019 participants). Results indicated that the strength of associations between personality traits and life satisfaction depended on neighborhood characteristics. Higher openness to experience was more positively associated with life satisfaction in postal districts characterized by higher average openness to experience, population density, and ethnic diversity. Higher agreeableness and conscientiousness were more strongly associated with life satisfaction in postal districts with lower overall levels of life satisfaction. The associations of extraversion and emotional stability were not modified by neighborhood characteristics. These findings suggest that people's life satisfaction depends, in part, on the interaction between individual personality and particular features of the places they live.

  6. [Nutritional status of urban and rural Chilean school children of the metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Ivanović, R; Olivares, M; Ivanović, D

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of chilean students by geographic area. In this respect, a representative sample of 4,509 students from elementary and high school was chosen from the Metropolitan Region of Chile (representative of 38.0% of chilean school population). Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric measurements. Percent weight for age (% W/A), height for age (% H/A) and weight for height (% W/H) were compared with WHO standard; head circumference for age (% HC/A) with Tanner standard; arm circumference for age (% AC/A), triceps skinfold for age (% TS/A), arm muscle area for age (% AMA/A) and arm fat area/age (% AFA/A) with Frisancho norms. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar modified scale. Percent W/H is a better indicator of nutritional status due to growth failure which was thus detected in 27.6% of the whole sample (24.2% and 46.8%, respectively, in urban and rural area, p less than 0.001). According to % W/H, the frequencies of obesity were 13.4% and 10.5%, and those for undernutrition 5.7% and 8.2%, in urban and rural area, respectively, (p less than 0.05). Students from rural area showed significantly lower values for % HC/A, % AC/A, % TS/A and % AFA/A (p less than 0.001). There were no differences for % AMA/A. The fact that 90.5% of rural students belong to low SES must be taken into account to explain differences in the nutritional status of students of different geographic areas. PMID:2087594

  7. [Nutritional status of urban and rural Chilean school children of the metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Ivanović, R; Olivares, M; Ivanović, D

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of chilean students by geographic area. In this respect, a representative sample of 4,509 students from elementary and high school was chosen from the Metropolitan Region of Chile (representative of 38.0% of chilean school population). Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric measurements. Percent weight for age (% W/A), height for age (% H/A) and weight for height (% W/H) were compared with WHO standard; head circumference for age (% HC/A) with Tanner standard; arm circumference for age (% AC/A), triceps skinfold for age (% TS/A), arm muscle area for age (% AMA/A) and arm fat area/age (% AFA/A) with Frisancho norms. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar modified scale. Percent W/H is a better indicator of nutritional status due to growth failure which was thus detected in 27.6% of the whole sample (24.2% and 46.8%, respectively, in urban and rural area, p less than 0.001). According to % W/H, the frequencies of obesity were 13.4% and 10.5%, and those for undernutrition 5.7% and 8.2%, in urban and rural area, respectively, (p less than 0.05). Students from rural area showed significantly lower values for % HC/A, % AC/A, % TS/A and % AFA/A (p less than 0.001). There were no differences for % AMA/A. The fact that 90.5% of rural students belong to low SES must be taken into account to explain differences in the nutritional status of students of different geographic areas.

  8. Three year study of tropospheric ozone with back trajectories at a metropolitan and a medium scale urban area in Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Three years of hourly O3 concentration measurements from a metropolitan and a medium scale urban area in Greece: Athens and Ioannina respectively, were analyzed in conjunction with hourly wind speed/direction data and air mass trajectories, aiming to reveal local and regional contributions respectively. Conditional Probability Function was used to indicate associations among distinct wind directions and extreme O3 episodes. Backward trajectory clusters were elaborated by Potential Source Contribution Function on a grid of a 0.5°×0.5° resolution, in order to localize potential exogenous sources of O3 and its precursors. In Athens, an increased likelihood of extreme O3 events at the Northern suburbs was associated with the influence of SSW-SW sea breeze from Saronikos Gulf, due to O3 transportation from the city center. In Ioannina, the impacts of O3 conveyance from the city center to the suburban monitoring site were weaker. Potential O3 transboundary sources for Athens were mainly localized over Balkan Peninsula, Greece and the Aegean Sea. Potential Source Contribution Function hotspots were isolated over the industrialized area of Ptolemaida basin and above the region of Thessaloniki. Potential regional O3 sources for Ioannina were indicated across northern Greece and Balkan Peninsula, whereas peak Potential Source Contribution Function values were particularly observed over the urban area of Sofia in Bulgaria. The implemented methods, revealed local and potential transboundary source areas of O3, influencing Athens and Ioannina. Differences among the two cities were highlighted and the role of topography was emerged. These findings can be used in order to reduce the emission of O3 precursors.

  9. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes Beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.; Iwasaki, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2006-12-01

    In central Japan the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. The vertical proximity of this down going lithospheric plate is of concern because the greater Tokyo urban region has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40% of the nation's economic activities. A M7+ earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The M7+ earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In 2002, a consortium of universities and government agencies in Japan started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas, a project to improve information needed for seismic hazards analyses of the largest urban centers. Assessment in Kanto of the seismic hazard produced by the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) mega-thrust earthquakes requires identification of all significant faults and possible earthquake scenarios and rupture behavior, regional characterizations of PSP geometry and the overlying Honshu arc physical properties (e.g., seismic wave velocities, densities, attenuation), and local near-surface seism ic site effects. Our study addresses (1) improved regional characterization of the PSP geometry based on new deep seismic reflection profiles (Sato etal.,2005), reprocessed off-shore profiles (Kimura et al.,2005), and a dense seismic array in the Boso peninsular (Hagiwara et al., 2006) and (2) identification of asperities of the mega-thrust at the top of the PSP. We qualitatively examine the relationship between seismic reflections and asperities inferred by reflection physical properties. We also discuss the relation between deformation of PSP and intra-slab M7+ earthquakes: the

  10. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident.

  11. 76 FR 61057 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District, and Placer County Air... Management District (SMAQMD), Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), and Placer County Air... Operations,'' adopted on April 8, 2008. * * * * * (389) * * * (i) * * * (B) Placer County Air...

  12. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf

  13. New Magnetic and Geochemical Results on Topsoils of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pichar, E.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Morton, O.; Hernandez, E.; Lozano-Santa-Cruz, R.; Gonzalez, G.; Beramendi, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.

    2008-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico city is a region well known for intense industrial and commercial activity. The potential sources of the heavy metal pollutants are assumed to be petroleum processing, production of iron material, manufacturing, coal combustion, commercial and automobile exhaust. New samples were collected from industrial, roadside, residential and public parks in the urban areas around the city and added to two previous field campaigns (2003 and 2005). Localities selected for the study represent, presumably, different heavy metal pollution levels and sources. At each sampling point, the top 2 cm layer of the soil profile was collected with a stainless steel trowel and stored in a plastic bag. The elements Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined by EDXRF (Philips PW1400 apparatus) on bulk- sample pressed, boric-acid backed pellets. Metal concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, and V were analyzed by ICP-MS with a VG Elemental PQ3 instrument. Magnetic mineralogy in bulk soil samples was investigated by low-field susceptibility using a Kappabridge KLY2. Remanent magnetizations (ARM and IRM) and Hysteresis loops of micro samples had been carried out at room temperature. Bivariate analysis on different ratios of magnetic parameters was employed to characterize the pollution sources.

  14. Simulation of a Multi-day Ozone Episode in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, V.; Mazzoli, C.; Andrade, M.; Freitas, E.

    2009-05-01

    High concentration values of ozone are commonly observed over the metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP). According to the state environmental agency (CETESB) violations to the National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were reported on 72 days during 2007. Over 19 million people live in the MASP and the vehicular fleet has more than 7 million vehicles responsible for almost 95% of CO, NOX and hydrocarbons emissions. In this study, a prolonged ozone episode observed in the area was simulated with the Simplified Photochemical Model coupled with the Brazilian version of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (SPM- BRAMS). The simulated photochemical episode started in October 3rd, 2002 and lasted for 14 days. During this period, hourly ozone concentration reached values over than 300 μ g.m-3. During 10 days of those 14, more than 60% of the air quality monitoring sites presented ozone levels above the NAAQS. Two nested grids with a horizontal resolution of 16 and 4 km were used in order to evaluate the meteorological conditions related with this extreme air pollution event. Several meteorological variables were extracted from the model simulation. Ozone concentration values simulated by the SPM were also used to support the analysis. During the simulation period, the MASP was under the influence of a high pressure system associated with clear sky conditions and calm winds. Meso-scale circulations were favored due to this synoptic pattern and the sea breeze influence, transporting the photochemical plume to northwest of the region, could be identified during all days of the simulation. During some days even the effect of the land breeze, transporting the plume to the seashore, located about 60 km southeast from the center of the grid, was verified. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height simulated by the SPM-BRAMS model showed lower values during days when the worst air quality conditions were registered by the existent monitoring network. High temperatures and low

  15. Megacity emission plume characteristics in summer and winter investigated by mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q. J.; Freutel, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-12-01

    emission plume. For in-depth analysis of transformation processes occurring in the advected plume, simultaneous measurements at a suburban measurement site and a stationary site outside the metropolitan area using the mobile laboratory have proven to be most useful. Organic aerosol oxidation was observed in summer, while in winter transformation processes seemed to occur at a slower rate.

  16. Megacity emission plume characteristics in summer and winter investigated by mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q. J.; Freutel, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-05-01

    site outside the metropolitan area using the mobile laboratory have proven to be most useful. Organic aerosol oxidation was observed in summer, while in winter transformation processes seemed to occur at a slower rate.

  17. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  18. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment.

  19. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored this project to estimate potential energy and monetary savings resulting from the implementation of light-colored roofs on residential and commercial buildings in major U.S. metropolitan areas. Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, so they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typically, rooftops in the United States are dark, and thus there is a potential for saving energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. Naturally, the expected savings are higher in southern, sunny, and cloudless climates. In this study, we make quantitative estimates of reduction in peak power demand and annual cooling electricity use that would result from increasing the reflectivity of the roofs. Since light-colored roofs also reflect heat in the winter, the estimates of annual electricity savings are a net value corrected for the increased wintertime energy use. Savings estimates only include direct reduction in building energy use and do not account for the indirect benefit that would also occur from the reduction in ambient temperature, i.e. a reduction in the heat island effect. This analysis is based on simulations of building energy use, using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Our methodology starts with specifying 11 prototypical buildings: single-family residential (old and new), office (old and new), retail store (old and new), school (primary and secondary), health (hospital and nursing home), and grocery store. Most prototypes are simulated with two heating systems: gas furnace and heat pumps. We then perform DOE-2 simulations of the prototypical buildings, with light and dark roofs, in a variety of climates and obtain estimates of the energy use for air conditioning and heating.

  20. Remote sensing applications to hydrology in Minnesota. [Rice Creek watershed and St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D.; Skaggs, R.

    1975-01-01

    Development of low lying southeastern shore of Pike Lake is described as part of the Rice Creek watershed study. Several small wetlands in Arden Hills, Minnesota were incorporated into the drainage plans as pollutant and nutrient sinks rather than being infilled. Lake water quality in the St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area was analyzed using Landsat images. In the same urban area, the inventory and seasonal change of the open water were also studied.

  1. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2013-09-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1)KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2) CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3) MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT) are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT), shrub (SB), and herbaceous plants (HB) to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs) suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O

  2. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and a potential mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingna; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2013-11-01

    This paper addresses the contribution of urban land use change to near-surface air temperature during the summer extreme heat events of the early twenty-first century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area. This study uses the Weather Research Forecasting model with a single urban canopy model and the newest actual urban cover datasets. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60 °C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95 °C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34 %. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs, an effective way of reducing urban heat island, which can reduce the urban mean temperature by approximately 0.51 °C and counter approximately 80 % of the heat wave results from urban sprawl during the last 20 years.

  3. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  4. Comparison of conceptually based and regression rainfall-runoff models, Denver Metropolitan area, Colorado, and potential applications in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindner-Lunsford, J. B.; Ellis, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Multievent, conceptually based models and a single-event, multiple linear-regression model for estimating storm-runoff quantity and quality from urban areas were calibrated and verified for four small (57 to 167 acres) basins in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado. The basins represented different land-use types - light commercial, single-family housing, and multi-family housing. Both types of models were calibrated using the same data set for each basin. A comparison was made between the storm-runoff volume, peak flow, and storm-runoff loads of seven water quality constituents simulated by each of the models by use of identical verification data sets. The models studied were the U.S. Geological Survey 's Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model-Version II (DR3M-II) (a runoff-quantity model designed for urban areas), and a multievent urban runoff quality model (DR3M-QUAL). Water quality constituents modeled were chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total lead, total manganese, and total zinc. (USGS)

  5. The estimated prevalence and incidence of HIV in 96 large US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate the size and direction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with populations greater than 500,000. METHODS: A "components model" from review of more than 350 documents, several large datasets, and information from 220 public health personnel was used. Data review focused on injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and high-risk heterosexual men and women. RESULTS: In the 96 MSAs, there are, broadly, an estimated 1.5 million injection drug users, 1.7 million gay and bisexual men, and 2.1 million at-risk heterosexuals, and, among them, an estimated 565,000 prevalent and 38,000 incident HIV infections. This implies about 700,000 prevalent and 41,000 new HIV infections yearly in the United States. Roughly half of all estimated new infections are occurring among injection drug users, most of them in northeastern cities, Miami, and San Juan. Gay and bisexual men still represent most prevalent HIV infections, although incidence--except in young and minority gay men--is much lower now than it was a decade ago. Relatively high prevalences of HIV in at-risk heterosexual persons in several cities indicate the potential for an increase in transmission among them. CONCLUSIONS: This review and synthesis outline the comparative epidemiology of HIV in major US cities and identify populations for interventions. PMID:8629714

  6. [Bullying in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Vega López, María Guadalupe; González Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Valle Barbosa, María Ana; Flores Villavicencio, María Elena; Vega López, Agustín

    2013-08-01

    This paper seeks to determine the prevalence of victims of school bullying among youth enrolled in public secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico and to identify the factors associated with being a victim of bullying in the period 2009-2011. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out. A multistage probability sampling was designed for the public secondary schools, in which 1,706 students between 11 and 16 years old were studied. A questionnare with four sections was applied in order to identify victims of bullying. A logistic regression model was then used to measure the association between the factors analyzed and being a victim of bullying. The prevalence of school bullying was 17.6% (95% CI 15.8; 19.5). Personal factors, such as the feeling of not being accepted by peers or not spending much time with friends, were the factors with the strongest statistically significant association with being a victim of bullying.

  7. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-08-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 µm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 field campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot

  8. Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Iedema, M. J.; Cowin, J. P.; Gaspar, D. J.; Wang, C.; Laskin, A.

    2005-11-01

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2-2.0 μm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign from various sites within the city. Individual particle analysis by different electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-traffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to affect heterogeneous chemistry on the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  9. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mezzari, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes) and, (ii) Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes), both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33%) followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%). The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992). T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  10. An exploratory study of healthcare strategic planning in two metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Begun, James W; Kaissi, Amer A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about empirical variation in the extent to which healthcare organizations conduct formal strategic planning or the extent to which strategic planning affects performance. Structural contingency and complexity science theory offer differing interpretations of the value of strategic planning. Structural contingency theory emphasizes adaptation to achieve organizational fit with a changing environment and views strategic planning as a way to chart the organization's path. Complexity science argues that planning is largely futile in changing environments. Interviews of leaders in 20 healthcare organizations in the metropolitan areas of Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, and San Antonio, Texas, reveal that strategic planning is a common and valued function in healthcare organizations. Respondents emphasized the need to continuously update strategic plans, involve physicians and the governing board, and integrate strategic plans with other organizational plans. Most leaders expressed that strategic planning contributes to organizational focus, fosters stakeholder participation and commitment, and leads to achievement of strategic goals. Because the widespread belief in strategic planning is based largely on experience, intuition, and faith, we present recommendations for developing an evidence base for healthcare strategic planning.

  11. An Intelligent Surveillance Platform for Large Metropolitan Areas with Dense Sensor Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A.; Smilansky, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage. PMID:23748169

  12. Characteristic Distributions of O3 at Taewha Research Forest near Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, H.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, G.; Park, H.

    2015-12-01

    The measurements of O3, NOx, CO, and SO2 were conducted at 6 heights (4.1, 9.5, 15, 20, 31, 39 m) of 41 m tower at Mt. Taehwa, near Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) from 2011 to 2014. In addition, VOCs were measured seasonally for a short period using a PTR-QMS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Quadruple Mass Spectrometer). In vertical distribution of O3, the mean concentration was slightly higher at 39 m (above canopy) than at 15 m (below canopy). Ozone reached the maximum and minimum concentration at 15:00 and 07:00, respectively. The monthly mean concentration of O3 was the highest in June, which was in accordance with the highest concentration of isoprene and monoterpenes and maximum PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation). NOx was transported from nearby highway mostly in the morning, which fueled O3 formation. At Taehwa Research Forest, it was well constrained the evolution of biogenic VOCs mixed with urban emission and their impact on O3.

  13. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Regional Similarities in Seasonal Mortality across the United States: An Examination of 28 Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kalkstein, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Human mortality exhibits a strong seasonal pattern with deaths in winter far exceeding those in the summer. While the pattern itself is clear, there have been very few studies examining whether the magnitude or timing of seasonal mortality varies considerably across space. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comprehensive geographic analysis of seasonal mortality across the United States and to uncover systematic regional differences in such mortality. Unique seasonal mortality curves were created for 28 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States, and the amplitude and timing of mortality peaks were determined. The findings here indicate that the seasonality of mortality exhibits strong spatial variation with the largest seasonal mortality amplitudes found in the southwestern United States and the smallest in the North, along with South Florida. In addition, there were strong intra-regional similarities that exist among the examined cities, implying that environmental factors are more important than social factors in determining seasonal mortality response. This work begins to fill a large gap within the scientific literature concerning the geographic variation and underlying causes of seasonal mortality across the United States. PMID:23734179

  15. Water use and acute diarrhoeal illness in children in a United States metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, M H; McLellan, S L; Wagner, D; Klein, J

    2011-02-01

    We examined the association between water exposures and acute diarrhoeal illness (ADI) in children under non-outbreak conditions in a major US metropolitan area. We used a nested case-control study of children seen in an urban/suburban emergency department. Cases were those seen for a complaint of diarrhoea, while controls were age-matched children with a non-gastrointestinal complaint. Parents of subjects completed a validated water-use survey. Stratum-specific adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated for the three main water effects: water source [surface vs. ground (well)], drinking-water type (tap vs. bottled), and use of water filters. Of 2472 subjects, 45% drank mostly or only bottled water. Well-water use was associated with increased odds of ADI compared to surface water [aOR 1·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01-1·87]. Use of bottled water did not affect the odds of ADI in well-water users, but increased the odds of ADI for surface-water users (aOR 1·27, 95% CI 1·02-1·57). We conclude that well-water use and bottled-water use are associated with increased odds of ADI in children. PMID:20429965

  16. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. (222)Rn (radon gas) and (220)Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6% geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ∼3% of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon.

  17. Water-quality data for Arvada Reservoir, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, L.J.; Gaggiani, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological water quality data were collected and compiled for five sites in Arvada Reservoir, one site in Ralston Creek, and two sites in Croke Canal, in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado. The purpose of the data collection was to determine the water quality of Arvada Reservoir, evaluate the effect of source waters on the reservoir , and determine the trophic state of the reservoir. Data collected include reservoir profile measurements with depth and inflow measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Secchi disk depth measurements also are reported. In addition, water samples were analyzed periodically for concentrations of major chemical constituents, nutrients, trace elements, and selected radiochemicals; for densities and relative abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton; and for concentrations of chlorophyll alpha. Results of algal growth potential determinations are included. This report describes sampling site locations and methods of data collection and analyses and presents qualitative and quantitative results of water quality data collected during the study. Sampling began during June 1983 and continued through September 1985. (USGS)

  18. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  19. Water use and acute diarrhoeal illness in children in a United States metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, M H; McLellan, S L; Wagner, D; Klein, J

    2011-02-01

    We examined the association between water exposures and acute diarrhoeal illness (ADI) in children under non-outbreak conditions in a major US metropolitan area. We used a nested case-control study of children seen in an urban/suburban emergency department. Cases were those seen for a complaint of diarrhoea, while controls were age-matched children with a non-gastrointestinal complaint. Parents of subjects completed a validated water-use survey. Stratum-specific adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated for the three main water effects: water source [surface vs. ground (well)], drinking-water type (tap vs. bottled), and use of water filters. Of 2472 subjects, 45% drank mostly or only bottled water. Well-water use was associated with increased odds of ADI compared to surface water [aOR 1·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01-1·87]. Use of bottled water did not affect the odds of ADI in well-water users, but increased the odds of ADI for surface-water users (aOR 1·27, 95% CI 1·02-1·57). We conclude that well-water use and bottled-water use are associated with increased odds of ADI in children.

  20. Seismic hazard in the Istanbul metropolitan area: A preliminary re-evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, E.; Gulkan, Polat; Ozturk, N.Y.; Celebi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, two destructive earthquakes (M7.4 Kocaeli and M7.2 Duzce) occurred in the north west of Turkey and resulted in major stress-drops on the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault system where it continues under the Marmara Sea. These undersea fault segments were recently explored using bathymetric and reflection surveys. These recent findings helped to reshape the seismotectonic environment of the Marmara basin, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on collected new information, seismic hazard of the Marmara region, particularly Istanbul Metropolitan Area and its vicinity, were re-examined using a probabilistic approach. Two seismic source and alternate recurrence models combined with various indigenous and foreign attenuation relationships were adapted within a logic tree formulation to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. The hazard maps show the peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 1.0 s. These acceleration levels were computed for 2 and 10 % probabilities of transcendence in 50 years.

  1. An intelligent surveillance platform for large metropolitan areas with dense sensor deployment.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A; Smilansky, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage. PMID:23748169

  2. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk changes in Mediterranean Region integrate multiple factors, some of them related with the hazard (i.e. rainfall intensity), the vulnerability and exposure (i.e. population or assets), feedback processes that affect both hazard and vulnerability (i.e. urbanization of flood prone areas), mitigation and adaptation measures (i.e. rainwater tanks or early warning systems), and the available information used to estimate flood events (i.e. newspapers or gauged data). Flood events in the West Mediterranean region are usually produced as a consequence of very intense and local precipitation, mainly recorded on late summer and autumn that can give place to flash-floods in little torrential rivers (usually non-permanent flows) or urban floods. The Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB), Spain, constitutes a good paradigm of a Mediterranean coast region, with strong urbanization of flood prone areas and high population density in an area crossed by numerous streams. The AMB is constituted by 36 municipalities with a total population above 3.200.000 inhabitants in an extension of 636 km². The major part of the population is concentrated between the Besós River and the Llobregat River, the Littoral Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Although both rivers have experienced catastrophic flood events (i.e. 25 September 1962, 815 deaths; 19-23 September 1971, 19 deaths; October 1987, 8 deaths), the most frequent situation is related with floods in non-permanent streams. Their main impacts are consequence of drainage and runoff problems and can affect both urban and rural areas. This contribution explores the evolution of land uses, population and precipitation from the middle of the 20th century until now, and how these changes have affected (or not), the flood risk. To do it, daily and sub-daily rainfall series, discharge series for the Llobregat and Besós Rivers, population data and land use changes have been analyzed. Future precipitation projections provided by an

  3. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  4. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  5. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  6. Ozone weekend effects in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. H.; Hu, B.; Ji, D. S.; Liu, Z. R.; Tang, G. Q.; Xin, J. Y.; Zhang, H. X.; Song, T.; Wang, L. L.; Gao, W. K.; Wang, X. K.; Wang, Y. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ozone weekend effect (OWE) was first investigated in the metropolitan area of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China, using in situ measurements from the Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Network from July 2009 to August 2011. The results indicate that there is an obvious weekly periodical variation in the surface ozone concentration. There is a lower ozone concentration from Wednesday to Friday (weekday) and a higher concentration from Saturday to Monday (weekend) at all the locations of the study. NOx also displays a weekly cycle, with the maximum level occurring on weekdays and the minimum level on weekends, especially later on Sunday night and early Monday morning. This pattern may be responsible for the higher concentration of ozone on weekends. Additionally, the vertical variations in O3 and NOx from the 8 m, 47 m, 120 m and 280 m observation platforms on the 325 m Beijing meteorological tower displayed obvious weekly cycles that corresponded to the surface results. A smaller decrease in volatile organic compounds (VOCs; using CO as a proxy) and much lower NOx concentrations on the weekend may lead to higher VOC / NOx ratio, which can enhance the ozone production efficiency in VOC-limited regime areas. Additionally, a clear weekly cycle in the fine aerosol concentration was observed, with maximum values occurring on weekdays and minimum values occurring on weekends. Higher concentrations of aerosol on weekdays can reduce the UV radiation flux by scattering or absorbing, which leads to a decrease in the ozone production efficiency. A significant weekly cycle in UV radiation, consistent with the aerosol concentration, was discovered at the Beijing meteorological tower site (BJT), validating the assumption. A comprehensive understanding of the ozone weekend effect in the BTH area can provide deep insights into controlling photochemical pollution.

  7. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  8. Chloride ion transport and mass balance in a metropolitan area using road salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Eric V.; Sander, Andrew R.; Mohseni, Omid; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2009-12-01

    In the Twin Cities metropolitan area (TCMA) of Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, an estimated 317,000 metric tons (t) of road salt were used annually for road deicing between 2000 and 2005. To determine the annual retention of road salt, a chloride budget was conducted for a 4150 km2 watershed encompassing the populated areas of the TCMA. In addition to inflows and outflows in the major rivers of the TCMA, multiple sources of chloride were examined, but only road salt and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents were large enough to be included in the analysis. According to the chloride budget, 235,000 t of chloride entered the TCMA annually with the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, and 355,000 t exited through the Mississippi River. Of the 120,000 t of chloride added annually to the rivers inside the TCMA watershed boundaries, 87,000 t came from WWTPs and 33,000 t came from road salt. Of the 142,000 t of chloride applied annually in the TCMA watershed as road salt (241,000 t NaCl), only 23% (33,000 t) were exported through the Mississippi River and 109,000 t or 77% were retained in the TCMA watershed. Chloride budgets for 10 subwatersheds within the TCMA analyzed in a similar way, gave an average chloride retention rate of 72%. The retention is occurring in the soils, surface waters (numerous lakes, wetlands, and ponds) and in the groundwater. Chloride concentrations in many of these urban water bodies are now considerably higher than the presettlement background levels of less than 3 mg/L with concentrations as high as 2000 mg/L in shallow groundwater wells. The continued accumulation of chloride in the groundwater and surface waters is a cause for concern.

  9. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  10. Predictors of Never Being Screened for Cervical Cancer by Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Sandte L.; Thomas, Cheryll C.; King, Jessica B.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between cervical cancer screening and racial/ethnic minority status, no usual source of care, and lower socioeconomic status. This study describes the demographics and health beliefs of women who report never being screened for cervical cancer by area of residence. Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to study women aged 21–65 years who reported never being screened for cervical cancer. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to calculate predicted marginals to examine associations between never being screened and demographic characteristics and health belief model (HBM) constructs by metropolitan statistical area (MSA). After adjusting for all demographics and HBM constructs, prevalence of never being screened was higher for the following women: non-Hispanic Asians/Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (16.5 %, 95 % CI = 13.7 %, 19.8 %) who live in MSAs; those with only a high school diploma who live in MSAs (5.5 %, 95 % CI = 4.7 %, 6.5 %); those living in non-MSAs who reported “fair or poor” general health (4.1 %, 95 % CI = 3.1 %, 5.4 %); and those living in either MSAs and non-MSAs unable to see a doctor within the past 12 months because of cost (MSA: 4.4 %, 95 % CI = 4.0 %, 4.8 %; non-MSA: 3.4 %, 95 % CI = 2.9 %, 3.9 %). The Affordable Care Act will expand access to insurance coverage for cervical cancer screening, without cost sharing for millions of women, essentially eliminating insurance costs as a barrier. Future interventions for women who have never been screened should focus on promoting the importance of screening and reaching non-Hispanic Asians/Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders who live in MSAs. PMID:24162857

  11. Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to

  12. Dynamics of thermal inversions on Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, R.; Tereshchenko, I.; Perez, D. A.; Lizarraga, S. J.; Thermal Inversions, Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara

    2013-05-01

    This work attempts an analysis of the dynamics of the meteorological variables in the lower troposphere in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (ZMG), Jalisco, Mexico. It was used the radiosonde database 2000-2012, and a classification of synoptic situations typical for different inversions occurring. Preliminary results indicate that surface temperature inversions dominate the climate of the study area, mainly recorded two times during the year. An investment without matching the rainy season and covers the months of June to September where investments are recorded at a frequency below 41%. And a station with investments in the type of radiation surface which covers the months of January to May and November to December, with a frequency above 86% in October as month leaving transition with a frequency of 64%. As surface temperature inversions which most affect human activity in the ZMG by not allowing the dispersion of pollutants, the results show that these investments have a thickness ranging from 50 to 250 meters high, covering this range for 85% of the investments registered with respect to the temperature difference between the base and the apex of the observed reversal of between 1°C to 12°C, where the average is 5°C and 7 °C. While this shows that during most of the year there are temperature inversions in the ZMG, this does not mean that every day you will have concentration of pollutants above the norm, this is due to the influence of synoptic scale phenomena mainly to a combination of large anticyclonic systems of the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic, affecting mostly Mexico during the months of December to February, alternating with waves of Western middle latitudes.

  13. Shear wave velocity estimation in the metropolitan area of Málaga (S Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, D.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; López-Casado, C.; Delgado, J.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.

    2014-10-01

    We carry out a seismic noise study based on array measurements at three sites in the Málaga basin, South Spain, for the further estimation of shear wave velocity profiles. For this purpose, we use both the H/V method and the f-k technique in order to characterize the different materials present in the zone, i.e., Quaternary sediments and Pliocene sedimentary rocks above the bedrock. The H/V analysis shows frequency peaks going from 1 Hz, in areas close to the border of the basin, to 0.3 Hz in places located toward the center of the formation. The f-k analysis allows obtaining the dispersion curves associated with each site and subsequently, estimating the Vs profiles by inversion of the respective group velocities. In this way, the basin basement can be characterized by S-wave velocities greater than 2000 m/s. Regarding the basin fill, it is divided into three layers defined by different wave velocity intervals. The shallowest one is featured by velocities ranging from 150 to 400 m/s and comprises the Quaternary sediments, while velocities going from 550-700 to1200-1600 m/s characterize the two underlying layers composed by Pliocene sediments. Finally, the information provided by the three Vs profiles is integrated in a 2D cross-section of the basin to have a spatial view of its sedimentary structure. The results obtained here, in addition to providing useful information about the infill of the basin near the metropolitan area of Málaga, will be very helpful for future seismic zonation studies in the region.

  14. Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2014-05-01

    To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking

  15. Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2014-05-01

    To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking

  16. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  17. Occurrence and potential sources of pyrethroid insecticides in stream sediments from seven U.S. metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A nationally consistent approach was used to assess the occurrence and potential sources of pyrethroid insecticides in stream bed sediments from seven metropolitan areas across the United States. One or more pyrethroids were detected in almost half of the samples, with bifenthrin detected the most frequently (41%) and in each metropolitan area. Cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, and resmethrin were detected much less frequently. Pyrethroid concentrations and Hyalella azteca mortality in 28-d tests were lower than in most urban stream studies. Log-transformed total pyrethroid toxic units (TUs) were significantly correlated with survival and bifenthrin was likely responsible for the majority of the observed toxicity. Sampling sites spanned a wide range of urbanization and log-transformed total pyrethroid concentrations were significantly correlated with urban land use. Dallas/Fort Worth had the highest pyrethroid detection frequency (89%), the greatest number of pyrethroids (4), and some of the highest concentrations. Salt Lake City had a similar percentage of detections but only bifenthrin was detected and at lower concentrations. The variation in pyrethroid concentrations among metropolitan areas suggests regional differences in pyrethroid use and transport processes. This study shows that pyrethroids commonly occur in urban stream sediments and may be contributing to sediment toxicity across the country.

  18. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3. PMID:26606089

  19. Radiocarbon apportionment of fossil versus biofuel combustion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Stockholm metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Gustafsson, Orjan; Reddy, Christopher M; Xu, Li

    2004-10-15

    Source-diagnostic markers and the isotopic composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in surface sediments from the greater Stockholm waterways to deduce the contribution from biomass sources to the environmental PAH load. The summed concentration of 20 PAHs ranged from 0.8 to 45.1 microg/g (dry weight) and exhibited a steep decline with increasing distance from the city center evidencing that sources within the metropolitan area of Stockholm dominate its PAH burden. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated an overwhelming predominance of pyrogenic sources over the petrogenic ones, while retene and 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene were unable to correctly evaluate the contribution from biomass combustion. The stable carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of individual PAHs ranged from -24.8 to -27.0% but also was proved inefficient to discriminate between different types of fuels due to the overlapping signals in various sources. The delta14C values of PAHs ranged between -550.4 and -934.1%, indicating a clear predominance of fossil fuel sources. By using an isotopic mass balance approach, we estimated that on average 17+/-9% of PAHs derived from biomass combustion. This radiocarbon apportionment, in conjunction with detailed energy statistics for the Stockholm region, revealed that the ambient PAH burden is roughly similar, per unit energy produced, from fossil fuels and biofuels. Societies' shifting energy policies toward a larger reliance on biofuels may thus not lead to further deterioration of air quality and respiratory ailments for the urban population. PMID:15543735

  20. Longitudinal Study of Microbial Diversity and Seasonality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area Water Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply. PMID:16151096

  1. Sun-Earth Connection Education and Public Outreach Activities in the Washington. DC Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Thomas, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    One of the primary education and public outreach activities we have been involved in over the last few years, is a project sponsored by the South East Regional Clearing House (SERCH), a NASA EPO broker-facilitator, to support EPO activities related to NASA's Office of Space Science research themes; specifically (1) The Sun-Earth Connection; (2) Exploration of the Solar System; (3) Astronomical Search for Origins; and (4) Structure and Evolution of the Universe. The grant was by way of the DC Space Grant Consortium, of which S.M.A.R.T. is an affiliate. The objectives of the grant were to provide educational materials and activities related to these themes, in DC Public Schools (and other formal, as well as informal, educational organizations, in the DC metropolitan area). We have also given presentations on these topics in informal educational venues and at universities. The objectives of our SERCH grant included production of videos, as well as CD copies of presentation documents, for use in the schools. Of particular note is that students, and their teachers, are active participants in the videos. The Sun-Earth Connection theme is the one we have focused on initially. Two DC schools, Anacostia Senior High School and Backus Middle School, were participants in the video production. In addition, students working during the summers as Science and Engineering Apprentice Program (SEAP) students at the Naval Research Laboratory participated in some of the videos and in developing and testing instruments used in the EPO activities. Also, the SEC presentations have been used in invited talks on several occasions as part of NRL's Community Outreach activities.

  2. Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the

  3. Effects of urban development on stormwater runoff characteristics for the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred

    2001-01-01

    A study was done to estimate the effects of urban development in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area on nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Three of the nine characteristics define the magnitude of stormwater runoff, and the remaining six characteristics describe the shape and duration of a storm hydrograph. Multiple linear regression was used to develop equations to estimate the nine stormwater runoff characteristics from basin and rainfall characteristics. Five basin characteristics and five rainfall characteristics were tested in the regressions to determine which basin and rainfall characteristics significantly affect stormwater runoff characteristics. Basin development factor was found to be significant in equations for eight of the nine stormwater runoff characteristics. Two sets of equations were developed, one for each of two regions based on soil type, from a database containing 1,089 storm discharge hydrographs for 42 sites compiled during 1964?89. The effects of urban development on the eight stormwater runoff characteristics were quantified by varying basin development factor in the equations and recomputing the stormwater runoff characteristics. The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 1 (north of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 40 percent (for direct runoff) to 235 percent (for peak yield); and corresponding decreases in the characteristics that describe hydrograph shape and duration ranging from about 22 percent (for direct runoff duration) to about 58 percent (for basin lag). The largest observed increase in basin development factor for region 2 (south of Buffalo Bayou) during the study resulted in corresponding increases in the characteristics that define magnitude of stormwater runoff ranging from about 33 percent (for direct runoff) to about 210 percent (for both peak flow and peak yield); and

  4. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system. PMID:27186500

  5. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  6. Processing of Soot in an Urban Environment: Case Study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kirsten S.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Iedema, Martin J.; Cowin, James P.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Wang, Chong M.; Laskin, Alexander

    2005-11-14

    Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their e ffects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmo- 5 spheric residence times and removal mechanisms for soot are neither well understood nor adequately represented in regional and global climate models. To investigate the effect of locality and residence time on properties of soot and mixing state in a polluted urban environment, particles of diameter 0.2–2.0 µm were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MCMA-2003 field campaign from various sites 10 within the city. Individual particle analysis by di fferent electron microscopy methods coupled with energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, and secondary ionization mass spectrometry show that freshly-emitted soot particles become rapidly processed in the MCMA. Whereas fresh particulate emissions from mixed-tra ffic are almost entirely carbonaceous, consisting of soot aggregates with liquid coatings suggestive of unburned 15 lubricating oil and water, ambient soot particles which have been processed for less than a few hours are heavily internally mixed, primarily with ammonium sulfate. Single particle analysis suggests that this mixing occurs through several mechanisms that require further investigation. In light of previously published results, the internally-mixed nature of processed soot particles is expected to a ffect heterogeneous chemistry on 20 the soot surface, including interaction with water during wet-removal.

  7. The link between local environment and obesity: a multilevel analysis in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula; Santos, Rita; Nogueira, Helena

    2009-02-01

    Although individual factors have been shown to predict weight gain, contextual determinants have also attracted attention, with some authors stressing the role played by deprivation, urban sprawl, social capital and safety. Recent evidence has implicated environmental factors that facilitate the consumption of excess calories and/or make it more difficult to expend them in routine physical activity. The interrelationships found in some places between physical and social environments (key mediators) and body mass index (BMI), as well as the potential that exists for the development of healthier places, mean that more research is required into the contextual determinants of health. In Portugal, particularly in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), the effects of physical and social environments on physical activity and BMI have not previously been explored in any detail. This study aims to highlight the associations between residential (physical and social) environment and the risk of weight gain and obesity, over and above individual attributes, assessing which indicators are the best predictors of excess weight in the LMA. The study involved data from 7669 individuals aged 18 and over from 143 neighbourhoods. Self-reported body height and weight were used to define overweight body mass index (BMI> or =25). BMI and individual (socio-demographic and behavioural) characteristics were linked to contextual data and analysed in a multilevel framework. Our findings show that different environmental factors are significantly associated with excess weight and obesity, either directly or indirectly (e.g. health-related behaviours such as eating patterns and physical activity, which are key mediators), after adjustment for individual characteristics. The results suggest that a deeper understanding of these mechanisms is critical if we want to tackle the obesity epidemic, and that policies aimed at weight control and obesity reduction must address people and places in order to

  8. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  9. Longitudinal study of microbial diversity and seasonality in the Mexico City metropolitan area water supply system.

    PubMed

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Rojo-Callejas, Francisco; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo

    2005-09-01

    In the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA), 70% of the water for 18 million inhabitants is derived from the Basin of Mexico regional aquifer. To provide an overview of the quality of the groundwater, a longitudinal study was conducted, in which 30 sites were randomly selected from 1,575 registered extraction wells. Samples were taken before and after chlorine disinfection during both the rainy and dry seasons (2000-2001). Microbiological parameters (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, streptococci, and Vibrio spp.), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, and physicochemical parameters, including the amount of trihalomethanes (THMs), were determined. Although microorganisms and inorganic and organic compounds were evident, they did not exceed current permissible limits. Chlorine levels were low, and the bacterial counts were not affected by chlorine disinfection. Eighty-four bacterial species from nine genera normally associated with fecal contamination were identified in water samples. H. pylori was detected in at least 10% of the studied samples. About 40% of the samples surpassed the THM concentration allowed by Mexican and U.S. regulations, with levels of chloroform being high. The quality of the water distributed to the MCMA varied between the rainy and dry seasons, with higher levels of pH, nitrates, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, total organic carbon, and fecal streptococci during the dry season. This study showed that the groundwater distribution system is susceptible to contamination and that there is a need for a strict, year-round disinfection strategy to ensure adequate drinking-water quality. This situation in one of the world's megacities may reflect what is happening in large urban centers in developing countries which rely on a groundwater supply.

  10. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  11. A water policy and planning model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.

    2012-12-01

    City level water policy and management decisions are typically based on past experience and best "guess" estimates of future conditions. These analyses use a limited number of socio-economic, water supply, and water demand projections, often only a single one. Increasingly, however, water planners are beginning to realize that high uncertainty associated with population projections and water use trends, and with future water supply estimates, greatly limit their ability to adequately predict a city's water future. We suggest that water governance at the municipal level could greatly benefit from water planning tools that generate and analyze a large ensemble of possible future scenarios in population growth dynamics and water availability. We adapted our existing water supply model to create a demand-based water planning and analysis tool that can explore the potential effects of population growth, drought, climate change, and policy options on surface water supplies, water demand, and groundwater pumping for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Our advanced scenario framework can be used as a decision support tool (DST) by creating a broad spectrum of adaptive decision boundaries for a city's water planning horizon. This DST uses population estimates in conjunction with water use to estimate water demand, and legal rights in combination with estimates of groundwater, stream flows, and reservoir operations to estimate water supply. Policy options—water banking, the use of reclaimed water, etc.—permit evaluation of alternative governance strategies. In this contribution we compare and contrast two municipal water providers that have dramatically different growth projections and per capita water use, groundwater supplies, and water portfolios (one robust, the other not), examining potential, future water supply challenges under simulated climate change. Infrastructure elements for each water provider simulated. Presence of a state and rate are water-provider specific.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D'Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; Della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  13. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D’Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with “small green islands” corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  14. Annotated report and data inventory for the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winterstein, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This inventory of reports and data concerning the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the Twin Cities metropolitan area was compiled from November 1981 through January 1982 for a planned river-quality assessment to be conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Metropolitan Waste Control Commission. There are 260 annotated citations: 176 citations of reports; 8 citations of computer models that have been used to model either or both rivers; and 76 citations of data in reports , in field notes, lab sheets, or handwritten tabulations, and in computer data bases. Citations of all the reports and data located that might conceivably be useful in understanding and interpreting the biological and chemical quality of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the past, present, or future were included. The accuracy of the citations was not verified and secondary sources, such as other annotated bibliographies, were used in the compilation of this inventory.

  15. Chicago metropolitan area critical infrastructure protection program electric power disruption emergency preparedness drill March 5, 2002 summary and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, D.

    2002-04-12

    Since January 2000, the Metropolitan Mayors Caucus, the Chicago Department of Environment, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection (now part of the Office of Energy Assurance) have been collaborating on the development and implementation of guidelines that municipal governments can use in preparing for electric power disruptions. On March 5, 2002 Commonwealth Edison (ComEd), the electric company serving the Chicago metropolitan area, held a drill to test its emergency preparedness procedures. ComEd invited three communities in the metropolitan area--Buffalo Grove, Oak Brook, Riverside--to participate in the drill as part of their own emergency planning efforts to respond to electric power disruptions. Although ComEd had held joint exercises with the City of Chicago, this was the first time that a cooperative exercise with the suburban communities was conducted. The Infrastructure Assurance Center of Argonne National Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Assurance helped facilitate the drill in the communities. A series of meetings involving ComEd, community controllers (who helped organize the drill but did not participate directly), and Argonne personnel was held to lay out the ground rules for the drill and determine how it would operate. Attachment 1 gives some of the guidance that was developed.

  16. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure. This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established. Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man?s activities may play a role in faulting as well. Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  17. Simulation of instrumental intensities in the Tokyo Metropolitan area using a 3D attenuation structure model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the development of dense seismic networks in Japan has enabled high quality observations of instrumental intensities. However, the distribution of intensities of historical earthquakes can only be retrieved by the damage reports on historical documents. Their epicenter and magnitude can be roughly estimated from the intensity distribution, assuming that seismic intensity decays with distance. This approximation is not always accurate, since the amplitude of short period ground motion decays with focal distance and is affected by the 3D attenuation structure along the path and in addition displays frequency dependence. In order to estimate the location and size of a large historical earthquake, we need to accurately simulate the seismic intensity distribution, accounting for non linear attenuation of seismic waves along the path. The instrumental seismic intensities inside the Kanto basin observed at the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) and Hi-net stations display unusual distribution patterns, with peak intensities observed several km away from the epicenter rather than at the stations closer to it. In order to understand the source of this intensity distribution, we estimated the theoretical instrumental intensities using a 3D attenuation structure and compare it to the observed intensity distribution. We first estimated a 3D attenuation structure using the spectral decay of seismic waves, by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. The obtained model suggests Qs values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin and low Qs values < 300 in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific plate. We then use an ω2 model in order to estimate the source acceleration spectrum of several earthquakes occurring below the Kanto basin at depths ranging 30~80 km. Our simulation shows that earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through the low Qs area inside the

  18. The Role of Education Service Agencies in Metropolitan Areas. ESA Study Series/Report No. IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens Associates, Burtonsville, MD.

    The failure to emphasize the role of education service agencies (ESAs) in metropolitan regions has lessened their use. Although in most states membership in an ESA system is obligatory for all school districts, participation in ESA programs and services is generally low. In several states legal constraints preclude a relationship between the ESA…

  19. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  20. [Sexuality, bodily experiences, and gender: an ethnographic study of persons living with HIV in Greater Metropolitan Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Mabel

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of an ethnographic study on daily experience with HIV in Greater Metropolitan Buenos Aires, Argentina, the article discusses behavioral approaches that reduce the sexuality of persons living with HIV to an issue of safety and protection. By articulating a social construction perspective and the notion of hegemony, the author proposes that sexuality can be understood as a process of individual and social construction shaped by power relations and social regulations. The analysis of the experiences of living with HIV in marginalized populations shows how chronic social inequality, violence, discrimination, and stigmatization generate particular characteristics of sexual issues. These social processes become driving forces that shape sexual experience as a field of danger, repression, and restriction rather than pleasure and exploration. Finally, daily confrontation with social metaphors places strain on gender relations, practices, and identities.