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Sample records for aires siglos xvii

  1. Fe XVII Opacity at Solar Interior Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Carlos A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2017-02-01

    A recent study of Fe xvii R-matrix calculations aimed at resolving outstanding opacity problems claimed that substantial photon absorption from atomic core ionization processes was not previously considered. It is shown, however, that major opacity models already include cross-sections that are equivalent to the enhancements reported by the R-matrix method. Furthermore, the R-matrix calculations neglected important cross-sections that help to explain why the resultant opacity is lower than other models in the spectral range measured in transmission experiments relevant to the solar interior.

  2. Dielectronic Satellite Lines of Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Laska, Alexander; Lepson, Jaan K.

    2015-08-01

    L-shell dielectronic satellite lines were recently identified in the spectrum of Capella observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory [1,2]. Although the observed features were weak, they can add to the background between the prominent lines, as discussed for the case of Fe XVIII [1]. Moreover, the Fe XVII dielectronic satellite, i.e., Fe XVI lines with a so-called spectator electron n’l (with n'=4), have been observed on the long-wavelength side of the dominant 2p-3d transitions in Fe XVII [2]. They were used to infer a formation electron temperature of log(T) = 6.67 ± 0.026 K. In addition, we have recently carried out a theoretical study of the dielectronic satellites with n’=3 [3] that provided greatly improved theoretical wavelengths. We found that most of these lines are not produced purely by dielectronic recombination. Instead they are also formed by collisional excitation making them less reliable as an electron temperature. We are now augmenting the observations and theoretical studies with laboratory measurements designed to determine the positions and strengths of the n’=3 and n’=4 dielectronic satellite lines in the Fe XVII spectrum [4]. Our measurements of the dielectronic recombination satellite lines are performed on Livermore electron beam ion trap. By sweeping the electron beam energy we have observed resonances with spectator electrons n’ = 3 and 4 as well as n’ ≥ 5. The resulting x-ray spectrum was observed using two crystal spectrometers. All data were accumulated using event-mode tagging of a given x-ray photon with the value of the beam energy. We therefore were able to obtain x-ray spectra associated with each set of resonances.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis contract NNX12AH84G.[1] J. Clementson and P. Beiersdorfer, ApJ, 763, 54 (2013)[2] P. Beiersdorfer et al., in ASP Conf. Series, Vol. 448, ed

  3. Collagen XVII: A Shared Antigen in Neurodermatological Interactions?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Collagen XVII is a nonfibril-forming transmembrane collagen, which functions as both a matrix protein and a cell-surface receptor. It is particularly copious in the skin, where it is known to be a structural component of hemidesmosomes. In addition, collagen XVII has been found to be present in the central nervous system, thus offering an explanation for the statistical association between bullous pemphigoid, in which autoimmunity is directed against dermal collagen XVII, and neurological diseases. In support of the hypothesis that collagen XVII serves as a shared antigen mediating an immune response between skin and brain, research on animal and human tissue, as well as numerous epidemiological and case studies, is presented. PMID:23878581

  4. PREFACE: XVII International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS'' is dedicated to the memory of Mikhail Reshetnev, an outstanding scientist, chief-constructor of space-rocket systems and communication satellites. The current volume represents selected proceedings of the main conference materials which were published by XVII International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS'' held on November 12 - 14, 2013. Plenary sessions, round tables and forums will be attended by famous scientists, developers and designers representing the space technology sector, as well as professionals and experts in the IT industry. A number of outstanding academic figures expressed their interest in an event of such a level including Jaures Alferov, Vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Academician of RAS, Nobel laureate, Dirk Bochar, General Secretary of the European Federation of National Engineering Associates (FEANI), Prof. Yuri Gulyaev, Academician of RAS, Member of the Presidium of RAS, President of the International Union of Scientific and Engineering Associations, Director of the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of RAS, as well as rectors of the largest universities in Russia, chief executives of well-known research enterprises and representatives of big businesses. We would like to thank our main sponsors such as JSC ''Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems'', JSC ''Krasnoyarsk Engineering Plant'', Central Design Bureau ''Geophysics'', Krasnoyarsk Region Authorities. These enterprises and companies are leading ones in the aerospace branch. It is a great pleasure to cooperate and train specialists for them.

  5. PREFACE: Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyutinskii, Oleg

    2009-10-01

    This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta presents highlights from the scientific contributions presented at the European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems (MOLEC XVII) held on 23-29 August 2008 at St Petersburg, Russia. This meeting was the seventeenth in a series of biannual meetings that started in 1976, when the first conference was held in Trento, Italy. Subsequent meetings were held at Brandbjerg Hojskole (Denmark), Oxford (UK), Nijmegen (The Netherlands), Jerusalem (Israel), Aussois (France), Assisi (Italy), Bernkastel-Kues (Germany), Prague (Czech Republic), Salamanca (Spain), Nyborg Strand (Denmark), Bristol (UK), Jerusalem (Israel), Istanbul (Turkey), Nunspeet (The Netherlands) and Trento (Italy). In 2008, the meeting was jointly organized by scientists from the Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg, Herzen State University, St Petersburg, Moscow State University, St Petersburg Polytechnical University, and St Petersburg State University. About 150 scientists from 21 countries visited Pushkin, a beautiful suburb of St Petersburg near the famous palace of Empress Catherine II, and discussed the state of the art and trends in the field, as well as new methods and applications, during 24 plenary lectures, 36 hot topic talks and two evening poster sessions. A special event was the presentation of the MOLEC XVII award to Professor Grabriel Balint-Kurti for his outstanding contributions to the theory of reaction dynamics and molecular photodissociation. Further information is available from the homepage of the meeting: http://www.ioffe.ru/MOLEC17/. This special issue covers different aspects of atomic and molecular interactions, with emphasis on both experimental and theoretical studies of the dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. More specifically, it includes molecular collisions in different environments; plasma, atmospheric, interstellar and combustion

  6. Speckle Interfermometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory. XVII

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Printed in the U.S.A. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVII. Brian D. Mason, William I. Hartkopf, and Gary L. Wycoff U.S. Naval...4) Measured twice by Herschel (1829) and Gauchet (1925), the most recent measure is quoted above. No companion seen near either position. Herschel’s...has been measured four times ( Herschel 1829; Burnham 1903; Jonckheere 1910; Doolittle 1923) by reliable observers. It is no doubt real but “lost

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. Chromosomes XIV and XVII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitute a single linkage group.

    PubMed Central

    Klapholz, S; Esposito, R E

    1982-01-01

    We present several lines of evidence that chromosomes XIV and XVII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are not independent chromosomes, but rather constitute a single linkage group. Studies which made use of a new mapping method based on the haploidization-without-recombination meiotic phenotype of the spoll mutant initially indicated that markers on chromosomes XIV and XVII were linked. Tetrad analysis was used to establish gene-gene distances, and a new chromosome XIV map incorporating markers originally assigned to chromosome XVII was derived. During the course of trisomic segregation studies, we discovered that a 2n + 2 homothallic diploid, originally believed to be tetrasomic for chromosome XVII (now XIV), carries two normal chromosome XIV homologs and two aberrant homologs which appear to be deficient for a large portion of the right arm of XIV. The previous evidence that established chromosome XVII as an independent linkage group is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:6761582

  9. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Basic science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the sessions in which basic science research was presented at the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008). It also provides an analysis of basic science issues which generated significant discussion and debate at the conference and are likely to have implications for future laboratory and clinical research. Data presented at AIDS 2008 confirmed the speed with which HIV establishes latent viral reservoirs following infection and the resulting challenges to viral eradication given how effectively HIV proviral RNA inserts itself into human DNA within these reservoirs. Studies also raised questions about the source of residual viremia and how these might be targeted by novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:19811669

  10. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for NI XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XVII. We include in the calculations the 23 lowest configurations, corresponding to 159 fine-structure levels: 3l3l', 3l4l0'' , and 3s5l0''' , with l,l' = s,p,d, l'' = s,p,d, f, and l''' = s,p,d. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions at varying energies above the threshold of each transition. One additional energy, very close to the threshold of each transition, has also been included. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code in the distorted wave approximation. Additional calculations have been performed with the University College London suite of codes for comparison. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates of the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 14) / cubic cm and at an electron temperature of logT(sub e)e(K) = 6.5, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XVII. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database

  11. Shedding of Collagen XVII/BP180 in Skin Depends on Both ADAM10 and ADAM9*

    PubMed Central

    Franzke, Claus-Werner; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Blobel, Carl P.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen XVII is a transmembrane collagen and the major autoantigen of the autoimmune skin blistering disease bullous pemphigoid. Collagen XVII is proteolytically released from the membrane, and the pathogenic epitope harbors the cleavage site for its ectodomain shedding, suggesting that proteolysis has an important role in regulating the function of collagen XVII in skin homeostasis. Previous studies identified ADAMs 9, 10, and 17 as candidate collagen XVII sheddases and suggested that ADAM17 is a major sheddase. Here we show that ADAM17 only indirectly affects collagen XVII shedding and that ADAMs 9 and 10 are the most prominent collagen XVII sheddases in primary keratinocytes because (a) collagen XVII shedding was not stimulated by phorbol esters, known activators of ADAM17, (b) constitutive and calcium influx-stimulated shedding was sensitive to the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X and was strongly reduced in Adam10−/− cells, (c) there was a 55% decrease in constitutive collagen XVII ectodomain shedding from Adam9−/− keratinocytes, and (d) H2O2 enhanced ADAM9 expression and stimulated collagen XVII shedding in skin and keratinocytes of wild type mice but not of Adam9−/− mice. We conclude that ADAM9 and ADAM10 can both contribute to collagen XVII shedding in skin with an enhanced relative contribution of ADAM9 in the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results provide critical new insights into the identity and regulation of the major sheddases for collagen XVII in keratinocytes and skin and have implications for the treatment of blistering diseases of the skin. PMID:19574220

  12. Shedding of collagen XVII/BP180 in skin depends on both ADAM10 and ADAM9.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Claus-Werner; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Blobel, Carl P

    2009-08-28

    Collagen XVII is a transmembrane collagen and the major autoantigen of the autoimmune skin blistering disease bullous pemphigoid. Collagen XVII is proteolytically released from the membrane, and the pathogenic epitope harbors the cleavage site for its ectodomain shedding, suggesting that proteolysis has an important role in regulating the function of collagen XVII in skin homeostasis. Previous studies identified ADAMs 9, 10, and 17 as candidate collagen XVII sheddases and suggested that ADAM17 is a major sheddase. Here we show that ADAM17 only indirectly affects collagen XVII shedding and that ADAMs 9 and 10 are the most prominent collagen XVII sheddases in primary keratinocytes because (a) collagen XVII shedding was not stimulated by phorbol esters, known activators of ADAM17, (b) constitutive and calcium influx-stimulated shedding was sensitive to the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X and was strongly reduced in Adam10(-/-) cells, (c) there was a 55% decrease in constitutive collagen XVII ectodomain shedding from Adam9(-/-) keratinocytes, and (d) H(2)O(2) enhanced ADAM9 expression and stimulated collagen XVII shedding in skin and keratinocytes of wild type mice but not of Adam9(-/-) mice. We conclude that ADAM9 and ADAM10 can both contribute to collagen XVII shedding in skin with an enhanced relative contribution of ADAM9 in the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results provide critical new insights into the identity and regulation of the major sheddases for collagen XVII in keratinocytes and skin and have implications for the treatment of blistering diseases of the skin.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette.

    PubMed

    Jehaes, E; Pfeiffer, H; Toprak, K; Decorte, R; Brinkmann, B; Cassiman, J J

    2001-03-01

    According to official historiography, the 10-year-old Louis XVII died in the Temple of Paris on June 8, 1795. However, public rumour spread the theory that Louis XVII escaped and that his descendants would be alive today. One such putative 'Louis XVII' was Carl Wilhelm Naundorff, who died in 1845 in Delft (the Netherlands). Comparative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis gave evidence that his remains could not be identified as those of Louis XVII. In the present study, mtDNA analysis was performed on the heart of the young boy who died in the prison of Paris in 1795. In order to obtain the strongest evidence possible, two laboratories independently analysed the heart. The results showed that the consensus mtDNA sequence of the heart was identical to that of the maternal relatives of Louis XVII.

  14. Analysis of Government Accountability Office Bid Protests in Air Force Source Selections over the Past Two Decades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    ALCs) include Oklahoma City ALC, Tinker AFB ; Ogden ALC, Hill AFB ; Warner Robins ALC, Robins AFB ; and, before 2001, Sacramento ALC, McClellan AFB ...she had worked with in the past. Megan McKeever was always ready to provide helpful administrative support. xvii Abbreviations AFB Air Force base...are Langley Air Force Base ( AFB ), Air Combat Command; Peterson AFB , Air Force Space Command; Scott AFB , Air Mobility Command; Ramstein Air Base

  15. [Diseases and causes of death of outstanding creative and scientific figures of XVII-XX centuries].

    PubMed

    Martsinkovs'kyĭ, I B

    2007-01-01

    The article reviewed the literature which analyzes clinical symptoms and causes of some creative and scientific figures of XVII-XX centuries. A conclusion has been made that there are not enough works with professional retrospective investigation of somatic diseases and causes of death of ukrainain outstanding cultural and scientific people in today's national medical literature.

  16. 25 CFR 36.50 - Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of studies for elementary, junior high/middle, and high schools. (7) Grading requirements. (8) Promotion requirements. (9) High school graduation requirements. (10) Library/media. (11) Textbooks and... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard XVII-School program evaluation and...

  17. Comment on “Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity”

    SciTech Connect

    Blancard, C.; Colgan, J.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.; Fontes, C. J.; Gilleron, F.; Golovkin, I.; Hansen, S. B.; Iglesias, C. A.; Kilcrease, D. P.; MacFarlane, J. J.; More, R. M.; Pain, J. -C.; Sherrill, M.; Wilson, B. G.

    2016-12-09

    Recent R-matrix calculations claim to provide a significant enhancement in the opacity of Fe XVII due to atomic core excitations and assert that this enhancement is consistent with recent measurements of higher-than-predicted iron opacities. Here this comment shows that the standard opacity models which have already been directly compared with experimental data produce photon absorption cross-sections for Fe XVII that are effectively equivalent to the R-matrix opacities reported in.

  18. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: X. Results of ear examination.

    PubMed

    Haymaker, W; Leon, H A; Barrows, W F; Suri, K; Kraft, L M; Turnbill, C E; Webster, D B; Ashley, W W; Look, B C; Simmonds, R C; Cooper, W; Platt, W T; Behnke, A R; Erway, L C; Cruty, M R; Benton, E V; Ellis, J T; Bailey, O T; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Zeman, W; Billingham, J; Samorajski, T

    1975-04-01

    In the five pocket mice flown on Apollo XVII, no evidence was found that the inner ear had been damaged, though poor fixation precluded detailed study. On the other hand, the middle ear cavity was involved in all the mice, hemorrhage having occurrred in response to excursions in pressure within the canister that housed the mice during their flight. The same occurred in flight control mice which had been subjected to pressure excursions of much the same magnitude. A greater degree of exudation into air cells and greater leukotaxis were noted in the flight animals than in the control animals. There was no increase in leukocyte population along the paths of the 23 cosmic ray particles registered in the subscalp dosimeters that traversed the middle ear cavities of the flight mice. The increased exudation and the greater response by leukocytes in the flight mice may have been causally related to the lesions found in their olfactory mucosa but there were no data in support of this possibility.

  19. Collagen XVII Shedding Suppresses Re-Epithelialization by Directing Keratinocyte Migration and Dampening mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jacków, Joanna; Löffek, Stefanie; Nyström, Alexander; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Franzke, Claus-Werner

    2016-05-01

    Transmembrane collagen XVII is traditionally viewed as an important hemidesmosomal attachment component that promotes stable dermal-epidermal adhesion in the skin. However, its expression is highly elevated at the leading edges of cutaneous wounds or invasive carcinomas, suggesting alternative functions in cell migration. The collagenous ectodomain of collagen XVII is constitutively shed from the cell surface by a disintegrin and metalloproteinases, and this shedding is strongly induced during wound healing. Recently, we investigated the physiological relevance of collagen XVII shedding by generating knock-in mice, which exclusively express a functional non-sheddable collagen XVII mutant. Prevention of ectodomain shedding in these mice caused no spontaneous phenotype in resting skin, but accelerated re-epithelialization on skin wounding. Here, we investigated the mechanistic function of shedding during wound healing. Using the non-shedding collagen XVII mice as a model, we uncovered ectodomain shedding as a highly dynamic modulator of in vivo proliferation and motility of activated keratinocytes through tight coordination of α6β4 integrin-laminin-332 interactions and dampening of mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling at the wound edges. Thus, our studies identify ectodomain shedding of collagen XVII as an interactive platform that translates shedding into a signal for directed cell growth and motility during skin regeneration.

  20. Collagen XVII and BPAG1 Expression in the Retina: Evidence for an Anchoring Complex in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Claudepierre, Thomas; Manglapus, Mary K.; Marengi, Nathan; Radner, Stephanie; Champliaud, Marie-France; Tasanen, Kaisa; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Hunter, Dale D.; Brunken, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The ectoderm gives rise not only to the skin but also to the entire CNS. This common embryonic lineage suggests that some molecular isoforms might serve analogous functions in both tissues. Indeed, not only are laminins important components of dermal adhesion mechanisms, but they also regulate some aspects of synaptic development in both the CNS and the PNS. In the skin, laminins are part of a hemidesmosome complex essential for basal keratinocyte adhesion that includes collagen XVII (BP180) and BPAG1 (dystonin/BP230). Here, we show that CNS neurons also express collagen XVII and BPAG1 and that these molecules are expressed in the adult and developing retina. In the retina, isoforms of collagen XVII and BPAG1 are colocalized with laminins at photoreceptor synapses and around photoreceptor outer segments; both molecules are expressed by rods, whereas cones express collagen XVII but not BPAG1. Moreover, biochemical data demonstrate that collagen XVII complexes with retinal laminins. We propose that collagen XVII and BPAG1 isoforms may help to anchor elements of the rod photoreceptor cytomatrix to the extracellular matrix. PMID:15880472

  1. Laboratory Measurements of the X-ray Line Emission from Neon-like Fe XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Scofield, J. H.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line emission from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the absolute excitation cross sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Iron Project. LIII. Fe XVII (Nahar+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, S. N.; Eissner, W.; Chen, G. X.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2009-08-01

    An extensive set of fine structure levels and corresponding transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XVII is presented. A total of 490 bound energy levels of Fe XVII of total angular momenta 0<=J<=7 of even and odd parities with 2<=n<=10, 0<=l<=8, 0<=L<=8, and singlet and triplet multiplicities, are obtained. They translate to over 2.6x104 allowed (E1) transitions that are of dipole and intercombination type, and 2312 forbidden transitions that include electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), electric octopole (E3), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) type representing the most detailed calculations to date for the ion. Oscillator strengths f, line strengths S, and coefficients A of spontaneous emission for the E1 type transitions are obtained in the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix approximation. A-values for the forbidden transitions are obtained from atomic structure calculations using codes SUPERSTRUCTURE and GRASP. The energy levels are identified in spectroscopic notation with the help of a newly developed level identification algorithm. Nearly all 52 spectroscopically observed levels have been identified, their binding energies agreeing within 1% with our calculation. Computed transition probabilities are compared with other calculations and measurement. The effect of 2-body magnetic terms and other interactions is discussed. The present data set enhances by more than an order of magnitude the heretofore available data for transition probabilities of Fe XVII. (11 data files).

  3. PREFACE: XVII Congress of Bioengineering and VI Clinical Engineering Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Darío

    2011-09-01

    SABI 2009 was the XVII Biennial Congress of the Argentinean Bioengineering Society (SABI - www.sabi.org.ar), celebrated along with the VI Clinical Engineering Conference. It took place in Rosario, the second city of Argentina, located on the west bank of the Paraná, one of the world's most important rivers. This city, with its 150 year history and one million inhabitants, is characterized by a strong enterprising spirit. It is the agroindustrial leader of Argentina, with cereal ports recognized to be among the most active in the world, and its cereal stock exchange competes with Chicago's in international cereal pricing. Demographically Rosario presents a European profile, and there are seven national and private higher level universities in the area. SABI 2009 was the first time the Congress was celebrated in Rosario. Usually the Congress is organized by the Bioengineering Society in cooperation with a university with an undergraduate program, which Rosario lacks. To meet the needs of this exceptional case, a young local institution was asked to coordinate the Congress, the Rosario Technological Center (www.polotecnologico.net). This organization gathers together around 100 companies that produce technology, with a large number focused on IT, but those focused on biotechnology also stand out. The Center is also integrated with relevant public and government bodies. Traditionally, bioengineering has been related to human health applications, with less emphasis on applications significant to agrotechnology, an area in which Rosario is growing as an economic force. In order to address this oversight, the Congress formulated its main goals for integrating and synergizing bioengineering and biotechnology, particularly bioengineering and agrotechnology. This initiative has produced promising results. The importance of the Congress was reflected in the high number of participants - including researchers, professionals and students - from abroad, with participants from

  4. Relativistic close-coupling calculations for photoionization and recombination of Ne-like Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2001-09-01

    Relativistic and channel coupling effects in photoionization and unified electronic recombination of Fe XVII are demonstrated with an extensive 60-level close-coupling calculation using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. A multiconfiguration eigenfunction expansion up to the n=3 levels of the core ion Fe XVIII is employed with five spectroscopic configurations 2s22p5,2s2p6,2s22p4 3s,3p,3d, and a number of correlation configurations. The unified e+ion recombination calculations for e+Fe XVIII-->Fe XVII include both the nonresonant and resonant recombination (``radiative'' and ``dielectronic recombination''-RR and DR). Photoionization and e+ion recombination calculations are carried out for the total and the level-specific cross sections, including the ground and several hundred excited bound levels of Fe XVII (up to fine-structure levels with n=10). The low-energy and the high-energy cross sections are compared from (i) a three-level calculation including only the 2s2p5 (2Po1/2,3/2) and 2s2p6 (2S1/2) levels of Fe XVIII, and (ii) the first 60-level calculation with Δn>0 coupled channels. Strong channel coupling effects are demonstrated throughout the energy ranges considered, in particular via giant photoexcitation-of-core (PEC) resonances due to L-M shell dipole transition arrays 2p5-->2p4 3s,3d in Fe XIII that enhance effective cross sections by orders of magnitude. Comparison is made with previous theoretical and experimental works on photoionization and recombination that considered the relatively small low-energy region (i), and the weaker Δn=0 couplings. While the simpler three-level results describe the near-threshold photoionization and recombination, they are inadequate for practical applications that also require the higher-energy cross sections for modeling ionization balance of Fe XVII in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The present 60-level results should provide reasonably complete and accurate datasets for both photoionization and e

  5. Type VII and XVII Collagen mRNA Expressions in Regenerated Epidermal Laminae in Chronic Equine Laminitis.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Arai, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    To confirm ability forming the basement membrane of the regenerated laminar epidermis (rLE) in chronic laminitis, expression of type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs in the rLE was studied applying sequences of two type of murine collagens. On northern blot analysis, complement DNA (cDNA) probes adjusted from the murine type VII and type XVII collagen could hybridize with the equine mRNAs, and each signal was detected as single-bands at approximately 9.5 kb and 5.6 kb, respectively. Contrasting with the expression level of equine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease mRNA, the band of type VII collagen mRNA in laminitis was stronger than normal, but the type XVII collagen mRNA in laminitis was less than normal. By in situ hybridization, positive signals in response to the murine type VII and type XVII collagen mRNA probes could be detected in the equine laminitic rLE region. From these results, it is concluded that the keratinocytes constructing the rLE in chronic stage of laminitis can express type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs and these expression patterns were different from the normal.

  6. Significant Role of Collagen XVII And Integrin β4 in Migration and Invasion of The Less Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Jyri M; Löffek, Stefanie; Kokkonen, Nina; Salo, Sirpa; Väyrynen, Juha P; Hurskainen, Tiina; Manninen, Aki; Riihilä, Pilvi; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Salo, Tuula; Mäkinen, Markus J; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2017-03-22

    Collagen XVII and integrin α6β4 have well-established roles as epithelial adhesion molecules. Their binding partner laminin 332 as well as integrin α6β4 are largely recognized to promote invasion and metastasis in various cancers, and collagen XVII is essential for the survival of colon and lung cancer stem cells. We have studied the expression of laminin γ2, collagen XVII and integrin β4 in tissue microarray samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precursors, actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. The expression of laminin γ2 was highest in SCC samples, whereas the expression of collagen XVII and integrin β4 varied greatly in SCC and its precursors. Collagen XVII and integrin β4 were also expressed in SCC cell lines. Virus-mediated RNAi knockdown of collagen XVII and integrin β4 reduced the migration of less aggressive SCC-25 cells in horizontal scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, in a 3D organotypic myoma invasion assay the loss of collagen XVII or integrin β4 suppressed equally the migration and invasion of SCC-25 cells whereas there was no effect on the most aggressive HSC-3 cells. Variable expression patterns and results in migration and invasion assays suggest that collagen XVII and integrin β4 contribute to SCC tumorigenesis.

  7. Significant Role of Collagen XVII And Integrin β4 in Migration and Invasion of The Less Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Jyri M.; Löffek, Stefanie; Kokkonen, Nina; Salo, Sirpa; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Hurskainen, Tiina; Manninen, Aki; Riihilä, Pilvi; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Salo, Tuula; Mäkinen, Markus J.; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Collagen XVII and integrin α6β4 have well-established roles as epithelial adhesion molecules. Their binding partner laminin 332 as well as integrin α6β4 are largely recognized to promote invasion and metastasis in various cancers, and collagen XVII is essential for the survival of colon and lung cancer stem cells. We have studied the expression of laminin γ2, collagen XVII and integrin β4 in tissue microarray samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precursors, actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. The expression of laminin γ2 was highest in SCC samples, whereas the expression of collagen XVII and integrin β4 varied greatly in SCC and its precursors. Collagen XVII and integrin β4 were also expressed in SCC cell lines. Virus-mediated RNAi knockdown of collagen XVII and integrin β4 reduced the migration of less aggressive SCC-25 cells in horizontal scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, in a 3D organotypic myoma invasion assay the loss of collagen XVII or integrin β4 suppressed equally the migration and invasion of SCC-25 cells whereas there was no effect on the most aggressive HSC-3 cells. Variable expression patterns and results in migration and invasion assays suggest that collagen XVII and integrin β4 contribute to SCC tumorigenesis. PMID:28327550

  8. The NC16A domain of collagen XVII plays a role in triple helix assembly and stability.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Françoise; Fu, Chang-Ling; Olague-Marchan, Monica; Giudice, George J

    2006-12-01

    Collagen XVII/BP180 is a transmembrane constituent of the epidermal anchoring complex. To study the role of its non-collagenous linker domain, NC16A, in protein assembly and stability, we analyzed the following recombinant proteins: the collagen XVII extracellular domain with or without NC16A, and a pair of truncated proteins comprising the COL15-NC15 stretch expressed with or without NC16A. All four proteins were found to exist as stable collagen triple helices; however, the two missing NC16A exhibited melting temperatures significantly lower than their NC16A-containing counterparts. Protein refolding experiments revealed that the rate of triple helix assembly of the collagen model peptide GPP(10) is greatly increased by the addition of an upstream NC16A domain. In summary, the NC16A linker domain of collagen XVII exhibits a positive effect on both the rate of assembly and the stability of the adjoining collagen structure.

  9. Atomic data from the Iron Project. LIII. Relativistic allowed and forbidden transition probabilities for Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Eissner, Werner; Chen, Guo-Xin; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2003-09-01

    An extensive set of fine structure levels and corresponding transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XVII is presented. A total of 490 bound energy levels of Fe XVII of total angular momenta 0 <= J <= 7 of even and odd parities with 2 <= n<= 10, 0 <= l<= 8, 0 <= L<= 8, and singlet and triplet multiplicities, are obtained. They translate to over 2.6x 104 allowed (E1) transitions that are of dipole and intercombination type, and 2312 forbidden transitions that include electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), electric octopole (E3), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) type representing the most detailed calculations to date for the ion. Oscillator strengths f, line strengths S, and coefficients A of spontaneous emission for the E1 type transitions are obtained in the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix approximation. A-values for the forbidden transitions are obtained from atomic structure calculations using codes SUPERSTRUCTURE and GRASP. The energy levels are identified in spectroscopic notation with the help of a newly developed level identification algorithm. Nearly all 52 spectroscopically observed levels have been identified, their binding energies agreeing within 1% with our calculation. Computed transition probabilities are compared with other calculations and measurement. The effect of 2-body magnetic terms and other interactions is discussed. The present data set enhances by more than an order of magnitude the heretofore available data for transition probabilities of Fe XVII. Complete electronic data tables of energies and transition probabilities are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/789

  10. Laboratory Study of the Diagnostic Utility of the 3C/3D Line Ratio in Fe XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Chen, M., II; Reed, K. J.

    2002-01-01

    Fe XVII X-ray emission is present in a multitude of sources, such as the corona of the Sun, Capella, and Procyon. Two of the strongest lines observed in these spectra are the resonance and intercombination lines located at 15.01 and 15.26 A, respectively. As part of the laboratory astrophysics program at the electron beam ion traps EBIT-I & EBIT-II located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have measured this line ratio for the case where the relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII is approx. 1. Our results show that an Fe XVI innershell satellite line coincides with the intercombination line and can significantly reduce the relative intensity, R, of the resonance to intercombination line. The fact that the apparent relative intensity of the resonance and intercombination line in Fe XVII is sensitive to the strength of an Fe XVI innershell satellite, and therefore, tho relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII, makes the line ratio a diagnostic of temperature, and explains the anomalously low ratios observed in the solar and stellar coronae.

  11. Complete genome sequence of a genotype XVII Newcastle disease virus, isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the f...

  12. Resonance Scattering of Fe XVII X-ray and EUV Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Saba, J. L. R.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the years a number of calculations have been carried out to derive intensities of various X-ray and EUV lines in Fe XVII to compare with observed spectra. The predicted intensities have not agreed with solar observations, particularly for the line at 1.5.02 Angstroms; resonance scattering has been suggested as the source for much of the disagreement. The atomic data calculated earlier used seven configurations having n=3 orbitals and the scattering calculations were carried out only for incident energies above the threshold of the highest fine-structure level. These calculations have now been extended to thirteen configurations having n=4 orbitals and the scattering calculations are carried out below as well as above the threshold of the highest fine structure level. These improved calculations of Fe XVII change the intensity ratios compared to those obtained earlier, bringing the optically thin F(15.02)/F(16.78) ratio and several other ratios closer to the observed values. However, some disagreement with the solar observations still persists, even thought the agreement of the presently calculated optically thin F(15.02)/F(15.26) ratio with the experimental results of Brown et al. (1998) and Laming et al. (2000) has improved. Some of the remaining discrepancy is still thought to be the effect of opacity, which is consistent with expected physical conditions for solar sources. EUV intensity ratios are also calculated and compared with observations. Level populations and intensity ratios are calculated, as a function of column density of Fe XVII, in the slab and cylindrical geometries. As found previously, the predicted intensities for the resonance lines at 15.02 and 15.26 Angstroms exhibit initial increases in flux relative to the forbidden line at 17.10 Angstroms and the resonance line at 16.78 Angstroms as optical thickness increases. The same behavior is predicted for the lines at 12.262 and 12.122 Angstroms. Predicted intensities for some of the allowed

  13. Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Sultana N; Pradhan, Anil K

    2016-06-10

    Aimed at solving the outstanding problem of solar opacity, and radiation transport plasma models in general, we report substantial photoabsorption in the high-energy regime due to atomic core photoexcitations not heretofore considered. In extensive R-matrix calculations of unprecedented complexity for an important iron ion Fe xvii (Fe^{16+}), with a wave function expansion of 99 Fe xviii (Fe^{17+}) LS core states from n≤4 complexes (equivalent to 218 fine structure levels), we find (i) up to orders of magnitude enhancement in background photoionization cross sections, in addition to strongly peaked photo-excitation-of-core resonances not considered in current opacity models, and ii) demonstrate convergence with respect to successive core excitations. The resulting increase in the monochromatic continuum, and 35% in the Rosseland mean opacity, are compared with the "higher-than-predicted" iron opacity measured at the Sandia Z-pinch fusion device at solar interior conditions.

  14. Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2016-06-01

    Aimed at solving the outstanding problem of solar opacity, and radiation transport plasma models in general, we report substantial photoabsorption in the high-energy regime due to atomic core photoexcitations not heretofore considered. In extensive R -matrix calculations of unprecedented complexity for an important iron ion Fe xvii (Fe16 + ), with a wave function expansion of 99 Fe xviii (Fe17 + ) LS core states from n ≤4 complexes (equivalent to 218 fine structure levels), we find (i) up to orders of magnitude enhancement in background photoionization cross sections, in addition to strongly peaked photo-excitation-of-core resonances not considered in current opacity models, and ii) demonstrate convergence with respect to successive core excitations. The resulting increase in the monochromatic continuum, and 35% in the Rosseland mean opacity, are compared with the "higher-than-predicted" iron opacity measured at the Sandia Z -pinch fusion device at solar interior conditions.

  15. Future U.S. Security Relationships with Iraq and Afghanistan: U.S. Air Force Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Advocate for increased, sustained resources for higher- priority development of the IqAF and AAC. Increasing the emphasis on Summary xvii airpower...development will require higher levels of resources. The decision to give high priority to development of Iraqi and Afghan airpower does not rest with...development of indigenous air arms receives a high priority . (See pp. 113–114, 134.) Planning for a Long-Term Role Given the wide range of important

  16. Decay Properties of K-Vacancy States in Fe X-Fe XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report extensive calculations of the decay properties of fine-structure K-vacancy levels in Fe X-Fe XVII. A large set of level energies, wavelengths, radiative and Auger rates, and fluorescence yields has been computed using three different standard atomic codes, namely Cowan's HFR, AUTOSTRUCTURE and the Breit-Pauli R-matrix package. This multi-code approach is used to the study the effects of core relaxation, configuration interaction and the Breit interaction, and enables the estimate of statistical accuracy ratings. The Ksigma and KLL Auger widths have been found to be nearly independent of both the outer-electron configuration and electron occupancy keeping a constant ratio of 1.53 +/- 0.06. By comparing with previous theoretical and measured wavelengths, the accuracy of the present set is determined to be within 2 m Angstrom. Also, the good agreement found between the different radiative and Auger data sets that have been computed allow us to propose with confidence an accuracy rating of 20% for the line fluorescence yields greater than 0.01. Emission and absorption spectral features are predicted finding good correlation with measurements in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  17. Ab initio oscillator strengths and transition probabilities in oxygen-like Cr XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanovich, P.; Karpuskiene, R.

    2008-09-15

    Ab initio energy spectra of the ground configuration 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}, the excited configurations 2s2p{sup 5}, 2p{sup 6}, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3s, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3p, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3d, 2s2p{sup 4}3s, 2s2p{sup 4}3p, and 2s2p{sup 4}3d of oxygen-like chromium Cr XVII have been calculated using the configuration interaction method. The wavelengths, oscillator strengths and the emission transition probabilities from configurations 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3l and 2s2p{sup 4}3l are obtained. The radiative lifetimes of excited levels are also presented.0.

  18. Dirac R-matrix collision strengths and effective collision strengths for transitions of Ni xvii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, C. E.; Norrington, P. H.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Electron impact excitation collision strengths are required for the analysis and interpretation of stellar observations. Aims: This calculation aims to provide fine structure effective collision strengths for the Ni xvii ion using a method which includes contributions from resonances. Methods: A fully relativistic R-matrix calculation has been performed using the DARC code. In the structure part of our calculation 141 fine-structure levels are employed and 37 of these are used in the scattering calculation. Results: Collision strengths have been determined for 666 fine-structure transitions arising from the 37 lowest j-levels involving configurations 3s2, 3p2, 3d2, 3s3p, 3s3d, 3p3d and 3s4s. The effective collision strengths for these transitions have been calculated for electron temperatures (Te) in the range log 10Te(K) = 4.5 - 8.0. Effective collision strengths are tabulated for transitions between the first ten fine structure levels, arising from the 3s2, 3s3p and 3p2 configurations. The remaining transitions are available at the CDS as well as via the author's website. Tables 2 and 5 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/537/A12

  19. Extracellular cleavage of collagen XVII is essential for correct cutaneous basement membrane formation.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Machiko; Nishie, Wataru; Shirafuji, Yoshinori; Shinkuma, Satoru; Natsuga, Ken; Nakamura, Hideki; Sawamura, Daisuke; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-15

    In skin, basal keratinocytes in the epidermis are tightly attached to the underlying dermis by the basement membrane (BM). The correct expression of hemidesmosomal and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is essential for BM formation, and the null-expression of one molecule may induce blistering diseases associated with immature BM formation in humans. However, little is known about the significance of post-translational processing of hemidesmosomal or ECM proteins in BM formation. Here we show that the C-terminal cleavage of hemidesmosomal transmembrane collagen XVII (COL17) is essential for correct BM formation. The homozygous p.R1303Q mutation in COL17 induces BM duplication and blistering in humans. Although laminin 332, a major ECM protein, interacts with COL17 around p.R1303, the mutation leaves the binding of both molecules unchanged. Instead, the mutation hampers the physiological C-terminal cleavage of COL17 in the ECM. Consequently, non-cleaved COL17 ectodomain remnants induce the aberrant deposition of laminin 332 in the ECM, which is thought to be the major pathogenesis of the BM duplication that results from this mutation. As an example of impaired cleavage of COL17, this study shows that regulated processing of hemidesmosomal proteins is essential for correct BM organization in skin.

  20. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: III. Dosimeter design, construction, and implantation.

    PubMed

    Winter, D L; Suri, K; D'Urso, J A; Cota, F L; Ashley, W W; Binnard, R M; Haymaker, W; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R; Zeman, W

    1975-04-01

    To detect the passage of cosmic ray particles through the heads of the pocket mice during the Apollo XVII flight, a "monitor" (dosimeter) composed of plastics was prepared and implanted under the scalp. The monitor was mounted on a platform, the undersurface of which fitted the contour of the skull. Numerous tests were run to assure that the presence of the monitor assembly beneath the scalp would be compatible with the well-being of the mice and that the capacity of the monitor to detect the traversal of cosmic ray particles would be preserved over the several weeks during which it would remain under the scalp.

  1. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: VI. launch, flight, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Look, B C; Tremor, J W; Barrows, W F; Zabower, H R; Winter, D L; Shillinger, G H; Harrison, C A; Philpott, D E; Suri, K; Platt, W T; Ashley, W W; Haymaker, W; Lindberg, R G; Simmonds, R C; Heflin, M; Larey, J R; Behnke, A R; Zeman, W; Samorajski, T; Vogel, F S; Leaffer, D; Beales, P F

    1975-04-01

    The final phase to fly five pocket mice in the Apollo XVII command module was carried out at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Upon completion of the 13-d space flight, the package was removed from the spacecraft and, after having been purged with an oxygen-helium gas mixture, was flown to American Samo. Four of the five mice were recovered alive from the package. Analysis of the mouse that died during the flight revealed several factors that could have contributed to its death, the chief of which was massive hemorrhage in its middle ear cavities.

  2. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Clinical and biomedical prevention science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether to initiate ART at higher CD4+ cell counts than currently recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines received much attention at the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008). If studies presented at the conference ultimately lead to a revision of WHO treatment guidance, the estimated number of people who will need ART globally will increase substantially. Task-shifting is emerging as an important strategy for dealing with the acute shortage of health care workers in many high-burden countries, and several studies presented at AIDS 2008 demonstrated the impressive health system efficiencies garnered by using nurses or other health care providers to deliver HIV care and treatment. Other key presentations and discussion at the conference focused on the optimal time to start TB treatment in HIV-infected patients, the growing risk of resistance in high-burden countries, including its impact on future treatment options, and several large cohort trials testing optimal drug regimens in resource-limited settings. Biomedical prevention research continues to confirm the long-term, protective benefits of circumcision. Several studies involving HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples have produced data suggesting a strong protective effect of ART for HIV-negative partners. Disappointing results from recent vaccine and non-ARV based microbicides trials are nevertheless providing important data to this field, and the expanding number of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials and ARV-based microbicides appear to provide the best hope for a new, efficacious biomedical prevention intervention. PMID:19811670

  3. Geothermal Program Review XVII: proceedings. Building on 25 years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XVII in Berkeley, California, on May 18--20, 1999. The theme this year was "Building on 25 Years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry". In 1974, Congress enacted Public Law 93-410 which sanctioned the Geothermal Energy Coordination and Management Project, the Federal Government's initial partnering with the US geothermal industry. The annual program review provides a forum to foster this federal partnership with the US geothermal industry through the presentation of DOE-funded research papers from leaders in the field, speakers who are prominent in the industry, topical panel discussions and workshops, planning sessions, and the opportunity to exchange ideas. Speakers and researchers from both industry and DOE presented an annual update on research in progress, discussed changes in the environment and deregulated energy market, and exchanged ideas to refine the DOE Strategic Plan for research and development of geothermal resources in the new century. A panel discussion on Climate Change and environmental issues and regulations provided insight into the opportunities and challenges that geothermal project developers encounter. This year, a pilot peer review process was integrated with the program review. A team of geothermal industry experts were asked to evaluate the research in progress that was presented. The evaluation was based on the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) criteria and the goals and objectives of the Geothermal Program as set forth in the Strategic Plan. Despite the short timeframe and cursory guidance provided to both the principle investigators and the peer reviewers, the pilot process was successful. Based on post review comments by both presenters and reviewers, the process will be refined for next year's program review.

  4. Semiempirical calculation of radiative constants in the spectra of nickel-like ions Kr IX, Sr XI, Y XII, Ru XVII, Pd XIX, and Ag XX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The probabilities of the electric-dipole transitions 3 d 94 p, 3 d 94 f-3 d 10, 3 d 94 s, and 3 d 94 d in the spectra of nickel-like ions Kr IX, Sr XI, Y XII, Ru XVII, Pd XIX, and Ag XX are calculated semiempirically with the use of published energy levels.

  5. Pathologic characterization of genotypes XIV and XVII Newcastle disease viruses and efficacy of classical vaccination on specific pathogen-free birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To characterize the clinico-pathological characteristics of recently-described genotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one representative strain of genotype XIV and two of genotype XVII, all isolated from West Africa, were used to infect four-week-old, specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. The ...

  6. PREFACE: XVII International Youth Scientific School on Actual Problems of Magnetic Resonance and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    -linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the full papers prepared from the most interesting reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. The XVII International Youth Scientific School has been supported by a subsidy from the Russian Government (agreement #02.A03.21.0002) in frame of Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University among World's Leading Academic Centers. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors (BRUKER Ltd, Moscow, the Russian Academy of Science, the Dynasty foundation of Dmitrii Zimin, Russia, Russian Foundation for Basic Research and R.M.Minnikhanov, president of Republic of Tatarstan) and all the participants and contributors who made the International School meeting possible and interesting.

  7. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: XI. Results of eye examination.

    PubMed

    Philpott, D E; Corbett, R L; Takahashi, A; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R

    1975-04-01

    Five pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were flown on Apollo XVII, and four survived. All the eyes, except one eye from the dead flight mouse, were examined histologically. In the four surviving mice, a total of five cosmic ray particles which had registered in the subscalp particle detectors had trajectories that intersected the eyes. Four of them (Z equal to 6-9 for three of the particles and Z larger than or equal to 10 for the fourth) most likely went through the head before reaching the particle detector, while the thindown direction of the fifth (Z larger than or equal to 10) was not determinable. The retinas of the flight animals were found free from histological alterations such as might have been expected from encounters with cosmic ray particles.

  8. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: IX Results of examination of the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kraft, L M; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R; Haymaker, W; Leon, A; Billingham, J; Turnbill, C E; Teas, V; Look, B C; Suri, K; Miquel, J; Ashley, W W; Behnke, A R; Samorajski, T; Bailey, O T; Zeman, W

    1975-04-01

    The olfactory epithelium, but not the nasal respiratory epithelium, of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived their flight on Apollo XVII showed both diffuse alterations and numerous disseminated focal lesions. The olfactory mucosa of the mouse that died during flight was also affected, but to a minor degree insofar as could be determined. All this was in contrast to the normal appearance of the olfactory mucosa of the numerous control animals. A number of possible causes were considered: systemic or regional infection; inhaled particulate material (seed dust); by-products from the KO2 bed in aerosol or particulate form; gas contaminants originating in the flight package; volatile substances from the dead mouse; weightlessness; and cosmic ray particle radiation. Where feasible, studies were conducted in an effort to rule in or rule out some of these potentially causative factors. No definitive conclusions were reached as to the cause of the lesions in the flight mice.

  9. The effects of cosmic Particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. Part I. physiological studies.

    PubMed

    Leon, H A; Suri, K; McTigue, M; Smith, J; Cooper, W; Miquel, J; Ashley, W W; Behnke, A R; Saunders, J F

    1975-04-01

    Tests were carried out on pocket mice to ascertain their tolerance to elevated oxygen pressures alone and to a combination of hyperoxta and heat in excess of that expected during the flight of the mice on Apollo XVII. the mice withstood oxygen partial pressures up to 12 pst at normal room temperature (24 degrees C, 75 degrees F) over a period of 7 days. A few mice previously exposed to increased PO2 died in the course of exposure to an oxygen pressure of 10 pst or 12 psi (517 mm or 620 mm Hg) for 13 d in ambient heat of 32 degrees C (90 degrees F). Supplemental vitamin E and physiological saline loading given prior to exposure had no apparent protective effect. The overall conclusion was that the pocket mice which were to go on Apollo XVII could readily survive the ambient atmosphere to which they would be exposed.

  10. Relative coronal abundances derived from X-ray observations 3: The effect of cascades on the relative intensity of Fe (XVII) line fluxes, and a revised iron abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Rugge, H. R.; Weiss, K.

    1974-01-01

    Permitted lines in the optically thin coronal X-ray spectrum were analyzed to find the distribution of coronal material, as a function of temperature, without special assumptions concerning coronal conditions. The resonance lines of N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Ar which dominate the quiet coronal spectrum below 25A were observed. Coronal models were constructed and the relative abundances of these elements were determined. The intensity in the lines of the 2p-3d transitions near 15A was used in conjunction with these coronal models, with the assumption of coronal excitation, to determine the Fe XVII abundance. The relative intensities of the 2p-3d Fe XVII lines observed in the corona agreed with theoretical prediction. Using a more complete theoretical model, and higher resolution observations, a revised calculation of iron abundance relative to hydrogen of 0.000026 was made.

  11. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: IV. engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests.

    PubMed

    Look, B C; Tremor, J W; Barrows, W F; Zabower, H R; Suri, K; Park, E G; d'Urso, J A; Leon, H A; Haymaker, W; Linberg, R G; Behnke, A R; Asch, H; Hampton, R W

    1975-04-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that to mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.

  12. Pathologic characterization of genotypes XIV and XVII Newcastle disease viruses and efficacy of classical vaccination on specific pathogen-free birds.

    PubMed

    Susta, L; Jones, M E B; Cattoli, G; Cardenas-Garcia, S; Miller, P J; Brown, C C; Afonso, C L

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the clinicopathologic features of recently described genotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 1 representative strain of genotype XIV and 2 of genotype XVII, all isolated from West Africa, were used to infect groups of ten 4-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens. The pathobiology of these 3 strains was compared to a South African NDV strain classified within genotype VII. All chickens infected with the 4 viruses died or were euthanized by day 4 postinfection due to the severity of clinical signs. Gross and histologic lesions in all infected chickens included extensive necrosis of lymphoid tissues (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils, gut-associated lymphoid tissue), gastrointestinal necrosis and hemorrhages, and severe hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed systemic viral distribution, and the most intense staining was in the lymphoid organs. Results demonstrate that the 3 West African strains from the previously uncharacterized genotypes XIV and XVII are typical velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains with lesions similar to the South African strain. Under experimental conditions, QV4 and LaSota NDV vaccine strains successfully protected chickens from morbidity and mortality against the genotype VII and one genotype XVII NDV strain, with no significant differences in the amount of virus shed when 2 vaccine schemes were compared.

  13. Novel feline autoimmune blistering disease resembling bullous pemphigoid in humans: IgG autoantibodies target the NC16A ectodomain of type XVII collagen (BP180/BPAG2).

    PubMed

    Olivry, T; Chan, L S; Xu, L; Chace, P; Dunston, S M; Fahey, M; Marinkovich, M P

    1999-07-01

    In humans and dogs, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease associated with the production of basement membrane autoantibodies that target the 180-kd type XVII collagen (BP180, BPAG2) and/or the 230-kd plakin epidermal isoform BPAG1e (BP230). In two adult cats, an acquired dermatosis and stomatitis was diagnosed as BP subsequent to the fulfillment of the following criteria: 1) presence of cutaneous vesicles, erosions, and ulcers; 2) histologic demonstration of subepidermal vesiculation with inflammatory cells, including eosinophils; 3) in vivo deposition of IgG autoantibodies at the epidermal basement membrane zone; and 4) serum IgG autoantibodies targeting a 180-kd epidermal protein identified as type XVII collagen. In both cats, the antigenic epitopes targeted by IgG autoantibodies were shown to be situated in the NC16A ectodomain of type XVII collagen, a situation similar to that of humans and dogs with BP. Feline BP therefore can be considered a clinical, histopathologic, and immunologic homologue of BP in humans and dogs.

  14. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  15. [Profile of health services utilization during the XVII Central American and Caribbean Sport Games: Delegation of Puerto Rico, Ponce 1993].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, G; Frontera, W R; Colón, L R; Amy, E; Micheo, W; Correa, J J; Camuñas, J F

    1994-12-01

    During the XVII Central American and Caribbean Sports Games held in Ponce in 1993 the health services offered to the Puerto Rico Delegation included medical, dental and psychological assistance, physical therapy and services on the playing field. Information about the use of these services was obtained from the encounter sheets. The Puerto Rican delegation of 750 members had 1,800 encounters with the health team; 612 (34.0%) individual consults; 896 (54.8%) physical therapy sessions; 166 (9.2%) encounters in the sports venues; and 36 (20%) group therapies. The most common diagnoses were athletic injuries (304; 58.2%) and diseases of the respiratory system (76; 14.5%). The most frequent athletic injuries were first degree strains (75; 24.7%) and tendinitis (73, 24.0%). This pattern is similar to that observed in other sports games and delegations with mild conditions prevailing. An interdisciplinary work and biopsychosocial approach will be important for the better health and performance of our athletes.

  16. A brief review of the intensity of lines 3C and 3D in neon-like Fe XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V

    2007-06-13

    X-ray emission from neon-like Fe XVII has been measured with high-resolution spectrometers from laboratory or celestial sources for nearly seven decades. Two of the strongest lines regularly identified in these spectra are the {sup 1}P{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} resonance, and {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} intercombination line, known as 3C and 3D, respectively. This paper gives a brief overview of measurements of the intensities of the lines 3C and 3D from laboratory and celestial sources, and their comparison to model calculations, with an emphasis on measurements completed using an electron beam ion trap. It includes a discussion of the measured absolute cross sections compared to results from modern atomic theory calculations, as well as the diagnostic utility of the relative intensity, R = I{sub 3C}/I{sub 3D}, as it applies to the interpretation of spectra measured from the Sun and extra-Solar sources.

  17. The Iron Project & Iron Opacity Project: Updates on Photoionization, Electron-Ion Recombination of Fe XVII and Ca XV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissner, W.; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.; Hala, H.; Zhao, L.; Bailey, J.

    2016-05-01

    We have carried out converged close coupling (CCC) calculations for photoionization of Ne-like Fe XVII and demonstrate orders-of-magnitude enhancements in cross section due to successive core excitations. Convergence criteria are: (i) inclusion of sufficient number of residual ion Fe XVIII core states and (ii) high-resolution of myriad autoionizing resonances. We discuss verification of the conventional oscillator strength sum-rule in limited energy regions for bound-free plasma opacity. We will also report preliminary results from a larger R-matrix calculations of photoionization cross sections and electron-ion recombination rates of Ca XV where Rydberg series of resonances are included for core excitations to 28 states of n=2,3 complexes in contrast to previous 7 states of n=2 complex. The new results show existence of high-peak resonances of n=3 complex and enhanced background in high energy photoionization and a corresponding enhancement in the recombination in the high temperature region. Partial support: NSF, DOE, Ohio Supercomputer Center.

  18. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: VII. Cosmic ray particle dosimetry and trajectory tracing.

    PubMed

    Cruty, M R; Benton, E V; Turnbill, C E; Philpott, D E

    1975-04-01

    Five pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were flown on Apollo XVII, each with a solid-state (plastic) nuclear track detector implanted beneath its scalp. The subscalp detectors were sensitive to HZE cosmic ray particles with a LET larger than or equal to 0.15 million electron volts per micrometer (MeV/mjm). A critical aspect of the dosimetry of the experiment involved tracing individual particle trajectories through each mouse head from particle tracks registered in the individual subscalp detectors, thereby establishing a one-to-one correspondence between a trajectory location in the tissue and the presence or absence of a lesion. The other major aspect was the identification of each registered particle. An average of 16 particles with Z larger than or equal to 6 and 2.2 particles with Z larger than or equal to 20 were found per detector. The track density, 29 tracks/cm2, when adjusted for detection volume, was in agreement with the photographic emulsion data from an area dosimeter located next to the flight package.

  19. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: appendix III. evaluation of viscera and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J T; Kraft, L M; Lushbaugh, C C; Humason, G L; Hartroft, W S; Porta, E A; Bailey, O T; Greep, R O; Leach, C S; Laird, T; Simmonds, R C; Vogel, F S; Dennis, R L; Brashear, H R; Talmage, R V; Harrison, G A; Corbett, R L; Klein, G; Tilbury, T; Suri, K; Haymaker, W

    1975-04-01

    Histopathological findings in the lungs, livers, bone marrows, small intestines, gonads, kidneys, and other tissues of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived the Apollo XVII flight were evaluated in the light of their immediate environment and as targest of HZE cosmic ray particles. Results of this study failed to disclose changes that could be ascribed to the HZE particle radiation. Decreased numbers of erythropoietic cells in the bone marrow of the flight mice were probably related to the increased oxygen pressure. The small intestine showed no changes. Ovaries and tests appeared normal. Two of the three surviving male flight mice displayed early stages of spermatogenesis, just as ground-based controls did at the same season. Abnormalities were also not found in the thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, or kidneys. The status of the juxtaglomerular apparatus could not be evaluated. The lungs exhibited nonspecific slight rections. A variety of incidental lesions were noted in the livers of both the flight mice and their controls. The heart muscle showed nothing that could be regarded as pathological. Sections of skeletal muscle examined were free from significant change.

  20. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative rates for Si-like Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El-Maaref, A.; Allam, S.H.; El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2014-01-15

    The energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the terms belonging to the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s{sup 2}3p4s, 3s{sup 2}3p4p and 3s{sup 2}3p4d configurations of silicon-like ions (Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX) have been calculated using the configuration-interaction code CIV3. The calculations have been carried out in the intermediate coupling scheme using the Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian. The present calculations have been compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Most of our calculations of energy levels and oscillator strengths (in length form) show good agreement with both experimental and theoretical data. Lifetimes of the excited levels have also been calculated. -- Highlights: •We have calculated the fine-structure energy levels of Si-like Zn, Ga, Ge and As. •The calculations are performed using the configuration interaction method (CIV3). •We have calculated the oscillator strengths, line strengths and transition rates. •The wavelengths of the transitions are listed in this article. •We also have made comparisons between our data and other calculations.

  1. [Witch trials in the Salem as a medical error. Witch hunts in the XVII century and the medical art].

    PubMed

    Werner, Wiktor

    2005-01-01

    That article concerns with the influences of medical practitioners in witch hunts in the Salem (1692). Witch trials in England and English colonies in the XVII century were mainly criminal trials. Witchcraft had been there considered principally as a crime-tool rather then the crime itself. Witches were usually accused of crimes such as the murder and the disease sending. Physicians normally played in that situations the role of court experts. They decided if analyzed disease had normal or abnormal, artificial origin. In the Salem an medical practitioner judged that an illness which touched some children had come from the acts of sorcery. That was the beginning of a long and bloody witch hunt. Death sentences in the Salem trial were also justified with applying medical and physical categories to show the objectivity of a witchcraft. Salem judges were sure that by using "objective" categories they had been able to proof the existence of material relations between the witch and bewitched persons without the possibility of error.

  2. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry in West and Central Africa: Cocirculation of Genotype XIV and Newly Defined Genotypes XVII and XVIII

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Chantal J.; Owoade, Ademola A.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R.; Okwen, Mbah P.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; Komoyo, Giscard F.; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Le Faou, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa for decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce. In this study, 96 complete NDV fusion gene sequences were obtained from poultry sampled in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, and Nigeria between 2006 and 2011. Based on rational criteria recently proposed for the classification of NDV strains into classes, genotypes, and subgenotypes, we revisited the classification of virulent strains, in particular those from West and Central Africa, leading to their grouping into genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII, each with two subgenotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that several (sub)genotypes are found in almost every country. In Cameroon, most strains were related to vaccine strains, but a single genotype XVII strain was also found. Only three highly similar genotype XVII strains were detected in Central African Republic. Subgenotypes XVIIa, XVIIIa, and XVIIIb cocirculated in Côte d'Ivoire, while subgenotypes XIVa, XIVb, XVIIa, XVIIb, and XVIIIb were found in Nigeria. While these genotypes are so far geographically restricted, local and international trade of domestic and exotic birds may lead to their spread beyond West and Central Africa. A high genetic diversity, mutations in important neutralizing epitopes paired with suboptimal vaccination, various levels of clinical responses of poultry and wild birds to virulent strains, strains with new cleavage sites, and other genetic modifications found in these genotypes tend to undermine and complicate NDV management in Africa. PMID:23658271

  3. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: XII. Results of examination of the calvarium, brain, and meninges.

    PubMed

    Haymaker, W; Zeman, W; Turnbill, C E; Clayton, R K; Bailey, O T; Samorajski, T; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Cruty, M R; Benton, E V; Kraft, L M

    1975-04-01

    Tissue reactions were found around the monitor (dosimeter) assemblies that had been implanted beneath the scalp of the five pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII. Mitosis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation was considerably reduced in comparison with that in control animals. Otherwise the brain tissue as well as the menings in the flight animals appeared unaltered. Since the animals were exposed primarily to high Z-high energy (HZE) cosmic ray particles at the lower end of the high LET spectrum, the lack of changes in the brain cannot be taken as evidence that the brain will suffer no damage from the heavier HZE particles on prolonged manned missions.

  5. Infrared technology XVII; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 22-26, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andresen, Bjorn F. (Editor); Scholl, Marija (Editor); Spiro, Irving J. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in IR technologies and their application to all types of IR systems are reported focusing on the JPL Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), JPL instruments and systems for observation of earth and the atmosphere, staring arrays and thermal imaging, ten-year updates of IR techniques, infrared in the USSR, simulation and testing, focal-plane and optical technologies, and military and scientific applications. Particular attention is given to SIRTF stray light analysis, SIRTF focal-plane technologies, long-wave IR detectors based on III-V materials, IR lidars for atmospheric remote sensing, a firefly system concept, a high-fill-factor monolithic IR image sensor, atmospheric laser-transmission tables simply generated, ORION semiconductor optical detectors, postprocessing of thermograms in IR nondestructive testing, evaluation of the IR signature of dynamic air targets, the current status of InGaAs detector arrays for 1-3 microns, a dual-band optical system for IR multicolor signal processing, and blackbody radiators for field calibration.

  6. NON-EQUILIBRIUM MODELING OF THE FE XVII 3C/3D LINE RATIO IN AN INTENSE X-RAY FREE-ELECTRON LASER EXCITED PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  7. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. preflight studies on tolerancee to oxygen and heat. Part III. effects on eyes.

    PubMed

    Philpott, D E; Corbett, R L; Black, S; Takahashi, A; Leaffer, D

    1975-04-01

    A study was made of the eyes of eight pocket mice exposed to oxygen at partial pressures of 8, 10, or 12 psi over a period of 7 d. At the termination of the exposure, the animals were decompressed to sea-level O2 either immediately or over a period of 30, 60, or 90 min. No pathological changes were found in any of the eyes, except in the retina of one of the animals exposed to 12 psi O2. Here, only a single rod photoreceptor was found damaged, an observation not regarded as significant. Hence, an oxygen partial pressure as high as 12 psi in the camister in which pocket mice were expected to fly on Apollo XVII would probably have no deleterious effect on the eyes of the animals.

  8. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  9. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: I. Project BIOCORE (M212), a biological cosmic ray experiment: procedures, summary, and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Haymaker, W; Look, B C; Winter, D L; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R

    1975-04-01

    The primary objective of the experiment was to determine whether a specific portion of the high Z-high energy (HZE)* galactic cosmic ray particle spectrum, especially particles with Z greater than or equal to 6, can produce microscopically visible injury of brain and eye tissues. Pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris), obtained from the California desert, were selected as the biological target. Five of these mice were flown on Apollo XVII. Not only the brain and eyes but also many other tissues of these animals were studied for evidence of cosmic ray particle damage. The lack of prior experimental evidence as to the character of the potential injury induced by HZE particles required reliance on the physical characteristics of particle radiation in ascertaining the probable nature of the injruy. These characteristics and the key aspects of the experiment are summarized in this paper. Subsequent articles in this special supplement give details of the biological, engineering, and dosimetric aspects of BIOCORE together with the results.

  10. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: II. Characteristics and tolerances of the pocket mouse and incidence of disease.

    PubMed

    Linberg, R G; Kraft, L M; Simmonds, R C; Bailey, O T; Dunlap, W A; Haymaker, W

    1975-04-01

    Pocket mice are facultative homoiotherms with the ability to drop their metabolic rate dramatically while at rest or in response to environmental stresses. Under these conditions, they characteristically enter a state of prolonged torpor. These animals require no drinking water and they can live in darkness for many months without apparent ill effect. They tolerate a wide range of ambient temperature, ralative humidity, and oxygen pressure and have survied without food for a mean of 14 d at an ambient temperature of 20 degrees C (68 degrees F). Studies carried out on the pocket mouse colony used for the Apollo XVII flight revealed, in the animals tested, no serological evidence of viral disease, no pathogenic enterobacteria or respiratory Mycoplasma on culture, a 25% incidence of sarcosporidiosis, and a 2% incidence of chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The conclusion reached is that the pocket mouse is a highly adaptive animal and very well suited for space flight.

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  12. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  13. [The scientific revolutions in medicine XVII-XIX centuries: the disproof of Galenism and developpment of scientific foundations of medicine. Report I. The discovery of blood circulation and system of absorbtion].

    PubMed

    Stochik, A M; Zatravkin, S N

    2010-01-01

    In the process of investigation of state and development of medicine in XVII-first half of XIX centuries the authors came to the conclusion that despite the widespread opinion among the historians of medicine in that period two scientific revolutions occurred and in the area of theoretical medicine too. The actual report is devoted to the history of revision of anatomical physiological concept of Galen in the course of first scientific revolution.

  14. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  15. THE IRON PROJECT AND THE RMAX PROJECT: Photoionization, Electron-IonRecombination and Oscillator Strengths of Fe Ions, Fe XVII and Fe XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissner, Werner; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the Iron Project and the Rmax Project are detailed study of radiative and collisional processes of astrophysically abundant atoms and ions, mainly iron and iron-peak elements, over a wide energy range, from infra-red to X-rays. We will present the complete results on photoionization, partial and total, of fine structure levels with n <= 10 of Fe XVII. They correspond to a large-scale computation using a wave function expansion containing 60 levels of the core. Preliminary results on total recombination rate coefficients ranging over low to very high temperatures, especially where the ion is abundant in astrophysical plasmas, will be presented. We will also report the latest results on oscillator strengths for photo-excitations in Fe XIX. This highly charged nitrogen-like iron ion has over thousands of bound fine structure levels. The calculations have been carried out in relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method. The forbidden electric quadrupole, electric octupole, magnetic dipole and magnetic quadrupole transitions for Fe XIX correspond to fine structure levels upto 4p obtained from atomic structure calculations in Breit-Pauli approximation.

  16. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  18. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  19. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  20. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  1. Gypenoside XVII Prevents Atherosclerosis by Attenuating Endothelial Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress: Insight into the ERα-Mediated PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Haijing; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Jingyi; Wang, Min; Liao, Ping; Cao, Li; Guo, Peng; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are estrogen-like compounds of plant origin. The pharmacological activities of phytoestrogens are predominantly due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering properties, which are mediated via the estrogen receptors (ERs): estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and possibly G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER). Gypenoside XVII (GP-17) is a phytoestrogen that is widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, but the mechanism underlying these therapeutic effects is largely unclear. This study aimed to assess the anti-atherogenic effects of GP-17 and its mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that GP-17 significantly decreased blood lipid levels, increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes and decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE−/− mice. In vitro experiments showed that GP-17 significantly prevented oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced endothelial injury. The underlying protective mechanisms of GP-17 were mediated by restoring the normal redox state, up-regulating of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax and inhibiting the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in Ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury. Notably, we found that GP-17 treatment predominantly up-regulated the expression of ERα but not ERβ. However, similar to estrogen, the protective effect of GP-17 could be blocked by the ER antagonist ICI182780 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) antagonist LY294002. Taken together, these results suggest that, due to its antioxidant properties, GP-17 could alleviate atherosclerosis via the ERα-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:28208754

  2. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  3. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  4. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  6. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  7. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  8. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  9. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. Part II. effects on lungs.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G A; Corbett, R L; Klein, G

    1975-04-01

    An electron microscope examination was carried out on the lungs of 11 pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that breathed oxygen at 10 psi or 12 psi partial pressure over a period of 7 d, at the end of which time they were decompressed to sea-level O2 pressure, either suddenly or in 30, 60, or 90 min. Vesiculation was noted in the endothelium of the alveolarcapillary wall in most of the animals and, occasionally, blebbing. Some mitochrondria were swollen in a few of the animals. Alveolar exudate was, in general, sparse. Compared with the lungs of other rodents, the lungs of pocket mice appeared relatively resistant to the toxic effects of oxygen. This conclusion needs, however, to be tempered by the fact that 5% N2 was used in the tests reported here. Nonetheless, the results suggest that the oxygen pressures anticipated on the flight of Apollo XVII should be well tolerated by the pocket mice.

  10. The effects of cosmic radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. Part IV. observations on the brain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C T; Ordy, J M; Haymaker, W

    1975-04-01

    Experiments designed to ascertain the effects of oxgen at 8, 10, and 12 psi partial pressure on the brains of pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were carried out at room temperature (24 degrees C, 75 degrees F) and at 32 degrees C (93 degrees F). The animals exposed to 8-12 psi at 32 degrees C had been in earlier KO2 oxygen tests. Five animals exposed either to 10 or 12 psi (517 mm or 620 mm HG) PO2 at 32 degrees C died during the course of the tests, possibly as a consequence of injury sustained by the earlier PO2 testing. Autopsy was not carried out. In the other 36 exposed animals, no pathological changes were observed in the brain. It is thus highly probable that oxygen pressures at the hyperbaric levels to which the pocket mice would be exposed during the Apollo XVII mission would not result in any lesions in the brain.

  11. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: appendix I. Condition of flight animals on recovery; food intake; observations on hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ordy, J M; Brizzee, K R; Samorajski, T

    1975-04-01

    The rationale for studying certain hypothalamic nuclei and the pituitary and adrenal glands of the pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII was the need to evaluate the effects of the potentially severe stress on these animals in the foreign environment of flight canister, weightlessness, increased G forces, and other unnatural conditions. Decrease in body weight and variability of food intake were significant among the four flight animals that were recovered alive. The mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei did not differ significantly from the values obtained in the control animals. On the other hand, the mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the supraoptic nucleus of the flight mice was significantly greater than in the control groups. Comparisons of the adeno- and neuropypophysis revealed no significant differences among the three groups. Insofar as they were studied, the adrenals were similar in all groups.

  12. Laboratory Measurements of the Relative Oscillator Strengths of the Fe XVII Lines 3C and 3D Using an X-ray Laser and an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Hi-Light Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    X-ray emission from neon-like Fe XVII has been observed in a plethora of celestial sources including stellar atmospheres, galaxy clusters, elliptical galaxies, and supernova remnants. Two of the strongest lines emitted from Fe XVII are the 3d to 2p transitions located at 15.01 and 15.26 angstroms and known as 3C and 3D, respectively. Owing to their strength and presence over a large temperature range, diagnostics involving these lines are of high value. Unfortunately, even though many theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted on 3C and 3D, significant discrepancies among different theories, and between theory and both laboratory and observational measurements have been found. Many different theoretical approaches have been pursued in attempt to resolve the discrepancies, but none has provided a consistent solution (Brown & Beiersdorfer Physical Review Letters, 2012). As a result, the diagnostic utility of these lines has not been fully realized. In order to further probe the nature of these X-ray transitions, we have used the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free electron laser in conjunction with the portable FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to photo-excite these lines and measure their relative oscillator strength, Ro. Our results, Ro = 2.61+/- 0.23 (Bernitt, et al. Nature 2012) differs by over 3σ from the best quantum mechanical calculations. We present an overview of these measurements and their implications, as well as a sampling of other photoabsorption measurements using the FLASH-EBIT at various third and fourth generation light sources. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.o.E. by under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and GSFC.

  13. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  14. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  15. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  16. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  19. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  20. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  1. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  2. Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Pierre; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Belyazid, Salim; Calfapietra, Carlo; de Marco, Alessandra; Fenn, Mark; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; He, Shang; Matyssek, Rainer; Serengil, Yusuf; Wieser, Gerhard; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and peri-urban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O3 modelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O3 are: (xxi) Developing dose-response relationships and

  3. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  6. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  7. THE IRON PROJECT & THE RMAX PROJECT: Highly excited Core resonances in photoionzation of Fe XVII and impact on plasma opacities, oscillator strengths of Fe XIV, and nebular abundance of O II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anil; Nahar, Sultana; Palay, Ethan; Eissner, Werner

    2011-05-01

    The aims of the Iron Project and the Rmax Project are detailed study of radiative and collisional processes of astrophysically abundant atoms and ions, mainly iron and iron-peak elements, over a wide energy range, from infra-red to X-rays. We will illustrate the dominance of high energy photoexciation-of-core (PEC) resonances in photoionization of Fe XVII due to strong coupling effects on dipole transition arrays 2p5 --> 2p4 (3 s , 3 d) in the core and examine PEC and non-PEC resonance strengths for their expanded role to incorporate inner-shell excitations for improved opacities. Comparisons show that the currently available cross sections from the Opacity Project are considerably underestimated. For Fe XIV, we present preliminary results from a large scale computation where 747 fine structure levels with n <= 10, l <= 9, and 0.5 <= J <= 9.5, and 71,407 electric dipole allowed fine structure transitions have been obtained. We will also demonstrate the fine structure effects on the collision strengths and in very low energy photoionzation for in nebular oxygen abundance. Partial Supports: NSF, DOE

  8. [Four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI of the IMSS].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This document presents four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The first stage started at the end of the third decade of the twentieth century and ended in 1961, it corresponded to the conception, planning and construction of what was to be the Centro Médico del Distrito Federal (Centro Médico of the Distrito Federal) belonging to the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Ministry of Health and Assistance). The second stage began when the Center was acquired by the Institute, then was known like Centro Médico Nacional (Centro Médico Nacional ), being put into full operation in 1963, more than twenty-two years later, in 1985, an earthquake virtually ended it, immediately began its reconstruction, finishing the second stage. In 1989 began the third stage, different and new buildings complemented or replaced the structures damaged or destroyed by the earthquake which formed the now Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century). In 2004 the fourth stage opened when the four hospitals of the Center were categorized like Unidades Médicas de Alta Especialidad (High Specialized Medical Units).

  9. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel better ... and getting rid of pollutants can improve the quality of your indoor air. Environmental Protection Agency

  10. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 2014. In 2008, EPA significantly strengthened the air quality standards for lead to provide health protection for ... time? Setting and Reviewing Standards What are lead air quality standards? How are they developed and reviewed? What ...

  11. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. National Air Toxics Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NATA is an ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S. As a screening tool, it helps air agencies prioritize pollutants, emission sources and locations of interest for further study to gain a better understanding of risks.

  13. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  14. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  15. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  16. Air Data - Concentration Map

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  17. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  18. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  19. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  20. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  1. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  2. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  3. Planning and Organizing the Postwar Air Force 1943-1947,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Winfield W. Scott, Jr. Pennsylvania State University Superintendent. USAF Academy Brig. Gen. Harris B. Hull. Dr. David A. Shannon (Chairman) USAF...Lauris Norstad ..................................... 65 Brig. Gen. Glen C. Jamnison . ................................. 70 President Harry S. Truman...Gen. Hugh J. Knerr...................................... 145, President Harry S. Truman Adm. William D Leahy................152 x(vii Page Vice Adm

  4. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  5. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AIR PARITY: RE-DISCOVERING CONTESTED AIR OPERATIONS BY CHRISTOPHER LAZIDIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR ...UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA JUNE 2016 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ii APPROVAL The

  6. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  7. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  8. Draft air deflecting device

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.E.

    1982-05-18

    A draft air deflecting device is mountable proximate to a window contained in a firebox and serves as a conduit which directs draft air across the inner surface of the window prior to its supporting combustion of the fuel in the firebox. In this respect , the draft air deflecting device is formed as a box which communicates with draft air holes located in the firebox and which includes a forwardly extending lip serving to define a nozzle for both increasing the velocity and directing the incoming draft air across the firebox window. The incoming draft air is thus utilized to cool and to prevent soot, creosote and other particulates from accumulating on the window.

  9. Air Power and Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    American air ace.- New York: Putnam , 1958. (UG!3 290 G98) Guild, Richard E. The double attack system: a formalization. Yokota Air Base, Japan, 1968...1962) Sa..dby;•Robert H.M.S. Air bombardment: the story of it- development New York: Harper, 1961. (UGK 207 S25) Saunders, Hilary A.S. .Per ardua; the...1961. Letchworth, Herts: Harleyford Publications, 1961. (UGH 3215 .F5 887) Bruce, John N. British ,aeroplance 1914-1918. London: Putnam ; 1957. (Ref

  10. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  11. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  12. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  13. Clean Air Excellence Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These non-monetary awards honor sustainable efforts toward pollutant emissions reduction from innovators in clean air technology, community action and outreach, policy development, and transportation efficiency.

  14. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  15. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  16. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  17. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  18. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  19. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  20. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  2. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  3. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  4. AIR HEATER EXPERIMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The test program described in this report was designed to determine the feasibility of using a vitiated air heater for the PLUTO facility from the...profiles across the outlet proved relatively flat. The feasibility of using this burner for PLUTO facility air heating was established. (Author)

  5. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  6. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  7. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  8. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  9. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  10. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  11. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  12. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  13. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  14. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  15. Air washer/scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.H.; Gerdes, D.F.; Telchuk, S.E.

    1982-05-04

    An air washer or scrubber, particularly for paint spray booths and especially adapted for removing paint particles from air passing downwardly through the grille floor of a paint spray booth and against a water-washed subfloor, comprises an elongated v-shaped slot in the subfloor extending along the longitudinal centerline of the booth. The inner edges of the walls forming the v-shaped slot are upturned to form ledges so that water flowed over the subfloor and the walls of the slot impinges against the ledges and is thrown upwardly and inwardly to form a curtain of water completely covering the slot. Exhaust means pulls paintladen air from the spray chamber through the water curtain and the slot and into an expansion chamber, the bottom walls of which form a second v-shaped slot contiguous with the first mentioned slot. The water, in which virtually all of the paint particles are entrained, and the air are discharged from the second slot and impinged against a baffle sheet angling downwardly away from the expansion chamber. The end of the sheet is upturned at a small angle to deflect the water and form an umbrella of water through which the air must pass for a final cleaning action. An optional curved deflector plate positioned beneath the umbrella of water aids in separating the water and air so that only clean, dry air is exhausted to atmosphere.

  16. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  17. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  18. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... September 2016, Busan, South Korea. More more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  19. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one ... exposure and protect your health. For your local air quality, visit www.airnow.gov View or print guide ...

  20. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  1. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  2. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  3. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  4. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  5. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  6. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  7. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  8. Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Air Force Research Laboratory 8 June 2009 Mr. Leo Marple Ai F R h L b t r orce esearc a ora ory Leo.Marple@wpafb.af.mil DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Research Laboratory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory ,Wright

  9. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  10. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  11. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  12. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  13. Attenuation of Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced parallel autophagic and apoptotic cell death by gypenoside XVII through the estrogen receptor-dependent activation of Nrf2/ARE pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiangbao; Wang, Min; Sun, Guibo; Ye, Jingxue; Zhou, Yanhui; Dong, Xi; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Shan; Sun, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) has a pivotal function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To investigate Aβ neurotoxicity, we used an in vitro model that involves Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced cell death in the nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} (20 μM) treatment for 24 h caused apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by significant cell viability reduction, LDH release, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment led to autophagic cell death, as evidenced by augmented GFP-LC3 puncta, conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, and increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by intracellular ROS accumulation and increased production of mitochondrial superoxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-OHdG. Phytoestrogens have been proved to be protective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and regarded as relatively safe targets for AD drug development. Gypenoside XVII (GP-17) is a novel phytoestrogen isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum or Panax notoginseng. Pretreatment with GP-17 (10 μM) for 12 h increased estrogen response element reporter activity, activated PI3K/Akt pathways, inhibited GSK-3β, induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, augmented antioxidant responsive element enhancer activity, upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and activity, and provided protective effects against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. In conclusion, GP-17 conferred protection against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity through estrogen receptor-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt pathways, inactivation of GSK-3β and activation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways. This finding might provide novel insights into understanding the mechanism for neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogens or

  14. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  15. Calidad del aire interior

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues including health risks and means by which human exposures can be reduced. Content on this site will be focused on Spanish translated resources for information about indoor air quality.

  16. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  17. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  18. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  19. Temporal solitons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  20. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  1. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  2. Walking On Air

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video features a series of time lapse sequences photographed by the Expedition 30 crew aboard the International Space Station. Set to the song "€œWalking in the Air,"€ by Howard Blake, the v...

  3. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  4. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  5. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  6. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  7. Air Force Junior ROTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, James A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the Junior Air Force Reserve Officers Training Corps (AFROTC) program presently being operated in 275 units across the country. It is basically a three year course in aerospace studies and leadership education. (BR)

  8. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  9. Air Traffic Network Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

  10. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  11. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  12. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  13. Images in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-05-01

    This article discusses two 'magic tricks' in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a 'ghost' in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors.

  14. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  15. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  16. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  17. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  18. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  19. Multipollutant air quality management.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  20. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  1. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  2. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  3. The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Senior Leader Perspective July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 4 The Air Advisor The Face of US Air Force Engagement Maj Gen Timothy M...The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute,Air & Space Power Journal

  4. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  5. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  10. Air diverter for supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1986-10-28

    An engine supercharger is described which consists of a turbine housing, a main turbine wheel of the radial-inflow type located within the turbine housing, a compressor housing having an air entrance passageway, and a compressor wheel of the centrifugal type located within the compressor housing. It also includes a main shaft of annular construction interconnecting the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel whereby the two wheels rotate as a unit, an auxiliary turbine wheel of the axial flow type located downstream from the main turbine wheel, and a fan of the axial flow type located upstream from the compressor wheel. An auxiliary shaft extends within the main shaft between the auxiliary turbine and fan whereby the auxiliary turbine and fan rotate as a unit. An annular air collector chamber means is located immediately downstream from the fan in surrounding relation to the aforementioned entrance passageway for diverting some of the fan air from the compressor wheel. The fan comprises a hub and blades radiating outwardly therefrom. The air collector chamber is defined in part by an annular wall having a free edge located within the fan blade axial profile whereby the annular wall intercepts air discharged from outer tip areas of the fan blades to divert same away from the compressor wheel into the collector chamber.

  11. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints received by Region 7. It contains information about the complaint along with how the complaint was addressed. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 1) for Clean Air & Global Climate Change, which are to achieve healthier outdoor air.

  12. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  13. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  14. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  15. Air Sparging Design Paradigm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-12

    that the air distribution in the aquifer is non-uniform about the air injection, exhibiting tendencies to flow along the axis defined by MP6 , MP12...MW2 MW9 MW7 MW1 MW3 MP9, N9 MP11, N11 MP5, N5 MP7, N7 MP12, N12 MP6 , N6 MP3, N3MP1, N1 - Multi-level sampler and neutron access tube - Air...MP9 and MP12. This hypothesis is supported by the high saturations at MP3, MP6 , MP9 and MP12 in the upper part of the aquifer (3 to 4 m BGS) and low

  16. Fireman's Air Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Together with NASA's Johnson Space Center, A-T-O Inc.'s Scott Aviation has developed light-weight firefighter's air tanks. New backpack system weighs only 20 pounds for 30 minute air supply, 13 pounds less than conventional firefighting tanks. They are pressurized at 4,500 psi, (twice current tanks). Made of aluminum liner wrapped by resin-impregnated glass fibers, eliminating corrosion as well as lightening the load. Redesigned face mask permits better vision. Warning device to tell fireman he is running out of air is personalized so it can't be heard by others reducing confusion in an already hectic environment. Structural Composites Inc., The Boeing Co., and Martin- Marietta Corp. have developed uses for this technology.

  17. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  18. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  19. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  20. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  1. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  2. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  3. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  4. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  5. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  6. Immunotoxicity of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such as alveolar macrophages and mucociliary clearance. Information on viral infectivity is more sparse. Since there is no routine treatment for viral infections which have a relatively high rate of occurrence, this gap in knowledge is of concern. Given the major gaps in knowledge, resaonably accurate assessment of the immunotoxicity of air pollutants is not possible. When the limited data base is reviewed relative to ambient levels of the common pollutants, it appears that acute exposures to O3 and H2SO4 and chronic exposures to NO2 are the major exposures of concern for immunotoxic effects. It is critical to point out, however, that until information is available for chronic exposures to low levels of metals and for exposures to common organic vapors, the immunotoxicity of air pollutants cannot be assessed adequately.

  7. [Forward medical air evacuation].

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Erik; Le Dorze, Patrick Causse; Hersan, Olivier; Pohl, Jean-Baptiste; Angot, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    The medical chain which assures the treatment of casualties from the theatre of operations back to France comprises several links connected by medical air transport. Whether it is tactical or strategic, it forms an integral part of the treatment pathway and offers casualties the best possible conditions for medical treatment with a high degree of safety, speed and traceability.

  8. Ames Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  9. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  10. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  11. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  12. Air Blast Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    library. A Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state is used for each explosive considered, and a Sesame tabular equation of state is used to model the...explosives investigated (TNT, C4, PBXN-109, and NM) and the CTH material library parameters were used for each. Air was modeled using the Sesame tabular

  13. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  14. The air afterglow revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1972-01-01

    The air afterglow, 0 + NO2 chemiluminescence, is discussed in terms of fluorescence, photodissociation, and quantum theoretical calculations of NO2. The experimental results presented include pressure dependence, M-dependence, spectral dependence of P and M, temperature dependence, and infrared measurements. The NO2 energy transfer model is also discussed.

  15. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  16. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  17. Wartime Air Traffic Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    sets overboard mnd reported their accidental loss.5 Fortunately. such aviation pioneers as Lt Col Henry H. ("Hap") Arnold and Capt Harold M. McClelland...operability is t he responsibility of the entire base populace. All "blue- suiters " must be mentally and physically prepared to fight the air base war. Winston

  18. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  19. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  20. Sticking with air

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, S.N.

    2005-06-01

    A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

  1. Images in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  2. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A 85 aboard unpressurized aircraft. These two patients, both of whom suffered from a bowel obstruction , were transported aboard unpressurized...services can safely transport patients with conditions (i.e. bowel obstruction , facial fractures, pneumothorax, intracranial air) which are clearly

  3. PREFACE: Sensors and Their Applications XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilas, V.; McConnell, G.; Kyriacou, P.

    2013-06-01

    This volume records the Proceedings of the seventeenth conference in the biennial Sensors and Their Applications series that took place at Rixos Libertas, Dubrovnik, Croatia from 16-18 September 2013. The conference is organised by the Instrument Science and Technology Group of the Institute of Physics. The conference was the first organised by the Institute of Physics to be held outside of the UK and Ireland, thus continuing the collaborative and adventurous nature of the meeting. The conference proceedings record the continuing health, diversity and activity of the sensors community worldwide, bringing together contributions from academics and industrial researchers to provide excellent networking opportunities. It is interesting to note some continuing themes such as Optical Sensors and Electromagnetic Sensors, as well as trends in Environmental Sensing and Glacial Monitoring that reflect our changing world, and Sensors in Biology and Medicine that have a growing importance with an ageing population. The conference also accounts for research specialisms and unique strengths from the local community in Croatia, including demining and metal detector sensing. We should like to thank all of our colleagues and friends in the sensor community who have supported this event by contributing manuscripts. Our thanks go also to members of the Technical Programme Committee for their support, and in particular for refereeing the submitted manuscripts. We are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Department of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and day-to-day handling of this conference, as well as Claire Garland for help in planning and managing this international event. We hope that the conference authors, participants and a wider audience will find these proceedings to be of interest and to serve as a useful reference text. V Bilas, G McConnell and P Kyriacou Organising Committee Conference Organising Committee V Bilas, conference chair, University of Zagreb, Croatia G McConnell, conference chair, University of Strathclyde, UK P Kyriacou, conference chair, City University London, UK D Stewart, conference co-ordinator, Institute of Physics, UK Technical Programme Committee L Benini, University of Bologna, Italy M Butta, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic M Cifrek, University of Zagreb, Croatia G Collier, Kingston University London, UK J Deur, University of Zagreb, Croatia H Dzapo, University of Zagreb, Croatia M Gasulla, Universitat Politenica de Catalunya, BarcelonaTech, Spain S Hadjiloucas, University of Reading, UK P Kyriacou, City University of London, UK I Lackovic, University of Zagreb, Croatia R Magjarevic, University of Zagreb, Croatia G McConnell, University of Strathclyde, UK A O'Riordan, Tyndall National Institute, UK K Ozanyan, University of Manchester, UK A Peyton, University of Manchester, UK S Reilly, National Physical Laboratory, UK T Sun, City University London, UK A Tickle, Coventry University, UK D Vasic, University of Zagreb, Croatia S Welch, ESPKTN, UK Y Yan, University of Kent, UK H Zangl, Technical University of Graz, Austria

  4. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  5. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  6. Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems.

  7. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  8. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  9. 17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED TEST TRACK." Drawing No. 10-259. One inch to 400 feet plan of original 10,000-foot sled track. No date. No D.O. series number. No headings as above. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Something in the Air: Air Pollution in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the danger of unhealthy air in the school environment, describing common problems and how parents and schools can respond. The article focuses on the dangers of mold, pesticides, diesel exhaust, and radon. The three sidebars describe how to promote indoor air quality at school, note how to determine whether the school's air is making…

  12. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  14. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  15. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  16. State of the Air 2015

    MedlinePlus

    ... USA Information for Citizens and Communities National Ambient Air Quality Standards Protect the Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do Healthy Air News Facebook Twitter Google Plus Instagram © American Lung ...

  17. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  18. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  19. Air Mobile Utility Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER PIPES, AIR TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS , FUEL HOSES, HOSES....PIPES, *PIPING SYSTEMS, INSULATION, FABRICATION, CORROSION INHIBITION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, POLYURETHANE RESINS, PLASTICS

  20. Clean Air Technology Center Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  1. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  2. EPA Activities for Cleaner Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activities in San Joaquin Valley to reduce air pollution, meet federal health standards for ozone and particulates, fund clean tech and health research, and enforce compliance with facility-specific operating permits for industrial air pollution sources.

  3. Metal-air battery assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  5. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  6. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  7. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  8. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  9. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  10. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  11. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  12. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  14. AIR STRUCTURES FOR SCHOOL SPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTSON, NAN

    AIR STRUCTURES ARE FABRIC BUILDINGS BLOWN UP AND HELD UP BY AIR PRESSURE. EXPERIMENTS WITH SUCH STRUCTURES WERE CONDUCTED AS EARLY AS 1917. IN 1948 THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SOUGHT A NEW WAY OF HOUSING LARGE RADAR ANTENNAE PLANNED FOR THE ARCTIC. AS AN OUTCOME OF THEIR SEARCH, BIRDAIR STRUCTURES, INC., WHICH IS NOW ONE OF SEVERAL COMPANIES…

  15. Air Structures for School Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Nan

    Air structures are fabric buildings blown up and held up by air pressure. Experiments with such structures were conducted as early as 1917. In 1948 the United States Air Force sought a new way of housing large radar antennae planned for the arctic. As an outcome of their search, Birdair Structures, Inc., which is now one of several companies…

  16. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  17. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils'…

  18. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  19. Improved high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sampler permits size separations of particles by directing sampled air through cross-sectional area sufficiently large that air velocity is reduced to point where particles or larger size will settle out. Sampler conducts air downward and through slots around periphery of unit into relatively open interior of house.

  20. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  1. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  2. Congress and the Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    know where to go to find out that information. The "Congress and the Air Force" Internet web page serves as a " one - stop shop" where Air Force personnel...Congress. The need for a " one - stop " guide is clear. The literature on this topic is not readily accessible by the Air Force member out in the field who

  3. Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.

    2006-06-22

    Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

  4. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  5. The AIRES Optical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer) is the facility spectrometer for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy). AIRES is a long-slit (approximately 160 in) spectrometer designed to cover the 17 to 210-micron range with good sensitivity using three spectroscopic arrays. Initially, only the 30-130 micron, mid-wavelength array will be available. The instrument has a cryogenic K-mirror to perform field rotation and a slit-viewing camera (lambda < 28 microns, FOV = 160 in diameter) to image source morphology and verify telescope pointing. AIRES employs a large echelle grating to achieve a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 1.0 x 10(exp 6)/lambda (sub mu), where lambda (sub mu) is the wavelength in microns. Hyperfine, Inc. has ruled and tested the AIRES' echelle; its wave-front error is 0.028 waves RMS (root mean square) at 10.6 microns. The instrument is housed in a liquid-helium cryostat which is constrained in diameter (approximately 1 m) and length (approximately 2 m) by the observatory. Hence, the length of the echelle (approximately 1.1 m) and the focal length of its collimator (approximately 5.2 m) severely drive the optical design and packaging. The final design uses diamond-turned aluminum optics and has up to 19 reflections inside the cryostat, depending on the optical path. This design was generated, optimized, and toleranced using Code V. The predicted performance is nearly diffraction-limited at 17 microns; the error budget is dominated by design residuals. Light loss due to slit rotation and slit curvature has been minimized. A thorough diffraction analysis with GLAD (G-Level Analysis Drawer) was used to size the mirrors and baffles; the internal light loss is shown to be a strong function of slit width.

  6. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  7. Air regenerating and conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishayenkov, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various physicochemical methods of regenerating and conditioning air for spacecraft are described with emphasis on conditions which affect efficiency of the system. Life support systems used in closed, hermetically sealed environments are discussed with references to actual application in the Soviet Soyuz and Voskhod manned spacecraft. Temperature and humidity control, removal of carbon dioxide, oxygen regeneration, and removal of bacteria and viruses are among the factors considered.

  8. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  9. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  10. Air transparent soundproof window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  11. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  12. Wind driven air pump

    SciTech Connect

    Beisel, V.A.

    1983-05-31

    An improved pump for lifting water from an underground source utilizes a wind motor for driving an oil-less air compressor eliminating oil contamination of ground water which is forced to the surface. The wind motor is movable to face the wind by means of a novel swivel assembly which also eliminates the formation and freezing of condensate within the airline from the compressor. The propeller blades of the wind motor and the tail section are formed from a pair of opposed convex air foil shaped surfaces which provide the propeller blades and the tail section with fast sensitivity to slight changes in wind direction and speed. A novel well tower for supporting the wind motor and compressor and for lifting the water from the underground source is an optional modification which requires no welding and eliminates the problem of condensate freezing in the airline going to the well. The wind driven air pump disclosed is lightweight, can be easily installed, is relatively inexpensive to produce and is virtually maintenance-free and capable of operating in winds exceeding 100 miles per hour.

  13. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  14. Biological air filter for air-quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ras, Niels; Krooneman, Janneke; Ogink, Nico; Willers, Hans; D'Amico, Arnaldo; di Natale, Corrado; Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Martinez, N.; Dixon, Mike; Llewellyn, David; Eckhard, Fir; Zona, G.; Fachecci, L.; Kraakman, Bart; Demey, Dries; Michel, Noelle; Darlington, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Biological air filtration is a promising technique for air-quality control in closed environments in space and on Earth, and it offers several advantages over existing techniques. However, to apply it in these environments, specific criteria have to be met. A concept for biological air filtration in closed environments was developed and tested by an international team of specialists. Several model systems for closed environments in space and on Earth were used as a source of contaminated air. Conventional and new analytical techniques were used to determine odour composition and removal efficiency of the filter, including an "electronic nose". The results show that the developed biological air filter is suitable for treating contaminated air in closed environments. The developed electronic nose was shown to be a promising method for air-quality monitoring.

  15. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  16. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Ozone, Air Quality, ... can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a ...

  18. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  19. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  20. Ambient Air Definition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  2. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-04-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  3. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  4. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  5. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  6. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  7. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  8. Air channel distribution during air sparging: A field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leeson, A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Headington, G.L.; Vogel, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Air sparging may have the potential to improve upon conventional groundwater treatment technologies. However, judging from studies published to date and theoretical analyses, it is possible that air sparging may have a limited effect on aquifer contamination. The basic mechanisms controlling air sparging are not well understood, and current monitoring practice does not appear adequate to quantitatively evaluate the process. During this study, the effective zone of influence, defined as the areas in which air channels form, was studied as a function of flowrate and depth of injection points. This was accomplished by conducting the air sparging test in an area with shallow standing water. Air sparging points were installed at various depths, and the zone of influence was determined visually.

  9. Air modeling: Air dispersion models; regulatory applications and technological advances

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Liles, R.

    1995-09-01

    Air dispersion models are a useful and practical tool for both industry and regulatory agencies. They serve as tools for engineering, permitting, and regulations development. Their cost effectiveness and ease of implementation compared to ambient monitoring is perhaps their most-appealing trait. Based on the current momentum within the U.S. EPA to develop better models and contain regulatory burdens on industry, it is likely that air dispersion modeling will be a major player in future air regulatory initiatives.

  10. Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 1 Ara Road Edwards AFB CA 93524-7013 AFRL -RZ-ED-VG-2011-269 9...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 11. SPONSOR...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Air Force Research Laboratory Ed d Ai F B CA Col Mike Platt war s r orce

  11. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.

    2013-06-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  12. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  13. Air-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making compressed air energy storage technically economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity with a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, and have the highest cost of the storage system options study. They have the potential for longest time to startup and are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  14. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  15. Air ions and aerosol science

    SciTech Connect

    Tammet, H.

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  17. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  18. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  19. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  20. Optical Measurements of Air Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-05

    generated in air by means of an electron beam is highly efficient. Fast electrons propagating through air result in production of electron- ion pairs...through the mechanism of impact ionization, which requires 33.7 eV per electron- ion pair. The air pressure, concentration of variable species, such as...and polyatomic species. Because our time scales are in the 1 ms to 10 ms range, there is a strong possibility of obtaining real-time absorption

  1. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  2. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  3. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  4. [Air quality and climate change].

    PubMed

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  5. Thin cylindrical sheets of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur; Beilharz, Daniel; Guyon, Axel; Li, Er Qiang; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2014-11-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispheric sheets of air. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, whereby they rupture to form myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air-layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form anti-bubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread from the pinch-off from the nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around these treads and remain stable over extended time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these air cylinders is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer.

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  7. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  8. The particles in town air

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, J. McK.

    1965-01-01

    Particles constitute an important part of air pollution, and their behaviour when suspended in air is very different from that of gas molecules: in particular, the mechanisms by which they become deposited on surfaces are different, and consequently the methods normally used for removing particles from the air, either for sampling or for cleaning it, rely mainly on mechanisms that do not enter into the behaviour of gas molecules. These mechanisms are described, and the ways in which they affect the problems of air pollution and its measurement are discussed. ImagesFIG. 8 PMID:14315713

  9. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  10. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  11. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  12. Sights from the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartara, P.

    2009-04-01

    The first aerial shots were taken by aerostat balloon during the second half of the nineteen century for military purpose and subsequently utilized for civilian, archaeological and town planning uses (Roman Forum 1900, Pompei 1910, Venezia 1913, etc.). Sights from the air have given the most objective representation of the landscape and traces progressively left by human activities. After the First World War the use of airplanes for photogrammetric shots suitable to create cartography (territorial map making) has permitted to realize a good basic documentation; successively it has been increased by aerial reconnaissance during the Second World War. Aerial shots by RAF, USAF and Luftwaffe brought to the establishment of rich aerial photograph Archives, particularly in Europe, which have had a very low utilization for the historical restoration of landscape. From the fifties, aerial documentation becomes systematic for different scale analysis and territorial planning. The use of satellite imagery and multispectral bands integrates the historical and recent aerial photographs; the former is particularly helpful for cartography updating, for large scale environmental analysis, for study and research of territories with not available air photographs or lacking in aerial shots. The amount and density of archaeological buried evidences, unknown at the most, is very substantial in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean area; here air-photo interpretation is being applied at advanced levels, but not systematically, since several decades. Some archaeological research teams, working for the knowledge of territorial cultural heritage, utilize historical and recent aerial photographs intensively (aerial photographs previous the II WW, just before the intensive and extensive use of mechanical means to till the land, preserve a large amount of traces or cropmarks of buried evidences; recent shots taken on different conditions of climate and crops, allow to see and read important

  13. Air Quality | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  14. Air To Air Helicopter Fire Control Equations and Software Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    FORM I. REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCE NO S.SCIP1INTIS CATALOG NUMBER Air To Air Helicop~ter Fire Control 1I t 31Au Equations and Software Generation oN.m...differentiator in order to model the way that they are added in the track loop before the capacitor coupled tachometer feedback. AIRSIM Data Representative output

  15. HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF PLENUM WITH ATTACHED DRAFT REGULATOR. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. Air Pollution Emissions | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  17. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  18. Air-storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making CAES technically and economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity in a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, have the highest cost of the storage system options study and the potential for longest time to startup, are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  19. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  20. Indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gold, D R

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and "tight building" syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.

  1. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  2. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  3. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  4. Clearing the air

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, D.

    1998-05-01

    Like thunderclouds, predictions of doom for the environment and for business interests hover over the international climate treaty completed in Kyoto, Japan, last December. In the agreement, dubbed the Kyoto Protocol, participating countries agreed to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below 1990 levels in an effort to slow down the phenomenon known as global warming. However, real-life effects of the United Nations-sponsored summit remain up in the air. Proposed regulation of greenhouse gas emissions would have profound effects on worldwide economies -- particularly the waste industry. But the Kyoto Protocol does not appear to satisfy any one group`s interests. This article examines all sides of this contentious and ongoing debate.

  5. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6.

  6. Advanced Metallic Air Vehicle Structure Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio 45433. AIR FORCE FLIGHT DYNAMICS LABORATORY AIR FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABORATORIES AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND Best...Available Copy WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433 THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINED C) BLANK PAGES THAT HAVE 0 3 BEEN DELETED 9 NOTICES When Government...December 1975. Other requests for this document must be referred to Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FB-A), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio

  7. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District...

  8. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  9. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Hun, Diana E.; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Childs, Phillip W.

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  10. An air quality sensing system for cool air storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, T. J.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Cooling and ventilation systems play an important role in human occupied spaces. However, cooling using reversible air conditioners systems pollutes the environment and consumes a significant amount of energy. With global warming that experiences our environment, the large consumption of electrical energy and the operating instructions for reversible air conditioners, there is a need to find alternatives to those cooling systems. Hence this research project aims to investigate an air storage system, a microsystem reversible ventilation system using natural atmospheric air (renewable energy) for cooling at low consumption of energy. For the variation of the temperature range of comfort due to thermal heat produces by occupants, equipment and environment, an optimal transient automatic regulation of air flow as to be design in order to maintain the temperature of comfort in occupied spaces during peak hours.

  11. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  12. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  13. A Breath of Fresh Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belew, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  14. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  16. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  17. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  18. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  19. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  20. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  1. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR PATHWAY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This bulletin presents information on estimating toxic air emissions from Superfund sites. The focus is on the collection of air emmissions data during the site inspection and remedial investigation/feasibility study and the use of these data for the selection or implementation o...

  2. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    PubMed

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health.

  3. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  4. Reengineering the Air Travel Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1999 to xx-xx-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reengineering the Air Travel Process Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT...RELEASE , 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Every year, Department of Defense (DOD) travelers make thousands of trips that include air transportation

  5. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  6. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  7. Screening in humid air plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  8. Team 2: AIRS Only Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Manning, Evan; Blaisdell, John; Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Chris; Goldberg, Mitch; Cho, Chuck; Staelin, Dave; Blackwelll, Bill

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation makes the case for the retrieval of data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). AIRS only retrieval is not only a risk reduction for failure of AMSU, but also important because NWP centers are reluctant to assimilate AMSU twice.

  9. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  10. Breathing Easy over Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greim, Clifton; Turner, William

    1991-01-01

    School systems should test the air in every school building for the presence and level of contaminants such as radon and asbestos and whether the ventilation system is circulating the proper amount of air. Periodic maintenance is required for all mechanical systems. (MLF)

  11. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  12. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  13. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  14. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  15. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  16. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  18. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S; Marley, Nancy A

    2003-04-07

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  19. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

  20. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  1. Estrogen turns down "the AIRE".

    PubMed

    Bakhru, Pearl; Su, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Genetic alterations are known drivers of autoimmune disease; however, there is a much higher incidence of autoimmunity in women, implicating sex-specific factors in disease development. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene contributes to the maintenance of central tolerance, and complete loss of AIRE function results in the development of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1. In this issue of the JCI, Dragin and colleagues demonstrate that AIRE expression is downregulated in females as the result of estrogen-mediated alterations at the AIRE promoter. The association between estrogen and reduction of AIRE may at least partially account for the elevated incidence of autoimmune disease in women and has potential implications for sex hormone therapy.

  2. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  3. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  4. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  5. Zero-Net-Charge Air Ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, W. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Instrument monitors air supplied by air ionizer and regulates ionizer to ensure net charge neutral. High-impedance electrometer and nulling control amplifier regulate output of air ionizer. Primarily intended to furnish ionized air having no net charge, instrument adaptable to generating air with positive or negative net charge is so desired. Useful where integrated circuit chips are manufactured, inspected, tested or assembled.

  6. Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ola; Ostberg, Christina; Pagels, Joakim; Sebastian, Aleksandra

    2006-11-01

    The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion.

  7. Air Safety Spinoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  8. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  9. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  10. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announces a public teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring...

  11. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... teleconference of the Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  12. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  13. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  14. Radioxenon spiked air

    DOE PAGES

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; ...

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The Internationalmore » Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.« less

  15. Airing Out Anthrax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  16. Air pollutants and cough.

    PubMed

    Joad, Jesse P; Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Chen, Chao-Yin; Bonham, Ann C

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms and decreases in lung function. This paper reviews recent literature showing that exposure to particulate matter, irritant gases, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mixed pollutants, and molds is associated with an increase in cough and wheeze. Some pollutants, like particulate matter and mixed pollutants, appear to increase cough at least as much as wheeze. Others, like irritant gases, appear to increase wheeze more than cough. For ETS, exposure during childhood is associated with cough and wheeze in adulthood, suggesting that the pollutant permanently alters some important aspect of the lungs, immune system or nervous system. We have shown in animal studies that pollutants change the neural control of airways and cough. Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure lengthened stimulated apnoea, increased the number of stimulated coughs, and augmented the degree of stimulated bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms included enhanced reactivity of the peripheral sensory neurones and second-order neurones in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). NTS effects were due to a substance P mechanism at least in part. Ozone and allergen increased the intrinsic excitability of second-order neurones in the NTS. The animal studies suggest that the cough and wheeze experienced by humans exposed to pollutants may involve plasticity in the nervous system.

  17. Air turbo-ramjet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kepler, C.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a jet engine capable of being used to power an aircraft throughout a range of speeds from subsonic to high supersonic. It comprises means for bounding an internal passage centered on an axis and including, in succession as considered in the direction of axial flow of incoming air into and through the passage, a fixed-area air inlet section, a diverging passage section, a mixing section, a combustion section, and an outlet section; fan means situated in the air inlet section and including a rotor mounted in the bounding means for rotation about the axis and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced rotor blade members; means for selectively rotating the rotor about the axis with attendant impelling action of the rotor blade members on the air flowing therebetween; and means for selectively discharging air from a region of the passage situated between the air inlet section and the diverging passage section to the exterior of the bounding means, both at subsonic and supersonic speeds of the aircraft, when the amount of incoming air passing through the fixed-area inlet section exceeds that required in the combustion section.

  18. Ports Primer: 7.2 Air Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Near-port communities are often disproportionately impacted by air emissions due to port operations, goods movement operations and other industries that may be co-located with ports. Air emissions at ports also impact regional air quality.

  19. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Map Center Forecast AQI Current AQI Current Ozone Current PM ... Ozone Loop PM Loop AQI: Good (0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little ...

  20. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment Summary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1989, President George W. Bush proposed revisions to the Clean Air Act designed to curb acid rain, urban air pollution, and toxic air emissions. The proposal also called for establishing a national permits program.

  1. Air Sensor Toolbox: Resources and Funding

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Air Sensor Toolbox provides information and guidance on new low-cost compact technologies for measuring air quality. It provides information to help citizens more effectively and accurately collect air quality data in their community.

  2. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  3. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  4. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  5. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  6. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  7. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34 Air... detect maximum concentrations of beryllium in the ambient air. (b) All monitoring sites shall be...

  8. The Community College of the Air Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaapke, Lyle D.; Wojciechowske, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The Community College of the Air Force is unique as a postsecondary occupational education institution because it integrates Air Force technical education and civilian-related education into programs which are totally responsive to the Air Force community. (JG)

  9. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for everyone — not just people ... asthma. Studies have shown that high levels of air pollution can be associated with decreased lung function and ...

  10. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  11. Other Priority Air Toxics in New England | Air Toxics | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The air toxics of greatest concern in New England were selected due to risk modeling for only the inhalation route of exposure and these pollutants exceeded the health benchmarks in one or more of the New England states.

  12. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    SciTech Connect

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  13. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    SciTech Connect

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  15. Instrumentation for air quality measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

  16. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  17. Air bags and the skin.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Trincone, Silvana; Zampino, Maria Rosaria; Virgili, Annarosa

    2004-01-01

    Air bags, fitted in the majority of new automobiles, are safety devices activated when a sudden deceleration causes the ignition of a propellant cartridge containing sodium azide. The bag is inflated by nitrogen liberated during the combustion. Deployment releases various high-temperature gases, including nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and produces sodium hydroxide, a highly irritant alkaline substance. In about 7%-8% of cases, air bags cause dermatologic injuries such as traumatic lesions, irritant dermatitis, and chemical and thermal burns. Nondermatologic lesions, such as ocular damage (alkali keratitis, corneal abrasions), ear lesions, bone fractures, and contusive damage can also be caused by air bag deployment.

  18. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  19. Williams Air Force Base Air Quality Monitoring Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    During monitoring operations conducted from five ground stations at Williams Air Force Base (WAFB) near Phoenix, Arizona, air quallity data were collected... chemical spraying, which could explain the higher levels of THC. Pollution roses for CO and THC were constructed using April 17 - June 18 data, and the...mixing depth). They also provided information on the vertical mixing properties of the atmosphere and (as input for model calculations) insight into

  20. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. A rhomboidal area... Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Anchorage, Alaska, or such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40...

  4. Radioxenon spiked air

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; Houghton, Tracy P.; Jenson, Douglas D.; Mann, Nick R.

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  5. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  6. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  7. An Investigative Study of Air Force Acquisition Management Work with the Intent of Identifying Its Nature and Required Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    127 Work Activities. ............................... 128 Conversation Types .......................... 132 Preferred Communication Media...of Communication Media ................ 134 XVI Common Rationale for Informal Meetings .......... 134 XVII Rank-Order of Primary Tool Use...characterized managerial work as busy, fragmented, primarily linguistic, and comprised of numerous daily contacts. Managers often communicated via

  8. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  9. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  10. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  11. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Building materials and furnishings as diverse as: Deteriorated asbestos-containing insulation Newly installed flooring, upholstery or carpet ... more about indoor air pollutants and sources of: Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood ...

  12. The Challenge of Clean Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John M.

    1974-01-01

    The country's first two-year education program in Air Pollution Technology trains students to work for industry or government. Although two to three jobs are available for each graduate, attracting interested students remains a challenge. (AJ)

  13. A Breath of Fresh Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Laurie

    1996-01-01

    A new elementary school in New Hampshire uses innovative European ventilation technology to ensure excellent air quality. Combined with high-efficiency lighting, the system should reduce energy consumption by 10 to 20%, compared with a traditional facility. (MLF)

  14. Air tamponade of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Tadeusz; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Snarska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Pneumopericardium is a rare disease defined as the presence of air or gas in the pericardial sac. Among the etiological factors, the following stand out: chest trauma, barotrauma, air-containing fistulas between the pericardium and the surrounding structures, secondary gas production by microorganisms growing in the pericardial sac, and iatrogenic factors. Until now, spontaneous pneumopericardium has been considered a harmless and temporary state, but a review of clinical cases indicates that the presence of air in the pericardium can lead to cardiac tamponade and life-threatening hemodynamic disturbances. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient with a chronic bronchopericardial fistula, who suffered from a cardiac arrest due to air tamponade of the heart. PMID:27516791

  15. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  16. Air entrainment in hairy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, P.-T.; Alvarado, José; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by diving semiaquatic mammals, we investigate the mechanism of dynamic air entrainment in hairy surfaces submerged in liquid. Hairy surfaces are cast out of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer and plunged into a fluid bath at different velocities. Experimentally, we find that the amount of air entrained is greater than what is expected for smooth surfaces. Theoretically, we show that the hairy surface can be considered as a porous medium and we describe the air entrainment via a competition between the hydrostatic forcing and the viscous resistance in the pores. A phase diagram that includes data from our experiments and biological data from diving semiaquatic mammals is included to place the model system in a biological context and predict the regime for which the animal is protected by a plastron of air.

  17. Clean Air Excellence Award Recipients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recipients are organized by award category within each year: Clean Air Technology, Community Action, Education/Outreach, Regulatory/Policy Innovations, Transportation Efficiency Innovations, Thomas W. Zosel individual, and Gregg Cooke Visionary Program.

  18. Psychological reactions to air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W.; Colome, S.D.; Shearer, D.F.

    1988-02-01

    Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state health advisories by reducing automobile driving or restricting activity during air pollution episodes. Preliminary modeling of citizen compliance with air pollution health advisories suggest that personal beliefs about negative health effects are a important predictor of compliance. Finally, modest but significant relationships are noted between ambient photochemical oxidants and anxiety symptoms. The latter finding controls for age, socioeconomic status, and temperature.

  19. Predictors of alveolar air leaks.

    PubMed

    Loran, David B; Woodside, Kenneth J; Cerfolio, Robert J; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2002-08-01

    Persistent air leaks are caused by the failure of the postoperative lung to achieve a configuration that is physiologically amenable to healing. The raw pulmonary surface caused by the dissection of the fissure often is separated from the pleura, and the air leak fails to close. Additionally, higher air flow thorough an alveolar-pleural fistula seems to keep the fistula open. Other factors that interfere with wound healing, such as steroid use, diabetes, or malnutrition, can result in persistence of the leak. A thoracic surgeon can minimize the incidence of air leak through meticulous surgical technique and can identify patients in whom the balance of risks (Table 1) and benefits warrant operative intervention based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology.

  20. Air Modeling - Observational Meteorological Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Observed meteorological data for use in air quality modeling consist of physical parameters that are measured directly by instrumentation, and include temperature, dew point, wind direction, wind speed, cloud cover, cloud layer(s), ceiling height,

  1. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  2. Indoor Air Quality in Apartments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apartments can have the same indoor air problems as single-family homes because many of the pollution sources, such as the interior building materials, furnishings, and household products, are similar.

  3. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  4. Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-06

    ... Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets   The data files available through this web page and ftp links are preliminary ... geometric corrections. Caution should be used for science analysis. At a later date, more qualified versions will be made public.   ...

  5. Global Air Quality and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  6. Global air quality and climate.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  7. Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Attack Strategies in Trained Birds of Prey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0006 Air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attack strategies in trained birds of prey Prof. Graham K. Taylor...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attack strategies in trained birds of prey 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... birds of prey (peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and Harris’ hawks Parabuteo unicinctus) during air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attacks, from the

  8. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  10. Bifunctional oxygen/air electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörissen, Ludwig

    A selective review on the materials and construction principles used for bifunctional oxygen/air electrodes is given. The discussion emphasizes the catalytically active materials used for the construction of these electrodes, which are a key component in electrically rechargeable air breathing electrochemical systems. Whereas, in acid electrolytes normally noble metal catalysts must be used, there is a possibility to use less expensive transition metal oxides in alkaline electrolytes. Typical transition metal oxides have the perovskite, pyrochlore and spinel structure.

  11. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  12. Tactical Integrated Air Defense System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    and integrated. The discussion in %,hapter II sunmmarlies the effective. ness of their integration experiences. 4 Any evaluation of current air...require- ments. Therefore, to serve as a baseline for evaluating the present IAD capabilities of the United States, Chapter III contains an analysis...of the present Soviet tactical air threat. Given the historical background and operational requirements for IAD, an evaluation of the present United

  13. Air Force Posture Statement 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Ahmedabad, India. In April, a C–17 airlifted 10 cheetahs from Africa to America as part of a gift to the United States from the people of Namibia...the-sky” upgrades to include broadband data and direct broadcast service. As funds become available, remaining VIPSAM aircraft will be evaluated for...sustain air and space capabilities. In FY02, operations and maintenance (O&M) sustainment funding precluded fully maintaining Air Force facilities and

  14. Autonomy of the Air Arm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Lewis, and Maj. Gen. George Simonds. Standing, left to right: Brig. Gen. John Gulik, James Doolittle (at that time a civilian), Edgar Gorrell, Brig...official sanction of the War Department, was submitted by Representative John M. Morin ." 56 CREATION OF THE ARmy AIR CORPS The initial stages of the...reality was a revision of the Morin air bill. 47 A quick summary at this point should clarify the major issues under review. Through the medium of various

  15. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  16. Solar air heaters and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  17. The Italian Air Force rehabilitation programme for air-sickness.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, M; Lugli, V

    2004-08-01

    Motion Sickness, or kinetosis, is a complex clinical syndrome usually classified according to the environmental situation evoking the symptoms. Among the various forms of motion sickness, air sickness has a significant impact on aircrew readiness and is often a cause for the grounding of aircrew. Unfortunately, standards for clinical testing to accurately predict the sensitivity of each individual to air-sickness are currently lacking. Furthermore, pharmacological prevention is contraindicated for aircrews, whose cognitive tasks involve a high level of vigilance. Therefore, a number of Air Forces have developed their own rehabilitation programmes to counteract air-sickness effects on flight personnel. These programmes may differ in several aspects, such as their duration, instruments used, costs and the technical characteristics of the rehabilitation team. However, reports in the specialized literature, refer to high rates of success, despite the above-mentioned differences. In the autumn of 2000, the Italian Air Force (ITAF) also began its own rehabilitation programme for air-sickness desensitisation. The programme was developed at the Aerospace Medicine Department of the ITAF Flight Test Centre, at the Pratica di Mare Air Force Base, Italy. The ITAF rehabilitation course lasts two weeks, and candidates are first classified according to their clinical history and to their reaction to the Coriolis Stress Test. Thereafter, subjects undergo a personalized desensitisation programme, involving increasingly more intense nauseogenic stimuli by means of various devices. At the same time, a psychological approach, based on autogenous training and cognitive-behavioural therapy, is adopted. The present report refers to data from 17 subjects treated from January 2001. The current clinical outcome is extremely encouraging, with a success rate of 88%. Nevertheless, several aspects of motion sickness rehabilitation are still under investigation, and further research programmes

  18. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  19. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  20. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  1. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  2. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  3. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  4. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  5. 49 CFR 230.73 - Air gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air gauges. 230.73 Section 230.73 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.73 Air gauges. (a) Location. Air gauges shall be so located that they may be conveniently read by the engineer from his or her usual position in the cab. No air gauge may be more than...

  6. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is determined by the flag registry of the aircraft. The term “U.S. flag air carrier” means one of a class of...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air receivers. 1910.169 Section 1910.169 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Compressed Gas and Compressed Air Equipment § 1910.169 Air receivers. (a) General requirements—(1) Application. This section applies to compressed air receivers, and...

  8. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is determined by the flag registry of the aircraft. The term “U.S. flag air carrier” means one of a class of...

  9. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for the air-breathing apparatus....

  11. 49 CFR 230.73 - Air gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air gauges. 230.73 Section 230.73 Transportation... Signal Equipment § 230.73 Air gauges. (a) Location. Air gauges shall be so located that they may be conveniently read by the engineer from his or her usual position in the cab. No air gauge may be more than...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  13. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C. 41703... of U.S. registration except those foreign-registered aircraft leased or chartered to a U.S....

  14. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C. 41703... of U.S. registration except those foreign-registered aircraft leased or chartered to a U.S....

  15. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for the air-breathing apparatus....

  16. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  17. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD....133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must be made of steel and of sufficient thickness to...

  18. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  19. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  5. Air toxics issues in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book on air toxic issues is organized under the following headings: initiatives by state and local regulatory agencies; industry's role in meeting air toxics goals of the reauthorized Clean Air Act; implementation of strategies and public health impacts; regulatory, permitting, and enforcement strategies; air toxics control; emission estimation, impact analysis and monitoring.

  6. Air Force Research Laboratory Technology Milestones 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ) is the only science and technology (S&T) organization for the Air Force . Accordingly, AFRL fulfills a mission to...Readership survey is sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Thank you in advance for your...Base Defense AFRL researchers participated in the Robotic Physical Security Experiment, conducted at

  7. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air... and auxiliary power unit air induction system must provide air for proper fuel metering and...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air... and auxiliary power unit air induction system must provide air for proper fuel metering and...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air... and auxiliary power unit air induction system must provide air for proper fuel metering and...

  10. Air brake-dynamometer accurately measures torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Air brake-dynamometer assembly combines the principles of the air turbine and the air pump to apply braking torque. The assembly absorbs and measures power outputs of rotating machinery over a wide range of shaft speeds. It can also be used as an air turbine.

  11. Fuel cell stack with passive air supply

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-01-17

    A fuel cell stack has a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) where each PEFC includes a rectangular membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having a fuel flow field along a first axis and an air flow field along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, where the fuel flow field is long relative to the air flow field. A cathode air flow field in each PEFC has air flow channels for air flow parallel to the second axis and that directly open to atmospheric air for air diffusion within the channels into contact with the MEA.

  12. United States Air Force Summary, Third Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    Air Fields , Missile Sites, Electronics ’Stations or Sites, General Support Annexes, ond Ail’ National Guordlnstallations. AF/PRP0/� 1~ 1968 1969...wells and associated gas from petroleum fields . 6 DatClare for bClrley, corn, oats, tlce, rye, wheat, and mlsce.llaneous groins including pulses. - 7...USAF.Southern Air Di,,!klon .coth AIr Dtvlslon 4W AIr DMslon 12tkAlrDlvlslon t4thAIIDlYtslon A7th AIr Divfslon Ath AIr DIvision 51th Air DMslon lIGen J

  13. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and CVD.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joel D; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L; Adar, Sara D

    2016-09-01

    The MESA Air (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA-and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort-MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling, but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology.

  14. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  15. Environmental control: operating room air quality.

    PubMed

    Bartley, J M

    1993-01-01

    1. OR staff members should familiarize themselves with basic air handling system terminology to better manage their own environment (eg, HVAC, air changes, air balancing, HEPA filtration). A working relationship with building engineers is an important skill for the OR nurse. 2. Knowledge of the standards on which air quality in the OR is based should assist in the process of planning for improved design--as well as in monitoring existing air quality. 3. Current standards balance energy savings with air changes and high levels of filtration to achieve optimum outcomes. Recommendations from design and engineering authorities (even for implant surgery) are based on average air changes and HEPA filtration, not laminar air flow. 4. The daily, operational role of the OR staff in maintaining high air quality includes managing traffic, using low-lint barrier materials, monitoring air quality indicators, and investigating unusual variances with the engineering staff for appropriate follow-up (eg, filter changes).

  16. Air Warfare and Air Base Defense 1914-1973

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Stalin’s Purge of the Thirties (New York, 170-181, 197-214. 1970), pp 484-492; Alexander Boyd, The 48. Denis Richards and Hilary St. George Soviet Air...Polish Air Force, 1918-1968, Reading: Osprey Publishing, 1972. •_ _ Polish Aircraft, 1893-1939, London: Putnam and Co., 1971. Dayan, Moshe. Story of My...Publishing Co., 1973. Insight on the Middle East War. London: The Sunday Times, 1974. Jackson, A. J. Avro Aircraft Since 1908. London: Putnam and Co., 1965

  17. Air-to-air heat exchangers and the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1987-02-01

    Air-to-air heat exchangers were installed in 366 energy-efficient homes as part of a demonstration program in the United States. The median incremental cost of AAHX was $1268 ($7.42/mS), and it was less expensive (per square meter) to install this equipment in larger houses than in smaller houses. While most occupants did not notice problems with their AAHX, some households did experience problems related to noise, unpleasant drafts, condensation around the AAHX, and core freezing. Occupants of energy-efficient homes were found to have less problems with their indoor environment (especially mildew/mold and condensation) than a group of control homes.

  18. Air protection strategy in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  19. The effectiveness of air bags.

    PubMed

    Barry, S; Ginpil, S; O'Neill, T J

    1999-11-01

    Previous research has shown that the installation of air bags in vehicles significantly reduces crash related deaths, but these analyses have used statistical techniques which have not been capable of controlling for other major determinants of crash survival. This study analysed data from the US FARS database of fatal crashes using conditional logistic regression which is simultaneously able to estimate occupant protection effects for a range of variables. Results of the analysis provided a comparative quantification of both the effect of the air bag as well as other well known determinants of occupant crash survival (age, seat belt use, and gender). When potentially confounding variables were controlled, both the driver and passenger side air bag devices were shown to significantly reduce the probability of death in direct frontal collisions, but the effect size calculated was small compared to the effect of the seat belt. The effect size may also be very small in absolute terms depending on the severity of the crash involved. Given the limited benefit of the air bag, efforts to promote air bags seem particularly difficult to justify in countries such as the United States where the vastly superior occupant protection of the seat belt is under-utilised.

  20. AIRS - the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigsten, Bjorn H.; Fetzer, Eric; Fishbein, Evan; Lee, Sung-Yung; Paganao, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched in 2002, along with two companion microwave sounders. This AIRS sounding suite is the most advanced atmospheric sounding system to date, with measurement accuracies far surpassing those of current weather satellites. From its sun synchronous polar orbit, the AIRS system provides more than 90% of the globe every 24 hours. Much of the post-launch period has been devoted to optimizing the 'retrieval' system used to derive atmospheric and other parameters from the observations and to validate those parameters. The geophysical parameters have been produced since the beginning of 2003 - the first data were released to the public in mid-2003, and future improved versions will be released periodically. The ongoing calibration/validation effort has confirmed that the system is very accurate and stable. There are a number of applications for the AIRS products, ranging from numerical weather prediction - where positive impact on forecast accuracy has already been demonstrated, to atmospheric research - where the AIRS water vapor products near the surface and in the mid and upper troposphere as well as in the stratosphere promise to make it possible to characterize and model phenomena that are key for short-term atmospheric processes, from weather patterns to long-term processes, such as interannual variability and climate change.