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Sample records for aires siglos xvii

  1. Fe XVII Emission from Hot, Collisional Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P; Bitter, M; von Goeler, S; Hill, K W

    2004-12-03

    The ratios of the Fe XVII 3s {yields} 2p transitions to that of the dominant 3d {yields} 2p transition measured in high-temperature tokamak plasmas are compared to solar and astrophysical observations. Good agreement is found, indicating that the collisional line formation processes active in opacity-free, low-density, high-temperature laboratory plasmas are a good description of those found in astrophysical plasmas.

  2. Fe XVII Opacity at Solar Interior Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Carlos A.; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2017-02-01

    A recent study of Fe xvii R-matrix calculations aimed at resolving outstanding opacity problems claimed that substantial photon absorption from atomic core ionization processes was not previously considered. It is shown, however, that major opacity models already include cross-sections that are equivalent to the enhancements reported by the R-matrix method. Furthermore, the R-matrix calculations neglected important cross-sections that help to explain why the resultant opacity is lower than other models in the spectral range measured in transmission experiments relevant to the solar interior.

  3. Dielectronic Satellite Lines of Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Laska, Alexander; Lepson, Jaan K.

    2015-08-01

    L-shell dielectronic satellite lines were recently identified in the spectrum of Capella observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory [1,2]. Although the observed features were weak, they can add to the background between the prominent lines, as discussed for the case of Fe XVIII [1]. Moreover, the Fe XVII dielectronic satellite, i.e., Fe XVI lines with a so-called spectator electron n’l (with n'=4), have been observed on the long-wavelength side of the dominant 2p-3d transitions in Fe XVII [2]. They were used to infer a formation electron temperature of log(T) = 6.67 ± 0.026 K. In addition, we have recently carried out a theoretical study of the dielectronic satellites with n’=3 [3] that provided greatly improved theoretical wavelengths. We found that most of these lines are not produced purely by dielectronic recombination. Instead they are also formed by collisional excitation making them less reliable as an electron temperature. We are now augmenting the observations and theoretical studies with laboratory measurements designed to determine the positions and strengths of the n’=3 and n’=4 dielectronic satellite lines in the Fe XVII spectrum [4]. Our measurements of the dielectronic recombination satellite lines are performed on Livermore electron beam ion trap. By sweeping the electron beam energy we have observed resonances with spectator electrons n’ = 3 and 4 as well as n’ ≥ 5. The resulting x-ray spectrum was observed using two crystal spectrometers. All data were accumulated using event-mode tagging of a given x-ray photon with the value of the beam energy. We therefore were able to obtain x-ray spectra associated with each set of resonances.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis contract NNX12AH84G.[1] J. Clementson and P. Beiersdorfer, ApJ, 763, 54 (2013)[2] P. Beiersdorfer et al., in ASP Conf. Series, Vol. 448, ed

  4. Collagen XVII: A Shared Antigen in Neurodermatological Interactions?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Collagen XVII is a nonfibril-forming transmembrane collagen, which functions as both a matrix protein and a cell-surface receptor. It is particularly copious in the skin, where it is known to be a structural component of hemidesmosomes. In addition, collagen XVII has been found to be present in the central nervous system, thus offering an explanation for the statistical association between bullous pemphigoid, in which autoimmunity is directed against dermal collagen XVII, and neurological diseases. In support of the hypothesis that collagen XVII serves as a shared antigen mediating an immune response between skin and brain, research on animal and human tissue, as well as numerous epidemiological and case studies, is presented. PMID:23878581

  5. PREFACE: XVII International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS'' is dedicated to the memory of Mikhail Reshetnev, an outstanding scientist, chief-constructor of space-rocket systems and communication satellites. The current volume represents selected proceedings of the main conference materials which were published by XVII International Scientific Conference ''RESHETNEV READINGS'' held on November 12 - 14, 2013. Plenary sessions, round tables and forums will be attended by famous scientists, developers and designers representing the space technology sector, as well as professionals and experts in the IT industry. A number of outstanding academic figures expressed their interest in an event of such a level including Jaures Alferov, Vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Academician of RAS, Nobel laureate, Dirk Bochar, General Secretary of the European Federation of National Engineering Associates (FEANI), Prof. Yuri Gulyaev, Academician of RAS, Member of the Presidium of RAS, President of the International Union of Scientific and Engineering Associations, Director of the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of RAS, as well as rectors of the largest universities in Russia, chief executives of well-known research enterprises and representatives of big businesses. We would like to thank our main sponsors such as JSC ''Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems'', JSC ''Krasnoyarsk Engineering Plant'', Central Design Bureau ''Geophysics'', Krasnoyarsk Region Authorities. These enterprises and companies are leading ones in the aerospace branch. It is a great pleasure to cooperate and train specialists for them.

  6. PREFACE: Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyutinskii, Oleg

    2009-10-01

    This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta presents highlights from the scientific contributions presented at the European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems (MOLEC XVII) held on 23-29 August 2008 at St Petersburg, Russia. This meeting was the seventeenth in a series of biannual meetings that started in 1976, when the first conference was held in Trento, Italy. Subsequent meetings were held at Brandbjerg Hojskole (Denmark), Oxford (UK), Nijmegen (The Netherlands), Jerusalem (Israel), Aussois (France), Assisi (Italy), Bernkastel-Kues (Germany), Prague (Czech Republic), Salamanca (Spain), Nyborg Strand (Denmark), Bristol (UK), Jerusalem (Israel), Istanbul (Turkey), Nunspeet (The Netherlands) and Trento (Italy). In 2008, the meeting was jointly organized by scientists from the Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg, Herzen State University, St Petersburg, Moscow State University, St Petersburg Polytechnical University, and St Petersburg State University. About 150 scientists from 21 countries visited Pushkin, a beautiful suburb of St Petersburg near the famous palace of Empress Catherine II, and discussed the state of the art and trends in the field, as well as new methods and applications, during 24 plenary lectures, 36 hot topic talks and two evening poster sessions. A special event was the presentation of the MOLEC XVII award to Professor Grabriel Balint-Kurti for his outstanding contributions to the theory of reaction dynamics and molecular photodissociation. Further information is available from the homepage of the meeting: http://www.ioffe.ru/MOLEC17/. This special issue covers different aspects of atomic and molecular interactions, with emphasis on both experimental and theoretical studies of the dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. More specifically, it includes molecular collisions in different environments; plasma, atmospheric, interstellar and combustion

  7. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII. [of Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, J. C.; Smith, B. W.

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed.

  8. Speckle Interfermometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory. XVII

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Printed in the U.S.A. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVII. Brian D. Mason, William I. Hartkopf, and Gary L. Wycoff U.S. Naval...4) Measured twice by Herschel (1829) and Gauchet (1925), the most recent measure is quoted above. No companion seen near either position. Herschel’s...has been measured four times ( Herschel 1829; Burnham 1903; Jonckheere 1910; Doolittle 1923) by reliable observers. It is no doubt real but “lost

  9. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  10. Chromosomes XIV and XVII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitute a single linkage group.

    PubMed Central

    Klapholz, S; Esposito, R E

    1982-01-01

    We present several lines of evidence that chromosomes XIV and XVII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are not independent chromosomes, but rather constitute a single linkage group. Studies which made use of a new mapping method based on the haploidization-without-recombination meiotic phenotype of the spoll mutant initially indicated that markers on chromosomes XIV and XVII were linked. Tetrad analysis was used to establish gene-gene distances, and a new chromosome XIV map incorporating markers originally assigned to chromosome XVII was derived. During the course of trisomic segregation studies, we discovered that a 2n + 2 homothallic diploid, originally believed to be tetrasomic for chromosome XVII (now XIV), carries two normal chromosome XIV homologs and two aberrant homologs which appear to be deficient for a large portion of the right arm of XIV. The previous evidence that established chromosome XVII as an independent linkage group is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:6761582

  11. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Basic science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the sessions in which basic science research was presented at the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008). It also provides an analysis of basic science issues which generated significant discussion and debate at the conference and are likely to have implications for future laboratory and clinical research. Data presented at AIDS 2008 confirmed the speed with which HIV establishes latent viral reservoirs following infection and the resulting challenges to viral eradication given how effectively HIV proviral RNA inserts itself into human DNA within these reservoirs. Studies also raised questions about the source of residual viremia and how these might be targeted by novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:19811669

  12. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for NI XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XVII. We include in the calculations the 23 lowest configurations, corresponding to 159 fine-structure levels: 3l3l', 3l4l0'' , and 3s5l0''' , with l,l' = s,p,d, l'' = s,p,d, f, and l''' = s,p,d. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions at varying energies above the threshold of each transition. One additional energy, very close to the threshold of each transition, has also been included. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code in the distorted wave approximation. Additional calculations have been performed with the University College London suite of codes for comparison. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates of the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 14) / cubic cm and at an electron temperature of logT(sub e)e(K) = 6.5, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XVII. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database

  13. Using Fe XVII to Determine the Electron Temperature of Capella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Gu, M. F.; Lepson, J.; Desai, P.

    2010-03-01

    A determination of the differential emission measure (DEM) is a prerequisite for describing the temperature structure of stellar coronae. It relies on fitting the observed spectral emission with output from spectral modeling calculations and is highly sensitive to the accuracy of underlying calculations of the ionization equilibrium as a function of temperature. Measurements of coronal temperatures that do not invoke assumptions associated with the calculations of ionization equilibria are highly desirable but generally have not been applicable to Chandra grating spectrometer observations. The most reliable way to spectroscopically determine the electron temperature is to measure the strength of dielectronic recombination (DR) satellite lines relative to the associated resonance line, IDR/Ir. We have applied this method to the Fe XVII lines, which are very bright in the Capella spectrum. In particular, we have determined the intensity of the DR lines next to and under lines 3C and 3D. The atomic data (radiative and autoionization rates) needed to do this will be supplied by the publically available Flexible Atomic Code; energy levels are available from astrophysical observations and laboratory measurements. The temperature TDR we have derived from this method will be compared with TDEM for Fe XVII. The comparison provides a much needed test of the accuracy of the charge fraction calculations underlying TDEM. This work was supported by NASA through Chandra Cycle 10 Award AR9-0002X.

  14. L-shell dielectronic satellite transitions of Fe XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bode, M. P.; Ishikawa, Y.; Diaz, F.

    2014-10-01

    We have used the relativistic multi-reference Møller-Plesset perturbation theory to calculate the positions of the dielectronic satellite transitions involving doubly excited 3ℓ3ℓ' configurations that are associated with the X-ray spectrum of Fe XVII. A comparison of these positions with the wavelengths employed in astrophysical modeling codes shows discrepancies of up to 36 mÅ. Inspection of the spectrum of Capella recorded with the high energy transmission grating on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory reveals several features enhanced by Fe XVI lines formed by dielectronic recombination, one of which may be of future diagnostic use as it is fairly well isolated and in large part formed by dielectronic recombination.

  15. CSUNSat-1 CubeSat – ELaNa XVII

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-04

    The primary mission of CSUNSat1 is to space test an innovative low temperature capable energy storage system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, raising its TRL level to 7 from 4 to 5. The success of this energy storage system will enable future missions, especially those in deep space to do more science while requiring less energy, mass and volume. This CubeSat was designed, built, programmed, and tested by a team of over 70 engineering and computer science students at CSUN.  The primary source of funding for CSUNSat1 comes from NASA’s Smallest Technology Partnership program. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative on the NET April 18, 2017 ELaNa XVII mission on the seventh Orbital-ATK Cygnus Commercial Resupply Services (OA-7) to the International Space Station and deployed on tbd.

  16. L-shell Dielectronic Satellite Transitions of Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bode, M. P.; Ishikawa, Y.; Diaz, F.

    2014-10-01

    We have used the relativistic multi-reference Møller-Plesset perturbation theory to calculate the positions of the dielectronic satellite transitions involving doubly excited 3l3l' configurations that are associated with the X-ray spectrum of Fe XVII. A comparison of these positions with the wavelengths employed in astrophysical modeling codes shows discrepancies of up to 36 mÅ. Inspection of the spectrum of Capella recorded with the high energy transmission grating on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory reveals several features enhanced by Fe XVI lines formed by dielectronic recombination, one of which may be of future diagnostic use as it is fairly well isolated and in large part formed by dielectronic recombination.

  17. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for CA XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Landi, E.

    2007-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca XVII. The configurations used are 2s(sup 2), 2s2p, 2p(sup 2), 2l3l', 214l' and 2s5l', with l = s,p and l' = s,p, d giving rise to 92 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at seven incident energies (15, 30, 75, 112.5, 150, 187.5 and 225 Ry) for the transitions within the three lowest configurations corresponding to the 10 lowest energy levels, and five incident energies (75, 112.5, 150, 187.5 and 225 Ry) for transitions between the lowest five levels and the n = 3,4,5 configurations. Calculations have been carried out using the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates of the present work, and R-Matrix results for the 2s2, 2s2p, 2p2 configurations available in the literature, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14)/cu cm at an electron temperature of log Te(K)=6.7, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca XVII. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance L; discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database.

  18. Shedding of Collagen XVII/BP180 in Skin Depends on Both ADAM10 and ADAM9*

    PubMed Central

    Franzke, Claus-Werner; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Blobel, Carl P.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen XVII is a transmembrane collagen and the major autoantigen of the autoimmune skin blistering disease bullous pemphigoid. Collagen XVII is proteolytically released from the membrane, and the pathogenic epitope harbors the cleavage site for its ectodomain shedding, suggesting that proteolysis has an important role in regulating the function of collagen XVII in skin homeostasis. Previous studies identified ADAMs 9, 10, and 17 as candidate collagen XVII sheddases and suggested that ADAM17 is a major sheddase. Here we show that ADAM17 only indirectly affects collagen XVII shedding and that ADAMs 9 and 10 are the most prominent collagen XVII sheddases in primary keratinocytes because (a) collagen XVII shedding was not stimulated by phorbol esters, known activators of ADAM17, (b) constitutive and calcium influx-stimulated shedding was sensitive to the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X and was strongly reduced in Adam10−/− cells, (c) there was a 55% decrease in constitutive collagen XVII ectodomain shedding from Adam9−/− keratinocytes, and (d) H2O2 enhanced ADAM9 expression and stimulated collagen XVII shedding in skin and keratinocytes of wild type mice but not of Adam9−/− mice. We conclude that ADAM9 and ADAM10 can both contribute to collagen XVII shedding in skin with an enhanced relative contribution of ADAM9 in the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results provide critical new insights into the identity and regulation of the major sheddases for collagen XVII in keratinocytes and skin and have implications for the treatment of blistering diseases of the skin. PMID:19574220

  19. Shedding of collagen XVII/BP180 in skin depends on both ADAM10 and ADAM9.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Claus-Werner; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Blobel, Carl P

    2009-08-28

    Collagen XVII is a transmembrane collagen and the major autoantigen of the autoimmune skin blistering disease bullous pemphigoid. Collagen XVII is proteolytically released from the membrane, and the pathogenic epitope harbors the cleavage site for its ectodomain shedding, suggesting that proteolysis has an important role in regulating the function of collagen XVII in skin homeostasis. Previous studies identified ADAMs 9, 10, and 17 as candidate collagen XVII sheddases and suggested that ADAM17 is a major sheddase. Here we show that ADAM17 only indirectly affects collagen XVII shedding and that ADAMs 9 and 10 are the most prominent collagen XVII sheddases in primary keratinocytes because (a) collagen XVII shedding was not stimulated by phorbol esters, known activators of ADAM17, (b) constitutive and calcium influx-stimulated shedding was sensitive to the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X and was strongly reduced in Adam10(-/-) cells, (c) there was a 55% decrease in constitutive collagen XVII ectodomain shedding from Adam9(-/-) keratinocytes, and (d) H(2)O(2) enhanced ADAM9 expression and stimulated collagen XVII shedding in skin and keratinocytes of wild type mice but not of Adam9(-/-) mice. We conclude that ADAM9 and ADAM10 can both contribute to collagen XVII shedding in skin with an enhanced relative contribution of ADAM9 in the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results provide critical new insights into the identity and regulation of the major sheddases for collagen XVII in keratinocytes and skin and have implications for the treatment of blistering diseases of the skin.

  20. Transmembrane Collagen XVII Modulates Integrin Dependent Keratinocyte Migration via PI3K/Rac1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Löffek, Stefanie; Sigloch, Florian Christoph; Schilling, Oliver; Tasanen, Kaisa; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Franzke, Claus-Werner

    2014-01-01

    The hemidesmosomal transmembrane component collagen XVII (ColXVII) plays an important role in the anchorage of the epidermis to the underlying basement membrane. However, this adhesion protein seems to be also involved in the regulation of keratinocyte migration, since its expression in these cells is strongly elevated during reepithelialization of acute wounds and in the invasive front of squamous cell carcinoma, while its absence in ColXVII-deficient keratinocytes leads to altered cell motility. Using a genetic model of murine Col17a1−/− keratinocytes we elucidated ColXVII mediated signaling pathways in cell adhesion and migration. Col17a1−/− keratinocytes exhibited increased spreading on laminin 332 and accelerated, but less directed cell motility. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the integrin subunits β4 and β1. The migratory phenotype, as evidenced by formation of multiple unstable lamellipodia, was associated with enhanced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. Dissection of the signaling pathway uncovered enhanced phosphorylation of the β4 integrin subunit and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as activators of PI3K. This resulted in elevated Rac1 activity as a downstream consequence. These results provide mechanistic evidence that ColXVII coordinates keratinocyte adhesion and directed motility by interfering integrin dependent PI3K activation and by stabilizing lamellipodia at the leading edge of reepithelializing wounds and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24505282

  1. CXBN-2 CubeSat – ELaNa XVII

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    The Cosmic X-Ray Background NanoSat-2 (CXBN-2) CubeSat Mission developed by Morehead State University and its partners the Keldysh Institute (Moscow, Russia), the Maysville Community and Technical College (Morehead, KY) and KYSpace LLC (Lexington, KY) will increase the precision of measurements of the Cosmic X-Ray Background in the 30-50 keV range to a precision of <5%, thereby constraining models that attempt to explain the relative contribution of proposed sources lending insight into the underlying physics of the early universe. The mission addresses a fundamental science question that is central to our understanding of the structure, origin, and evolution of the universe by potentially lending insight into both the high-energy background radiation and into the evolution of primordial galaxies. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative NET April 18, 2017 ELaNa XVII mission on the seventh Orbital-ATK Cygnus Commercial Resupply Services (OA-7) to the International Space Station and deployed on tbd.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the putative heart of Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette.

    PubMed

    Jehaes, E; Pfeiffer, H; Toprak, K; Decorte, R; Brinkmann, B; Cassiman, J J

    2001-03-01

    According to official historiography, the 10-year-old Louis XVII died in the Temple of Paris on June 8, 1795. However, public rumour spread the theory that Louis XVII escaped and that his descendants would be alive today. One such putative 'Louis XVII' was Carl Wilhelm Naundorff, who died in 1845 in Delft (the Netherlands). Comparative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis gave evidence that his remains could not be identified as those of Louis XVII. In the present study, mtDNA analysis was performed on the heart of the young boy who died in the prison of Paris in 1795. In order to obtain the strongest evidence possible, two laboratories independently analysed the heart. The results showed that the consensus mtDNA sequence of the heart was identical to that of the maternal relatives of Louis XVII.

  3. A New Temperature Determination Using the Fe XVII Emission of Capella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Lepson, J.; Desai, P.

    2011-12-01

    Typically, the most reliable way to spectroscopically determine the electron temperature is to measure the strength of dielectronic recombination (DR) satellite lines relative to the associated resonance line, IDR/ Ir, as this ratio varies steeply with temperature and does not require assumptions associated with the calculations of ionization equilibria. We have applied this method to the Fe XVII lines, which are very bright in the spectrum of Capella observed with high resolution with Chandra's High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. In particular, we have determined the intensity of the dielectronic satellite lines next to the Fe XVII 2p-3d resonance line, commonly denoted 3C. The atomic data needed to do this are supplied by the Flexible Atomic Code. The temperature, TDR, we have derived from this method is somewhat lower than TDEM, derived from the differential emission measure for Fe XVII. We show that the precision of this method is very high, and we discuss the its limitations.

  4. Analysis of Government Accountability Office Bid Protests in Air Force Source Selections over the Past Two Decades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    ALCs) include Oklahoma City ALC, Tinker AFB ; Ogden ALC, Hill AFB ; Warner Robins ALC, Robins AFB ; and, before 2001, Sacramento ALC, McClellan AFB ...she had worked with in the past. Megan McKeever was always ready to provide helpful administrative support. xvii Abbreviations AFB Air Force base...are Langley Air Force Base ( AFB ), Air Combat Command; Peterson AFB , Air Force Space Command; Scott AFB , Air Mobility Command; Ramstein Air Base

  5. 25 CFR 36.50 - Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of studies for elementary, junior high/middle, and high schools. (7) Grading requirements. (8) Promotion requirements. (9) High school graduation requirements. (10) Library/media. (11) Textbooks and... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard XVII-School program evaluation and...

  6. [Diseases and causes of death of outstanding creative and scientific figures of XVII-XX centuries].

    PubMed

    Martsinkovs'kyĭ, I B

    2007-01-01

    The article reviewed the literature which analyzes clinical symptoms and causes of some creative and scientific figures of XVII-XX centuries. A conclusion has been made that there are not enough works with professional retrospective investigation of somatic diseases and causes of death of ukrainain outstanding cultural and scientific people in today's national medical literature.

  7. 25 CFR 36.50 - Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs... SITUATIONS Evaluation of Educational Standards § 36.50 Standard XVII—School program evaluation and needs assessment. Each school shall complete a formal, formative evaluation at least once every seven (7) years...

  8. Comment on “Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity”

    SciTech Connect

    Blancard, C.; Colgan, J.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.; Fontes, C. J.; Gilleron, F.; Golovkin, I.; Hansen, S. B.; Iglesias, C. A.; Kilcrease, D. P.; MacFarlane, J. J.; More, R. M.; Pain, J. -C.; Sherrill, M.; Wilson, B. G.

    2016-12-09

    Recent R-matrix calculations claim to provide a significant enhancement in the opacity of Fe XVII due to atomic core excitations and assert that this enhancement is consistent with recent measurements of higher-than-predicted iron opacities. Here this comment shows that the standard opacity models which have already been directly compared with experimental data produce photon absorption cross-sections for Fe XVII that are effectively equivalent to the R-matrix opacities reported in.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genotype XVII Newcastle Disease Virus, Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Domestic Duck in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Joannis, Tony M.; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Odaibo, Georgina N.; Olaleye, David O.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Solomon, Ponman; Abolnik, Celia; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene and complete genome classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, genotype XVII. PMID:26847901

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genotype XVII Newcastle Disease Virus, Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Domestic Duck in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Joannis, Tony M; Volkening, Jeremy D; Odaibo, Georgina N; Olaleye, David O; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Solomon, Ponman; Abolnik, Celia; Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-02-04

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene and complete genome classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, genotype XVII. Copyright © 2016 Shittu et al.

  11. Comment on “Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity”

    DOE PAGES

    Blancard, C.; Colgan, J.; Cosse, Ph.; ...

    2016-12-09

    Recent R-matrix calculations claim to provide a significant enhancement in the opacity of Fe XVII due to atomic core excitations and assert that this enhancement is consistent with recent measurements of higher-than-predicted iron opacities. Here this comment shows that the standard opacity models which have already been directly compared with experimental data produce photon absorption cross-sections for Fe XVII that are effectively equivalent to the R-matrix opacities reported in.

  12. An amino acid at position 512 in β-glucosidase from Clavibacter michiganensis determines the regioselectivity for hydrolyzing gypenoside XVII.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Hong, Seung-Hye; Seo, Min-Ju; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-10-01

    A recombinant β-glucosidase from Clavibacter michiganensis specifically hydrolyzed the outer and inner glucose linked to the C-3 position in protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides and the C-6 position in protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides except for the hydrolysis of gypenoside LXXV (GypLXXV). The enzyme converted gypenoside XVII (GypXVII) to GypLXXV by hydrolyzing the inner glucose linked to the C-3 position. The substrate-binding residues obtained from the GypXVII-docked homology models of β-glucosidase from C. michiganensis were replaced with alanine, and the amino acid residue at position 512 was selected because of the changed regioselectivity of W512A. Site-directed mutagenesis for the amino acid residue at position 512 was performed. W512A and W512K hydrolyzed the inner glucose linked to the C-3 position and the outer glucose linked to the C-20 position of GypXVII to produce GypLXXV and F2. W512R hydrolyzed only the outer glucose linked to the C-20 position of GypXVII to produce F2. However, W512E and W512D exhibited no activity for GypXVII. Thus, the amino acid at position 512 is a critical residue to determine the regioselectivity for the hydrolysis of GypXVII. These wild-type and variant enzymes produced diverse ginsenosides, including GypXVII, GypLXXV, F2, and compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the alteration of regioselectivity on ginsenoside hydrolysis by protein engineering.

  13. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: X. Results of ear examination.

    PubMed

    Haymaker, W; Leon, H A; Barrows, W F; Suri, K; Kraft, L M; Turnbill, C E; Webster, D B; Ashley, W W; Look, B C; Simmonds, R C; Cooper, W; Platt, W T; Behnke, A R; Erway, L C; Cruty, M R; Benton, E V; Ellis, J T; Bailey, O T; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Zeman, W; Billingham, J; Samorajski, T

    1975-04-01

    In the five pocket mice flown on Apollo XVII, no evidence was found that the inner ear had been damaged, though poor fixation precluded detailed study. On the other hand, the middle ear cavity was involved in all the mice, hemorrhage having occurrred in response to excursions in pressure within the canister that housed the mice during their flight. The same occurred in flight control mice which had been subjected to pressure excursions of much the same magnitude. A greater degree of exudation into air cells and greater leukotaxis were noted in the flight animals than in the control animals. There was no increase in leukocyte population along the paths of the 23 cosmic ray particles registered in the subscalp dosimeters that traversed the middle ear cavities of the flight mice. The increased exudation and the greater response by leukocytes in the flight mice may have been causally related to the lesions found in their olfactory mucosa but there were no data in support of this possibility.

  14. Collagen XVII and BPAG1 Expression in the Retina: Evidence for an Anchoring Complex in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Claudepierre, Thomas; Manglapus, Mary K.; Marengi, Nathan; Radner, Stephanie; Champliaud, Marie-France; Tasanen, Kaisa; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Hunter, Dale D.; Brunken, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The ectoderm gives rise not only to the skin but also to the entire CNS. This common embryonic lineage suggests that some molecular isoforms might serve analogous functions in both tissues. Indeed, not only are laminins important components of dermal adhesion mechanisms, but they also regulate some aspects of synaptic development in both the CNS and the PNS. In the skin, laminins are part of a hemidesmosome complex essential for basal keratinocyte adhesion that includes collagen XVII (BP180) and BPAG1 (dystonin/BP230). Here, we show that CNS neurons also express collagen XVII and BPAG1 and that these molecules are expressed in the adult and developing retina. In the retina, isoforms of collagen XVII and BPAG1 are colocalized with laminins at photoreceptor synapses and around photoreceptor outer segments; both molecules are expressed by rods, whereas cones express collagen XVII but not BPAG1. Moreover, biochemical data demonstrate that collagen XVII complexes with retinal laminins. We propose that collagen XVII and BPAG1 isoforms may help to anchor elements of the rod photoreceptor cytomatrix to the extracellular matrix. PMID:15880472

  15. Collagen XVII Shedding Suppresses Re-Epithelialization by Directing Keratinocyte Migration and Dampening mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jacków, Joanna; Löffek, Stefanie; Nyström, Alexander; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Franzke, Claus-Werner

    2016-05-01

    Transmembrane collagen XVII is traditionally viewed as an important hemidesmosomal attachment component that promotes stable dermal-epidermal adhesion in the skin. However, its expression is highly elevated at the leading edges of cutaneous wounds or invasive carcinomas, suggesting alternative functions in cell migration. The collagenous ectodomain of collagen XVII is constitutively shed from the cell surface by a disintegrin and metalloproteinases, and this shedding is strongly induced during wound healing. Recently, we investigated the physiological relevance of collagen XVII shedding by generating knock-in mice, which exclusively express a functional non-sheddable collagen XVII mutant. Prevention of ectodomain shedding in these mice caused no spontaneous phenotype in resting skin, but accelerated re-epithelialization on skin wounding. Here, we investigated the mechanistic function of shedding during wound healing. Using the non-shedding collagen XVII mice as a model, we uncovered ectodomain shedding as a highly dynamic modulator of in vivo proliferation and motility of activated keratinocytes through tight coordination of α6β4 integrin-laminin-332 interactions and dampening of mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling at the wound edges. Thus, our studies identify ectodomain shedding of collagen XVII as an interactive platform that translates shedding into a signal for directed cell growth and motility during skin regeneration.

  16. Energy-dependent excitation cross section measurements of the diagnostic lines of Fe XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Scofield, J H; Boyce, K R; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Kahn, S M; Szymkowiak, A E

    2005-01-24

    By implementing a large-area, gain-stabilized microcalorimeter array on an electron beam ion trap, the electron-impact excitation cross sections for the dominant x-ray lines in the Fe XVII spectrum have been measured as a function of electron energy up to greater than three times the threshold energy, establishing a benchmark for atomic calculations. The results reveal a consistent overestimation by recent calculations of the excitation cross section of the resonance transition, which is shown to be at the root of several long-standing problems associated with modeling solar and astrophysical Fe XVII spectra. The data do not show strong contributions from resonance excitation contrary to recent statements in the literature.

  17. Laboratory Measurements of the X-ray Line Emission from Neon-like Fe XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Scofield, J. H.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line emission from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the absolute excitation cross sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Iron Project. LIII. Fe XVII (Nahar+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, S. N.; Eissner, W.; Chen, G. X.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2009-08-01

    An extensive set of fine structure levels and corresponding transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XVII is presented. A total of 490 bound energy levels of Fe XVII of total angular momenta 0<=J<=7 of even and odd parities with 2<=n<=10, 0<=l<=8, 0<=L<=8, and singlet and triplet multiplicities, are obtained. They translate to over 2.6x104 allowed (E1) transitions that are of dipole and intercombination type, and 2312 forbidden transitions that include electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), electric octopole (E3), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) type representing the most detailed calculations to date for the ion. Oscillator strengths f, line strengths S, and coefficients A of spontaneous emission for the E1 type transitions are obtained in the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix approximation. A-values for the forbidden transitions are obtained from atomic structure calculations using codes SUPERSTRUCTURE and GRASP. The energy levels are identified in spectroscopic notation with the help of a newly developed level identification algorithm. Nearly all 52 spectroscopically observed levels have been identified, their binding energies agreeing within 1% with our calculation. Computed transition probabilities are compared with other calculations and measurement. The effect of 2-body magnetic terms and other interactions is discussed. The present data set enhances by more than an order of magnitude the heretofore available data for transition probabilities of Fe XVII. (11 data files).

  19. PREFACE: XVII Congress of Bioengineering and VI Clinical Engineering Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Darío

    2011-09-01

    SABI 2009 was the XVII Biennial Congress of the Argentinean Bioengineering Society (SABI - www.sabi.org.ar), celebrated along with the VI Clinical Engineering Conference. It took place in Rosario, the second city of Argentina, located on the west bank of the Paraná, one of the world's most important rivers. This city, with its 150 year history and one million inhabitants, is characterized by a strong enterprising spirit. It is the agroindustrial leader of Argentina, with cereal ports recognized to be among the most active in the world, and its cereal stock exchange competes with Chicago's in international cereal pricing. Demographically Rosario presents a European profile, and there are seven national and private higher level universities in the area. SABI 2009 was the first time the Congress was celebrated in Rosario. Usually the Congress is organized by the Bioengineering Society in cooperation with a university with an undergraduate program, which Rosario lacks. To meet the needs of this exceptional case, a young local institution was asked to coordinate the Congress, the Rosario Technological Center (www.polotecnologico.net). This organization gathers together around 100 companies that produce technology, with a large number focused on IT, but those focused on biotechnology also stand out. The Center is also integrated with relevant public and government bodies. Traditionally, bioengineering has been related to human health applications, with less emphasis on applications significant to agrotechnology, an area in which Rosario is growing as an economic force. In order to address this oversight, the Congress formulated its main goals for integrating and synergizing bioengineering and biotechnology, particularly bioengineering and agrotechnology. This initiative has produced promising results. The importance of the Congress was reflected in the high number of participants - including researchers, professionals and students - from abroad, with participants from

  20. Relativistic close-coupling calculations for photoionization and recombination of Ne-like Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2001-09-01

    Relativistic and channel coupling effects in photoionization and unified electronic recombination of Fe XVII are demonstrated with an extensive 60-level close-coupling calculation using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. A multiconfiguration eigenfunction expansion up to the n=3 levels of the core ion Fe XVIII is employed with five spectroscopic configurations 2s22p5,2s2p6,2s22p4 3s,3p,3d, and a number of correlation configurations. The unified e+ion recombination calculations for e+Fe XVIII-->Fe XVII include both the nonresonant and resonant recombination (``radiative'' and ``dielectronic recombination''-RR and DR). Photoionization and e+ion recombination calculations are carried out for the total and the level-specific cross sections, including the ground and several hundred excited bound levels of Fe XVII (up to fine-structure levels with n=10). The low-energy and the high-energy cross sections are compared from (i) a three-level calculation including only the 2s2p5 (2Po1/2,3/2) and 2s2p6 (2S1/2) levels of Fe XVIII, and (ii) the first 60-level calculation with Δn>0 coupled channels. Strong channel coupling effects are demonstrated throughout the energy ranges considered, in particular via giant photoexcitation-of-core (PEC) resonances due to L-M shell dipole transition arrays 2p5-->2p4 3s,3d in Fe XIII that enhance effective cross sections by orders of magnitude. Comparison is made with previous theoretical and experimental works on photoionization and recombination that considered the relatively small low-energy region (i), and the weaker Δn=0 couplings. While the simpler three-level results describe the near-threshold photoionization and recombination, they are inadequate for practical applications that also require the higher-energy cross sections for modeling ionization balance of Fe XVII in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The present 60-level results should provide reasonably complete and accurate datasets for both photoionization and e

  1. Type VII and XVII Collagen mRNA Expressions in Regenerated Epidermal Laminae in Chronic Equine Laminitis.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Arai, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    To confirm ability forming the basement membrane of the regenerated laminar epidermis (rLE) in chronic laminitis, expression of type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs in the rLE was studied applying sequences of two type of murine collagens. On northern blot analysis, complement DNA (cDNA) probes adjusted from the murine type VII and type XVII collagen could hybridize with the equine mRNAs, and each signal was detected as single-bands at approximately 9.5 kb and 5.6 kb, respectively. Contrasting with the expression level of equine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease mRNA, the band of type VII collagen mRNA in laminitis was stronger than normal, but the type XVII collagen mRNA in laminitis was less than normal. By in situ hybridization, positive signals in response to the murine type VII and type XVII collagen mRNA probes could be detected in the equine laminitic rLE region. From these results, it is concluded that the keratinocytes constructing the rLE in chronic stage of laminitis can express type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs and these expression patterns were different from the normal.

  2. Significant Role of Collagen XVII And Integrin β4 in Migration and Invasion of The Less Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Jyri M.; Löffek, Stefanie; Kokkonen, Nina; Salo, Sirpa; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Hurskainen, Tiina; Manninen, Aki; Riihilä, Pilvi; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Salo, Tuula; Mäkinen, Markus J.; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Collagen XVII and integrin α6β4 have well-established roles as epithelial adhesion molecules. Their binding partner laminin 332 as well as integrin α6β4 are largely recognized to promote invasion and metastasis in various cancers, and collagen XVII is essential for the survival of colon and lung cancer stem cells. We have studied the expression of laminin γ2, collagen XVII and integrin β4 in tissue microarray samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precursors, actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. The expression of laminin γ2 was highest in SCC samples, whereas the expression of collagen XVII and integrin β4 varied greatly in SCC and its precursors. Collagen XVII and integrin β4 were also expressed in SCC cell lines. Virus-mediated RNAi knockdown of collagen XVII and integrin β4 reduced the migration of less aggressive SCC-25 cells in horizontal scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, in a 3D organotypic myoma invasion assay the loss of collagen XVII or integrin β4 suppressed equally the migration and invasion of SCC-25 cells whereas there was no effect on the most aggressive HSC-3 cells. Variable expression patterns and results in migration and invasion assays suggest that collagen XVII and integrin β4 contribute to SCC tumorigenesis. PMID:28327550

  3. Significant Role of Collagen XVII And Integrin β4 in Migration and Invasion of The Less Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Jyri M; Löffek, Stefanie; Kokkonen, Nina; Salo, Sirpa; Väyrynen, Juha P; Hurskainen, Tiina; Manninen, Aki; Riihilä, Pilvi; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Salo, Tuula; Mäkinen, Markus J; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2017-03-22

    Collagen XVII and integrin α6β4 have well-established roles as epithelial adhesion molecules. Their binding partner laminin 332 as well as integrin α6β4 are largely recognized to promote invasion and metastasis in various cancers, and collagen XVII is essential for the survival of colon and lung cancer stem cells. We have studied the expression of laminin γ2, collagen XVII and integrin β4 in tissue microarray samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precursors, actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. The expression of laminin γ2 was highest in SCC samples, whereas the expression of collagen XVII and integrin β4 varied greatly in SCC and its precursors. Collagen XVII and integrin β4 were also expressed in SCC cell lines. Virus-mediated RNAi knockdown of collagen XVII and integrin β4 reduced the migration of less aggressive SCC-25 cells in horizontal scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, in a 3D organotypic myoma invasion assay the loss of collagen XVII or integrin β4 suppressed equally the migration and invasion of SCC-25 cells whereas there was no effect on the most aggressive HSC-3 cells. Variable expression patterns and results in migration and invasion assays suggest that collagen XVII and integrin β4 contribute to SCC tumorigenesis.

  4. The NC16A domain of collagen XVII plays a role in triple helix assembly and stability.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Françoise; Fu, Chang-Ling; Olague-Marchan, Monica; Giudice, George J

    2006-12-01

    Collagen XVII/BP180 is a transmembrane constituent of the epidermal anchoring complex. To study the role of its non-collagenous linker domain, NC16A, in protein assembly and stability, we analyzed the following recombinant proteins: the collagen XVII extracellular domain with or without NC16A, and a pair of truncated proteins comprising the COL15-NC15 stretch expressed with or without NC16A. All four proteins were found to exist as stable collagen triple helices; however, the two missing NC16A exhibited melting temperatures significantly lower than their NC16A-containing counterparts. Protein refolding experiments revealed that the rate of triple helix assembly of the collagen model peptide GPP(10) is greatly increased by the addition of an upstream NC16A domain. In summary, the NC16A linker domain of collagen XVII exhibits a positive effect on both the rate of assembly and the stability of the adjoining collagen structure.

  5. Atomic data from the Iron Project. LIII. Relativistic allowed and forbidden transition probabilities for Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Eissner, Werner; Chen, Guo-Xin; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2003-09-01

    An extensive set of fine structure levels and corresponding transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XVII is presented. A total of 490 bound energy levels of Fe XVII of total angular momenta 0 <= J <= 7 of even and odd parities with 2 <= n<= 10, 0 <= l<= 8, 0 <= L<= 8, and singlet and triplet multiplicities, are obtained. They translate to over 2.6x 104 allowed (E1) transitions that are of dipole and intercombination type, and 2312 forbidden transitions that include electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), electric octopole (E3), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) type representing the most detailed calculations to date for the ion. Oscillator strengths f, line strengths S, and coefficients A of spontaneous emission for the E1 type transitions are obtained in the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix approximation. A-values for the forbidden transitions are obtained from atomic structure calculations using codes SUPERSTRUCTURE and GRASP. The energy levels are identified in spectroscopic notation with the help of a newly developed level identification algorithm. Nearly all 52 spectroscopically observed levels have been identified, their binding energies agreeing within 1% with our calculation. Computed transition probabilities are compared with other calculations and measurement. The effect of 2-body magnetic terms and other interactions is discussed. The present data set enhances by more than an order of magnitude the heretofore available data for transition probabilities of Fe XVII. Complete electronic data tables of energies and transition probabilities are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/789

  6. Searching for dielectronic satellite lines associated with 3s → 2p transitions in Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Laska, A.

    2017-03-01

    Using the electron beam ion trap facility at Livermore we have performed controlled laboratory measurements to search for dielectronic satellite transitions associated with the three strong 3s → 2p transitions in the Fe XVII spectrum. These transitions fall into the 16.5 - 17.1 Å wavelength range. Surprisingly, we find that even the two strong, electric dipole allowed 3s → 2p transitions are not associated with any substantial amount of dielectronic satellite lines. Dielectronic satellite lines are only associated with the two strongest 3d → 2p transitions located near 15 Å.

  7. Laboratory Study of the Diagnostic Utility of the 3C/3D Line Ratio in Fe XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Chen, M., II; Reed, K. J.

    2002-01-01

    Fe XVII X-ray emission is present in a multitude of sources, such as the corona of the Sun, Capella, and Procyon. Two of the strongest lines observed in these spectra are the resonance and intercombination lines located at 15.01 and 15.26 A, respectively. As part of the laboratory astrophysics program at the electron beam ion traps EBIT-I & EBIT-II located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have measured this line ratio for the case where the relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII is approx. 1. Our results show that an Fe XVI innershell satellite line coincides with the intercombination line and can significantly reduce the relative intensity, R, of the resonance to intercombination line. The fact that the apparent relative intensity of the resonance and intercombination line in Fe XVII is sensitive to the strength of an Fe XVI innershell satellite, and therefore, tho relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII, makes the line ratio a diagnostic of temperature, and explains the anomalously low ratios observed in the solar and stellar coronae.

  8. Complete genome sequence of a genotype XVII Newcastle disease virus, isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck in Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the f...

  9. Laboratory Study of the Diagnostic Utility of the 3C/3D Line Ratio in Fe XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Chen, M H; Reed, K J; Brown, G V

    2002-06-18

    Fe XVII x-ray emission is present, in a multitude of sources, such as the corona of the Sun, Capella, and Procyon. Two of the strongest lines observed in these spectra are the resonance and intercombination lines located at 15.01 and 15.26 {angstrom}, respectively. As part, of the laboratory astrophysics program at the electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have measured this line ratio for the case where the relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII is {approx} 1. Our results show that an Fe XVI innershell satellite line coincides with the intercombination line and can significantly reduce the relative intensity, R, of the resonance to intercombination line. The fact that the apparent, relative intensity of the resonance and intercombination line in Fe XVII is sensitive to the strength of an Fe XVI innershell satellite, and therefore, the relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII, makes the line ratio a diagnostic of temperature, and explains the anomalously low ratios observed in the solar and stellar coronae.

  10. Resonance Scattering of Fe XVII X-ray and EUV Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Saba, J. L. R.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the years a number of calculations have been carried out to derive intensities of various X-ray and EUV lines in Fe XVII to compare with observed spectra. The predicted intensities have not agreed with solar observations, particularly for the line at 1.5.02 Angstroms; resonance scattering has been suggested as the source for much of the disagreement. The atomic data calculated earlier used seven configurations having n=3 orbitals and the scattering calculations were carried out only for incident energies above the threshold of the highest fine-structure level. These calculations have now been extended to thirteen configurations having n=4 orbitals and the scattering calculations are carried out below as well as above the threshold of the highest fine structure level. These improved calculations of Fe XVII change the intensity ratios compared to those obtained earlier, bringing the optically thin F(15.02)/F(16.78) ratio and several other ratios closer to the observed values. However, some disagreement with the solar observations still persists, even thought the agreement of the presently calculated optically thin F(15.02)/F(15.26) ratio with the experimental results of Brown et al. (1998) and Laming et al. (2000) has improved. Some of the remaining discrepancy is still thought to be the effect of opacity, which is consistent with expected physical conditions for solar sources. EUV intensity ratios are also calculated and compared with observations. Level populations and intensity ratios are calculated, as a function of column density of Fe XVII, in the slab and cylindrical geometries. As found previously, the predicted intensities for the resonance lines at 15.02 and 15.26 Angstroms exhibit initial increases in flux relative to the forbidden line at 17.10 Angstroms and the resonance line at 16.78 Angstroms as optical thickness increases. The same behavior is predicted for the lines at 12.262 and 12.122 Angstroms. Predicted intensities for some of the allowed

  11. Amino acid duplication in the coiled-coil structure of collagen XVII alters its maturation and trimerization causing mild junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Jasmin K; Hofmann, Silke C; Leppert, Juna; Has, Cristina; Franzke, Claus-Werner

    2017-02-01

    The function and stability of collagens depend on the accurate triple helix formation of three distinct polypeptide chains. Disruption of this triple-helical structure can result in connective-tissue disorders. Triple helix formation is thought to depend on three-stranded coiled-coil oligomerization sites within non-collagenous domains. However, only little is known about the physiological relevance of these coiled-coil structures. Transmembrane collagen XVII, also known as 180 kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen provides mechanical stability through the anchorage of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Mutations in the collagen XVII gene, COL17A1, cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), characterized by chronic trauma-induced skin blistering. Here we exploited a novel naturally occurring COL17A1 mutation, leading to an in-frame lysine duplication within the coiled-coil structure of the juxtamembranous NC16A domain of collagen XVII, which resulted in a mild phenotype of JEB due to reduced membrane-anchored collagen XVII molecules. This mutation causes structural changes in the mutant molecule and interferes with its maturation. The destabilized coiled-coil structure of the mutant collagen XVII unmasks a furin cleavage site that results in excessive and non-physiological ectodomain shedding during its maturation. Furthermore, it decreases its triple-helical stability due to defective coiled-coil oligomerization, which makes it highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation. As a consequence of altered maturation and decreased stability of collagen XVII trimers, reduced collagen XVII is incorporated into the cell membrane, resulting in compromised dermal-epidermal adhesion. Taken together, using this genetic model, we provide the first proof that alteration of the coiled-coil structure destabilizes oligomerization and impairs physiological shedding of collagen XVII in vivo. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  12. EL MANEJO DE LA BIODIVERSIDAD EN EL SIGLO XXI

    Treesearch

    ARIEL E. LUGO

    2001-01-01

    ser humano está transformando rápidamente el planeta Tierra (Meyer y Turner, 1994; Vitousek et al., 1997a). Su actividad tiene efectos globales que modifican el ambiente terrícola (Tabla I). Estos cambios, que comenzaron con la revolución industrial del siglo XIX, serán más notables en el siglo XXI en lo que se ha denominado la era Homogeocena donde el efecto...

  13. Public health surveillance during the XVII Central American and Caribbean Games--Puerto Rico, November 1993.

    PubMed

    1996-07-12

    To provide medical services at mass gatherings for scheduled special events (e.g., world fairs, music festivals, and athletic competitions such as the Olympics), organizers must have information to anticipate both routine and uncommon situations. In November 1993, approximately 9500 athletes and staff from 31 countries participated in the XVII Central American and Caribbean Games in San Juan, Puerto Rico. To monitor injury- and illness-related morbidity among participants, the schools of public health and medicine at the University of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee established a public health surveillance system designed specifically for this event. This report summarizes selected results from the system, which underscore the usefulness of this approach in planning prevention, medical, and emergency services for similar events.

  14. Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Sultana N; Pradhan, Anil K

    2016-06-10

    Aimed at solving the outstanding problem of solar opacity, and radiation transport plasma models in general, we report substantial photoabsorption in the high-energy regime due to atomic core photoexcitations not heretofore considered. In extensive R-matrix calculations of unprecedented complexity for an important iron ion Fe xvii (Fe^{16+}), with a wave function expansion of 99 Fe xviii (Fe^{17+}) LS core states from n≤4 complexes (equivalent to 218 fine structure levels), we find (i) up to orders of magnitude enhancement in background photoionization cross sections, in addition to strongly peaked photo-excitation-of-core resonances not considered in current opacity models, and ii) demonstrate convergence with respect to successive core excitations. The resulting increase in the monochromatic continuum, and 35% in the Rosseland mean opacity, are compared with the "higher-than-predicted" iron opacity measured at the Sandia Z-pinch fusion device at solar interior conditions.

  15. Large Enhancement in High-Energy Photoionization of Fe XVII and Missing Continuum Plasma Opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2016-06-01

    Aimed at solving the outstanding problem of solar opacity, and radiation transport plasma models in general, we report substantial photoabsorption in the high-energy regime due to atomic core photoexcitations not heretofore considered. In extensive R -matrix calculations of unprecedented complexity for an important iron ion Fe xvii (Fe16 + ), with a wave function expansion of 99 Fe xviii (Fe17 + ) LS core states from n ≤4 complexes (equivalent to 218 fine structure levels), we find (i) up to orders of magnitude enhancement in background photoionization cross sections, in addition to strongly peaked photo-excitation-of-core resonances not considered in current opacity models, and ii) demonstrate convergence with respect to successive core excitations. The resulting increase in the monochromatic continuum, and 35% in the Rosseland mean opacity, are compared with the "higher-than-predicted" iron opacity measured at the Sandia Z -pinch fusion device at solar interior conditions.

  16. Development of the nowcasting system for the XVII Asiad at Korea Meteorological Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Juwon; Jang, Taekyu; Hwang, Seung On; Park, Yunho; Kim, Yoonjae; Park, Seonjoo; Joo, Sangwon; Noh, Hae Mi

    2014-05-01

    The XVII Asiad, known as the 2014 Asian game, is the largest sporting event in Asia. It will be held in Incheon, South Korea from September 19 to October 4, with 437 events in 36 sports. To support this game, Korea Meteorological Administration developed Incheon Data Assimilation and Prediction System (IDAPS) for nowcasting and very short range forecasts. The domain is centered at Incheon city and covers the central region of the Korean peninsula and adjacent seas. It repeats analysis and forecast processes with 1 hour cycling interval. IDAPS has approximately 1 km horizontal resolution with 324 x 360 grids and 70 vertical layers. Three dimensional variational data assimilation is applied to assimilate AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, rain rate, and radar products. The details of IDAPS and the experiment results will be given during the conference.

  17. Theoretical Confirmation of the Low Experimental 3 C /3 D f -Value Ratio in Fe xvii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Radiative transition probabilities (A values) are computed for the Fe xvii L -shell lines in a Breit-Pauli configuration-interaction method with the autostructure atomic structure code. It is shown that, by carefully taking into account the fine-tuning of the relativistic coupling and 2 p -orbital relaxation, the measured A values of the M 1 and M 2 lines and, for the first time, the low f (3 C )/f (3 D ) oscillator-strength ratio are satisfactorily reproduced by the theory. The present ratio f (3 C )/f (3 D )=2.82 compares well with the measurement of 2.61 ±0.23 by x-ray laser spectroscopy.

  18. Clarifying the Picture of Fe XVII Opacity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, J. L. R.; Strong, K. T.; Schmelz, J. T.

    1997-05-01

    Several recent studies of opacity in the bright resonance line of Fe XVII at 15.01 Angstroms have yielded disparate results. Discrepancies include the magnitude of the inferred resonance scattering effects, the amount of center-to-limb variation, and even the sign of the center-to-limb change. The larger optical depths inferred by Waljeski et al. (1994 ApJ 429, 909) compared to those found by Schmelz, Saba, & Strong (1992 ApJ 398, L115) and by Saba et al. (1997, in prep.) in active region data from the Solar Maximum Mission Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) could be explained by allowing for an estimated 20% relative uncertainty in the calculated emissivities of pairs of Fe XVII lines (A.K. Bhatia, private communication). The lower values of optical depth are supported by a demonstrated lack of measurable opacity in other potentially affected FCS lines (Schmelz et al. 1997 ApJ 477, 509). On the other hand, it is impossible to reconcile the report by Phillips et al. (1997 ApJ 469, L57) of a large decrease in opacity from disk center to the limb, with the more usual behavior found by Schmelz et al. (1997) and Saba et al. (1997), i.e., a slight increase in opacity for regions at or near the limb due to the increased line of sight. A reality check can be made with Yohkoh SXT intensities and with other soft X-ray spectroscopic data sets. We will also discuss the use and abuse of resonance scattering as a coronal plasma diagnostic tool. Resonance scattering is likely to be relevant for SOHO observations, for some bright EUV resonance lines with high elemental abundance, large ionization fraction, and moderate oscillator strength, such as Fe XV at 284 Angstroms. This work was supported by NASA contract NASW-4814 and the Lockheed-Martin Independent Research Program.

  19. Laboratory Study of the Diagnostic Utility of the 3C/3D Line Ratio in Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Chen, M. H.; Reed, K. J.

    2002-11-01

    Fe XVII x-ray emission is present in a multitude of sources observed by XMM- Newton and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, such as, the corona of the Sun, Capella, HR1099, and Eta Pup. Two of the strongest lines observed in these spectra are the resonance and intercombination lines located at 15.01 and 15.26 Å, respectively. After being resolved in the Sun [1], calculations of the relative intensity, R, of these lines have varied by nearly a factor of two. As part of the laboratory astrophysics program at the electron beam ion traps ebit-i & ebit-ii located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have measured this line ratio and found it to be significantly lower than most calculations [2]. However, our ratio is still higher than many of the ratios measured in the corona of the Sun. To address this discrepancy we have measured R as a function of the relative abundance of sodium-like Fe XVI [3]. Our results show that an Fe XVI innershell satellite line coincides with the intercombination line and can significantly reduce the apparent R. We measure R = 1.90 & ± 0.11 when the relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII is ~ 1. This explains the anomalously low ratios observed in the solar and stellar coronae previously believed to be the result of resonant scattering. The fact that the apparent relative intensity of the resonance and intercombination line in Fe XVII is sensitive to the strength of an Fe XVI innershell satellite, and therefore, the relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII, makes the line ratio a diagnostic of temperature. Work by the University of California, LLNL was performed under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA P.O. No. S-03958G and Smithsonian-CXO award No. EL9-1015A.

  20. Dirac R-matrix collision strengths and effective collision strengths for transitions of Ni xvii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, C. E.; Norrington, P. H.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Electron impact excitation collision strengths are required for the analysis and interpretation of stellar observations. Aims: This calculation aims to provide fine structure effective collision strengths for the Ni xvii ion using a method which includes contributions from resonances. Methods: A fully relativistic R-matrix calculation has been performed using the DARC code. In the structure part of our calculation 141 fine-structure levels are employed and 37 of these are used in the scattering calculation. Results: Collision strengths have been determined for 666 fine-structure transitions arising from the 37 lowest j-levels involving configurations 3s2, 3p2, 3d2, 3s3p, 3s3d, 3p3d and 3s4s. The effective collision strengths for these transitions have been calculated for electron temperatures (Te) in the range log 10Te(K) = 4.5 - 8.0. Effective collision strengths are tabulated for transitions between the first ten fine structure levels, arising from the 3s2, 3s3p and 3p2 configurations. The remaining transitions are available at the CDS as well as via the author's website. Tables 2 and 5 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/537/A12

  1. Extracellular cleavage of collagen XVII is essential for correct cutaneous basement membrane formation.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Machiko; Nishie, Wataru; Shirafuji, Yoshinori; Shinkuma, Satoru; Natsuga, Ken; Nakamura, Hideki; Sawamura, Daisuke; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-15

    In skin, basal keratinocytes in the epidermis are tightly attached to the underlying dermis by the basement membrane (BM). The correct expression of hemidesmosomal and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is essential for BM formation, and the null-expression of one molecule may induce blistering diseases associated with immature BM formation in humans. However, little is known about the significance of post-translational processing of hemidesmosomal or ECM proteins in BM formation. Here we show that the C-terminal cleavage of hemidesmosomal transmembrane collagen XVII (COL17) is essential for correct BM formation. The homozygous p.R1303Q mutation in COL17 induces BM duplication and blistering in humans. Although laminin 332, a major ECM protein, interacts with COL17 around p.R1303, the mutation leaves the binding of both molecules unchanged. Instead, the mutation hampers the physiological C-terminal cleavage of COL17 in the ECM. Consequently, non-cleaved COL17 ectodomain remnants induce the aberrant deposition of laminin 332 in the ECM, which is thought to be the major pathogenesis of the BM duplication that results from this mutation. As an example of impaired cleavage of COL17, this study shows that regulated processing of hemidesmosomal proteins is essential for correct BM organization in skin.

  2. Decay Properties of K-Vacancy States in Fe X-Fe XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report extensive calculations of the decay properties of fine-structure K-vacancy levels in Fe X-Fe XVII. A large set of level energies, wavelengths, radiative and Auger rates, and fluorescence yields has been computed using three different standard atomic codes, namely Cowan's HFR, AUTOSTRUCTURE and the Breit-Pauli R-matrix package. This multi-code approach is used to the study the effects of core relaxation, configuration interaction and the Breit interaction, and enables the estimate of statistical accuracy ratings. The Ksigma and KLL Auger widths have been found to be nearly independent of both the outer-electron configuration and electron occupancy keeping a constant ratio of 1.53 +/- 0.06. By comparing with previous theoretical and measured wavelengths, the accuracy of the present set is determined to be within 2 m Angstrom. Also, the good agreement found between the different radiative and Auger data sets that have been computed allow us to propose with confidence an accuracy rating of 20% for the line fluorescence yields greater than 0.01. Emission and absorption spectral features are predicted finding good correlation with measurements in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  3. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  4. Ab initio oscillator strengths and transition probabilities in oxygen-like Cr XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanovich, P.; Karpuskiene, R.

    2008-09-15

    Ab initio energy spectra of the ground configuration 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}, the excited configurations 2s2p{sup 5}, 2p{sup 6}, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3s, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3p, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3d, 2s2p{sup 4}3s, 2s2p{sup 4}3p, and 2s2p{sup 4}3d of oxygen-like chromium Cr XVII have been calculated using the configuration interaction method. The wavelengths, oscillator strengths and the emission transition probabilities from configurations 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 3}3l and 2s2p{sup 4}3l are obtained. The radiative lifetimes of excited levels are also presented.0.

  5. Laboratory Measurements of the Relative Intensity of the 3s-->2p and 3d-->2p Transitions in Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Behar, E.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, H.; Gendreau, K. C.; Gu, M.-F.; Gygax, J.; Kahn, S. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    2002-09-01

    The intensity ratios of the 3s-->2p and 3d-->2p lines in Fe XVII were measured on the Livermore electron beam ion trap employing a complementary set of spectrometers, including a high-resolution crystal spectrometer and the Goddard 32 pixel calorimeter. The resulting laboratory data are in agreement with satellite measurements of the Sun and astrophysical sources in collisional equilibrium such as Capella, Procyon, and NGC 4636. The results disagree with earlier laboratory measurements and assertions that processes not accounted for in laboratory measurements must play a role in the formation of the Fe XVII spectra in solar and astrophysical plasmas.

  6. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: III. Dosimeter design, construction, and implantation.

    PubMed

    Winter, D L; Suri, K; D'Urso, J A; Cota, F L; Ashley, W W; Binnard, R M; Haymaker, W; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R; Zeman, W

    1975-04-01

    To detect the passage of cosmic ray particles through the heads of the pocket mice during the Apollo XVII flight, a "monitor" (dosimeter) composed of plastics was prepared and implanted under the scalp. The monitor was mounted on a platform, the undersurface of which fitted the contour of the skull. Numerous tests were run to assure that the presence of the monitor assembly beneath the scalp would be compatible with the well-being of the mice and that the capacity of the monitor to detect the traversal of cosmic ray particles would be preserved over the several weeks during which it would remain under the scalp.

  7. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: VI. launch, flight, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Look, B C; Tremor, J W; Barrows, W F; Zabower, H R; Winter, D L; Shillinger, G H; Harrison, C A; Philpott, D E; Suri, K; Platt, W T; Ashley, W W; Haymaker, W; Lindberg, R G; Simmonds, R C; Heflin, M; Larey, J R; Behnke, A R; Zeman, W; Samorajski, T; Vogel, F S; Leaffer, D; Beales, P F

    1975-04-01

    The final phase to fly five pocket mice in the Apollo XVII command module was carried out at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Upon completion of the 13-d space flight, the package was removed from the spacecraft and, after having been purged with an oxygen-helium gas mixture, was flown to American Samo. Four of the five mice were recovered alive from the package. Analysis of the mouse that died during the flight revealed several factors that could have contributed to its death, the chief of which was massive hemorrhage in its middle ear cavities.

  8. [The image of Man and his care in the hygiene-dietetic tratises of the XVII and XVIII centuries].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez de Pablo, A

    1993-01-01

    This work presents a study of the traditional hygienc-dietetic treatises of the XVII and XVIII centuries. Two characteristics define these treatises: the following of Aristotelian and Galenic postulates in their theoretical conception and, in the practical section, the preponderance of the care of the soul in relation to that of the body. This work firstly cover their theoretical foundation (the vision of Man derived from their conception of the body, their notion of the soul and the dynamic relationship established between both); and, secondly, the practical application derived from these concepts (the care of Man on both his planes; the corporal and the psychic).

  9. Geothermal Program Review XVII: proceedings. Building on 25 years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XVII in Berkeley, California, on May 18--20, 1999. The theme this year was "Building on 25 Years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry". In 1974, Congress enacted Public Law 93-410 which sanctioned the Geothermal Energy Coordination and Management Project, the Federal Government's initial partnering with the US geothermal industry. The annual program review provides a forum to foster this federal partnership with the US geothermal industry through the presentation of DOE-funded research papers from leaders in the field, speakers who are prominent in the industry, topical panel discussions and workshops, planning sessions, and the opportunity to exchange ideas. Speakers and researchers from both industry and DOE presented an annual update on research in progress, discussed changes in the environment and deregulated energy market, and exchanged ideas to refine the DOE Strategic Plan for research and development of geothermal resources in the new century. A panel discussion on Climate Change and environmental issues and regulations provided insight into the opportunities and challenges that geothermal project developers encounter. This year, a pilot peer review process was integrated with the program review. A team of geothermal industry experts were asked to evaluate the research in progress that was presented. The evaluation was based on the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) criteria and the goals and objectives of the Geothermal Program as set forth in the Strategic Plan. Despite the short timeframe and cursory guidance provided to both the principle investigators and the peer reviewers, the pilot process was successful. Based on post review comments by both presenters and reviewers, the process will be refined for next year's program review.

  10. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Clinical and biomedical prevention science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether to initiate ART at higher CD4+ cell counts than currently recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines received much attention at the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008). If studies presented at the conference ultimately lead to a revision of WHO treatment guidance, the estimated number of people who will need ART globally will increase substantially. Task-shifting is emerging as an important strategy for dealing with the acute shortage of health care workers in many high-burden countries, and several studies presented at AIDS 2008 demonstrated the impressive health system efficiencies garnered by using nurses or other health care providers to deliver HIV care and treatment. Other key presentations and discussion at the conference focused on the optimal time to start TB treatment in HIV-infected patients, the growing risk of resistance in high-burden countries, including its impact on future treatment options, and several large cohort trials testing optimal drug regimens in resource-limited settings. Biomedical prevention research continues to confirm the long-term, protective benefits of circumcision. Several studies involving HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples have produced data suggesting a strong protective effect of ART for HIV-negative partners. Disappointing results from recent vaccine and non-ARV based microbicides trials are nevertheless providing important data to this field, and the expanding number of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials and ARV-based microbicides appear to provide the best hope for a new, efficacious biomedical prevention intervention. PMID:19811670

  11. Pathologic characterization of genotypes XIV and XVII Newcastle disease viruses and efficacy of classical vaccination on specific pathogen-free birds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To characterize the clinico-pathological characteristics of recently-described genotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one representative strain of genotype XIV and two of genotype XVII, all isolated from West Africa, were used to infect four-week-old, specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. The ...

  12. Semiempirical calculation of radiative constants in the spectra of nickel-like ions Kr IX, Sr XI, Y XII, Ru XVII, Pd XIX, and Ag XX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The probabilities of the electric-dipole transitions 3 d 94 p, 3 d 94 f-3 d 10, 3 d 94 s, and 3 d 94 d in the spectra of nickel-like ions Kr IX, Sr XI, Y XII, Ru XVII, Pd XIX, and Ag XX are calculated semiempirically with the use of published energy levels.

  13. PREFACE: XVII International Youth Scientific School on Actual Problems of Magnetic Resonance and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    -linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the full papers prepared from the most interesting reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. The XVII International Youth Scientific School has been supported by a subsidy from the Russian Government (agreement #02.A03.21.0002) in frame of Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University among World's Leading Academic Centers. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors (BRUKER Ltd, Moscow, the Russian Academy of Science, the Dynasty foundation of Dmitrii Zimin, Russia, Russian Foundation for Basic Research and R.M.Minnikhanov, president of Republic of Tatarstan) and all the participants and contributors who made the International School meeting possible and interesting.

  14. Cloning of the human type XVII collagen gene (COL17A1), and detection of novel mutations in generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gatalica, B.; Pulkkinen, L.; Li, K.

    1997-02-01

    Generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa (GABEB) is a nonlethal variant of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). Previous findings have suggested that type XVII collagen is the candidate gene for mutations in this disease. We now have cloned the entire human type XVII collagen gene (COL17A1) and have elucidated its intron-exon organization. The gene comprises 56 distinct exons, which span {approximately}52 kb of the genome, on the long arm of chromosome 10. It encodes a polypeptide, the {alpha}1(XVII) chain, consisting of an intracellular globular domain, a transmembrane segment, and an extracellular domain that contains 15 separate collagenous subdomains, the largest consisting of 242 amino acids. We also have developed a strategy to identify mutations in COL17A1 by use of PCR amplification of genomic DNA, using primers placed on the flanking introns. The PCR products are scanned for sequence variants by heteroduplex analysis using conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis and then are subjected to direct automated sequencing. We have identified several intragenic polymorphisms in COL17A1, as well as mutations, in both alleles, in two Finnish families with GABEB. The probands in both families showed negative immunofluorescence staining with an anti-type XVII collagen antibody. In one family, the proband was homozygous for a 5-bp deletion, 2944del5, which resulted in frameshift and a premature termination codon of translation. The proband in the other family was a compound heterozygote, with one allele containing the 2944del5 mutation and the other containing a nonsense mutation, Q1023X. These results expand the mutation database in different variants of JEB, and they attest to the functional importance of type XVII collagen as a transmembrane component of the hemidesmosomes at the dermal/epidermal junction. 48 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: XI. Results of eye examination.

    PubMed

    Philpott, D E; Corbett, R L; Takahashi, A; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R

    1975-04-01

    Five pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were flown on Apollo XVII, and four survived. All the eyes, except one eye from the dead flight mouse, were examined histologically. In the four surviving mice, a total of five cosmic ray particles which had registered in the subscalp particle detectors had trajectories that intersected the eyes. Four of them (Z equal to 6-9 for three of the particles and Z larger than or equal to 10 for the fourth) most likely went through the head before reaching the particle detector, while the thindown direction of the fifth (Z larger than or equal to 10) was not determinable. The retinas of the flight animals were found free from histological alterations such as might have been expected from encounters with cosmic ray particles.

  16. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: IX Results of examination of the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kraft, L M; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R; Haymaker, W; Leon, A; Billingham, J; Turnbill, C E; Teas, V; Look, B C; Suri, K; Miquel, J; Ashley, W W; Behnke, A R; Samorajski, T; Bailey, O T; Zeman, W

    1975-04-01

    The olfactory epithelium, but not the nasal respiratory epithelium, of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived their flight on Apollo XVII showed both diffuse alterations and numerous disseminated focal lesions. The olfactory mucosa of the mouse that died during flight was also affected, but to a minor degree insofar as could be determined. All this was in contrast to the normal appearance of the olfactory mucosa of the numerous control animals. A number of possible causes were considered: systemic or regional infection; inhaled particulate material (seed dust); by-products from the KO2 bed in aerosol or particulate form; gas contaminants originating in the flight package; volatile substances from the dead mouse; weightlessness; and cosmic ray particle radiation. Where feasible, studies were conducted in an effort to rule in or rule out some of these potentially causative factors. No definitive conclusions were reached as to the cause of the lesions in the flight mice.

  17. Emission-Line Intensity Ratios in Fe XVII Observed with a Microcalorimeter on an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laming, J. M.; Kink, I.; Takacs, E.; Porto, J. V.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Silver, E. H.; Schnopper, H. W.; Bandler, S. R.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Murray, S. S.; Barbera, M.; Bhatia, A. K.; Doschek, G. A.; Madden, N.; Landis, D.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E. E.

    2000-12-01

    We report new observations of emission line intensity ratios of Fe XVII under controlled experimental conditions, using the National Institute of Standards and Technology electron beam ion trap (EBIT) with a microcalorimeter detector. We compare our observations with collisional-radiative models using atomic data computed in distorted wave and R-matrix approximations, which follow the transfer of the polarization of level populations through radiative cascades. Our results for the intensity ratio of the 2p61S0- 2p53d1P1 15.014 Å line to the 2p61S0- 2p53d3D1 15.265 Å line are 2.94+/-0.18 and 2.50+/-0.13 at beam energies of 900 and 1250 eV, respectively. These results are not consistent with collisional-radiative models and support conclusions from earlier EBIT work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the degree of resonance scattering in the solar 15.014 Å line has been overestimated in previous analyses. Further observations assess the intensity ratio of the three lines between the 2p6-2p53s configurations to the three lines between the 2p6-2p53d configurations. Both R-matrix and distorted wave approximations agree with each other and our experimental results much better than most solar and stellar observations, suggesting that other processes not present in our experiment must play a role in forming the Fe XVII spectrum in solar and astrophysical plasmas.

  18. The effects of cosmic Particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. Preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. Part I. physiological studies.

    PubMed

    Leon, H A; Suri, K; McTigue, M; Smith, J; Cooper, W; Miquel, J; Ashley, W W; Behnke, A R; Saunders, J F

    1975-04-01

    Tests were carried out on pocket mice to ascertain their tolerance to elevated oxygen pressures alone and to a combination of hyperoxta and heat in excess of that expected during the flight of the mice on Apollo XVII. the mice withstood oxygen partial pressures up to 12 pst at normal room temperature (24 degrees C, 75 degrees F) over a period of 7 days. A few mice previously exposed to increased PO2 died in the course of exposure to an oxygen pressure of 10 pst or 12 psi (517 mm or 620 mm Hg) for 13 d in ambient heat of 32 degrees C (90 degrees F). Supplemental vitamin E and physiological saline loading given prior to exposure had no apparent protective effect. The overall conclusion was that the pocket mice which were to go on Apollo XVII could readily survive the ambient atmosphere to which they would be exposed.

  19. Relative coronal abundances derived from X-ray observations 3: The effect of cascades on the relative intensity of Fe (XVII) line fluxes, and a revised iron abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Rugge, H. R.; Weiss, K.

    1974-01-01

    Permitted lines in the optically thin coronal X-ray spectrum were analyzed to find the distribution of coronal material, as a function of temperature, without special assumptions concerning coronal conditions. The resonance lines of N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Ar which dominate the quiet coronal spectrum below 25A were observed. Coronal models were constructed and the relative abundances of these elements were determined. The intensity in the lines of the 2p-3d transitions near 15A was used in conjunction with these coronal models, with the assumption of coronal excitation, to determine the Fe XVII abundance. The relative intensities of the 2p-3d Fe XVII lines observed in the corona agreed with theoretical prediction. Using a more complete theoretical model, and higher resolution observations, a revised calculation of iron abundance relative to hydrogen of 0.000026 was made.

  20. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: IV. engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests.

    PubMed

    Look, B C; Tremor, J W; Barrows, W F; Zabower, H R; Suri, K; Park, E G; d'Urso, J A; Leon, H A; Haymaker, W; Linberg, R G; Behnke, A R; Asch, H; Hampton, R W

    1975-04-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that to mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.

  1. Novel feline autoimmune blistering disease resembling bullous pemphigoid in humans: IgG autoantibodies target the NC16A ectodomain of type XVII collagen (BP180/BPAG2).

    PubMed

    Olivry, T; Chan, L S; Xu, L; Chace, P; Dunston, S M; Fahey, M; Marinkovich, M P

    1999-07-01

    In humans and dogs, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease associated with the production of basement membrane autoantibodies that target the 180-kd type XVII collagen (BP180, BPAG2) and/or the 230-kd plakin epidermal isoform BPAG1e (BP230). In two adult cats, an acquired dermatosis and stomatitis was diagnosed as BP subsequent to the fulfillment of the following criteria: 1) presence of cutaneous vesicles, erosions, and ulcers; 2) histologic demonstration of subepidermal vesiculation with inflammatory cells, including eosinophils; 3) in vivo deposition of IgG autoantibodies at the epidermal basement membrane zone; and 4) serum IgG autoantibodies targeting a 180-kd epidermal protein identified as type XVII collagen. In both cats, the antigenic epitopes targeted by IgG autoantibodies were shown to be situated in the NC16A ectodomain of type XVII collagen, a situation similar to that of humans and dogs with BP. Feline BP therefore can be considered a clinical, histopathologic, and immunologic homologue of BP in humans and dogs.

  2. Pathologic characterization of genotypes XIV and XVII Newcastle disease viruses and efficacy of classical vaccination on specific pathogen-free birds.

    PubMed

    Susta, L; Jones, M E B; Cattoli, G; Cardenas-Garcia, S; Miller, P J; Brown, C C; Afonso, C L

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the clinicopathologic features of recently described genotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 1 representative strain of genotype XIV and 2 of genotype XVII, all isolated from West Africa, were used to infect groups of ten 4-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens. The pathobiology of these 3 strains was compared to a South African NDV strain classified within genotype VII. All chickens infected with the 4 viruses died or were euthanized by day 4 postinfection due to the severity of clinical signs. Gross and histologic lesions in all infected chickens included extensive necrosis of lymphoid tissues (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils, gut-associated lymphoid tissue), gastrointestinal necrosis and hemorrhages, and severe hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed systemic viral distribution, and the most intense staining was in the lymphoid organs. Results demonstrate that the 3 West African strains from the previously uncharacterized genotypes XIV and XVII are typical velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains with lesions similar to the South African strain. Under experimental conditions, QV4 and LaSota NDV vaccine strains successfully protected chickens from morbidity and mortality against the genotype VII and one genotype XVII NDV strain, with no significant differences in the amount of virus shed when 2 vaccine schemes were compared.

  3. High genetic diversity of Newcastle disease virus in poultry in West and Central Africa: cocirculation of genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Owoade, Ademola A; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R; Okwen, Mbah P; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; Komoyo, Giscard F; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Le Faou, Alain; Muller, Claude P

    2013-07-01

    Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa for decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce. In this study, 96 complete NDV fusion gene sequences were obtained from poultry sampled in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, and Nigeria between 2006 and 2011. Based on rational criteria recently proposed for the classification of NDV strains into classes, genotypes, and subgenotypes, we revisited the classification of virulent strains, in particular those from West and Central Africa, leading to their grouping into genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII, each with two subgenotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that several (sub)genotypes are found in almost every country. In Cameroon, most strains were related to vaccine strains, but a single genotype XVII strain was also found. Only three highly similar genotype XVII strains were detected in Central African Republic. Subgenotypes XVIIa, XVIIIa, and XVIIIb cocirculated in Côte d'Ivoire, while subgenotypes XIVa, XIVb, XVIIa, XVIIb, and XVIIIb were found in Nigeria. While these genotypes are so far geographically restricted, local and international trade of domestic and exotic birds may lead to their spread beyond West and Central Africa. A high genetic diversity, mutations in important neutralizing epitopes paired with suboptimal vaccination, various levels of clinical responses of poultry and wild birds to virulent strains, strains with new cleavage sites, and other genetic modifications found in these genotypes tend to undermine and complicate NDV management in Africa.

  4. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  5. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: VII. Cosmic ray particle dosimetry and trajectory tracing.

    PubMed

    Cruty, M R; Benton, E V; Turnbill, C E; Philpott, D E

    1975-04-01

    Five pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were flown on Apollo XVII, each with a solid-state (plastic) nuclear track detector implanted beneath its scalp. The subscalp detectors were sensitive to HZE cosmic ray particles with a LET larger than or equal to 0.15 million electron volts per micrometer (MeV/mjm). A critical aspect of the dosimetry of the experiment involved tracing individual particle trajectories through each mouse head from particle tracks registered in the individual subscalp detectors, thereby establishing a one-to-one correspondence between a trajectory location in the tissue and the presence or absence of a lesion. The other major aspect was the identification of each registered particle. An average of 16 particles with Z larger than or equal to 6 and 2.2 particles with Z larger than or equal to 20 were found per detector. The track density, 29 tracks/cm2, when adjusted for detection volume, was in agreement with the photographic emulsion data from an area dosimeter located next to the flight package.

  6. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: appendix III. evaluation of viscera and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J T; Kraft, L M; Lushbaugh, C C; Humason, G L; Hartroft, W S; Porta, E A; Bailey, O T; Greep, R O; Leach, C S; Laird, T; Simmonds, R C; Vogel, F S; Dennis, R L; Brashear, H R; Talmage, R V; Harrison, G A; Corbett, R L; Klein, G; Tilbury, T; Suri, K; Haymaker, W

    1975-04-01

    Histopathological findings in the lungs, livers, bone marrows, small intestines, gonads, kidneys, and other tissues of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived the Apollo XVII flight were evaluated in the light of their immediate environment and as targest of HZE cosmic ray particles. Results of this study failed to disclose changes that could be ascribed to the HZE particle radiation. Decreased numbers of erythropoietic cells in the bone marrow of the flight mice were probably related to the increased oxygen pressure. The small intestine showed no changes. Ovaries and tests appeared normal. Two of the three surviving male flight mice displayed early stages of spermatogenesis, just as ground-based controls did at the same season. Abnormalities were also not found in the thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, or kidneys. The status of the juxtaglomerular apparatus could not be evaluated. The lungs exhibited nonspecific slight rections. A variety of incidental lesions were noted in the livers of both the flight mice and their controls. The heart muscle showed nothing that could be regarded as pathological. Sections of skeletal muscle examined were free from significant change.

  7. The Iron Project & Iron Opacity Project: Updates on Photoionization, Electron-Ion Recombination of Fe XVII and Ca XV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissner, W.; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.; Hala, H.; Zhao, L.; Bailey, J.

    2016-05-01

    We have carried out converged close coupling (CCC) calculations for photoionization of Ne-like Fe XVII and demonstrate orders-of-magnitude enhancements in cross section due to successive core excitations. Convergence criteria are: (i) inclusion of sufficient number of residual ion Fe XVIII core states and (ii) high-resolution of myriad autoionizing resonances. We discuss verification of the conventional oscillator strength sum-rule in limited energy regions for bound-free plasma opacity. We will also report preliminary results from a larger R-matrix calculations of photoionization cross sections and electron-ion recombination rates of Ca XV where Rydberg series of resonances are included for core excitations to 28 states of n=2,3 complexes in contrast to previous 7 states of n=2 complex. The new results show existence of high-peak resonances of n=3 complex and enhanced background in high energy photoionization and a corresponding enhancement in the recombination in the high temperature region. Partial support: NSF, DOE, Ohio Supercomputer Center.

  8. [Profile of health services utilization during the XVII Central American and Caribbean Sport Games: Delegation of Puerto Rico, Ponce 1993].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, G; Frontera, W R; Colón, L R; Amy, E; Micheo, W; Correa, J J; Camuñas, J F

    1994-12-01

    During the XVII Central American and Caribbean Sports Games held in Ponce in 1993 the health services offered to the Puerto Rico Delegation included medical, dental and psychological assistance, physical therapy and services on the playing field. Information about the use of these services was obtained from the encounter sheets. The Puerto Rican delegation of 750 members had 1,800 encounters with the health team; 612 (34.0%) individual consults; 896 (54.8%) physical therapy sessions; 166 (9.2%) encounters in the sports venues; and 36 (20%) group therapies. The most common diagnoses were athletic injuries (304; 58.2%) and diseases of the respiratory system (76; 14.5%). The most frequent athletic injuries were first degree strains (75; 24.7%) and tendinitis (73, 24.0%). This pattern is similar to that observed in other sports games and delegations with mild conditions prevailing. An interdisciplinary work and biopsychosocial approach will be important for the better health and performance of our athletes.

  9. [Witch trials in the Salem as a medical error. Witch hunts in the XVII century and the medical art].

    PubMed

    Werner, Wiktor

    2005-01-01

    That article concerns with the influences of medical practitioners in witch hunts in the Salem (1692). Witch trials in England and English colonies in the XVII century were mainly criminal trials. Witchcraft had been there considered principally as a crime-tool rather then the crime itself. Witches were usually accused of crimes such as the murder and the disease sending. Physicians normally played in that situations the role of court experts. They decided if analyzed disease had normal or abnormal, artificial origin. In the Salem an medical practitioner judged that an illness which touched some children had come from the acts of sorcery. That was the beginning of a long and bloody witch hunt. Death sentences in the Salem trial were also justified with applying medical and physical categories to show the objectivity of a witchcraft. Salem judges were sure that by using "objective" categories they had been able to proof the existence of material relations between the witch and bewitched persons without the possibility of error.

  10. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative rates for Si-like Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El-Maaref, A.; Allam, S.H.; El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2014-01-15

    The energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the terms belonging to the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s{sup 2}3p4s, 3s{sup 2}3p4p and 3s{sup 2}3p4d configurations of silicon-like ions (Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX) have been calculated using the configuration-interaction code CIV3. The calculations have been carried out in the intermediate coupling scheme using the Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian. The present calculations have been compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Most of our calculations of energy levels and oscillator strengths (in length form) show good agreement with both experimental and theoretical data. Lifetimes of the excited levels have also been calculated. -- Highlights: •We have calculated the fine-structure energy levels of Si-like Zn, Ga, Ge and As. •The calculations are performed using the configuration interaction method (CIV3). •We have calculated the oscillator strengths, line strengths and transition rates. •The wavelengths of the transitions are listed in this article. •We also have made comparisons between our data and other calculations.

  11. A brief review of the intensity of lines 3C and 3D in neon-like Fe XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V

    2007-06-13

    X-ray emission from neon-like Fe XVII has been measured with high-resolution spectrometers from laboratory or celestial sources for nearly seven decades. Two of the strongest lines regularly identified in these spectra are the {sup 1}P{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} resonance, and {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} intercombination line, known as 3C and 3D, respectively. This paper gives a brief overview of measurements of the intensities of the lines 3C and 3D from laboratory and celestial sources, and their comparison to model calculations, with an emphasis on measurements completed using an electron beam ion trap. It includes a discussion of the measured absolute cross sections compared to results from modern atomic theory calculations, as well as the diagnostic utility of the relative intensity, R = I{sub 3C}/I{sub 3D}, as it applies to the interpretation of spectra measured from the Sun and extra-Solar sources.

  12. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry in West and Central Africa: Cocirculation of Genotype XIV and Newly Defined Genotypes XVII and XVIII

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Chantal J.; Owoade, Ademola A.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R.; Okwen, Mbah P.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; Komoyo, Giscard F.; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Le Faou, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa for decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce. In this study, 96 complete NDV fusion gene sequences were obtained from poultry sampled in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, and Nigeria between 2006 and 2011. Based on rational criteria recently proposed for the classification of NDV strains into classes, genotypes, and subgenotypes, we revisited the classification of virulent strains, in particular those from West and Central Africa, leading to their grouping into genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII, each with two subgenotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that several (sub)genotypes are found in almost every country. In Cameroon, most strains were related to vaccine strains, but a single genotype XVII strain was also found. Only three highly similar genotype XVII strains were detected in Central African Republic. Subgenotypes XVIIa, XVIIIa, and XVIIIb cocirculated in Côte d'Ivoire, while subgenotypes XIVa, XIVb, XVIIa, XVIIb, and XVIIIb were found in Nigeria. While these genotypes are so far geographically restricted, local and international trade of domestic and exotic birds may lead to their spread beyond West and Central Africa. A high genetic diversity, mutations in important neutralizing epitopes paired with suboptimal vaccination, various levels of clinical responses of poultry and wild birds to virulent strains, strains with new cleavage sites, and other genetic modifications found in these genotypes tend to undermine and complicate NDV management in Africa. PMID:23658271

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: XII. Results of examination of the calvarium, brain, and meninges.

    PubMed

    Haymaker, W; Zeman, W; Turnbill, C E; Clayton, R K; Bailey, O T; Samorajski, T; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Cruty, M R; Benton, E V; Kraft, L M

    1975-04-01

    Tissue reactions were found around the monitor (dosimeter) assemblies that had been implanted beneath the scalp of the five pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII. Mitosis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation was considerably reduced in comparison with that in control animals. Otherwise the brain tissue as well as the menings in the flight animals appeared unaltered. Since the animals were exposed primarily to high Z-high energy (HZE) cosmic ray particles at the lower end of the high LET spectrum, the lack of changes in the brain cannot be taken as evidence that the brain will suffer no damage from the heavier HZE particles on prolonged manned missions.

  15. A Laboratory Study of the Diagnostic Capability of the 3C/3D Intensity Ratio in Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Boyce, K. R.; Chen, H.; Chen, M.; Gendreau, K. C.; Gygax, J.; Kahn, S. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Liedahl, D. A.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Widmann, K.

    2000-10-01

    Owing to the high-resolution spectra provided by Chandra and XMM, it is now possible to use line-based diagnotics on non-terrestrial sources. Two of the stongest, most distinct lines observed in the spectra of stellar coronae by these missions, and by missions observing the solar corona, are the resonance and intercombination lines in Fe XVII located at 15.01 and 15.26 Å, respectively. Recent theoretical values are significantly higher than those observed. In the case of the Sun, this discrepancy has been attributed to the resonant scattering of the 15.01 Åspace line. The amount of scattering has been used to infer optical depth and column density. A large variation among theoretical values, however, has made the reliable use of this diagnostic impossible. To provide an accurate description of this line ratio in the optically thin limit we have measured it in the laboratory using the LLNL EBIT as a source and a spare Astro-E/XRS microcalorimeter system, and flat-c! rystal spectrometers for higher-resolution measurements. Our study includes conditions where different line formation mechanisms contribute to each line. Our ratios agree with those of Capella and of flaring active regions of the Sun demonstrating that there is little or no opacity effect in these sources. The ratio may become lower, however, if there is a substantial fraction of Fe XVI in the plasma. This is due to blending with Na-like innershell satellites. Thus, our work indicates that the ratio of the intensities of the 15.01 and 15.26 Åspace lines is more a diagnostic of electron temperature than of opacity. Work by the UC-LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract W-7405-ENG-48 and supported by NASA Space Astrophysics Research and Analysis grants to LLNL, GSFC, and Columbia University.

  16. Infrared technology XVII; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 22-26, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andresen, Bjorn F. (Editor); Scholl, Marija (Editor); Spiro, Irving J. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in IR technologies and their application to all types of IR systems are reported focusing on the JPL Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), JPL instruments and systems for observation of earth and the atmosphere, staring arrays and thermal imaging, ten-year updates of IR techniques, infrared in the USSR, simulation and testing, focal-plane and optical technologies, and military and scientific applications. Particular attention is given to SIRTF stray light analysis, SIRTF focal-plane technologies, long-wave IR detectors based on III-V materials, IR lidars for atmospheric remote sensing, a firefly system concept, a high-fill-factor monolithic IR image sensor, atmospheric laser-transmission tables simply generated, ORION semiconductor optical detectors, postprocessing of thermograms in IR nondestructive testing, evaluation of the IR signature of dynamic air targets, the current status of InGaAs detector arrays for 1-3 microns, a dual-band optical system for IR multicolor signal processing, and blackbody radiators for field calibration.

  17. NON-EQUILIBRIUM MODELING OF THE FE XVII 3C/3D LINE RATIO IN AN INTENSE X-RAY FREE-ELECTRON LASER EXCITED PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  18. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  19. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: I. Project BIOCORE (M212), a biological cosmic ray experiment: procedures, summary, and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Haymaker, W; Look, B C; Winter, D L; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R

    1975-04-01

    The primary objective of the experiment was to determine whether a specific portion of the high Z-high energy (HZE)* galactic cosmic ray particle spectrum, especially particles with Z greater than or equal to 6, can produce microscopically visible injury of brain and eye tissues. Pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris), obtained from the California desert, were selected as the biological target. Five of these mice were flown on Apollo XVII. Not only the brain and eyes but also many other tissues of these animals were studied for evidence of cosmic ray particle damage. The lack of prior experimental evidence as to the character of the potential injury induced by HZE particles required reliance on the physical characteristics of particle radiation in ascertaining the probable nature of the injruy. These characteristics and the key aspects of the experiment are summarized in this paper. Subsequent articles in this special supplement give details of the biological, engineering, and dosimetric aspects of BIOCORE together with the results.

  20. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: II. Characteristics and tolerances of the pocket mouse and incidence of disease.

    PubMed

    Linberg, R G; Kraft, L M; Simmonds, R C; Bailey, O T; Dunlap, W A; Haymaker, W

    1975-04-01

    Pocket mice are facultative homoiotherms with the ability to drop their metabolic rate dramatically while at rest or in response to environmental stresses. Under these conditions, they characteristically enter a state of prolonged torpor. These animals require no drinking water and they can live in darkness for many months without apparent ill effect. They tolerate a wide range of ambient temperature, ralative humidity, and oxygen pressure and have survied without food for a mean of 14 d at an ambient temperature of 20 degrees C (68 degrees F). Studies carried out on the pocket mouse colony used for the Apollo XVII flight revealed, in the animals tested, no serological evidence of viral disease, no pathogenic enterobacteria or respiratory Mycoplasma on culture, a 25% incidence of sarcosporidiosis, and a 2% incidence of chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The conclusion reached is that the pocket mouse is a highly adaptive animal and very well suited for space flight.

  1. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  2. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. preflight studies on tolerancee to oxygen and heat. Part III. effects on eyes.

    PubMed

    Philpott, D E; Corbett, R L; Black, S; Takahashi, A; Leaffer, D

    1975-04-01

    A study was made of the eyes of eight pocket mice exposed to oxygen at partial pressures of 8, 10, or 12 psi over a period of 7 d. At the termination of the exposure, the animals were decompressed to sea-level O2 either immediately or over a period of 30, 60, or 90 min. No pathological changes were found in any of the eyes, except in the retina of one of the animals exposed to 12 psi O2. Here, only a single rod photoreceptor was found damaged, an observation not regarded as significant. Hence, an oxygen partial pressure as high as 12 psi in the camister in which pocket mice were expected to fly on Apollo XVII would probably have no deleterious effect on the eyes of the animals.

  3. APOLLO XVII - INFLIGHT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-14

    S72-55420 (13 Dec. 1972) --- Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (on left) and Harrison H. Schmitt pay their respects and send their best wishes to the members of the International Youth Science Tour, who were visiting the Manned Spacecraft Center, in brief ceremonies near the close of the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color RCA TV camera mounted on the lunar roving vehicle. Noting that they had collected a very significant rock composed of many fragments, Schmitt said, "A portion of a rock will be sent to a representative agency or museum in each of the countries represented by the young people in Houston today..." The more than 70 foreign students were in the U.S. visiting space research and science centers. In his closing remarks to the students Cernan remarked, "We salute you, promise of the future."

  4. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  6. [The scientific revolutions in medicine XVII-XIX centuries: the disproof of Galenism and developpment of scientific foundations of medicine. Report I. The discovery of blood circulation and system of absorbtion].

    PubMed

    Stochik, A M; Zatravkin, S N

    2010-01-01

    In the process of investigation of state and development of medicine in XVII-first half of XIX centuries the authors came to the conclusion that despite the widespread opinion among the historians of medicine in that period two scientific revolutions occurred and in the area of theoretical medicine too. The actual report is devoted to the history of revision of anatomical physiological concept of Galen in the course of first scientific revolution.

  7. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  8. Extended Calculations of Spectroscopic Data: Energy Levels, Lifetimes, and Transition Rates for O-like Ions from Cr xvii to Zn xxiii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Jönsson, P.; Ekman, J.; Gaigalas, G.; Godefroid, M. R.; Si, R.; Chen, Z. B.; Li, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.

    2017-04-01

    Employing two state-of-the-art methods, multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and second-order many-body perturbation theory, the excitation energies and lifetimes for the lowest 200 states of the 2{s}22{p}4, 2s2{p}5, 2{p}6, 2{s}22{p}33s, 2{s}22{p}33p, 2{s}22{p}33d, 2s2{p}43s, 2s2{p}43p, and 2s2{p}43d configurations, and multipole (electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), and electric quadrupole (E2)) transition rates, line strengths, and oscillator strengths among these states are calculated for each O-like ion, from Cr xvii to Zn xxiii. Our two data sets are compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology and CHIANTI compiled values, and previous calculations. The data are accurate enough for identification and deblending of new emission lines from the Sun and other astrophysical sources. The amount of high-accuracy data is significantly increased for the n = 3 states of several O-like ions of astrophysical interest, where experimental data are very scarce.

  9. THE IRON PROJECT AND THE RMAX PROJECT: Photoionization, Electron-IonRecombination and Oscillator Strengths of Fe Ions, Fe XVII and Fe XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissner, Werner; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the Iron Project and the Rmax Project are detailed study of radiative and collisional processes of astrophysically abundant atoms and ions, mainly iron and iron-peak elements, over a wide energy range, from infra-red to X-rays. We will present the complete results on photoionization, partial and total, of fine structure levels with n <= 10 of Fe XVII. They correspond to a large-scale computation using a wave function expansion containing 60 levels of the core. Preliminary results on total recombination rate coefficients ranging over low to very high temperatures, especially where the ion is abundant in astrophysical plasmas, will be presented. We will also report the latest results on oscillator strengths for photo-excitations in Fe XIX. This highly charged nitrogen-like iron ion has over thousands of bound fine structure levels. The calculations have been carried out in relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method. The forbidden electric quadrupole, electric octupole, magnetic dipole and magnetic quadrupole transitions for Fe XIX correspond to fine structure levels upto 4p obtained from atomic structure calculations in Breit-Pauli approximation.

  10. Characterisation of fresh and aged terpenic resins by micro-FTIR and GC-MS analyses of varnishes in XVI-XVII centuries paintings.

    PubMed

    Cartoni, Giampaolo; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Spinelli, Francesca; Talarico, Fabio

    2003-11-01

    Resinous materials, generally added to drying oils, were often employed as final protective films in paintings, both in tempera and oil techniques. Most of the resins used in fine arts come from exudates of plants. Natural resins are mainly composed by terpenoids. Among these resins, dammar, rosin, mastic, elemi gum, Venice turpentine were frequently employed in easel paintings. The aim of this work is the identification of natural resins in samples collected from works of art. In this paper we propose to use micro-FTIR spectrometry as a preliminary and non destructive technique to detect the presence of resinous materials in microsamples collected from paintings, followed by GC-MS analyses to obtain a precise identification of the resin. To reach this aim commercial resins, employed as standard, were analysed previously by micro-FTIR spectrometry and then analysed by GC-MS chromatography, searching characteristic chemical compounds used as "markers" of resins. The results obtained on standards allowed us to successfully analyse samples collected from two works of art: the "Portrait of a Young Gentleman", by Lorenzo Lotto (XVI century), and the "Madonna with the Infant Jesus and Saints": by Carlo Maratta (XVII secolo).

  11. Laboratory Measurements of the Fe XVII 2p-3s and 2p-3d Transitions and Comparison with Solar and Astrophysical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K. W.

    2004-07-01

    The L-shell emission spectrum of Fe XVII is measured in high-temperature laboratory plasmas, and the inferred intensities of the 3s-->2p transitions relative to those of the dominant 3d-->2p transition are compared to solar observations, as well as to observations of Capella, Procyon, Castor C, II Pegassi, and NGC 4636 with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. The results from laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are in very good agreement, indicating that the collisional line formation processes found in low-density, high-temperature laboratory plasmas are a good description of those found in astrophysical plasmas. The laboratory observations disagree, however, to varying degrees with spectral modeling calculations. A review of existing laboratory measurements suggests that the intensity of the dominant 3d-->2p transition is overestimated by spectral modeling predications. By calibrating spectral models with laboratory data, especially by decreasing the strength of the dominant 3d-->2p transition, spectral models can be brought into agreement with the majority of solar and astrophysical observations. Without doing so, opacity effects may be grossly overestimated.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  13. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  15. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  16. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  17. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  18. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  19. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  20. Gypenoside XVII Prevents Atherosclerosis by Attenuating Endothelial Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress: Insight into the ERα-Mediated PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Haijing; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Jingyi; Wang, Min; Liao, Ping; Cao, Li; Guo, Peng; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are estrogen-like compounds of plant origin. The pharmacological activities of phytoestrogens are predominantly due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering properties, which are mediated via the estrogen receptors (ERs): estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and possibly G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER). Gypenoside XVII (GP-17) is a phytoestrogen that is widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, but the mechanism underlying these therapeutic effects is largely unclear. This study aimed to assess the anti-atherogenic effects of GP-17 and its mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that GP-17 significantly decreased blood lipid levels, increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes and decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE−/− mice. In vitro experiments showed that GP-17 significantly prevented oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced endothelial injury. The underlying protective mechanisms of GP-17 were mediated by restoring the normal redox state, up-regulating of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax and inhibiting the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in Ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury. Notably, we found that GP-17 treatment predominantly up-regulated the expression of ERα but not ERβ. However, similar to estrogen, the protective effect of GP-17 could be blocked by the ER antagonist ICI182780 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) antagonist LY294002. Taken together, these results suggest that, due to its antioxidant properties, GP-17 could alleviate atherosclerosis via the ERα-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:28208754

  1. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  2. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  4. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  5. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  6. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  7. Managing Air Quality - Air Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  8. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean up the air are enforced. Learn more Climate Change Climate change threatens the health of millions of people, with ... What Makes Air Unhealthy Fighting for Healthy Air Climate Change Emergencies & Natural Disasters State of the Air Ask ...

  9. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  10. Ambient Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. AirData

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about where air pollution comes from (emissions) and how much pollution is in the air outside our homes and work places (monitoring).

  12. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  13. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: appendix I. Condition of flight animals on recovery; food intake; observations on hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ordy, J M; Brizzee, K R; Samorajski, T

    1975-04-01

    The rationale for studying certain hypothalamic nuclei and the pituitary and adrenal glands of the pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII was the need to evaluate the effects of the potentially severe stress on these animals in the foreign environment of flight canister, weightlessness, increased G forces, and other unnatural conditions. Decrease in body weight and variability of food intake were significant among the four flight animals that were recovered alive. The mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei did not differ significantly from the values obtained in the control animals. On the other hand, the mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the supraoptic nucleus of the flight mice was significantly greater than in the control groups. Comparisons of the adeno- and neuropypophysis revealed no significant differences among the three groups. Insofar as they were studied, the adrenals were similar in all groups.

  14. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. Part II. effects on lungs.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G A; Corbett, R L; Klein, G

    1975-04-01

    An electron microscope examination was carried out on the lungs of 11 pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that breathed oxygen at 10 psi or 12 psi partial pressure over a period of 7 d, at the end of which time they were decompressed to sea-level O2 pressure, either suddenly or in 30, 60, or 90 min. Vesiculation was noted in the endothelium of the alveolarcapillary wall in most of the animals and, occasionally, blebbing. Some mitochrondria were swollen in a few of the animals. Alveolar exudate was, in general, sparse. Compared with the lungs of other rodents, the lungs of pocket mice appeared relatively resistant to the toxic effects of oxygen. This conclusion needs, however, to be tempered by the fact that 5% N2 was used in the tests reported here. Nonetheless, the results suggest that the oxygen pressures anticipated on the flight of Apollo XVII should be well tolerated by the pocket mice.

  15. The effects of cosmic radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: V. preflight studies on tolerance of pocket mice to oxygen and heat. Part IV. observations on the brain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C T; Ordy, J M; Haymaker, W

    1975-04-01

    Experiments designed to ascertain the effects of oxgen at 8, 10, and 12 psi partial pressure on the brains of pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) were carried out at room temperature (24 degrees C, 75 degrees F) and at 32 degrees C (93 degrees F). The animals exposed to 8-12 psi at 32 degrees C had been in earlier KO2 oxygen tests. Five animals exposed either to 10 or 12 psi (517 mm or 620 mm HG) PO2 at 32 degrees C died during the course of the tests, possibly as a consequence of injury sustained by the earlier PO2 testing. Autopsy was not carried out. In the other 36 exposed animals, no pathological changes were observed in the brain. It is thus highly probable that oxygen pressures at the hyperbaric levels to which the pocket mice would be exposed during the Apollo XVII mission would not result in any lesions in the brain.

  16. Laboratory Measurements of the Relative Oscillator Strengths of the Fe XVII Lines 3C and 3D Using an X-ray Laser and an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Hi-Light Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    X-ray emission from neon-like Fe XVII has been observed in a plethora of celestial sources including stellar atmospheres, galaxy clusters, elliptical galaxies, and supernova remnants. Two of the strongest lines emitted from Fe XVII are the 3d to 2p transitions located at 15.01 and 15.26 angstroms and known as 3C and 3D, respectively. Owing to their strength and presence over a large temperature range, diagnostics involving these lines are of high value. Unfortunately, even though many theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted on 3C and 3D, significant discrepancies among different theories, and between theory and both laboratory and observational measurements have been found. Many different theoretical approaches have been pursued in attempt to resolve the discrepancies, but none has provided a consistent solution (Brown & Beiersdorfer Physical Review Letters, 2012). As a result, the diagnostic utility of these lines has not been fully realized. In order to further probe the nature of these X-ray transitions, we have used the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free electron laser in conjunction with the portable FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to photo-excite these lines and measure their relative oscillator strength, Ro. Our results, Ro = 2.61+/- 0.23 (Bernitt, et al. Nature 2012) differs by over 3σ from the best quantum mechanical calculations. We present an overview of these measurements and their implications, as well as a sampling of other photoabsorption measurements using the FLASH-EBIT at various third and fourth generation light sources. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.o.E. by under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and GSFC.

  17. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  18. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  19. Tuned air gun array

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, W.H.

    1983-05-10

    The present invention provides a method for determining the spacing and size of air guns in a tuned air gun array. Volume ratios are calculated based upon a predetermined maximum volume for any individual air gun. The volumes are cross-referenced to spacings for optimum air gun interaction. The resulting air gun array operates as a broadband high-energy point source.

  20. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  1. Air supply valve for seismic air gun

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, B.

    1989-07-25

    This paper describes an improvement in a marine seismic array adapted to be towed by a vessel wherein the array is comprised of a plurality of air guns spaced along an array bundle which includes a central air hose assembly that supplies compressed air to each of the air guns through individual air passages which extend between the central air hose assembly and each of the air guns. The improvement comprising: an air supply valve positioned in each of the individual air passages, the air supply valve comprising: a housing having inlet and an outlet and a passage in the housing connecting the inlet and the outlet; valve means positioned in the passage in the housing; valve actuating means in the housing for moving the valve means from an open position to a closed position and from a closed position to an open position; means for remotely actuating the valve actuating means from the vessel to close the valve to deactivate the air gun and to reopen the valve to reactivate the air gun whereby each of the plurality of air guns can be individually inactivated and reactivated remotely from the vessel.

  2. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  3. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  4. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  5. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  6. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  7. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  8. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  9. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  10. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  11. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  12. Building Air Monitoring Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The different components of air monitoring networks, the status of air monitoring in the United States, and the services and activities of the three major American network builders are detailed. International air monitoring networks and alert systems are identified, with emphasis on the Dutch air monitoring network. (BT)

  13. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  14. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  15. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  16. Advances in air to air refuelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Peter R.; Bhandari, Ujjar; Bullock, Steve; Richardson, Thomas S.; du Bois, Jonathan L.

    2014-11-01

    An increasing interest over the last decade in developing unmanned aerial systems' technologies has prompted research into methods for automating air to air refuelling processes. Furthermore, for systems with increased autonomy the necessary logic and flight control systems to perform autonomous air to air refuelling is now being pursued. There has already been significant research in position tracking, rendezvous scheduling, apparatus modelling, wake effects, and vision-based sensors to support refuelling of unmanned systems and to increase the autonomy in manned aircraft refuelling. Many of these build upon considerable research and understanding that has matured for manned air to air refuelling. This paper reviews the current, and future, state of research in this area.

  17. [Four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI of the IMSS].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This document presents four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The first stage started at the end of the third decade of the twentieth century and ended in 1961, it corresponded to the conception, planning and construction of what was to be the Centro Médico del Distrito Federal (Centro Médico of the Distrito Federal) belonging to the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Ministry of Health and Assistance). The second stage began when the Center was acquired by the Institute, then was known like Centro Médico Nacional (Centro Médico Nacional ), being put into full operation in 1963, more than twenty-two years later, in 1985, an earthquake virtually ended it, immediately began its reconstruction, finishing the second stage. In 1989 began the third stage, different and new buildings complemented or replaced the structures damaged or destroyed by the earthquake which formed the now Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century). In 2004 the fourth stage opened when the four hospitals of the Center were categorized like Unidades Médicas de Alta Especialidad (High Specialized Medical Units).

  18. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  19. Air Pollution Emissions Overview | Air Quality Planning & ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  20. THE IRON PROJECT & THE RMAX PROJECT: Highly excited Core resonances in photoionzation of Fe XVII and impact on plasma opacities, oscillator strengths of Fe XIV, and nebular abundance of O II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anil; Nahar, Sultana; Palay, Ethan; Eissner, Werner

    2011-05-01

    The aims of the Iron Project and the Rmax Project are detailed study of radiative and collisional processes of astrophysically abundant atoms and ions, mainly iron and iron-peak elements, over a wide energy range, from infra-red to X-rays. We will illustrate the dominance of high energy photoexciation-of-core (PEC) resonances in photoionization of Fe XVII due to strong coupling effects on dipole transition arrays 2p5 --> 2p4 (3 s , 3 d) in the core and examine PEC and non-PEC resonance strengths for their expanded role to incorporate inner-shell excitations for improved opacities. Comparisons show that the currently available cross sections from the Opacity Project are considerably underestimated. For Fe XIV, we present preliminary results from a large scale computation where 747 fine structure levels with n <= 10, l <= 9, and 0.5 <= J <= 9.5, and 71,407 electric dipole allowed fine structure transitions have been obtained. We will also demonstrate the fine structure effects on the collision strengths and in very low energy photoionzation for in nebular oxygen abundance. Partial Supports: NSF, DOE

  1. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... are especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of air pollution. Cleaning up pollution in their schools will help ... nothing else matters ® . Help us fight to reduce pollution in the air we breathe. Donate

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  3. Air Data - Concentration Map

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.

  4. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  5. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  6. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. SWAB Air sampling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    ISS014-E-09422 (8 Dec. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter, Expedition 14 flight engineer, conducts a Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) air sampling in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  8. Airing It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  9. Air Quality Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the Environmental Protection Agency’s Transport Rule proposal (now known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule).

  10. Air Quality Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides information for air quality data analysts inside and outside EPA. Much of the information is in the form of documented analyses that support the review of the national air qualiyt standards.

  11. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  12. National Air Toxics Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NATA is an ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S. As a screening tool, it helps air agencies prioritize pollutants, emission sources and locations of interest for further study to gain a better understanding of risks.

  13. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  14. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  15. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  16. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  17. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  18. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  19. Air Sensor Guidebook

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scienti...

  20. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  1. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  2. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar has been constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  3. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar is being constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  4. SWAB Air sampling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    ISS014-E-09425 (8 Dec. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Thomas Reiter, Expedition 14 flight engineer, conducts a Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) air sampling in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Reiter holds a pair of scissors and the SWAB Air Sampling Device (ASD) floats freely near him.

  5. Planning and Organizing the Postwar Air Force 1943-1947,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Winfield W. Scott, Jr. Pennsylvania State University Superintendent. USAF Academy Brig. Gen. Harris B. Hull. Dr. David A. Shannon (Chairman) USAF...Lauris Norstad ..................................... 65 Brig. Gen. Glen C. Jamnison . ................................. 70 President Harry S. Truman...Gen. Hugh J. Knerr...................................... 145, President Harry S. Truman Adm. William D Leahy................152 x(vii Page Vice Adm

  6. Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Naval Air Station Lighter than Air Hangar, wood construction horizontal rolling door. Drawing no. 2122 820. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  7. Aerospace air pollution issues.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R E; Rayman, R B

    1996-02-01

    Practitioners of aerospace medicine are mindful of the environmental effects, particularly air pollution, caused by aviation and spaceflight operations. To an aerospace medicine specialist, the environment includes not only the air, water, and soil of the earth, but also the cabin milieu of aircraft and space vehicles where crews must work, sleep, and in some cases, live. Consequently, this article will address the following areas of concern: cabin air quality of aircraft, cabin air quality of space vehicles, noise, air pollution, and aerial spraying.

  8. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  9. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  10. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  11. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  12. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  13. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonská, Jana Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  14. An innovative, interdisciplinary, and multi-technique study of gilding and painting techniques in the decoration of the main altarpiece of Miranda do Douro Cathedral (XVII-XVIII(th) centuries, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Sandu, Irina Crina Anca; Murta, Elsa; Veiga, Rita; Muralha, Vânia Solange F; Pereira, Manuel; Kuckova, Stepanka; Busani, Tito

    2013-07-01

    The research results presented in this paper are part of a larger study on the materials and techniques used in polychrome altarpieces of gilded woodcarving decoration ("talha dourada") in Portugal. The paper focuses on a narrative Portuguese Altarpiece from Miranda do Douro, considered one of the masterpieces of "talha dourada" among all the retables of the Iberian Peninsula in XVII(th) and XVIII(th) centuries. Although on the Portuguese territory, the altarpiece was made by artists from the Royal Spanish school of Valladolid, under a mannerist style. Thus the study opens a window on the artists' circulation between Spain and Portugal and influences of the Spanish schools in Baroque epoch on the Portuguese "talha". During its history this altarpiece underwent several transformations and extensive conservation treatments in 1989. On this occasion more than 50 samples were collected and analyzed using an interdisciplinary multi-technique methodology. 27 of these samples are chosen for this study in order to investigate the chromatic palette, the materials and techniques used in the polychromy of the retable. A novel protocol of investigation using different conventional and unconventional analytical techniques (OM + fluorescent staining tests on cross-sections, Raman microscopy, XRD, XRF, X-ray micro-CT, SEM-EDX, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS) was established within an innovative research project (http://sites.fct.unl.pt/gilt-teller/) and applied on these samples. This protocol is necessary to confirm the results obtained in the 1989 campaign and to have further insight into the gilding and polychrome decoration materials and techniques and the additional information reported in the historical documents. The material and technical history of this important altarpiece will be thus re-documented from a scientific perspective, meant to confirm and bring new information on the decorative technique used in the creation of this complex Portuguese monument. Copyright © 2013

  15. Draft air deflecting device

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.E.

    1982-05-18

    A draft air deflecting device is mountable proximate to a window contained in a firebox and serves as a conduit which directs draft air across the inner surface of the window prior to its supporting combustion of the fuel in the firebox. In this respect , the draft air deflecting device is formed as a box which communicates with draft air holes located in the firebox and which includes a forwardly extending lip serving to define a nozzle for both increasing the velocity and directing the incoming draft air across the firebox window. The incoming draft air is thus utilized to cool and to prevent soot, creosote and other particulates from accumulating on the window.

  16. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World...members, yet weapons and avionics systems grow increasingly more complex. At an airpower symposium in 1977, Air Chief Marshal Sir Frederick Rosier...Grant, 1990. Skinner , Michael and George Hall. Red Flae: Air Combat for the 90s. Osceola, WL: Motorbooks International Publishers & Wholesalers

  17. Maxillary air cyst.

    PubMed

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-12-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options.

  18. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  19. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  20. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  1. Solar Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Nation's first solar-cell-powered air monitoring station was installed at Liberty State Park, New Jersey. Jointly sponsored by state agencies and the Department of Energy, system includes display which describes its operation to park visitors. Unit samples air every sixth day for a period of 24 hours. Air is forced through a glass filter, then is removed each week for examination by the New Jersey Bureau of Air Pollution. During the day, solar cells provide total power for the sampling equipment. Excess energy is stored in a bank of lead-acid batteries for use when needed.

  2. Clean Air Excellence Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These non-monetary awards honor sustainable efforts toward pollutant emissions reduction from innovators in clean air technology, community action and outreach, policy development, and transportation efficiency.

  3. Applications Using AIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  4. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  5. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  6. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  7. Air Force Officer Cohesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    and Staff College, 1980. 11. Craver , M.L., "No Surprise in Why Pilots Leave Service." Air Force Times, June 4, 1979, p. 23. 12. Wood, Frank R., U.S...34Institution Building In The All- Volunteer Force." Air University Review, September- October 1983, pp. 38-49. Craver , M.L., "No Surprise In Why Pilots Leave

  8. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  9. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  10. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  11. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  12. AIR HEATER EXPERIMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The test program described in this report was designed to determine the feasibility of using a vitiated air heater for the PLUTO facility from the...profiles across the outlet proved relatively flat. The feasibility of using this burner for PLUTO facility air heating was established. (Author)

  13. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  14. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  15. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  16. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  17. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  18. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  19. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  20. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  1. Secondary air filter assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Ortonville, A.J.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes a filter cartridge assembly used for filtering air of a crankcase ventilating system of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: first (108) and second (110) air permeable filter platforms; vertical support columns; leg members; and a filter retainer.

  2. Air drying of lumber.

    Treesearch

    1999-01-01

    This report describes how lumber can be air-dried most effectively under outdoor conditions and illustrates the principles and procedures of air-drying lumber that were developed through field investigations and observations of industrial practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the yarding of lumber in unit packages. Included are topics such as why lumber is dried...

  3. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  4. Protective air lock

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  5. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  6. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  7. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  8. Bad Air For Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  9. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  10. Air quality [Chapter 8

    Treesearch

    R. C. Musselman

    1994-01-01

    Air quality is monitored continuously at GLEES. Air pollutants are considered an important component of the atmosphere that can have an effect on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric deposition of gases, wet deposition of chemicals in precipitation including snow and rain, and dry deposition of chemicals are all monitored at GLEES. Although GLEES is a...

  11. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  12. Air Traffic Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas; Lebacqz, Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The steady growth in air travel will lead to heightened demands for additional airspace capacity, particularly in the vicinity of terminals. New computer-aided processing of aircraft and navigational capability exemplified by the Global Positioning System will allow more sophisticated management of air traffic. Additional altitudes and over-flight areas may be necessary to effectively use the newer technology,

  13. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  14. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  15. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  16. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  17. Air washer/scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.H.; Gerdes, D.F.; Telchuk, S.E.

    1982-05-04

    An air washer or scrubber, particularly for paint spray booths and especially adapted for removing paint particles from air passing downwardly through the grille floor of a paint spray booth and against a water-washed subfloor, comprises an elongated v-shaped slot in the subfloor extending along the longitudinal centerline of the booth. The inner edges of the walls forming the v-shaped slot are upturned to form ledges so that water flowed over the subfloor and the walls of the slot impinges against the ledges and is thrown upwardly and inwardly to form a curtain of water completely covering the slot. Exhaust means pulls paintladen air from the spray chamber through the water curtain and the slot and into an expansion chamber, the bottom walls of which form a second v-shaped slot contiguous with the first mentioned slot. The water, in which virtually all of the paint particles are entrained, and the air are discharged from the second slot and impinged against a baffle sheet angling downwardly away from the expansion chamber. The end of the sheet is upturned at a small angle to deflect the water and form an umbrella of water through which the air must pass for a final cleaning action. An optional curved deflector plate positioned beneath the umbrella of water aids in separating the water and air so that only clean, dry air is exhausted to atmosphere.

  18. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  19. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  20. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  1. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  2. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  3. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. AQI: Moderate (51 - ... number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. AQI: Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (101 - 150) Although ...

  4. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  5. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  6. Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  7. Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Air Force Research Laboratory 8 June 2009 Mr. Leo Marple Ai F R h L b t r orce esearc a ora ory Leo.Marple@wpafb.af.mil DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force Research Laboratory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory ,Wright

  8. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  9. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  10. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  11. Air Power and Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    New York: .E.P. Dutton& Co., Inc., 1942. (UGS 291 M6SG) . The-wild blue yonder; sons of the prophet carry on. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company; Inc...Historical Society Journal 14:1-IJ Sp- ring 1969. Wheeler, Gerald E. Mitchell, koffett, and air power. Air Power Historian 8:79787, April 1961. Williams, A...Caldwell. Cy. Airpower and the Russian octopus . Aero Digest 61: S6+, October 1950. 80 Carlton, Richard. Canada’s new concept of continental air power

  12. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  13. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  14. Liquid air mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

  15. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  16. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  17. Olefin metathesis in air

    PubMed Central

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  18. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  19. Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Pierre; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Belyazid, Salim; Calfapietra, Carlo; de Marco, Alessandra; Fenn, Mark; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; He, Shang; Matyssek, Rainer; Serengil, Yusuf; Wieser, Gerhard; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and peri-urban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O3 modelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O3 are: (xxi) Developing dose-response relationships and

  20. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Authorized licensed use limited to: Air Force Institute of Technology. Downloaded on April 19,2010 at 19:40:39 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply...all three cases the azimuth angle estimation is based on two receive antennas and the monopulse technique. 1-4244-1 539-X/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE ...December 2005. 4. Blackman, Samuel. “Multiple Hypothesis Tracking for Multiple Target Tracking”. IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, 19:5–18

  1. Attenuation of Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced parallel autophagic and apoptotic cell death by gypenoside XVII through the estrogen receptor-dependent activation of Nrf2/ARE pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiangbao; Wang, Min; Sun, Guibo; Ye, Jingxue; Zhou, Yanhui; Dong, Xi; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Shan; Sun, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) has a pivotal function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To investigate Aβ neurotoxicity, we used an in vitro model that involves Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced cell death in the nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} (20 μM) treatment for 24 h caused apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by significant cell viability reduction, LDH release, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment led to autophagic cell death, as evidenced by augmented GFP-LC3 puncta, conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, and increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by intracellular ROS accumulation and increased production of mitochondrial superoxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-OHdG. Phytoestrogens have been proved to be protective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and regarded as relatively safe targets for AD drug development. Gypenoside XVII (GP-17) is a novel phytoestrogen isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum or Panax notoginseng. Pretreatment with GP-17 (10 μM) for 12 h increased estrogen response element reporter activity, activated PI3K/Akt pathways, inhibited GSK-3β, induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, augmented antioxidant responsive element enhancer activity, upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and activity, and provided protective effects against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. In conclusion, GP-17 conferred protection against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity through estrogen receptor-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt pathways, inactivation of GSK-3β and activation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways. This finding might provide novel insights into understanding the mechanism for neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogens or

  2. Air Quality Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States must develop plans to attain and maintain air quality standards. These plans, known as SIPs, are submitted to EPA for approval. This web site contains information about this process and the current status of the submittals.

  3. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  4. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  5. Air Traffic Network Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

  6. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  7. Calidad del aire interior

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues including health risks and means by which human exposures can be reduced. Content on this site will be focused on Spanish translated resources for information about indoor air quality.

  8. Walking On Air

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video features a series of time lapse sequences photographed by the Expedition 30 crew aboard the International Space Station. Set to the song "€œWalking in the Air,"€ by Howard Blake, the v...

  9. Images in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-05-01

    This article discusses two 'magic tricks' in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a 'ghost' in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors.

  10. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  11. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  12. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  13. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  14. Modelling hot air balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimicombe, N. W.

    1991-07-01

    Hot air balloons can be modelled in a number of different ways. The most satisfactory, but least useful model is at a microscopic level. Macroscopic models are easier to use but can be very misleading.

  15. Air Force Junior ROTC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, James A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the Junior Air Force Reserve Officers Training Corps (AFROTC) program presently being operated in 275 units across the country. It is basically a three year course in aerospace studies and leadership education. (BR)

  16. Air Emissions Inventories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides access to emissions data, regulations and guidance, electronic system access, resources and tools to support trends analysis, regional, and local scale air quality modeling, regulatory impact assessments.

  17. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  19. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  20. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  1. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  2. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  3. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  4. Temporal solitons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  5. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  6. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  7. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  8. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  9. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  10. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  11. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  12. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  13. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  14. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. Multipollutant air quality management.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  16. Developing air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pius; Saylor, Rick; Meagher, James

    2012-05-01

    Third International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research; Potomac, Maryland, 29 November to 1 December 2011 Elevated concentrations of both near-surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter have been implicated in increased mortality and other human health impacts. In light of these known influences on human health, many governments around the world have instituted air quality forecasting systems to provide their citizens with advance warning of impending poor air quality so that they can take actions to limit exposure. In an effort to improve the performance of air quality forecasting systems and provide a forum for the exchange of the latest research in air quality modeling, the International Workshop on Air Quality Forecasting Research (IWAQFR) was established in 2009 and is cosponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada (EC), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The steering committee for IWAQFR's establishment was composed of Véronique Bouchet, Mike Howe, and Craig Stoud (EC); Greg Carmichael (University of Iowa); Paula Davidson and Jim Meagher (NOAA); and Liisa Jalkanen (WMO). The most recent workshop took place in Maryland.

  17. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  18. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies. Its component data sets have been collected over the years from approximately 10,000 monitoring sites, of which approximately 5,000 are currently active. OAR's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) and other internal and external users, rely on this data to assess air quality, assist in Attainment/Non-Attainment designations, evaluate State Implementation Plans for Non-Attainment Areas, perform modeling for permit review analysis, and other air quality management functions. Air quality information is also used to prepare reports for Congress as mandated by the Clean Air Act. This data covers air quality data collected after 1980, when the Clean Air Act requirements for monitoring were significantly modified. Air quality data from the Agency's early years (1970s) remains available (see OAR PRIMARY DATA ASSET: Ambient Air Quality Data -- Historical), but because of technical and definitional differences the two data assets are not directly comparable. The Clean Air Act of 1970 provided initial authority for monitoring air quality for Conventional Air Pollutants (CAPs) for which EPA has promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Requirements for monitoring visibility-related parameters were added in 1977. Requiremen

  19. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races, describe...

  20. Control of the Air: The Primary Air Power Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    air, p 8-9. 23. R Cargill Hall. Case Studies in Strategic Bombardment, Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998, “British Strategic Air...Relations with Special Reference to Kashmir. Atlantic Publishers. New Delhi. 2003. Hall, R. Cargill . Case Studies in Strategic Bombardment. Air

  1. Automatic air flow control in air conditioning ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Device is designed which automatically selects air flow coming from either of two directions and which can be adjusted to desired air volume on either side. Device uses one movable and two fixed scoops which control air flow and air volume.

  2. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  3. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  4. Air diverter for supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1986-10-28

    An engine supercharger is described which consists of a turbine housing, a main turbine wheel of the radial-inflow type located within the turbine housing, a compressor housing having an air entrance passageway, and a compressor wheel of the centrifugal type located within the compressor housing. It also includes a main shaft of annular construction interconnecting the turbine wheel and the compressor wheel whereby the two wheels rotate as a unit, an auxiliary turbine wheel of the axial flow type located downstream from the main turbine wheel, and a fan of the axial flow type located upstream from the compressor wheel. An auxiliary shaft extends within the main shaft between the auxiliary turbine and fan whereby the auxiliary turbine and fan rotate as a unit. An annular air collector chamber means is located immediately downstream from the fan in surrounding relation to the aforementioned entrance passageway for diverting some of the fan air from the compressor wheel. The fan comprises a hub and blades radiating outwardly therefrom. The air collector chamber is defined in part by an annular wall having a free edge located within the fan blade axial profile whereby the annular wall intercepts air discharged from outer tip areas of the fan blades to divert same away from the compressor wheel into the collector chamber.

  5. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a... enforced by the Commander, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Seattle, Washington, or such agencies as he...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a... enforced by the Commander, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Seattle, Washington, or such agencies as he...

  10. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints received by Region 7. It contains information about the complaint along with how the complaint was addressed. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 1) for Clean Air & Global Climate Change, which are to achieve healthier outdoor air.

  11. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  12. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  13. Fireman's Air Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Together with NASA's Johnson Space Center, A-T-O Inc.'s Scott Aviation has developed light-weight firefighter's air tanks. New backpack system weighs only 20 pounds for 30 minute air supply, 13 pounds less than conventional firefighting tanks. They are pressurized at 4,500 psi, (twice current tanks). Made of aluminum liner wrapped by resin-impregnated glass fibers, eliminating corrosion as well as lightening the load. Redesigned face mask permits better vision. Warning device to tell fireman he is running out of air is personalized so it can't be heard by others reducing confusion in an already hectic environment. Structural Composites Inc., The Boeing Co., and Martin- Marietta Corp. have developed uses for this technology.

  14. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  15. Air Sparging Design Paradigm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-12

    that the air distribution in the aquifer is non-uniform about the air injection, exhibiting tendencies to flow along the axis defined by MP6 , MP12...MW2 MW9 MW7 MW1 MW3 MP9, N9 MP11, N11 MP5, N5 MP7, N7 MP12, N12 MP6 , N6 MP3, N3MP1, N1 - Multi-level sampler and neutron access tube - Air...MP9 and MP12. This hypothesis is supported by the high saturations at MP3, MP6 , MP9 and MP12 in the upper part of the aquifer (3 to 4 m BGS) and low

  16. Auxiliary air injector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, R.L.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes an auxiliary air injector assembly kit for replacement use to connect a secondary air line from an engine air pump to an exhaust pipe in a variety of combustion engine exhaust systems. The exhaust pipe has an auxiliary air receiving hole formed in a wall thereof. The assembly comprises a flexible conduit adapted to be readily cut to length and connected at one end to the secondary air line, a metal tube, means for connecting a first end of the metal tube to the other end of the flexible conduit, and a hollow fitting with an air flow-through passage and having a conical portion adapted to fit in the hole in a leak resistant manner. The fitting has a bearing portion with a convex spherical surface located outside the exhaust pipe when the conical portion is in the hole. A second end of the metal tube has a flange with a concave spherical surface to seat against the convex spherical surface in a leak resistant manner. A clamp means connects the metal tube to the exhaust pipe and applies pressure on the metal tube flange against the bearing portion of the fitting to hold the fitting in the hole. The clamp means includes a saddle having an opening larger than the tube but smaller than the tube flange. The tube extends through the saddle opening. The clamp means also includes a U-bolt assembly for extending around the exhaust pipe and forcing the saddle against the tube flange and toward the exhaust pipe.

  17. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  18. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  19. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  20. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  1. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  2. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  3. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  4. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  5. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  6. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  7. Sticking with air

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, S.N.

    2005-06-01

    A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

  8. An Air of Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Terry E.; Shonkwiler, Tonja; Birr, David

    1998-01-01

    Examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) problems can create difficulties for a school both administratively, and legally. Discusses how to identify the IAQ symptoms and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's industry standards for IAQ, as well as tips for reducing liability risk. (GR)

  9. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  10. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A 85 aboard unpressurized aircraft. These two patients, both of whom suffered from a bowel obstruction , were transported aboard unpressurized...services can safely transport patients with conditions (i.e. bowel obstruction , facial fractures, pneumothorax, intracranial air) which are clearly

  11. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  12. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  13. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  14. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  15. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  16. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  17. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  18. Wartime Air Traffic Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    sets overboard mnd reported their accidental loss.5 Fortunately. such aviation pioneers as Lt Col Henry H. ("Hap") Arnold and Capt Harold M. McClelland...operability is t he responsibility of the entire base populace. All "blue- suiters " must be mentally and physically prepared to fight the air base war. Winston

  19. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  20. Air Blast Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    library. A Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state is used for each explosive considered, and a Sesame tabular equation of state is used to model the...explosives investigated (TNT, C4, PBXN-109, and NM) and the CTH material library parameters were used for each. Air was modeled using the Sesame tabular

  1. Ames Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  2. [Forward medical air evacuation].

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Erik; Le Dorze, Patrick Causse; Hersan, Olivier; Pohl, Jean-Baptiste; Angot, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    The medical chain which assures the treatment of casualties from the theatre of operations back to France comprises several links connected by medical air transport. Whether it is tactical or strategic, it forms an integral part of the treatment pathway and offers casualties the best possible conditions for medical treatment with a high degree of safety, speed and traceability.

  3. Images in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  4. The air afterglow revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, F.

    1972-01-01

    The air afterglow, 0 + NO2 chemiluminescence, is discussed in terms of fluorescence, photodissociation, and quantum theoretical calculations of NO2. The experimental results presented include pressure dependence, M-dependence, spectral dependence of P and M, temperature dependence, and infrared measurements. The NO2 energy transfer model is also discussed.

  5. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  6. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  7. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  8. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  9. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  10. Immunotoxicity of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such as alveolar macrophages and mucociliary clearance. Information on viral infectivity is more sparse. Since there is no routine treatment for viral infections which have a relatively high rate of occurrence, this gap in knowledge is of concern. Given the major gaps in knowledge, resaonably accurate assessment of the immunotoxicity of air pollutants is not possible. When the limited data base is reviewed relative to ambient levels of the common pollutants, it appears that acute exposures to O3 and H2SO4 and chronic exposures to NO2 are the major exposures of concern for immunotoxic effects. It is critical to point out, however, that until information is available for chronic exposures to low levels of metals and for exposures to common organic vapors, the immunotoxicity of air pollutants cannot be assessed adequately.

  11. Images in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  12. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  13. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  14. Air on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides (1) background information on global winds, air masses, fronts, and pressure systems; (2) five activities on this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy coloring page and worksheet. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  15. APOLLO XVII - SIMULATIONS (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-07-17

    S72-44420 (8 June 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, prepares to remove a traverse gravimeter training mock-up from a Lunar Roving Vehicle for deployment during lunar surface extravehicular activity simulations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida.

  16. PREFACE: Sensors and Their Applications XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilas, V.; McConnell, G.; Kyriacou, P.

    2013-06-01

    This volume records the Proceedings of the seventeenth conference in the biennial Sensors and Their Applications series that took place at Rixos Libertas, Dubrovnik, Croatia from 16-18 September 2013. The conference is organised by the Instrument Science and Technology Group of the Institute of Physics. The conference was the first organised by the Institute of Physics to be held outside of the UK and Ireland, thus continuing the collaborative and adventurous nature of the meeting. The conference proceedings record the continuing health, diversity and activity of the sensors community worldwide, bringing together contributions from academics and industrial researchers to provide excellent networking opportunities. It is interesting to note some continuing themes such as Optical Sensors and Electromagnetic Sensors, as well as trends in Environmental Sensing and Glacial Monitoring that reflect our changing world, and Sensors in Biology and Medicine that have a growing importance with an ageing population. The conference also accounts for research specialisms and unique strengths from the local community in Croatia, including demining and metal detector sensing. We should like to thank all of our colleagues and friends in the sensor community who have supported this event by contributing manuscripts. Our thanks go also to members of the Technical Programme Committee for their support, and in particular for refereeing the submitted manuscripts. We are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Department of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and day-to-day handling of this conference, as well as Claire Garland for help in planning and managing this international event. We hope that the conference authors, participants and a wider audience will find these proceedings to be of interest and to serve as a useful reference text. V Bilas, G McConnell and P Kyriacou Organising Committee Conference Organising Committee V Bilas, conference chair, University of Zagreb, Croatia G McConnell, conference chair, University of Strathclyde, UK P Kyriacou, conference chair, City University London, UK D Stewart, conference co-ordinator, Institute of Physics, UK Technical Programme Committee L Benini, University of Bologna, Italy M Butta, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic M Cifrek, University of Zagreb, Croatia G Collier, Kingston University London, UK J Deur, University of Zagreb, Croatia H Dzapo, University of Zagreb, Croatia M Gasulla, Universitat Politenica de Catalunya, BarcelonaTech, Spain S Hadjiloucas, University of Reading, UK P Kyriacou, City University of London, UK I Lackovic, University of Zagreb, Croatia R Magjarevic, University of Zagreb, Croatia G McConnell, University of Strathclyde, UK A O'Riordan, Tyndall National Institute, UK K Ozanyan, University of Manchester, UK A Peyton, University of Manchester, UK S Reilly, National Physical Laboratory, UK T Sun, City University London, UK A Tickle, Coventry University, UK D Vasic, University of Zagreb, Croatia S Welch, ESPKTN, UK Y Yan, University of Kent, UK H Zangl, Technical University of Graz, Austria

  17. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  18. Air quality management in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bremauntz, Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Several significant program and policy measures have been implemented in Mexico over the past 15 yr to improve air quality. This article provides an overview of air quality management strategies in Mexico, including (1) policy initiatives such as vehicle use restrictions, air quality standards, vehicle emissions, and fuel quality standards, and (2) supporting programs including establishment of a national emission inventory, an air pollution episodes program, and the implementation of exposure and health effects studies. Trends in air pollution episodes and ambient air pollutant concentrations are described.

  19. Air pollution and allergens.

    PubMed

    Bartra, J; Mullol, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Jáuregui, I; Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades in the industrialized world. Exposure to environmental pollutants may partially account for this increased prevalence. In effect, air pollution is a growing public health problem. In Europe, the main source of air pollution due to particles in suspension is represented by motor vehicles--particularly those that use diesel fuel. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are composed of a carbon core upon which high-molecular weight organic chemical components and heavy metals deposit. Over 80% of all DEPs are in the ultrafine particle range (< 0.1 pm in diameter). Air pollutants not only have a direct or indirect effect upon the individual, but also exert important actions upon aeroallergens. Pollen in heavily polluted zones can express a larger amount of proteins described as being allergenic. Through physical contact with the pollen particles, DEPs can disrupt the former, leading to the release of paucimicronic particles and transporting them by air--thus facilitating their penetration of the human airways. Climate change in part gives rise to variations in the temperature pattern characterizing the different seasons of the year. Thus, plants may vary their pollination calendar, advancing and prolonging their pollination period. In addition, in the presence of high CO2 concentrations and temperatures, plants increase their pollen output. Climate change may also lead to the extinction of species, and to the consolidation of non-native species--with the subsequent risk of allergic sensitization among the exposed human population. In conclusion, there is sufficient scientific evidence on the effect of air pollution upon allergens, increasing exposure to the latter, their concentration and/or biological allergenic activity.

  20. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  1. Air release control in seismic energy source air gun

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, M.G.

    1980-10-28

    Disclosed is a seismic source device, known in the industry as an air gun, having shuttle control for allowing a predetermined discharge of compressed air into water for purposes of seismic exploration. The shuttle is controlled by secondary shuttle means for closing the exhaust ports before all of the compressed air in the firing chamber of the air gun is exhausted. This point of closing the exhaust ports before virtually all of the compressed air is discharged differs from prior art air guns. By preventing further discharge of air, secondary pulses are greatly reduced, thereby enhancing the operation of the entire system. Further, by preventing all the air in the firing chamber from being discharged, the system becomes more efficient and more cost effective.

  2. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understand indoor air in homes, schools, and offices. Most of us spend much of our time indoors. The air that we breathe in our homes, in schools, and in offices can put us at risk for health problems.

  4. Air permeability and trapped-air content in two soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, D.A.; Rubin, J.

    1989-01-01

    To improve understanding of hysteretic air permeability relations, a need exists for data on the water content dependence of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping (especially for wetting-drying cycles). To obtain these data, a special instrument was designed. The instrument is a combination of a gas permeameter (for air permeability determination), a suction plate apparatus (for retentivity curve determination), and an air pycnometer (for trapped-air-volume determination). This design allowed values of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping to be codetermined, i.e., determined at the same values of water content using the same sample and the same inflow-outflow boundaries. Such data were obtained for two nonswelling soils. -from Authors

  5. 17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "AIR INSTALLATIONS; EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA; HIGH SPEED TEST TRACK." Drawing No. 10-259. One inch to 400 feet plan of original 10,000-foot sled track. No date. No D.O. series number. No headings as above. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  8. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  9. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  10. Something in the Air: Air Pollution in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the danger of unhealthy air in the school environment, describing common problems and how parents and schools can respond. The article focuses on the dangers of mold, pesticides, diesel exhaust, and radon. The three sidebars describe how to promote indoor air quality at school, note how to determine whether the school's air is making…

  11. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  13. Something in the Air: Air Pollution in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the danger of unhealthy air in the school environment, describing common problems and how parents and schools can respond. The article focuses on the dangers of mold, pesticides, diesel exhaust, and radon. The three sidebars describe how to promote indoor air quality at school, note how to determine whether the school's air is making…

  14. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  15. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  16. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  17. Clean Air Technology Center Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  18. National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NATA provides estimates of the risk of cancer and other serious health effects from inhaling air toxics in order to inform both national and more localized efforts to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types.

  19. Air Mobile Utility Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER PIPES, AIR TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS , FUEL HOSES, HOSES....PIPES, *PIPING SYSTEMS, INSULATION, FABRICATION, CORROSION INHIBITION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, POLYURETHANE RESINS, PLASTICS

  20. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  1. EPA Activities for Cleaner Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activities in San Joaquin Valley to reduce air pollution, meet federal health standards for ozone and particulates, fund clean tech and health research, and enforce compliance with facility-specific operating permits for industrial air pollution sources.

  2. Air Pollution over the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    State plans for implementing air quality standards are evaluated together with problems in modeling procedures and enforcement. Monitoring networks, standards, air quality regions, and industrial problems are also discussed. (BL)

  3. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... as conditions caused by outdoor impacts (such as climate change). Many reports and studies indicate that the following ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup IAQ at Home Indoor airPLUS Mold ...

  4. Managing Air Quality - Program Implementation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes elements for the set of activities to ensure that control strategies are put into effect and that air quality goals and standards are fulfilled, permitting programs, and additional resources related to implementation under the Clean Air Act.

  5. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  6. Metal-air battery assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Air Force Energy Plan 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-24

    production on Air Bases  Field the Critical Asset Prioritization Methodology ( CAPM ) tool  Manage costs  Provide energy leadership throughout the Air...residing on military installations • Field the Critical Asset Prioritization Methodology ( CAPM ) tool. This CAPM tool will allow prioritization of Air...fielding of the Critical Asset Prioritization Methodology ( CAPM ) tool and the adoption of financial standards to enable transparency across Air

  8. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  9. Air Defence Alerting Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapmore, Clive

    1990-04-01

    The Air Defence Alerting Device, otherwise known as ADAD, is a passive infra-red system which detects the presence of a potentially hostile airborne threat and relays its bearings to a Close Air Defence Weapon System (CADWS). The equipment is therefore a cueing device which directs a weapon system operator (or his sight) to the bearing of the threat. From an overall weapon system point of view, use of ADAD realises a very significant increase in weapon effectiveness which is greatly welcomed in these times of constrained defence budgets. The ADAD system is believed to be the first of its kind in the world to be procured in production quantities - it will go into service with the UK Army in the early 1990's.

  10. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  11. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  12. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  13. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  14. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  15. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  16. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  17. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  18. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils'…

  19. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  20. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  1. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  2. Improved high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sampler permits size separations of particles by directing sampled air through cross-sectional area sufficiently large that air velocity is reduced to point where particles or larger size will settle out. Sampler conducts air downward and through slots around periphery of unit into relatively open interior of house.

  3. Congress and the Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    know where to go to find out that information. The "Congress and the Air Force" Internet web page serves as a " one - stop shop" where Air Force personnel...Congress. The need for a " one - stop " guide is clear. The literature on this topic is not readily accessible by the Air Force member out in the field who

  4. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  5. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  6. Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.

    2006-06-22

    Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

  7. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils'…

  8. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  9. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  10. AIR STRUCTURES FOR SCHOOL SPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTSON, NAN

    AIR STRUCTURES ARE FABRIC BUILDINGS BLOWN UP AND HELD UP BY AIR PRESSURE. EXPERIMENTS WITH SUCH STRUCTURES WERE CONDUCTED AS EARLY AS 1917. IN 1948 THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SOUGHT A NEW WAY OF HOUSING LARGE RADAR ANTENNAE PLANNED FOR THE ARCTIC. AS AN OUTCOME OF THEIR SEARCH, BIRDAIR STRUCTURES, INC., WHICH IS NOW ONE OF SEVERAL COMPANIES…

  11. Air Structures for School Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Nan

    Air structures are fabric buildings blown up and held up by air pressure. Experiments with such structures were conducted as early as 1917. In 1948 the United States Air Force sought a new way of housing large radar antennae planned for the arctic. As an outcome of their search, Birdair Structures, Inc., which is now one of several companies…

  12. AIR STRUCTURES FOR SCHOOL SPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTSON, NAN

    AIR STRUCTURES ARE FABRIC BUILDINGS BLOWN UP AND HELD UP BY AIR PRESSURE. EXPERIMENTS WITH SUCH STRUCTURES WERE CONDUCTED AS EARLY AS 1917. IN 1948 THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SOUGHT A NEW WAY OF HOUSING LARGE RADAR ANTENNAE PLANNED FOR THE ARCTIC. AS AN OUTCOME OF THEIR SEARCH, BIRDAIR STRUCTURES, INC., WHICH IS NOW ONE OF SEVERAL COMPANIES…

  13. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  14. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  15. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  16. Air Force Power Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-24

    2 Outline • Our Recent Heritage – MEA • Our Plan – HiPAC • HiPAC Technologies • Summary Powering the United States Air Force NASA AI R FO RC E NA VY...Aircraft i l i Munitions / UAV i i / Micro-Mini Platforms i i i l HiPAC Technical Program Areas • High Temperature Power System Components • High

  17. Air Sea Rescue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-01-01

    per Is air trapped beneath it and makes righting more difficult. d, BOARDING THE D1NGHT: To avoid the consequences of eiposure it is important not...thoroughly and carefully packed and inspected before over- water flights are to be made. Make certaia- that everything is conveniently placed aad...ration (food and water ) morning and evening; food should be issued before water . Keep empty tins - making a large hole in tbeir tops - as

  18. Air regenerating and conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishayenkov, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various physicochemical methods of regenerating and conditioning air for spacecraft are described with emphasis on conditions which affect efficiency of the system. Life support systems used in closed, hermetically sealed environments are discussed with references to actual application in the Soviet Soyuz and Voskhod manned spacecraft. Temperature and humidity control, removal of carbon dioxide, oxygen regeneration, and removal of bacteria and viruses are among the factors considered.

  19. Synchrotron emission in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafat, M. Z.; Melrose, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    A conventional astrophysical treatment of synchrotron emission is modified to include the refractive index of air, written as n = 1 + 1/(2γ 02), with γ0 ≫ 1. The angular distribution of emission by an electron with Lorentz factor γ is broadened, from a range of |θ - α| ≈ 1/γ in vacuo (θ = emission angle, α = pitch angle) to |θ - α| ≈ max{1/γ, 1/γ0} in air. The emission spectrum in air is almost unchanged from that in vacuo at sufficiently low frequencies and it is modified by extending to higher frequencies with increasing γ/γ0 < 1, and to arbitrarily high frequencies for γ/γ0 ≥ 1. We estimate the frequency at which this enhancement starts, and show that it decreases with increasing γ/γ0 > 1. We interpret the enhanced high-frequency emission as Cerenkov-like, and attribute it to the formation of caustic surfaces that sweep across the observer; we use a geometric model based on Huygens construction to support this interpretation. The geometric model predicts that the so-called Cerenkov ring present at high frequencies may be circular, elliptical, or crescent shaped. In the astrophysical treatment of synchrotron emission, the dependence on azimuthal angle is lost in the expression for emissivity. A motivation for this investigation is the application to extensive air showers, and for this purpose the loss of azimuthal dependence is a limitation. We comment on methods to overcome this limitation. We show that when an observer can see emission from inside the Cerenkov cone, emission from outside the Cerenkov cone, on either side of it, arrives simultaneously; there are three emission times for a given observation time.

  20. The AIRES Optical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer) is the facility spectrometer for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy). AIRES is a long-slit (approximately 160 in) spectrometer designed to cover the 17 to 210-micron range with good sensitivity using three spectroscopic arrays. Initially, only the 30-130 micron, mid-wavelength array will be available. The instrument has a cryogenic K-mirror to perform field rotation and a slit-viewing camera (lambda < 28 microns, FOV = 160 in diameter) to image source morphology and verify telescope pointing. AIRES employs a large echelle grating to achieve a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 1.0 x 10(exp 6)/lambda (sub mu), where lambda (sub mu) is the wavelength in microns. Hyperfine, Inc. has ruled and tested the AIRES' echelle; its wave-front error is 0.028 waves RMS (root mean square) at 10.6 microns. The instrument is housed in a liquid-helium cryostat which is constrained in diameter (approximately 1 m) and length (approximately 2 m) by the observatory. Hence, the length of the echelle (approximately 1.1 m) and the focal length of its collimator (approximately 5.2 m) severely drive the optical design and packaging. The final design uses diamond-turned aluminum optics and has up to 19 reflections inside the cryostat, depending on the optical path. This design was generated, optimized, and toleranced using Code V. The predicted performance is nearly diffraction-limited at 17 microns; the error budget is dominated by design residuals. Light loss due to slit rotation and slit curvature has been minimized. A thorough diffraction analysis with GLAD (G-Level Analysis Drawer) was used to size the mirrors and baffles; the internal light loss is shown to be a strong function of slit width.

  1. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  2. Air regenerating and conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishayenkov, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various physicochemical methods of regenerating and conditioning air for spacecraft are described with emphasis on conditions which affect efficiency of the system. Life support systems used in closed, hermetically sealed environments are discussed with references to actual application in the Soviet Soyuz and Voskhod manned spacecraft. Temperature and humidity control, removal of carbon dioxide, oxygen regeneration, and removal of bacteria and viruses are among the factors considered.

  3. Bosnia Air Drop Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    both MREs and HDRs. Bulk food included sacks of wheat flour and sugar, pulses ( beans , peas, IH-15 lentils ), dried whole milk, canned meat, biscuits...drops will almost certainly be requested in future humanitarian assistance operations, despite ongoing debate about relative costs and benefits of such... benefit policymakers and planners in future humanitarian operations. It was this background that established the requirement to assess the air drop

  4. Air-gap heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyn, Ch.; Schmidt, M.; Schwaiger, S.; Stemmann, A.; Mendach, S.; Hansen, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of thin GaAs layers which quasi hover above the underlying GaAs substrate. The hovering layers have a perfect epitaxial relationship to the substrate crystal lattice and are connected to the substrate surface only by lattice matched nanopillars of low density. These air-gap heterostructures are created by combining in situ molecular beam epitaxy compatible self-assembled droplet-etching and ex situ selective wet-chemical etching.

  5. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  6. The AIRES Optical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer) is the facility spectrometer for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy). AIRES is a long-slit (approximately 160 in) spectrometer designed to cover the 17 to 210-micron range with good sensitivity using three spectroscopic arrays. Initially, only the 30-130 micron, mid-wavelength array will be available. The instrument has a cryogenic K-mirror to perform field rotation and a slit-viewing camera (lambda < 28 microns, FOV = 160 in diameter) to image source morphology and verify telescope pointing. AIRES employs a large echelle grating to achieve a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 1.0 x 10(exp 6)/lambda (sub mu), where lambda (sub mu) is the wavelength in microns. Hyperfine, Inc. has ruled and tested the AIRES' echelle; its wave-front error is 0.028 waves RMS (root mean square) at 10.6 microns. The instrument is housed in a liquid-helium cryostat which is constrained in diameter (approximately 1 m) and length (approximately 2 m) by the observatory. Hence, the length of the echelle (approximately 1.1 m) and the focal length of its collimator (approximately 5.2 m) severely drive the optical design and packaging. The final design uses diamond-turned aluminum optics and has up to 19 reflections inside the cryostat, depending on the optical path. This design was generated, optimized, and toleranced using Code V. The predicted performance is nearly diffraction-limited at 17 microns; the error budget is dominated by design residuals. Light loss due to slit rotation and slit curvature has been minimized. A thorough diffraction analysis with GLAD (G-Level Analysis Drawer) was used to size the mirrors and baffles; the internal light loss is shown to be a strong function of slit width.

  7. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  8. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  9. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  10. Air transparent soundproof window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  11. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  12. Wind driven air pump

    SciTech Connect

    Beisel, V.A.

    1983-05-31

    An improved pump for lifting water from an underground source utilizes a wind motor for driving an oil-less air compressor eliminating oil contamination of ground water which is forced to the surface. The wind motor is movable to face the wind by means of a novel swivel assembly which also eliminates the formation and freezing of condensate within the airline from the compressor. The propeller blades of the wind motor and the tail section are formed from a pair of opposed convex air foil shaped surfaces which provide the propeller blades and the tail section with fast sensitivity to slight changes in wind direction and speed. A novel well tower for supporting the wind motor and compressor and for lifting the water from the underground source is an optional modification which requires no welding and eliminates the problem of condensate freezing in the airline going to the well. The wind driven air pump disclosed is lightweight, can be easily installed, is relatively inexpensive to produce and is virtually maintenance-free and capable of operating in winds exceeding 100 miles per hour.

  13. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  14. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  15. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    xvii Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Motivation ...are made. As a result of these and other questions, the work is able to conclude with considerable suggestions for future work. 1.1 Motivation The...related and somewhat surprising application of hypersonic flight is high- altitude tourism [31]. Hypersonic vehicles for tourism require acceleration

  16. Biological air filter for air-quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ras, Niels; Krooneman, Janneke; Ogink, Nico; Willers, Hans; D'Amico, Arnaldo; di Natale, Corrado; Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Martinez, N.; Dixon, Mike; Llewellyn, David; Eckhard, Fir; Zona, G.; Fachecci, L.; Kraakman, Bart; Demey, Dries; Michel, Noelle; Darlington, Alan

    2005-10-01

    Biological air filtration is a promising technique for air-quality control in closed environments in space and on Earth, and it offers several advantages over existing techniques. However, to apply it in these environments, specific criteria have to be met. A concept for biological air filtration in closed environments was developed and tested by an international team of specialists. Several model systems for closed environments in space and on Earth were used as a source of contaminated air. Conventional and new analytical techniques were used to determine odour composition and removal efficiency of the filter, including an "electronic nose". The results show that the developed biological air filter is suitable for treating contaminated air in closed environments. The developed electronic nose was shown to be a promising method for air-quality monitoring.

  17. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  18. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  19. Breathing air from protein foam.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Douglas; Jewell, David N; Stedman, Matthew L; Burapatana, Vorakan; Atukorale, Prabhani V; Pinson, Michelle L; Wardle, Alison E; Zhu, Wenyan; Tanner, Robert D

    2003-01-01

    Protein foams can be used to extinguish fires. If foams are to be used to extinguish fires where people are present, such as in high-rise buildings or ships, then a method for allowing people to breathe in a foam-filled environment is needed. It is proposed that the air, used to create the foam be used for breathing. A canister that will break incoming air-filled foam has been designed for attachment to a standard gas mask, in order to provide breathable air to a trapped person. Preliminary results for the modified mask indicate feasibility of breathing air from air-filled protein foam.

  20. Fuel-air control device

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.

    1981-12-15

    The invention concerns a device for controlling the vehicles fuel-air mixture by regulating the air in the ventilation passage leading to the engine air intake from the crankcase. In a vehicle provided with a PCV valve, the device is located in the ventilation passage leading from the crankcase to the engine air intake and the device is downstream of the PCV valve. The device admits outside air to the ventilation passage to lean the gas mixture when the engine creates a vacuum less than 8 psi in the ventilation passage.

  1. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  2. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  3. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  4. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  5. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  6. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  7. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-04-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  8. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  9. Ambient Air Definition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Air force Thunderbirds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-01

    Silhouetted against the cloud-strewn sky over NASA's Kennedy Space Center, a U.S. Air Force Thunderbird F-16D aircraft displays its prowess. The pilot is Maj. Tad Clark, who, after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility, announced that Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex will host the inaugural World Space Expo from Nov. 3 to 11, featuring an aerial salute by the Thunderbirds on its opening weekend. The Expo will create one of the largest displays of space artifacts, hardware and personalities ever assembled in one location with the objective to inspire, educate and engage the public by highlighting the achievements and benefits of space exploration.

  11. Control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-03-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne`s pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry.

  12. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  13. Air monitoring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tissandier, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An air monitoring device (100) includes an outer casing (101) configured to receive an airflow (102) comprising particulate; a bore (103) located inside the outer casing (101); and a collection probe (104) located inside the outer casing (101), the collection probe (104) being configured such that there is a gap (105) between an exit of the bore (103) and an entrance of the collection probe (104), such that particulate in the airflow (102) having a diameter larger than a threshold flows through an interior of the collection probe (104).

  14. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  15. Interpretation of Ambient Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  17. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  18. Internal sleeve air release control apparatus in seismic air gun

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.C.; Thomson, J.T.

    1981-01-27

    Disclosed is a seismic source device, known in the industry as an air gun, having internal sleeve and shuttle control for allowing a predetermined discharge of compressed air into water for purposes of seismic exploration. The shuttle engages an internal sleeve having ports that momentarily align with exhaust ports and then moves past, sealing off the exhaust ports before all of the compressed air in the firing chamber of the air gun is exhausted. By preventing further discharge of air with little or no loss in acoustic output, pulses are greatly reduced, thereby enhancing the operation of the entire system. Further by preventing all the air in the firing chamber from being discharged, the system becomes more efficient and more cost effective.

  19. Air channel distribution during air sparging: A field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Leeson, A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Headington, G.L.; Vogel, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Air sparging may have the potential to improve upon conventional groundwater treatment technologies. However, judging from studies published to date and theoretical analyses, it is possible that air sparging may have a limited effect on aquifer contamination. The basic mechanisms controlling air sparging are not well understood, and current monitoring practice does not appear adequate to quantitatively evaluate the process. During this study, the effective zone of influence, defined as the areas in which air channels form, was studied as a function of flowrate and depth of injection points. This was accomplished by conducting the air sparging test in an area with shallow standing water. Air sparging points were installed at various depths, and the zone of influence was determined visually.

  20. Air modeling: Air dispersion models; regulatory applications and technological advances

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Liles, R.

    1995-09-01

    Air dispersion models are a useful and practical tool for both industry and regulatory agencies. They serve as tools for engineering, permitting, and regulations development. Their cost effectiveness and ease of implementation compared to ambient monitoring is perhaps their most-appealing trait. Based on the current momentum within the U.S. EPA to develop better models and contain regulatory burdens on industry, it is likely that air dispersion modeling will be a major player in future air regulatory initiatives.

  1. Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 1 Ara Road Edwards AFB CA 93524-7013 AFRL -RZ-ED-VG-2011-269 9...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL /RZS 11. SPONSOR...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Air Force Research Laboratory Ed d Ai F B CA Col Mike Platt war s r orce

  2. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    maritime theories to war fighting strategy in the air domain, specific to the air control spectrum. The author assesses the importance of translating...in being” concept. The author uses an operational design framework as a means to investigate three cases as they relate to air control . These case...and control (C2) networks, and heavily constrain US operational logistics by destroying major supply nodes and the relatively few US logistics

  3. The Air Advisor: The Face of US Air Force Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Zadalis, USAF Nestled in the local townships of small-town New Jersey is an Air Education and Training Command (AETC) schoolhouse with a small faculty of... strategic importance in- crease across the African Maghreb, for example, the Air Advisor Acad- emy is poised to provide education and training to a whole...across the Pacific region over the next year. America’s strategic shift toward the Pacific makes it increasingly im- portant for air advisors to

  4. Air-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making compressed air energy storage technically economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity with a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, and have the highest cost of the storage system options study. They have the potential for longest time to startup and are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  5. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.

    2013-06-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  6. Proton-Air Cross Section and Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Ralf; Engel, Ralph; Müller, Steffen; Schüssler, Fabian; Unger, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Hadronic cross sections at ultra-high energy have a significant impact on the development of extensive air shower cascades. Therefore the interpretation of air shower data depends critically on hadronic interaction models that extrapolate the cross section from accelerator measurements to the highest cosmic ray energies. We discuss how extreme scenarios of cross section extrapolations can affect the interpretation of air shower data. We find that the theoretical uncertainty of the extrapolated proton-air cross section at ultra-high energies is much larger than suggested by the existing spread of available Monte Carlo model predictions. The impact on the depth of the shower maximum is demonstrated.

  7. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  8. Air ions and aerosol science

    SciTech Connect

    Tammet, H.

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Indoor air quality medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Ross, C S; Lockey, J E

    1994-08-01

    The regulatory and legal communities have begun only recently to address the medicolegal issues surrounding indoor air quality. No single governmental agency is responsible for indoor air quality issues. The focus of the federal government's indoor air quality programs is on the gathering and dissemination of information rather than on the regulation of indoor air pollution. State and local regulatory controls vary but may include antismoking ordinances, building codes, and contractor certification programs. Numerous lawsuits involving various parties and legal theories have been filed on the basis of illness allegedly related to indoor air quality. Further regulatory and legal review of indoor air problems will likely occur in the near future, particularly as a result of the characterization of environmental tobacco smoke as a class A carcinogen.

  10. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  11. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  12. Maneuver from the Air Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    cognitive maneuver mechanisms developed in the 1980s as part of broader maneuver warfare theory. The result is a proposed definition of maneuver from the...air power employment and results from two case studies - Operation Rolling Thunder and Operation Iraqi Freedom - support that the proposed definition is...question – what is maneuver from the air domain? Simply placing the doctrinal definition of maneuver in an air power context is not enough. Ultimately

  13. Noise trauma from air bags.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Air bags have contributed substantially to the safety of car occupants in road accidents, but concern exists that they may inflate unnecessarily in low speed crashes. Previous articles have reported eye, face, upper limb, and chest injuries caused by air bag inflation. In this report, researchers describe two cases of hearing loss and persistent tinnitus that may have resulted from air bag inflation in low speed collisions. Neither subject sustained other injuries.

  14. Disinfecting Filters For Recirculated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilichi, Carmine A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple treatment disinfects air filters by killing bacteria, algae, fungi, mycobacteria, viruses, spores, and any other micro-organisms filters might harbor. Concept applied to reusable stainless-steel wire mesh filters and disposable air filters. Treatment used on filters in air-circulation systems in spacecraft, airplanes, other vehicles, and buildings to help prevent spread of colds, sore throats, and more-serious illnesses.

  15. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  16. Optical Measurements of Air Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-05

    generated in air by means of an electron beam is highly efficient. Fast electrons propagating through air result in production of electron- ion pairs...through the mechanism of impact ionization, which requires 33.7 eV per electron- ion pair. The air pressure, concentration of variable species, such as...and polyatomic species. Because our time scales are in the 1 ms to 10 ms range, there is a strong possibility of obtaining real-time absorption

  17. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  18. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  19. Sights from the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartara, P.

    2009-04-01

    The first aerial shots were taken by aerostat balloon during the second half of the nineteen century for military purpose and subsequently utilized for civilian, archaeological and town planning uses (Roman Forum 1900, Pompei 1910, Venezia 1913, etc.). Sights from the air have given the most objective representation of the landscape and traces progressively left by human activities. After the First World War the use of airplanes for photogrammetric shots suitable to create cartography (territorial map making) has permitted to realize a good basic documentation; successively it has been increased by aerial reconnaissance during the Second World War. Aerial shots by RAF, USAF and Luftwaffe brought to the establishment of rich aerial photograph Archives, particularly in Europe, which have had a very low utilization for the historical restoration of landscape. From the fifties, aerial documentation becomes systematic for different scale analysis and territorial planning. The use of satellite imagery and multispectral bands integrates the historical and recent aerial photographs; the former is particularly helpful for cartography updating, for large scale environmental analysis, for study and research of territories with not available air photographs or lacking in aerial shots. The amount and density of archaeological buried evidences, unknown at the most, is very substantial in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean area; here air-photo interpretation is being applied at advanced levels, but not systematically, since several decades. Some archaeological research teams, working for the knowledge of territorial cultural heritage, utilize historical and recent aerial photographs intensively (aerial photographs previous the II WW, just before the intensive and extensive use of mechanical means to till the land, preserve a large amount of traces or cropmarks of buried evidences; recent shots taken on different conditions of climate and crops, allow to see and read important

  20. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  1. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  2. [Air quality and climate change].

    PubMed

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  3. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  4. Thin cylindrical sheets of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur; Beilharz, Daniel; Guyon, Axel; Li, Er Qiang; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2014-11-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispheric sheets of air. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, whereby they rupture to form myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air-layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form anti-bubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread from the pinch-off from the nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around these treads and remain stable over extended time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these air cylinders is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer.

  5. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  6. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  7. The particles in town air

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, J. McK.

    1965-01-01

    Particles constitute an important part of air pollution, and their behaviour when suspended in air is very different from that of gas molecules: in particular, the mechanisms by which they become deposited on surfaces are different, and consequently the methods normally used for removing particles from the air, either for sampling or for cleaning it, rely mainly on mechanisms that do not enter into the behaviour of gas molecules. These mechanisms are described, and the ways in which they affect the problems of air pollution and its measurement are discussed. ImagesFIG. 8 PMID:14315713

  8. Air as the caloric stimulus.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, G O

    1978-05-01

    The use of air as the caloric medium was investigated and compared to that of water. The ability of air and water to generate surface temperatures close to the fluid outlet temperature was studied by irrigation onto a thermocouple. Results of caloric tests performed with air and water are compared by calculating the average nystagmus response for the hot and cold stimuli for two groups of sixty patients. Also, the number of canal paresis, directional preponderance, mixed, bi-lateral canal paresis and normal responses are compared for each group. Finally, the effect of performing a bi-thermal air caloric on a patient having a unilateral drum perforation is discussed.

  9. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  10. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  11. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  12. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  13. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  14. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  15. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  16. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  17. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  18. Air-storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making CAES technically and economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity in a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, have the highest cost of the storage system options study and the potential for longest time to startup, are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  19. Indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gold, D R

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and "tight building" syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.

  20. Air pollution estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, Y.N.

    1997-12-31

    Global and limited area pollutant transport models based on the 3-D transport diffusion equation are considered provided that the air velocity field is known. As a first approximation, climatic monthly mean velocities are taken, though more precise velocity field can be obtained with a special dynamic model. The problem of pollutant flows through the open horizontal and vertical boundaries is discussed. Different boundary conditions are set at the {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} parts of such boundaries in order to get the well-posed problems according to Hadamard when either solution is unique and stable to initial perturbations. In the non-diffusion limit, these conditions are reduced to the well-known ones for the pure advection problem, when the only {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} boundary conditions are to be set, while the {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} conditions are not prescribed, and determined by the characteristics method.