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Sample records for airflow gage experiment

  1. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, and it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flowfield properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of 2 were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  2. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, an< it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flow-field properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  3. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael; Ratnayake, Nalin

    2011-01-01

    The results are described of the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment (RAGE), which was designed and fabricated to support the flight test of a new supersonic inlet design using Dryden's Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF) and F-15B testbed airplane (see figure). The PFTF is a unique pylon that was developed for flight-testing propulsion-related experiments such as inlets, nozzles, and combustors over a range of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions. The objective of the RAGE program was to quantify the local flowfield at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment (CCIE). The CCIE is a fixed representation of a conceptual mixed-compression supersonic inlet with a translating biconic centerbody. The primary goal of RAGE was to identify the relationship between free-stream and local Mach number in the low supersonic regime, with emphasis on the identification of the particular free-stream Mach number that produced a local Mach number of 1.5. Measurements of the local flow angularity, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure over the interface plane were also desired. The experimental data for the RAGE program were obtained during two separate research flights. During both flights, local flowfield data were obtained during straight and level acceleration segments out to steady-state test points. The data obtained from the two flights showed small variations in Mach number, flow angularity, and dynamic pressure across the interface plane at all flight conditions. The data show that a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 will produce the desired local Mach number of 1.5 for CCIE. The local total pressure distortion over the interface plane at this condition was approximately 1.5%. At this condition, there was an average of nearly 2 of downwash over the interface plane. This small amount of downwash is not expected to adversely affect the performance of the CCIE inlet.

  4. Experiments to study strain gage load calibrations on a wing structure at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, R. C.; Fields, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study changes in strain-gage bridge load calibrations on a wing structure heated to temperatures of 200 F, 400 F, and 600 F. Data were also obtained to define the experimental repeatability of strain-gage bridge outputs. Experiments were conducted to establish the validity of the superposition of bridge outputs due to thermal and mechanical loads during a heating simulation of Mach 3 flight. The strain-gage bridge outputs due to load cycle at each of the above temperature levels were very repeatable. A number of bridge calibrations were found to change significantly as a function of temperature. The sum of strain-gage bridge outputs due to individually applied thermal and mechanical loads compared well with that due to combined or superimposed loads. The validity of superposition was, therefore, established.

  5. Image Correlation Applied to Single Crystal Plasticity Experiments and Comparison to Strain Gage Data

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, M M; Florando, J N; Lassila, D H; Schmidt, T; Tyson II, J

    2005-06-29

    Full-field optical techniques are becoming increasingly popular for measuring the deformation of materials, especially in materials that exhibit non-uniform behavior. While there are many full-field techniques available (e.g. moire interferometry, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), holography, and image correlation [1]), for our study of the deformation of single crystals, the image correlation technique was chosen for its insensitivity to vibrations and ability to measure large strains. While the theory and development of the algorithms for image correlation have been presented elsewhere [2,3] a comparative study to a conventional strain measurement device, such as a strain gage rosette, is desired to test the robustness and accuracy of the technique. The 6 Degrees of Freedom (6DOF) experiment, which was specifically designed to validate dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations [4], is ideally suited to compare the two methods. This experiment is different from previous experiments on single crystals in that it allows the crystal to deform essentially unconstrained, in both the elastic and plastic regimes, by allowing the bottom of the sample to move as the sample is being compressed. This unconstrained motion prevents the internal crystal planes from rotating during the deformation as typically seen in the pioneering work of Schmid [5] and Taylor [6]. In the early development of the 6DOF apparatus, stacked strain gage rosettes were used to provide the strain data [7]. While very accurate at small strains, strain gages provide an averaged measurement over a small area and cannot be used to measure the inhomogeneous plastic strains that typically occur during the 6DOF experiment. An image correlation technique can measure the full-field in-plane and out-of-plane deformation that occurs in single crystals, and a comparison to the strain gage data at small strains can test the accuracy of the method.

  6. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  7. Development of buried wire gages for measurement of wall shear stress in Blastane experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. V.; Steinle, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Buried Wire Gages operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System are among the special types of instrumentation to be used in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). These Gages are of a new type and need to be adapted for specific applications. Methods were developed to fabricate Gage inserts and mount those in the BLASTANE Instrumentation Plugs. A large number of Gages were prepared and operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System to derive some of the calibration constants for application to fluid-flow wall shear-stress measurements. The final stage of the calibration was defined, but could not be accomplished because of non-availability of a suitable flow simulating apparatus. This report provides a description of the Buried Wire Gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper Gages and the calibration constants, namely Temperature Coefficient of Resistance and Conduction Loss Factor.

  8. The Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Gas Experiment (ALE/GAGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Khalil, M. Aslam K.

    1995-01-01

    The ALE/GAGE project was designed to determine the global atmospheric lifetimes of the chlorofluorocarbons CCl3F and CCl2F2 (F-11 and F-12), which had been identified as the main gases that cause stratospheric ozone depletion. The experimental procedures also provided the concentrations of CH3CCl3, CCl4 and N2O. The extended role of the project was to evaluate the mass balances of these gases as well. Methylchloroform (CH3CCl3) serves as a tracer of average atmospheric OH concentrations and hence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and can also deplete the ozone layer. Measurements of these gases were taken with optimized instruments in the field at a frequency of about 1 sample/hr. Toward the end of the present project methane measurements were added to the program. The final report deals with the research of the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) as part of the ALE/GAGE program between 4/1/1988 and 1/31/1991. The report defines the scope of the OGI project, the approach, and the results.

  9. Gage cookbook: Tools and techniques to measure stresses and motions on explosive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Tools and techniques developed to measure stresses and motions on underground nuclear and high explosive tests in the tuff geologies at the Nevada Test Site are described in this document. The thrust of the measurements was to understand containment phenomenology. The authors concentrate on the fluid-coupled ytterbium gage; it was fielded to measure dynamic stress in the 0.2 to 20 kilobar range and the subsequent, low amplitude residual stress. Also described are accelerometer packages; their traces were integrated to obtain particle motion. Various cable survival techniques were investigated with field measurements for they wished to extend the measurements to late-time. Field measurements were also made to address the gage inclusion problem. Work to date suggests that the problem is a minimum when the stress level is above the yield strength of the host rock and grout. Below the yield level stress amplitudes in the grouted hole can range from 60 to 200% of the stress in the host rock.

  10. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in Jul. and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 Jul. 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  11. Airflow study of pathologic larynges using a constant temperature anemometer: further experience.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, K; Fujita, F

    1992-08-01

    Phonatory airflow was recorded in 361 laryngeal disease patients and 59 normal subjects by using a constant temperature anemometer to measure Isshiki's proposed parameter, the AC/DC percentage. The pathologic groups displayed AC/DC percentage values smaller than those of the normal group. The value differentials observed among the various diseases suggest that the AC/DC percentage may reflect the vibrational capacity of the vocal cords.

  12. Low-g propellant gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, George

    1987-01-01

    A program to develop and demonstrate technology for low gravity propellant gaging on future geostationary satellites is described. Evaluations were performed to select four gaging concepts for ground tests and low gravity tests in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The selected concepts were: (1) an ultrasonic point sensor system, (2) a nucleonic gaging system, (3) an ultrasonic torsional wave guide, and (4) an ultrasonic flowmeter. As a result of successful ground and KC-135 tests, two concepts (the ultrasonic point sensor and the nucleonic systems) were selected for orbital test in a shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment.

  13. Airflow Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is an overview of research being done in laminar flow at Ames Dryden Flight Research Center and Langley Research Center. Airflow research at Ames Dryden has resulted in a special wing covering that will artificially induce laminar flow on the wing surface; this specially adapted wing is shown being tested in different flying conditions. This video also features research done at Langley in producing a chemical covering for wings that will make visible natural laminar flow and turbulent airflow patterns as they occur. Langley researchers explain possible use of this technology in supersonic flight.

  14. NOVA 201 ultrasonic thickness gage (NOVA Gage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garecht, Diane

    1990-01-01

    The measurement integrity of the NOVA 201 digital ultrasonic thickness gage (NOVA gage) was demonstrated by comparing the NOVA gage measurements to the thickness gage measurements, and determining the bias and uncertainty of the NOVA gage when measuring redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) hardware per engineering test plans (ETP). The NOVA gage was tested by three different operators on steel and aluminum RSRM hardware for wall thickness. The results show that the measurement bias is not consistent. The uncertainty of the bias is caused by the heterogeneous material properties of the RSRM components that influence the time of flight of ultrasonic waves. The measurement uncertainty inherent to the design and operation of the NOVA gage is less in comparison to the uncertainty of the bias. The total measurement uncertainty cannot be substantially reduced by taking more than one measurement. There is no correlation between bias and the surface finish range of this test unless 3-in-One oil is used as a couplant, in which case there appears to be a slight trend. There is no correlation between uncertainty and the surface finish range. The measurement uncertainty of the NOVA gage can be reduced using 3-in-One oil as a couplant.

  15. Resistance fail strain gage technology as applied to composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Existing strain gage technologies as applied to orthotropic composite materials are reviewed. The bonding procedures, transverse sensitivity effects, errors due to gage misalignment, and temperature compensation methods are addressed. Numerical examples are included where appropriate. It is shown that the orthotropic behavior of composites can result in experimental error which would not be expected based on practical experience with isotropic materials. In certain cases, the transverse sensitivity of strain gages and/or slight gage misalignment can result in strain measurement errors.

  16. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  17. Airflow sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelbach, Herman R. (Inventor); Morgan, Michael D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is an airflow sensing system for determining the type of airflow flowing over a flight surface. A hot film sensor is driven by a constant voltage feedback circuit that maintains the voltage across the sensor at a predetermined level. A signal processing circuit receives an output signal of the feedback circuit and determines whether the output signal is indicative of laminar, transitional or turbulent airflow. Transitional airflow is distinguished from turbulent airflow by a signal having significant energy in a low-frequency passband from 50-80 Hz. The signal processing circuit drives a three-color LED display to provide a visual indication of the type of airflow being sensed.

  18. Observations of the far ultraviolet airflow by the Ultraviolet Limb Imaging experiment on STS-39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Conway, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Limb Imaging (UVLIM) experiment flew on STS-39 in the spring of 1991 to observe the Earth's thermospheric airglow and included a far ultraviolet (1080-1800 A) spectrometer. We present first results from this spectrometer, including a spectroscopic analysis at 6-A resolution of H, O, N, and N2 dayglow emissions and modeling of the observed limb-scan profiles of dayglow emissions. The observed N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emission reflects a vibrational population distribution in the a(1 Pi)(sub g) state that differs significantly from those predicted for direct electron excitation and excitation with cascade from the a('1 Sigma)(sub u)(-) and w(1 Delta)(sub u) states. The vibrational population distribution and LBH brightness suggest a total cascade rate 45% that of direct excitation, in contrast to laboratory measurements. For the first time, pronounced limb brightening is observed in both the N I lambda 1200 limb emission profiles, as expected for emissions excited by N2 dissociation which produces kinetically fast N fragments; however, optically thick components of these features are also observed. Preliminary modeling of the OI lambda 1356, HI lambda 1216, and OI lambda 1304 and OI lambda 1641 emissions agrees to within roughly 10% of the observed limb-scan profiles, but the models underestimate the N2 LBH profiles by a factor of 1.4-1.6, consistent with the inferred cascade effect. Other findings include: an OI lambda 1152/lambda 1356 intensity ratio that is inconsistent with the large cascade contribution to OI lambda 1356 from np 5P states required by laboratory and nightglow observations; nightglow observations of the tropical ultraviolet arcs exhibit a wide range of OI lambda 1356/lambda 1304 intensity ratios and illustrate the complicated observing geometry and radiative transfer effects that must be modeled; and we find a 3-sigma upper limit of 8.5 R to the total LBH vehicle glow emission.

  19. Torque requirement of rotating rods in airflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.; Crossman, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the torque required for rotating a rotor disk fitted with a number of radially arranged rods placed into a ducted airflow. An array of stationary rods, also radially arranged, was placed upstream close to the rotor with a small gap between the rods to cause wake interference. The results show that torque generally increased with airflow and the rate of increase varied considerably. At lower values of airflow, the rate of increase was larger than at higher airflow, and definite torque peaks occurred at certain airflow rates, where the torque attained a maximum within the test airflow range. During the test, a maximum blade passage frequency of 2037 Hz was attained. The results also show that the torque peaks occurred at the same Strouhal number for all speeds.

  20. Ultrasonic Bolt Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleman, Stuart M. (Inventor); Rowe, Geoffrey K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An ultrasonic bolt gage is described which uses a crosscorrelation algorithm to determine a tension applied to a fastener, such as a bolt. The cross-correlation analysis is preferably performed using a processor operating on a series of captured ultrasonic echo waveforms. The ultrasonic bolt gage is further described as using the captured ultrasonic echo waveforms to perform additional modes of analysis, such as feature recognition. Multiple tension data outputs, therefore, can be obtained from a single data acquisition for increased measurement reliability. In addition, one embodiment of the gage has been described as multi-channel, having a multiplexer for performing a tension analysis on one of a plurality of bolts.

  1. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  2. Riveting-force gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotta, J. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Gage monitors riveting forces applied when components are mounted on printed-circuit boards. Correct swaging pressures have been established for specific substrate materials such as phenolics and ceramics.

  3. Levels at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations

  4. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Materials were evaluated that could be used in manufacturing electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures at or above 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a characteristic response to strain, temperature and time that is reproducible or that varies in a predictable manner within specified limits. Several metallic alloys were evaluated, as well as a series of transition metal carbides, nitrides and silicides.

  5. Airflow control system

    DOEpatents

    Motszko, Sean Ronald; McEnaney, Ryan Patrick; Brush, Jeffrey Alan; Zimmermann, Daniel E.

    2007-03-13

    A dual airflow control system for an environment having a first air zone and a second air zone. The system includes a first input device operable to generate a first input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the first zone and a second input device operable to generate a second input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the second zone. First and second flow regulators are configured to regulate airflow to the first and second zones, respectively, such that the first and second regulators selectively provide the airflow to each of the first and second zones based on the first and second input signals. A single actuator is associated with the first and second flow regulators. The actuator is operable to simultaneously actuate the first and second flow regulators based on an input from the first and second input devices to allow the desired airflows to the first and the second zones.

  6. Strain gage barometric transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viton, P.

    1977-01-01

    A strain gage barometric transmitter for measuring the atmospheric pressure in severe environmental conditions is described. This equipment specifications are presented and its performance assessed. It is shown that this barometric sensor can measure the atmospheric pressure with a precision of 0.5 mb during a 6 month period.

  7. Evaluation results of the 700 deg C Chinese strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    There is a continuing interest and need for resistance strain gages capable of making static strain measurements on components located in the hot section of gas turbine engines. A paper by Tsen-tai Wu describes the development and evaluation of high temperature gauges fabricated from specially developed Fe-Cr-Al-V-Ti-Y alloy wire. Several of these gages and a quantity of P12-2 ceramic adhesive were purchased for evaluation. Nine members of the aircraft turbine engine community were invited to participate in an evaluation of these gages. Each participant was sent one strain gage, a small amount of ceramic adhesive, instructions for mounting the gage on a test beam, and a set of suggestions for the experiment. Data on gage factor variation with temperature, apparent strain, and drift are discussed.

  8. Evaluation results of the 700 deg C Chinese strain gages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1984-10-01

    There is a continuing interest and need for resistance strain gages capable of making static strain measurements on components located in the hot section of gas turbine engines. A paper by Tsen-tai Wu describes the development and evaluation of high temperature gauges fabricated from specially developed Fe-Cr-Al-V-Ti-Y alloy wire. Several of these gages and a quantity of P12-2 ceramic adhesive were purchased for evaluation. Nine members of the aircraft turbine engine community were invited to participate in an evaluation of these gages. Each participant was sent one strain gage, a small amount of ceramic adhesive, instructions for mounting the gage on a test beam, and a set of suggestions for the experiment. Data on gage factor variation with temperature, apparent strain, and drift are discussed.

  9. Airflow and particle deposition simulations in health and emphysema: from in vivo to in silico animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Jessica M; Marsden, Alison L; Grandmont, Celine; Shadden, Shawn C; Darquenne, Chantal; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2014-04-01

    Image-based in silico modeling tools provide detailed velocity and particle deposition data. However, care must be taken when prescribing boundary conditions to model lung physiology in health or disease, such as in emphysema. In this study, the respiratory resistance and compliance were obtained by solving an inverse problem; a 0D global model based on healthy and emphysematous rat experimental data. Multi-scale CFD simulations were performed by solving the 3D Navier-Stokes equations in an MRI-derived rat geometry coupled to a 0D model. Particles with 0.95 μm diameter were tracked and their distribution in the lung was assessed. Seven 3D-0D simulations were performed: healthy, homogeneous, and five heterogeneous emphysema cases. Compliance (C) was significantly higher (p = 0.04) in the emphysematous rats (C = 0.37 ± 0.14 cm(3)/cmH2O) compared to the healthy rats (C = 0.25 ± 0.04 cm(3)/cmH2O), while the resistance remained unchanged (p = 0.83). There were increases in airflow, particle deposition in the 3D model, and particle delivery to the diseased regions for the heterogeneous cases compared to the homogeneous cases. The results highlight the importance of multi-scale numerical simulations to study airflow and particle distribution in healthy and diseased lungs. The effect of particle size and gravity were studied. Once available, these in silico predictions may be compared to experimental deposition data.

  10. Levels at streamflow gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    This manual establishes the surveying procedures for (1) setting gages at a streamflow gaging station to datum and (2) checking the gages periodically for errors caused by vertical movement of the structures that support them. Surveying terms and concepts are explained, and procedures for testing, adjusting, and operating the instruments are described in detail. Notekeeping, adjusting level circuits, checking gages, summarizing results, locating the nearest National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 bench mark, and relating the gage datum to the national datum are also described.

  11. Gage for micromachining system

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1979-02-27

    A gage for measuring the contour of the surface of an element of a micromachining tool system and of a work piece machined by the micromachining tool system. The gage comprises a glass plate containing two electrical contacts and supporting a steel ball resting against the contacts. As the element or workpiece is moved against the steel ball, the very slight contact pressure causes an extremely small movement of the steel ball which breaks the electrical circuit between the two contacts. The contour information is supplied to a dedicated computer controlling the micromachining tool so that the computer knows the contour of the element and the work piece to an accuracy of .+-. 25 nm. The micromachining tool system with X- and omega-axes is used to machine spherical, aspherical, and irregular surfaces with a maximum contour error of 100 nanometers (nm) and surface waviness of no more than 0.8 nm RMS.

  12. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  13. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  14. Strain Gage Signal Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    blades and vanes in many engines have been collected, played back and examined. The engine types encompass GE’s stable of turbine engines from the small...aeromechanical engineer . 1.3 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Strain gage signals from vibrating rotor blades and vanes were collected, examined, classified, and generalized...turboprops, to turbojets and to the large high bypass turbofan engines . Test conditions include all the phases that are investigated

  15. Acoustic Recession Gage Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-20

    Subscale testing of the dual mode gage has proved particularly troublesome due to the interaction of the nosetip vibration with transducer resonance...Certain electronic parts, such as power transistors, transformers, and parts which must be selected to cus- tomize the electronics to a specific...shock and vibration environment, the electronics are packaged in six potted modules (welded cordwood construction) which are inserted into holes in an

  16. Assessing multizone airflow software

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, D.M.

    2001-12-01

    Multizone models form the basis of most computer simulations of airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. In order to promote computational efficiency, some multizone simulation programs, such as COMIS and CONTAM, restrict the form that their flow models may take. While these tools allow scientists and engineers to explore a wide range of building airflow problems, increasingly their use has led to new questions not answerable by the current generation of programs. This paper, directed at software developers working on the next generation of building airflow models, identifies structural aspects of COMIS and related programs that prevent them from easily incorporating desirable new airflow models. The paper also suggests criteria for evaluating alternate simulation environments for future modeling efforts.

  17. Strain gage system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolleris, G. W.; Mazur, H. J.; Kokoszka, E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine the reliability of various strain gage systems when applied to rotating compressor blades in an aircraft gas turbine engine. A survey of current technology strain gage systems was conducted to provide a basis for selecting candidate systems for evaluation. Testing and evaluation was conducted in an F 100 engine. Sixty strain gage systems of seven different designs were installed on the first and third stages of an F 100 engine fan. Nineteen strain gage failures occurred during 62 hours of engine operation, for a survival rate of 68 percent. Of the failures, 16 occurred at blade-to-disk leadwire jumps (84 percent), two at a leadwire splice (11 percent), and one at a gage splice (5 percent). Effects of erosion, temperature, G-loading, and stress levels are discussed. Results of a post-test analysis of the individual components of each strain gage system are presented.

  18. Three-in-one gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garecht, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Three-in-One Gage is a three way gage designed to measure pressure, temperature, and displacement at the same port continuously. The Two-in-One Gage is a two way gage designed to measure pressure and temperature in the same port continuously. The Two-in-One is an adaptation of the Three-in-One to incorporate dual seals, however, without the proximity sensor. The Three-in-One is assembled using two Type K thermocouples, 1 Kulite Pressure Transducer, and one Kaman Proximity Displacement Sensor. Tests of performance were completed.

  19. The apparent strain stability and repeatability of a BCL3 resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at NASA-Lewis to study the effect of microstructural instability on the apparent strain stability and reproducibility of a BCL3 resistance strain gage. The resistance drift of the gage at various temperatures in the phase transition temperature range (PTTR) was measured. The effects of the heating and cooling rates with which the gage passed through the PTTR on the apparent strain characteristics of the gage were also studied. BCL3 gage, like other Fe-Cr-Al based gages, exhibited apparent strain instability in the temperature range of 700 to 1100 F due to the reversible microstructural transition the gage materials experienced in this temperature range. The BCL3 gage had a maximum apparent strain drift in the neighborhood of 770 F with an average drift rate of approx. -440 microstrain/hr in 2 hrs. The use of the BCL3 gage as well as other Fe-Cl-Al based gages for static strain measurements within the PTTR should be avoided unless the time durations in the PTTR are small enough to introduce a neglible drift. The microstructure transition that the BCL3 gage underwent occurred in the temperature range of 750 to 1050 F during heating and around 1000 to 800 F during cooling. The heating rate, and, in particular, the cooling rate with which the gage passed through the PTTR affected the shape and the repeatability of the apparent strain curve of the gage.

  20. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.; Somers, William P.

    1969-01-01

    The techniques used in making discharge measurements at gaging stations are described in this report. Most of the report deals with the current-meter method of measuring discharge, because this is the principal method used in gaging streams. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, and volumetric tanks in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  1. Gage for 3-d contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynie, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Simple gage, used with template, can help inspectors determine whether three-dimensional curved surface has correct contour. Gage was developed as aid in explosive forming of Space Shuttle emergency-escape hatch. For even greater accuracy, wedge can be made of metal and calibrated by indexing machine.

  2. High temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A ceramic strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films is used to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thick ITO sensors reveals a partially sintered microstructure comprising a contiguous network of submicron ITO particles with well defined necks and isolated nanoporosity. Densification of the ITO particles was retarded during high temperature exposure with nitrogen thus stabilizing the nanoporosity. ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures to incorporate more nitrogen into the films. Under these conditions, sintering and densification of the ITO particles containing these nitrogen rich grain boundaries was retarded and a contiguous network of nano-sized ITO particles was established.

  3. Precision contour gage

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    1990-12-11

    An apparatus for gaging the contour of a machined part includes a rotary slide assembly, a kinematic mount to move the apparatus into and out of position for measuring the part while the part is still on the machining apparatus, a linear probe assembly with a suspension arm and a probe assembly including as probe tip for providing a measure of linear displacement of the tip on the surface of the part, a means for changing relative positions between the part and the probe tip, and a means for recording data points representing linear positions of the probe tip at prescribed rotation intervals in the position changes between the part and the probe tip.

  4. Fluid quantity gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, Allan J.; Snyder, Howard A.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Hermanson, Lynn A.; Hopkins, Richard A.; Vangundy, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    A system for measuring the mass of liquid in a tank on orbit with 1 percent accuracy was developed and demonstrated. An extensive tradeoff identified adiabatic compression as the only gaging technique that is independent of gravity or its orientation, and of the size and distribution of bubbles in the tank. This technique is applicable to all Earth-storable and cryogenic liquids of interest for Space Station use, except superfluid helium, and can be applied to tanks of any size, shape, or internal structure. Accuracy of 0.2 percent was demonstrated in the laboratory, and a detailed analytical model was developed and verified by testing. A flight system architecture is presented that allows meeting the needs of a broad range of space fluid systems without custom development for each user.

  5. Precision contour gage

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, L.F.

    1990-12-11

    An apparatus for gaging the contour of a machined part includes a rotary slide assembly, a kinematic mount to move the apparatus into and out of position for measuring the part while the part is still on the machining apparatus, a linear probe assembly with a suspension arm and a probe assembly including as probe tip for providing a measure of linear displacement of the tip on the surface of the part, a means for changing relative positions between the part and the probe tip, and a means for recording data points representing linear positions of the probe tip at prescribed rotation intervals in the position changes between the part and the probe tip. 5 figs.

  6. Coverage of the Phineas Gage Story in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: Was Gage No Longer Gage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks discuss the story of Phineas Gage and his terrible accident in which he survived a three-and-a-half-foot-long tamping iron that weighed 13¼ pounds exploding through his head. Twenty-three current introductory textbooks were analyzed for the accuracy of their coverage of Gage's subsequent (post-accident) history and…

  7. Airflow obstruction and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher B

    2009-03-01

    The primary abnormality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic airway inflammation which results in airflow limitation. Disease progression is usually depicted as an accelerated decline in FEV(1) over time. However, COPD patients also manifest progressive static hyperinflation due to the combined effects of reduced lung elastic recoil and increased airway resistance. Superimposed on static hyperinflation are further increases in operational lung volumes (dynamic hyperinflation) brought on during exercise, exacerbations or tachypnea. An important consequence of exertional dyspnea is activity limitation. COPD patients have been shown to spend only a third of the day walking or standing compared with age-matched healthy individuals who spend more than half of their time in these activities. Furthermore, the degree of activity limitation measured by an accelerometer worsens with disease progression. COPD patients have been shown to have an accelerated loss of aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) and this correlates with mortality just as is seen with hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Thus physical inactivity is an important therapeutic target in COPD. Summarizing; airflow obstruction leads to progressive hyperinflation, activity limitation, physical deconditioning and other comorbidities that characterize the COPD phenotype. Targeting the airflow obstruction with long-acting bronchodilator therapy in conjunction with a supervised exercise prescription is currently the most effective therapeutic intervention in earlier COPD. Other important manifestations of skeletal muscle dysfunction include muscle atrophy and weakness. These specific problems are best addressed with resistance training with consideration of anabolic supplementation.

  8. GAGES-II: Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcone, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset, termed "GAGES II", an acronym for Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow, version II, provides geospatial data and classifications for 9,322 stream gages maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It is an update to the original GAGES, which was published as a Data Paper on the journal Ecology's website (Falcone and others, 2010b) in 2010. The GAGES II dataset consists of gages which have had either 20+ complete years (not necessarily continuous) of discharge record since 1950, or are currently active, as of water year 2009, and whose watersheds lie within the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Reference gages were identified based on indicators that they were the least-disturbed watersheds within the framework of broad regions, based on 12 major ecoregions across the United States. Of the 9,322 total sites, 2,057 are classified as reference, and 7,265 as non-reference. Of the 2,057 reference sites, 1,633 have (through 2009) 20+ years of record since 1950. Some sites have very long flow records: a number of gages have been in continuous service since 1900 (at least), and have 110 years of complete record (1900-2009) to date. The geospatial data include several hundred watershed characteristics compiled from national data sources, including environmental features (e.g. climate – including historical precipitation, geology, soils, topography) and anthropogenic influences (e.g. land use, road density, presence of dams, canals, or power plants). The dataset also includes comments from local USGS Water Science Centers, based on Annual Data Reports, pertinent to hydrologic modifications and influences. The data posted also include watershed boundaries in GIS format. This overall dataset is different in nature to the USGS Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN; Slack and Landwehr 1992), whose data evaluation ended with water year 1988. The HCDN identifies stream gages which at some point in their history had

  9. Thin film strain gage development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Anderson, W. L.; Claing, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Sputtered thin-film dynamic strain gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating strain-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire strain gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic strain measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.

  10. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ?0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  11. The Development of Electrical Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Forest, A V; Leaderman, H

    1940-01-01

    The design, construction, and properties of an electrical-resistance strain gage consisting of fine wires molded in a laminated plastic are described. The properties of such gages are discussed and also the problems of molding of wires in plastic materials, temperature compensation, and cementing and removal of the gages. Further work to be carried out on the strain gage, together with instrument problems, is discussed.

  12. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of...

  13. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of...

  14. Microprocessor-based multichannel flutter monitor using dynamic strain gage signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two microprocessor-based multichannel monitors for monitoring strain gage signals during aerodynamic instability (flutter) testing in production type turbojet engines were described. One system monitors strain gage signals in the time domain and gives an output indication whenever the signal amplitude of any gage exceeds a pre-set alarm or abort level for that particular gage. The second system monitors the strain gage signals in the frequency domain and therefore is able to use both the amplitude and frequency information. Thus, an alarm signal is given whenever the spectral content of the strain gage signal exceeds, at any point, its corresponding amplitude vs. frequency limit profiles. Each system design is described with details on design trade-offs, hardware, software, and operating experience.

  15. Development of high temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    High temperature electric resistance wire strain gages were developed and evaluated for use at temperatures exceeding 922 K (1200 F). A special high temperature strain gage alloy (Fe-25Cr-7.5A1), designated BCL-3, was used to fabricate the gages. Pertinent gage characteristics were determined at temperatures up to 1255 K (1800 F). The results of the evaluation were reported in graphical and tabular form. It was concluded that the gages will perform satisfactorily at temperatures to at least 1089 K (1500 F) for at least one hour.

  16. Strain gage installation and survivability on geosynthetics used in flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeremy A.

    The use of foil type strain gages on geosynthetics is poorly documented. In addition, very few individuals are versed in proper installation techniques or calibration methods. Due to the limited number of knowledgeable technicians there is no information regarding the susceptibility of theses gages to errors in installation by inexperienced installers. Also lacking in the documentation related to the use of foil type strain gages on geosynthetics is the survivability of the gages in field conditions. This research documented procedures for installation, calibration, and survivability used by the project team to instruments a full scale field installation in Marked Tree, AR. This research also addressed sensitivity to installation errors on both geotextile and geogrid. To document the process of gage installation an experienced technician, Mr. Joe Ables, formerly of the UASCE Waterways Experiment Station, was consulted. His techniques were combined with those discovered in related literature and those developed by the research team to develop processes that were adaptable to multiple gage geometries and parent geosynthetics. These processes were described and documented in a step by step manner with accompanying photographs, which should allow virtually anyone with basic electronics knowledge to install these gages properly. Calibration of the various geosynthetic / strain gage combinations was completed using wide width tensile testing on multiple samples of each material. The tensile testing process was documented and analyzed using digital photography to analyze strain on the strain gage itself. Calibration factors for each geosynthtics used in the full scale field testing were developed. In addition, the process was thoroughly documented to allow future researchers to calibrate additional strain gage and geosynthetic combinations. The sensitivity of the strain gages to installation errors was analyzed using wide width tensile testing and digital photography to

  17. High Temperature Capacitive Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P., Jr.; Wnuk, Stephen P., III; Wnuk, V. P.

    1990-01-01

    Capacitive strain gages designed for measurements in wind tunnels to 2000 F were built and evaluated. Two design approaches were followed. One approach was based on fixed capacitor plates with a movable ground plane inserted between the plates to effect differential capacitive output with strain. The second approach was based on movable capacitor plates suspended between sapphire bearings, housed in a rugged body, and arranged to operate as a differential capacitor. A sapphire bearing gage (1/4 in. diameter x 1 in. in size) was built with a range of 50,000 and a resolution of 200 microstrain. Apparent strain on Rene' 41 was less than + or - 1000 microstrain from room temperature to 2000 F. Three gage models were built from the Ground Plane Differential concept. The first was 1/4 in. square by 1/32 in. high and useable to 700 F. The second was 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high and useable to 1440 F. The third, also 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high was expected to operate in the 1600 to 2000 F range, but was not tested because time and funding ended.

  18. High temperature capacitive strain gage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P., Jr.; Wnuk, Stephen P., III; Wnuk, V. P.

    1990-01-01

    Capacitive strain gages designed for measurements in wind tunnels to 2000 F were built and evaluated. Two design approaches were followed. One approach was based on fixed capacitor plates with a movable ground plane inserted between the plates to effect differential capacitive output with strain. The second approach was based on movable capacitor plates suspended between sapphire bearings, housed in a rugged body, and arranged to operate as a differential capacitor. A sapphire bearing gage (1/4 in. diameter x 1 in. in size) was built with a range of 50,000 and a resolution of 200 microstrain. Apparent strain on Rene' 41 was less than + or - 1000 microstrain from room temperature to 2000 F. Three gage models were built from the Ground Plane Differential concept. The first was 1/4 in. square by 1/32 in. high and useable to 700 F. The second was 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high and useable to 1440 F. The third, also 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high was expected to operate in the 1600 to 2000 F range, but was not tested because time and funding ended.

  19. Structure of the airflow above surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Marc; Veron, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Weather, climate and upper ocean patterns are controlled by the exchanges of momentum, heat, mass, and energy across the ocean surface. These fluxes are, in turn, influenced by the small-scale physics at the wavy air-sea interface. We present laboratory measurements of the fine-scale airflow structure above waves, achieved in over 15 different wind-wave conditions, with wave ages Cp/u* ranging from 1.4 to 66.7 (where Cp is the peak phase speed of the waves, and u* the air friction velocity). The experiments were performed in the large (42-m long) wind-wave-current tank at University of Delaware's Air-Sea Interaction laboratory (USA). A combined Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence system was specifically developed for this study, and provided two-dimensional airflow velocity measurement as low as 100 um above the air-water interface. Starting at very low wind speeds (U10~2m/s), we directly observe coherent turbulent structures within the buffer and logarithmic layers of the airflow above the air-water interface, whereby low horizontal velocity air is ejected away from the surface, and higher velocity fluid is swept downward. Wave phase coherent quadrant analysis shows that such turbulent momentum flux events are wave-phase dependent. Airflow separation events are directly observed over young wind waves (Cp/u*<3.7) and counted using measured vorticity and surface viscous stress criteria. Detached high spanwise vorticity layers cause intense wave-coherent turbulence downwind of wave crests, as shown by wave-phase averaging of turbulent momentum fluxes. Mean wave-coherent airflow motions and fluxes also show strong phase-locked patterns, including a sheltering effect, upwind of wave crests over old mechanically generated swells (Cp/u*=31.7), and downwind of crests over young wind waves (Cp/u*=3.7). Over slightly older wind waves (Cp/u* = 6.5), the measured wave-induced airflow perturbations are qualitatively consistent with linear critical layer

  20. High-Temperature Adhesive Strain Gage Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts, Gary D.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have developed a unique strain gage and adhesive system for measuring the mechanical properties of polymers and polymer composites at elevated temperatures. This system overcomes some of the problems encountered in using commercial strain gages and adhesives. For example, typical commercial strain gage adhesives require a postcure at temperatures substantially higher than the maximum test temperature. The exposure of the specimen to this temperature may affect subsequent results, and in some cases may be higher than the glass-transition temperature of the polymer. In addition, although typical commercial strain gages can be used for short times at temperatures up to 370 C, their long-term use is limited to 230 C. This precludes their use for testing some high-temperature polyimides near their maximum temperature capability. Lewis' strain gage and adhesive system consists of a nonencapsulated, unbacked gage grid that is bonded directly to the polymer after the specimen has been cured but prior to the normal postcure cycle. The gage is applied with an adhesive specially formulated to cure under the specimen postcure conditions. Special handling, mounting, and electrical connection procedures were developed, and a fixture was designed to calibrate each strain gage after it was applied to a specimen. A variety of tests was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the gages at elevated temperatures on PMR-15 neat resin and titanium specimens. For these tests, which included static tension, thermal exposure, and creep tests, the gage and adhesive system performed within normal strain gage specifications at 315 C. An example of the performance characteristics of the gage can be seen in the figure, which compares the strain gage measurement on a polyimide specimen at 315 C with an extensometer measurement.

  1. Low TCR nanocomposite strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); Chen, Ximing (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature thin film strain gage sensor capable of functioning at temperatures above 1400.degree. C. The sensor contains a substrate, a nanocomposite film comprised of an indium tin oxide alloy, zinc oxide doped with alumina or other oxide semiconductor and a refractory metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni, W, Ir, NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY deposited onto the substrate to form an active strain element. The strain element being responsive to an applied force.

  2. Discharge ratings at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    A discharge rating is the relation of the discharge at a gaging station to stage and sometimes also to other variables. This chapter of 'Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations' describes the procedures commonly used to develop simple ratings where discharge is related only to stage and the most frequently encountered types of complex ratings where additional factors such as rate of change in stage, water-surface slope, or index velocity are used. Fundamental techniques of logarithmic plotting and the applications of simple storage routing to rating development are demonstrated. Computer applications, especially for handheld programmable calculators, and data handling are stressed.

  3. Inflatable device for installing strain gage bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, C. E.; Smith, G. E.; Monaghan, R. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Methods and devices for installing in a tubular shaft multiple strain gages are disclosed with focus on a method and a device for pneumatically forcing strain gages into seated engagement with the internal surfaces of a tubular shaft in an installation of multiple strain gages in a tubular shaft. The strain gages or other electron devices are seated in a template-like component which is wrapped about a pneumatically expansible body. The component is inserted into a shaft and the body is pneumatically expanded after a suitable adhesive was applied to the surfaces.

  4. Inorganic bonding of semiconductor strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, N. L.

    1970-01-01

    Inorganic bonding materials minimize outgassing and improve electrical and mechanical properties of semiconductor strain-gage transducers in high-vacuum and high-temperature operations. The two basic methods described are ceramic-glass-bonding and metallic bond formation between the strain gage and the substrate.

  5. Non-Contact Gaging with Laser Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Clinesmith, Mike

    2009-03-20

    A gage has been constructed using conventional (high end) components for the application of measuring fragile syntactic foam parts in a non-contact mode. Success with this approach has been achieved through a novel method of transferring (mapping) high accuracy local measurements of a coated aluminum master, taken on a Leitz Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM), to the gage software system. The mapped data is then associated with local voltage readings from two (inner and outer) laser triangulating probes. This couples discreet laser probe offset and linearity characteristics to the measured master geometry. The gage software compares real part measured data against the master data to provide non-contact part inspection that results in a high accuracy and low uncertainty performance. Uncertainty from the part surface becomes the prevailing contributor to the gaging process. The gaging process provides a high speed, hands off measurement with nearly zero impedance.

  6. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  7. Bonding of strain gages to fiber reinforced composite plastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Hanson, M. P.; Serafini, T. T.

    1970-01-01

    Strain gage is installed during molding of composite and utilizes the adhesive properties of the matrix resin in the composite to bond the strain gage in place. Gages thus embedded provide data at all temperatures that the matrix can withstand.

  8. A fast response thermal conductivity gage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilcher, J. O., II; Krummerich, M. B.

    1986-04-01

    During the spring of 1983, the Ballistic Research Laboratory measured behind-the-armor effects for several weapons against a variety of targets. One of the major concerns was heat generation during and immediately following impact of the warhead against the targets. Previous tests of this type had used thin skin total heat gages and standard laboratory heat detectors. Thin skin gages record only the maximum temperature attained by the skins' back surface with no indication of the time required to reach this temperature. Although an approximation of the total heat deposition can be made, no rate of deposition can be estimated without knowing the time of the event. The large thermal mass of a typical laboratory detector such as an infrared power meter is designed to measure a steady-state flux and cannot respond quickly enough to register a transient event. Neither gage type can withstand severe blast and shock environments. Since the temperature inside the target rose sharply in a very short time, special thermal fluence gages were fabricated which emphasized the time response of the gage rather than its thermal capacity. This gage is used when the thermal flux is of short duration, 150 milliseconds or less, and of low total energy, 179 calories per square centimeter or less. The maximum operating temperature of the gage is 500 degree Celsius.

  9. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  10. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  11. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    applied to actual systems for performance validation. The results of the theoretical analysis, numeric simulations, and experiments show that the optimal control algorithms can automatically identify the minimum rate of heating airflow under actual working conditions. Improved control helps to stabilize room air temperatures. The vertical difference in the room air temperature was lower than the comfort value. Measurements of room CO2 levels indicate that when the minimum airflow set point was reduced it did not adversely affect the indoor air quality. According to the measured energy results, optimal control algorithms give a lower rate of reheating energy consumption than conventional controls.

  12. Airflow patterns in complex workplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Selby, J.M.; Lynch, T.P.; Langer, G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    There are many considerations in obtaining an accurate evaluation of aerosols. One aspect that has been neglected is the study of airflow patterns within the workplace. In many nuclear facilities, the operations performed required extensive equipment (e.g., glove boxes, piping) that create complex arrangements of physical barriers to flow. To provide samples of the airborne materials, particularly particles, knowledge of these complex airflow patterns is required for sampler placement. Recent studies have shown that materials introduced into the air flow within a workplace act as plumes embedded in major airflow streams. Portions of the plumes can recycle through the ventilated area, be lost to dead air pockets, or exhaust through unusual, unexpected outlets. Unusual flow patterns are observed even in relatively uncomplicated arrangements of equipment. This behavior must be factored into sampling/monitoring programs for evaluation of the airborne hazard to personnel within the workplace consistent with the objective of the program. Other factors that also must be considered to provide valid samples of airborne particulate materials are objectives of the sampling program, characteristics of the airborne particulate materials, nonsegregatory transport for the extracted materials, and requirements for the measurement techniques used.

  13. Development of High-Temperature Strain Gages.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-03-17

    Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE e Luther H. Hodges, Serlary NATIONAL...I~~~ 4~l Clb 15 LII1~i 4I𔄃 163 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS Functions and...ance --------------------------- 1 b. Stress-strain relatio .---.-------- 2 (7) Effect of thermal c)tIig on e . Gage factor ---------------------- 2 gage

  14. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. 84.82...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.82 Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. (a) Gas pressure gages.... (c) Gas pressure gages other than those specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall...

  15. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  16. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  17. Mechanical responses of rat vibrissae to airflow

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan S. W.; Graff, Matthew M.; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The survival of many animals depends in part on their ability to sense the flow of the surrounding fluid medium. To date, however, little is known about how terrestrial mammals sense airflow direction or speed. The present work analyzes the mechanical response of isolated rat macrovibrissae (whiskers) to airflow to assess their viability as flow sensors. Results show that the whisker bends primarily in the direction of airflow and vibrates around a new average position at frequencies related to its resonant modes. The bending direction is not affected by airflow speed or by geometric properties of the whisker. In contrast, the bending magnitude increases strongly with airflow speed and with the ratio of the whisker's arc length to base diameter. To a much smaller degree, the bending magnitude also varies with the orientation of the whisker's intrinsic curvature relative to the direction of airflow. These results are used to predict the mechanical responses of vibrissae to airflow across the entire array, and to show that the rat could actively adjust the airflow data that the vibrissae acquire by changing the orientation of its whiskers. We suggest that, like the whiskers of pinnipeds, the macrovibrissae of terrestrial mammals are multimodal sensors – able to sense both airflow and touch – and that they may play a particularly important role in anemotaxis. PMID:27030774

  18. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1982-03-15

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengagable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  19. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, J.B.

    1984-03-13

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out is disclosed. Two gage balls are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit and a rigid member. One gage ball is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball. As the moving ball executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit. Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine. 3 figs.

  20. Telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, James B.

    1984-01-01

    A telescoping magnetic ball bar test gage for determining the accuracy of machine tools, including robots, and those measuring machines having non-disengageable servo drives which cannot be clutched out. Two gage balls (10, 12) are held and separated from one another by a telescoping fixture which allows them relative radial motional freedom but not relative lateral motional freedom. The telescoping fixture comprises a parallel reed flexure unit (14) and a rigid member (16, 18, 20, 22, 24). One gage ball (10) is secured by a magnetic socket knuckle assembly (34) which fixes its center with respect to the machine being tested. The other gage ball (12) is secured by another magnetic socket knuckle assembly (38) which is engaged or held by the machine in such manner that the center of that ball (12) is directed to execute a prescribed trajectory, all points of which are equidistant from the center of the fixed gage ball (10). As the moving ball (12) executes its trajectory, changes in the radial distance between the centers of the two balls (10, 12) caused by inaccuracies in the machine are determined or measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) assembly (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60) actuated by the parallel reed flexure unit (14). Measurements can be quickly and easily taken for multiple trajectories about several different fixed ball (10) locations, thereby determining the accuracy of the machine.

  1. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  2. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  3. Latin square three dimensional gage master

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Lynn L.

    1982-01-01

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  4. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... every 6 months; (b) A depth gage is tested when a discrepancy exists in a depth gage reading greater... device is tested when a discrepancy exists in a timekeeping device reading greater than one-quarter of...

  5. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage... device is inspected before diving operations are begun....

  6. 23. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1917. VIEW OF FLUME NO. 3 OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AND NEW 66' REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPELINE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  7. 24. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1939. VIEW OF SAND PUMP HOUSE AT THE HEAD OF THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  8. 26. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1931. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION OF GUNITE INVERT SIPHON REPLACING FLUME NO. 10 ON GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  9. 27. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1913. TIGHTENING JOINTS AND ADJUSTING PLATES ON STEEL FLUME AT MOCKINGBIRD DAM ON THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  10. 22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer and date unknown. 'FLUME NO. 9, 'GAGE CANAL SYSTEM,' RIVERSIDE, CAL.' VIEW OF FLUME OVER TEQUESQUITE ARROYO. - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  11. 29. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1926. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS AT OLIVEWOOD PUMPING STATION ON THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  12. 28. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1913. CONSTRUCTION OF CORE WALL AT MOCKINGBIRD DAM ON THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  13. Thin film strain gage development program. Final program

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, H.P.; Przybyszewski, J.S.; Anderson, W.L.; Claing, R.G.

    1983-12-01

    Sputtered thin-film dynamic strain gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating strain-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire strain gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic strain measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.

  14. 15. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL NEAR HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL NEAR HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD, SHOWING END OF SIPHON. CANAL FOLLOWS CONTOUR OF HILL UNDER DIRT ROAD - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  15. 12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD SHOWING BEGINNING OF SIPHON, DATED '1952' - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  16. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.82 Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. (a) Gas pressure gages employed on compressed breathing gas containers shall be calibrated in pounds per square inch. (b) Liquid... Oil” marked prominently on the gage. (i)(1) Apparatus using compressed breathing gas, except...

  17. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.82 Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. (a) Gas pressure gages employed on compressed breathing gas containers shall be calibrated in pounds per square inch. (b) Liquid... Oil” marked prominently on the gage. (i)(1) Apparatus using compressed breathing gas, except...

  18. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.82 Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. (a) Gas pressure gages employed on compressed breathing gas containers shall be calibrated in pounds per square inch. (b) Liquid... Oil” marked prominently on the gage. (i)(1) Apparatus using compressed breathing gas, except...

  19. 42 CFR 84.82 - Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.82 Gas pressure gages; minimum requirements. (a) Gas pressure gages employed on compressed breathing gas containers shall be calibrated in pounds per square inch. (b) Liquid... Oil” marked prominently on the gage. (i)(1) Apparatus using compressed breathing gas, except...

  20. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... point no less than 10 feet from any lateral or vertical load application. LTG=Loaded track gage measured by the GRMS vehicle at a point no more than 12 inches from the lateral load application point. A=The... allowable gage applies only to GRMS LTG. For gage measured by traditional methods, or with the use of...

  1. 27. Detail view of mechanical float gages used to monitor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Detail view of mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water in the filtration bed reservoir. Gage on left measures water head, gage on right monitors filtration rate. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. Palladium-chromium static strain gages for high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1992-01-01

    An electrical resistance strain gage that can provide accurate static strain measurement to a temperature of 1500 F or above is being developed both in fine wire and thin film forms. The gage is designed to be temperature compensated on any substrate material. It has a dual element: the gage element is a special alloy, palladium-13wt percent chromium (PdCr), and the compensator element is platinum (Pt). Earlier results of a PdCr based wire gage indicated that the apparent strain of this gage can be minimized and the repeatability of the apparent strain can be improved by prestabilizing the gage on the substrate for a long period of time. However, this kind of prestabilization is not practical in many applications and therefore the development of a wire gage which is prestabilized before installation on the substrate is desirable. This paper will present our recent progress in the development of a prestabilized wire gage which can provide meaningful strain data for the first thermal cycle. A weldable PdCr gage is also being developed for field testing where conventional flame-spraying installation can not be applied. This weldable gage is narrower than a previously reported gage, thereby allowing the gage to be more resistant to buckling under compressive loads. Some preliminary results of a prestabilized wire gage flame-sprayed directly on IN100, an engine material, and a weldable gage spot-welded on IN100 and SCS-6/(beta)21-S Titanium Matrix Composite (TMC), a National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) structure material, will be reported. Progress on the development of a weldable thin film gage will also be addressed. The measurement technique and procedures and the lead wire effect will be discussed.

  3. High temperature strain gage technology for hypersonic aircraft development applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. L.; Grant, H. P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of Pd 13 percent Cr and of BCL-3 alloy wire strain gages was conducted on IN100 and Cu 0.15 percent Zr alloy substrates. Testing included apparent strain, drift, gage factor, and creep. Maximum test temperature was 1144 K (1600 F). The PdCr gages incorporated Pt temperature compensation elements. The PdCr gages were found to have good resistance stability below 866 K (1100 F). The BCL 3 gages were found to have good resistance stability above 800 K (981 F), but high drift around 700 K (800 F).

  4. Experimental evidence of condensation-driven airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, P.; Hodnett, M.; Poveda, G.; Burgos Salcedo, J. D.; Peña, C.

    2015-10-01

    The dominant "convection" model of atmospheric circulation is based on the premise that hot air expands and rises, to be replaced by colder air, thereby creating horizontal surface winds. A recent theory put forward by Makarieva and Gorshkov (2007, 2013) maintains that the primary motive force of atmospheric circulation derives from the intense condensation and sharp pressure reduction that is associated with regions where a high rate of evapotranspiration from natural closed-canopy forests provides the "fuel" for cloud formation. The net result of the "biotic pump" theory is that moist air flows from ocean to land, drawn in by the pressure changes associated with a high rate of condensation. To test the physics underpinning the biotic pump theory, namely that condensation of water vapour, at a sufficiently high rate, results in an uni-directional airflow, a 5 m tall experimental apparatus was designed and built, in which a 20 m3 body of atmospheric air is enclosed inside an annular 14 m long space (a "square donut") around which it can circulate freely, allowing for rotary air flows. One vertical side of the apparatus contains some 17 m of copper refrigeration coils, which cause condensation. The apparatus contains a series of sensors measuring temperature, humidity and barometric pressure every five seconds, and air flow every second. The laws of Newtonian physics are used in calculating the rate of condensation inside the apparatus. The results of more than one hundred experiments show a highly significant correlation, with r2 > 0.9, of airflow and the rate of condensation. The rotary air flows created appear to be consistent both in direction and velocity with the biotic pump hypothesis, the critical factor being the rate change in the partial pressure of water vapour in the enclosed body of atmospheric air. Air density changes, in terms of kinetic energy, are found to be orders of magnitude smaller than the kinetic energy of partial pressure change. The

  5. Attaching of strain gages to substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.; Pattee, H. E.

    1980-03-01

    A method and apparatus for attaching strain gages to substrates is described. A strain gage having a backing plate is attached to a substrate by using a foil of brazing material between the backing plate and substrate. A pair of electrodes that are connected to a current source, are applied to opposite sides of the backing plate, so that heating of the structure occurs primarily along the relatively highly conductive foil of brazing material. Field installations are facilitated by utilizing a backing plate with wings extending at an upward incline from either side of the backing plate, by attaching the electrodes to the wings to perform the brazing operation, and by breaking off the wings after the brazing is completed.

  6. Attaching of strain gages to substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.; Pattee, H. E. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for attaching strain gages to substrates is described. A strain gage having a backing plate is attached to a substrate by using a foil of brazing material between the backing plate and substrate. A pair of electrodes that are connected to a current source, are applied to opposite sides of the backing plate, so that heating of the structure occurs primarily along the relatively highly conductive foil of brazing material. Field installations are facilitated by utilizing a backing plate with wings extending at an upward incline from either side of the backing plate, by attaching the electrodes to the wings to perform the brazing operation, and by breaking off the wings after the brazing is completed.

  7. Airflow resistance of selected biomass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.C.; Sumner, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure drop created when air was forced through beds of selected biomass materials was determined. Materials tested included peanut hulls, peanut hull pellets, maize cobs, and wood shavings, chips and bark. The data were presented as logarithmic plots and equations of pressure drop versus airflow. The airflow resistances of the biomass materials increased with an increase in bulk density and were found to be in the range between values for ear and shelled maize. 12 references.

  8. Evaluation of OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage versus Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tumbusch, Mary L.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program, a cooperative effort supported by Federal, State, and local agencies, and Indian Tribes, was established in 1977 to study atmospheric deposition and its impact on the environment. The program's National Trends Network now includes wet-deposition networks at more than 250 sites across the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Precipitation amounts are currently measured using a Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780, which involves technology that is more than 50 years old. In 1999, a three-phase study was begun to evaluate several weighing, all-weather precipitation gages to find a possible replacement for the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. One gage that performed consistently well in phase I and II testing was the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage. Phase III of the study, discussed herein, was to determine the accuracy and comparability of the data sets collected by the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages and the existing Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. Seven OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages were installed at six National Trends Network sites across the country for a data-collection period of approximately 18 months. The NovaLynx Model 260-2510 Standard Rain and Snow Gage also was used, as a reference, at two of the sites. Paired t-tests analysis showed no significant differences in precipitation measurements between the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 and the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages at three of the six sites. When the false positives were removed from the precipitation-event data sets, the gages at all sites were in agreement and the paired t-tests showed the gage measurements were not significantly different. A false positive is defined as a zero response from the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 concurrent with a recorded response from the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage.

  9. A Conversion of Wheatstone Bridge to Current-Loop Signal Conditioning for Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1995-01-01

    Current loop circuitry replaced Wheatstone bridge circuitry to signal-condition strain gage transducers in more than 350 data channels for two different test programs at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The uncorrected test data from current loop circuitry had a lower noise level than data from comparable Wheatstone bridge circuitry, were linear with respect to gage-resistance change, and were uninfluenced by varying lead-wire resistance. The current loop channels were easier for the technicians to set up, verify, and operate than equivalent Wheatstone bridge channels. Design choices and circuit details are presented in this paper in addition to operational experience.

  10. PdCr Based High Temperature Static Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Williams, W. D

    1990-01-01

    The program at NASA Lewis Research Center to develop a high temperature static strain gage system for the hypersonic vehicle and turbine engine research has emphasized a palladium- 13wt%chromium (PdCr) alloy. Gages made from this alloy are being developed in both fine wire and thin film form. The wire gage system had platinum wire as a temperature compensator and was coated with a special alumina and zirconia mixture overcoat. This PdCr compensated wire gage responded linearly to the imposed strain to at least i000 microstrain. The strain sensitivity of the gage did not vary much with temperature. The apparent strain of this compensated gage was significantly lower than that of the other gages. It varied within 300 microstrain from room temperature to 800 deg. C with a reproducibility within 50 microstrain between thermal cycles to 800 deg. C. This is a significant advance over the 400 deg. C barrier of previous techniques for resistance static strain gages. The sputtered thin film PdCr strain gage, whose size was 8x8 mm and 10 micron thick, has demonstrated the possibility of extending the use of the PdCr strain gage to a temperature of approximately 1000 deg. C.

  11. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  12. An electromagnetic energy scavenger from direct airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Hyok; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Galle, Preston; Herrault, Florian; Wu, Xiaosong; Lee, Jin-Ho; Choi, Chang-Auk; Allen, Mark G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents two types of electromagnetic power generators exploiting direct conversion of airflow into mechanical vibration: (1) a windbelt-based vibratory linear energy scavenger targeting strong airflows and (2) a Helmholtz-resonator-based generator capable of scavenging energy from weaker airflows, i.e. environmental airflows. Both devices consist of two tightly coupled parts: a mechanical resonator, which produces high-frequency mechanical oscillation from quasi-constant airflow, and a permanent magnet/coil system, which generates electrical power from the resonator's motion. The proposed energy scavengers obviate the typically required matching of the resonant frequencies of the scavenger and the ambient energy sources it taps. This enables a device that is simpler, smaller and higher-frequency than the previously reported resonant power generator. The windbelt-based energy scavenger demonstrated a peak-to-peak output voltage of 81 mV at 0.53 kHz, from an input pressure of 50 kPa. The Helmholtz-resonator-based energy scavenger achieved a peak-to-peak output voltage of 4 mV at 1.4 kHz, from an input pressure of 0.2 kPa, which is equivalent to 5 m s-1 (10 mph) of wind velocity.

  13. High-Temperature, Thin-Film Strain Gages Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Conventional resistance strain gage technology uses "bonded" strain gages. These foil or wire gages are bonded onto the surface of the test article with glue, ceramic cements, or flame-sprayed ceramics. These bonding agents can, in some instances, limit both the degree of strain transmission from the test structure to the gage and the maximum working temperature of the gage. Also, the bulky, bonded gage normally disrupts aerodynamic gas flow on the surface of the test structure because of its intrusive character. To respond to the urgent needs in aeronautic and aerospace research where stress and temperature gradients are high, aerodynamic effects need to be minimized, and higher operational temperatures are required, the NASA Lewis Research Center developed a thin film strain gage. This gage, a vacuum-deposited thin film formed directly on the surface of a test structure, operates at much higher temperatures than commercially available gages do and with minimal disruption of the aerodynamic flow. The gage uses an alloy, palladium-13 wt % chromium (hereafter, PdCr), which was developed by United Technologies Research Center under a NASA contract. PdCr is structurally stable and oxidation resistant up to at least 1100 C (2000 F); its temperature-induced resistance change is linear, repeatable, and not sensitive to the rates of heating and cooling. An early strain gage, which was made of 25-micrometer-diameter PdCr wire and demonstrated to be useable to 800 C, won an R&D 100 award in 1991. By further improving the purity of the material and by developing gage fabrication techniques that use sputter-deposition, photolithography patterning, and chemical etching, we have made an 8- to 10-m PdCr thin-film strain gage that can measure dynamic and static strain to at least 1100 C. For static strain measurements, a 5-m-thick Pt element serves as a temperature compensator to further minimize the temperature effect of the gage. These thin-film gages provide the advantage of

  14. High temperature static strain gage development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Final results are presented from a program to develop a thin film static strain gage for use on the blades and vanes of running, test stand gas turbine engines with goals of an 3 x 3 mm gage area and total errors of less than 10 pct. of + or - 2,000 microstrain after 50 hrs at 1250 K. Pd containing 13 Wt. pct. Cr was previously identified as a new strain sensor alloy that appeared to be potentially usable to 1250 K. Subsequently, it was discovered, in contrast with its behavior in bulk, that Pd-13Cr suffered from oxidation attack when prepared as a 4.5 micron thick thin film. Continuing problems with electrical leakage to the substrate and the inability of sputtered alumina overcoats to prevent oxidation led to the discovery that sputtered alumina contains appreciable amounts of entrapped argon. After the argon has been exsolved by heating to elevated temperatures, the alumina films undergo a linear shrinkage of about 2 pct. resulting in formation of cracks. These problems can be largely overcome by sputtering the alumina with the substrate heated to 870 K. With 2 micron thick hot sputtered alumina insulation and overcoat films, total 50 hr drifts of about 100 microstrain (2 tests) and about 500 microstrain (1 test) were observed at 1000 and 1100 K, respectively. Results of tests on complete strain gage systems on constant moment bend bars with Pd temperature compensation grids revealed that oxidation of the Pd grid was a major problem even when the grid was overcoated with a hot or cold sputtered alumina overcoat.

  15. Impulse gage development for the 100-200 ktap range

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.C.; Naumann, W.J. . Advanced Technologies Div.)

    1990-07-31

    Special effects underground test (UGT) material response and source diagnostics data require impulse gages that can be used in the 50--150 ktap range and have equilibrated from electrical and mechanical noise sources within 0.001 s. Such gages were designed, analyzed, and tested under this program. One- and two-dimensional stress propagation calculations were performed and predictions were developed for deformation of the gage specimen cup. These predictions were conservative when compared to gas gun test results. The response of the gage will equilibrate within 5% to its final value within 300 {mu}sec. The impulse delivered to the gages for these tests exceeded 250 ktap. The code and experimental results provides a basis for confidence in the operability of the gage in an actual UGT environment.

  16. Strain Gage Selection Criteria for Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1996-01-01

    This report will provide a review of efforts to establish a set of strain gage selection guidelines for textile reinforced composite materials. A variety of strain gages were evaluated in the study to determine the sensitivity of strain measurements to the size of the strain gage. The strain gages were chosen to provide a range of gage lengths and widths. The gage aspect ratio (the length-to-width ratio) was also varied. The gages were tested on a diverse collection of textile composite laminates. Test specimens featured eleven different textile architectures: four 2-D triaxial braids, six 3-D weaves, and one stitched uniweave architecture. All specimens were loaded in uniaxial tension. The materials' moduli were measured in both the longitudinal (parallel to the O deg. yarns) and the transverse (perpendicular to the O deg. yarns) directions. The results of these measurements were analyzed to establish performance levels for extensometers and strain gages on textile composite materials. Conclusions are expressed in a summary that discusses instrumentation practices and defines strain gage selection criteria.

  17. Application of an On-machine Gage for Diameter Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design analysis and application of a laser based gage made specifically for measuring parts on the machine tool to a high accuracy. The tri-beam gage uses three beams of light to measure the local curvature of the part in a manner similar to a V-block gage. The properties of this design include: calibration that is independent of the machine tool scales, non-contact damage free operation, low cost of the gage, and the ability to measure parts in motion.

  18. F-4 Service Life Tracking Program (Crack Growth Gages)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    EA9309.1 adhesive. The room temperature cure allowed bonding of gages at B.L. 132.5 and B.L. 44.5 much closer to rib and spar fasteners than the...BL 100 Spectrum at 33 ksi Limit Stress 0.60 F C" Gage 45 (on Fastener Head - Side of Specimen) Ii C CO 0.40 LL E 0 C . \\ -Gage 46 (on Fastener Nut C...stress in the structure. These increases did not occur in the element test specimens since the specimens were cured in an autoclave so that gage and

  19. Buried wire gage for wall shear stress measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    A buried wire gage for measuring wall shear stress in fluid flow was studied and further developed. Several methods of making this relatively new type of gage were examined to arrive at a successful technique that is well-suited for wind-tunnel testing. A series of measurements was made to demonstrate the adequacy of a two-point calibration procedure for these gages. The buried wire gage is also demonstrated to be ideally suited for quantitative measurement of wall shear stress in wind-tunnel testing.

  20. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  1. CFD modeling of pharmaceutical isolators with experimental verification of airflow.

    PubMed

    Nayan, N; Akay, H U; Walsh, M R; Bell, W V; Troyer, G L; Dukes, R E; Mohan, P

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to predict the airflow in a transfer isolator using a commercial CFD code. In order to assess the ability of the CFD approach in predicting the flow inside an isolator, hot wire anemometry measurements and a novel experimental flow visualization technique consisting of helium-filled glycerin bubbles were used. The results obtained have been shown to agree well with the experiments and show that CFD can be used to model barrier systems and isolators with practical fidelity. This indicates that CFD can and should be used to support the design, testing, and operation of barrier systems and isolators.

  2. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    typical of a value in a scramjet engine. The gage can survive for 10 minutes and operate for 3 minutes before a 10% loss in flexure stiffness occurs under these conditions. Repeated cold-flow wind tunnel tests at Mach 2.4 with a stagnation pressure from 3.7--8.2 atm (55--120 psia) and ambient stagnation temperature (Re = 6.6 x 107/m) and Mach 4.0 with a stagnation pressure from 10.2--12.2 atm (150--180 psia) and ambient stagnation temperature (Re = 7.4 x 107/m) were performed in the Virginia Tech Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Some of these tests had the gage intentionally misaligned by 25° to create a virtual 3D flow in this nominally 2D facility. Experimental results gave excellent agreement with semi-empirical prediction methods for both the aligned and 25° experiments. This fiber-optic skin friction gage operated successfully without viscous damping. These tests in the supersonic wind tunnel validated this wall shear gage design concept.

  3. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  4. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  5. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  6. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  7. 42 CFR 84.180 - Airflow resistance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests. 84.180 Section 84.180...-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.180 Airflow resistance tests. (a) Resistance to airflow will be... conducted in accordance with § 84.182. (b) The resistances for particulate respirators upon...

  8. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect...

  9. 46 CFR 197.318 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gages and timekeeping devices. 197.318 Section 197.318 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.318 Gages and timekeeping...

  10. 25. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, March 1954. VIEW OF THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL, CONCRETE 'COVERING COMPLETED & BACKFILLED TO WATERMAN AVENUE...CURVING TOWARD NO. 1 TUNNEL' - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  11. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect...

  12. 14. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD, SHOWING OLD ROUTE OF CANAL VIADUCT ACROSS BARTON ROAD. SIPHON NOW GOES UNDER ROAD AND EMERGES AT RIGHT REAR BELOW TWO TELEPHONE POLES (SEE CA-120-15) - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  18. 21. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), H. B. Wesner, photographer, date unknown. 'VIEWS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SCENERY. ARTESIAN WELLS, SAN BERNARDINO, CALIFORNIA. SUPPLYING THE GAGE CANAL OF RIVERSIDE.' - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  19. Heat-Flux Gage thermophosphor system

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    1991-08-01

    This document describes the installation, hardware requirements, and application of the Heat-Flux Gage (Version 1.0) software package developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Applied Technology Division. The developed software is a single component of a thermographic phosphor-based temperature and heat-flux measurement system. The heat-flux transducer was developed by EG G Energy Measurements Systems and consists of a 1- by 1-in. polymethylpentene sheet coated on the front and back with a repeating thermographic phosphor pattern. The phosphor chosen for this application is gadolinium oxysulphide doped with terbium. This compound has a sensitive temperature response from 10 to 65.6{degree}C (50--150{degree}F) for the 415- and 490-nm spectral emission lines. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Planka, Michal; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers' fatigue and passengers' thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction) and outlet (each vent), and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  1. Dual strain gage balance system for measuring light loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A dual strain gage balance system for measuring normal and axial forces and pitching moment of a metric airfoil model imparted by aerodynamic loads applied to the airfoil model during wind tunnel testing includes a pair of non-metric panels being rigidly connected to and extending towards each other from opposite sides of the wind tunnel, and a pair of strain gage balances, each connected to one of the non-metric panels and to one of the opposite ends of the metric airfoil model for mounting the metric airfoil model between the pair of non-metric panels. Each strain gage balance has a first measuring section for mounting a first strain gage bridge for measuring normal force and pitching moment and a second measuring section for mounting a second strain gage bridge for measuring axial force.

  2. Gage of 6.5 per cent Si-Fe sheet is chemically reduced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Pavlovic, D. M.

    1966-01-01

    Chemical milling process aids the production of 6.5 percent silicon-iron soft magnetic-alloy sheets to very thin gages. Following conventional rolling to safe gage limits, the material is chemically reduced to the desired gage.

  3. Effects of airflow on the distribution of filaments in atmospheric AC dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhihui; Qi, Haicheng; Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) accompanied by airflow has attracted a significant attention for its extensive applications. In this paper, the effects of airflow on the characteristics of the atmospheric air DBD plasma are experimentally investigated using the DBD reactor excited by a 15 kHz AC power source. In order to study the discharge filaments distribution at different flow rates, transparent conductive indium tin oxide film is used as the upper electrode, and quartz glasses are used as insulated dielectrics. Experiment results prove that the breakdown voltage is decreased and more current pulses with declined amplitudes are produced when the airflow is introduced into the discharge gap. It is confirmed that although the discharge seems to be diffuse in the presence of airflow to the naked eyes, the discharge mode remains filamentary in the intensified charge-coupled device images within a single AC cycle. By acquiring the images with a different exposure time, it can be recognized that the discharge filaments move along the flow field direction with a velocity less than the corresponding flow rate. The movement of discharge filaments is attributed to the motion of the charge induced by the airflow.

  4. Cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, R.A.; Carlson, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study of the cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Louisiana. Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 68 continuous-record stream gages currently (1984) in operation with a budget of $408,700. Three stream gages have uses specific to a short-term study with no need for continued data collection beyond the study. The remaining 65 stations should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. In addition to the current operation of continuous-record stations, a number of wells, flood-profile gages, crest-stage gages, and stage stations, are serviced on the continuous-record station routes; thus, increasing the current budget to $423,000. The average standard error of estimate for data collected at the stations is 34.6%. Standard errors computed in this study are one measure of streamflow errors, and can be used as guidelines in comparing the effectiveness of alternative networks. By using the routes and number of measurements prescribed by the ' Traveling Hydrographer Program, ' the standard error could be reduced to 31.5% with the current budget of $423,000. If the gaging resources are redistributed, the 34.6% overall level of accuracy at the 68 continuous-record sites and the servicing of the additional wells or gages could be maintained with a budget of approximately $410,000. (USGS)

  5. Cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shindel, H.L.; Bartlett, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the results of the cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Ohio. Data uses and funding sources were identified for 107 continuous stream gages currently being operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Ohio with a budget of $682,000; this budget includes field work for other projects and excludes stations jointly operated with the Miami Conservancy District. No stream gage were identified as having insufficient reason to continue their operation; nor were any station identified as having uses specifically only for short-term studies. All 107 station should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. The average standard error of estimation of stream flow records is 29.2 percent at its present level of funding. A minimum budget of $679,000 is required to operate the 107-gage program; a budget less than this does no permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, the average standard error is 31.1 percent The maximum budget analyzed was $1,282,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 11.1 percent. A need for additional gages has been identified by the other agencies that cooperate in the program. It is suggested that these gage be installed as funds can be made available.

  6. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Mohammed; Abdullah, Mohammed Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI) than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies. PMID:23983811

  7. High temperature strain measurement with a resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Fichtel, ED; Mcdaniel, Amos

    1993-01-01

    A PdCr based electrical resistance strain gage was demonstrated in the laboratory to be a viable sensor candidate for static strain measurement at high temperatures. However, difficulties were encountered while transferring the sensor to field applications. This paper is therefore prepared for recognition and resolution of the problems likely to be encountered with PdCr strain gages in field applications. Errors caused by the measurement system, installation technique and lead wire attachment are discussed. The limitations and some considerations related to the temperature compensation technique used for this gage are also addressed.

  8. Manual for leveling at gaging stations in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.O.; Jackson, N.M.

    1981-01-01

    This manual was prepared to serve several purposes in the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina District. This manual sets forth District policy as to frequency of levels, accuracy criteria, procedures for checking the datum and setting of the various types of gages, general rules to follow in establishing the original datum of a gage, and contains sample notes to be used as guides in level notekeeping. The manual also serves as a training tool in that the reasoning behind District policy is explained and reasons are given for following the recommended techniques to assist in a better understanding of the purpose of levels and maintaining gage datum.

  9. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOEpatents

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-05-19

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress or strain measurements. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g., ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grind or other grind arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated form the resistivity measurements. 4 figs.

  10. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOEpatents

    Stout, Ray B.

    1988-01-01

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress or measurements. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g. ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grid or other grid arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of the gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated from the resistivity measurements.

  11. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOEpatents

    Stout, R.B.

    1988-05-17

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress measurements is disclosed. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g. ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grid or other grid arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of the gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated from the resistivity measurements. 4 figs.

  12. A Miniature Electrical Pressure Gage Utilizing a Stretched Flat Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, John L

    1952-01-01

    A variable-air-gap, inductance-type, electrical pressure gage is described that is basically 7/16 inch in diameter and 1/4 inch in thickness. The gage was designed to measure accurately pressures fluctuating at high frequencies and has proved to be a value as a general-purpose electrical gage for aeronautical work where small size and minimum response to acceleration forces are important factors. Design equations and curves are presented which can be used to predict the deflections and fundamental natural frequencies of stretched flat diaphragms.

  13. Theory and Practice of Shear/Stress Strain Gage Hygrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fenner, Ralph L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical hygrometry has progressed during the last several decades from crude hygroscopes to state-of-the art strain-gage sensors. The strain-gage devices vary from different metallic beams to strain-gage sensors using cellulose crystallite elements, held in full shear restraint. This old technique is still in use but several companies are now actively pursuing development of MEMS miniaturized humidity sensors. These new sensors use polyimide thin film for water vapor adsorption and desorption. This paper will provide overview about modern humidity sensors.

  14. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  15. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David J.; McNamee, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  16. Solar furnace for flux gage calibration and thermal-effects testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, R. M.; Richards, E. H.; Mulholland, G. P.

    A solar furnace to calculate gauge flux and thermal effects was studied. The solar furnace consists of a 7.4 m square heliostat, a 6.7 m diameter concentrator, an attenuator designed to vary the flux density at the test area, and a three axis positioning table at the test area. Its primary function is the calibration of flux gages but other tasks and/or experiments will be considered as time permits.

  17. Vision system for dial gage torque wrench calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Doiron, Theodore D.; Sanghera, Paramjeet S.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a fast and robust vision system which, in conjunction with the Dial Gage Calibration system developed by AKO Inc., will be used by the U.S. Army in calibrating dial gage torque wrenches. The vision system detects the change in the angular position of the dial pointer in a dial gage. The angular change is proportional to the applied torque. The input to the system is a sequence of images of the torque wrench dial gage taken at different dial pointer positions. The system then reports the angular difference between the different positions. The primary components of this vision system include modules for image acquisition, linear feature extraction and angle measurements. For each of these modules, several techniques were evaluated and the most applicable one was selected. This system has numerous other applications like vision systems to read and calibrate analog instruments.

  18. Ionization vacuum gage starts quickly, is unaffected by spurious currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garwood, D. C.

    1965-01-01

    Ionization vacuum gage with a switch-operated starting device and a microammeter begins functioning quickly in a high vacuum. The microammeter is also protected by its circuit design from spurious currents.

  19. NASA LaRC Strain Gage Balance Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gage balances for more than fifty years. These balances have been utilized in Langley's wind tunnels, which span over a wide variety of aerodynamic test regimes, as well as other ground based test facilities and in space flight applications. As a result, the designs encompass a large array of sizes, loads, and environmental effects. Currently Langley has more than 300 balances available for its researchers. This paper will focus on the design concepts for internal sting mounted strain-gage balances. However, these techniques can be applied to all force measurement design applications. Strain-gage balance concepts that have been developed over the years including material selection, sting, model interfaces, measuring, sections, fabrication, strain-gaging and calibration will be discussed.

  20. 50. Stream gaging station in steelpipe well and shelter, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Stream gaging station in steel-pipe well and shelter, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  1. 49. View of unlined canal near inline stream gaging station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. View of unlined canal near in-line stream gaging station, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. 19. Recorders and gages in Armory Street Pump House. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Recorders and gages in Armory Street Pump House. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. 26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water in the filtration bed reservoir. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  4. Forming blocks speed production of strain gage grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonn, J. L.; Gardner, D. E.

    1965-01-01

    A tool is designed which facilitates the forming of wire grids used in manufacturing strain gage grids. Flattening the grid wire by a cold working process produces a stabilized grid which can be readily handled for storage or shipment.

  5. Effect of airflow on biodrying of gardening wastes in reactors.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Mendoza, F J; Herrera-Prats, L; Robles-Martínez, F; Gallardo-Izquierdo, A; Piña-Guzmán, A B

    2013-05-01

    Biodrying consists of reducing moisture by using the heat from aerobic bio-degradation. The parameters that control the process are: aeration, temperature during the process, initial moisture of biowaste, and temperature and relative humidity of the input air. Lawn mowing and garden waste from the gardens of the University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain) were used as a substrate. Biodrying was performed in 10 reactors with known air volumes from 0.88 to 6.42 L/(min x kg dry weight). To promote aeration, 5 of the reactors had 15% of a bulking agent added. The experiment lasted 20 days. After the experiments it was found that the bulking agent led to greater weight loss. However, the increased airflow rate was not linearly proportional to the weight loss.

  6. An Elastic Tube Gage for Measuring Static and Dynamic Pressures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-05-01

    25 grams of granulated celluloid No. 2346 dissolved ; on one pound of ethyl acetate. + For maximum stability of operation, gage current should be...Compounds such as beeswax or ceresin wax were first employed for waterproofing, but their brittleness at low temperatures was found to be ob- jectionable...Bitumastics such, as Qzite B Jhave sbeen superior in that respect, but are dissolved by hydraulic- fluids and oils, to which strain gages .may Be

  7. Cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arteaga, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    The stream-gaging network in Nevada was evaluated as part of a nationwide effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. Specifically, the study dealt with 79 streamflow gages and 2 canal-flow gages that were under the direct operation of Nevada personnel as of 1983. Cost-effective allocations of resources, including budget and operational criteria, were studied using statistical procedures known as Kalman-filtering techniques. The possibility of developing streamflow data at ungaged sites was evaluated using flow-routing and statistical regression analyses. Neither of these methods provided sufficiently accurate results to warrant their use in place of stream gaging. The 81 gaging stations were being operated in 1983 with a budget of $465,500. As a result of this study, all existing stations were determined to be necessary components of the program for the foreseeable future. At the 1983 funding level, the average standard error of streamflow records was nearly 28%. This same overall level of accuracy could have been maintained with a budget of approximately $445,000 if the funds were redistributed more equitably among the gages. The maximum budget analyzed, $1,164 ,000 would have resulted in an average standard error of 11%. The study indicates that a major source of error is lost data. If perfectly operating equipment were available, the standard error for the 1983 program and budget could have been reduced to 21%. (Thacker-USGS, WRD)

  8. Strain gage selection in loads equations using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, structural loads are measured using strain gages. A loads calibration test must be done before loads can be accurately measured. In one measurement method, a series of point loads is applied to the structure, and loads equations are derived via the least squares curve fitting algorithm using the strain gage responses to the applied point loads. However, many research structures are highly instrumented with strain gages, and the number and selection of gages used in a loads equation can be problematic. This paper presents an improved technique using a genetic algorithm to choose the strain gages used in the loads equations. Also presented are a comparison of the genetic algorithm performance with the current T-value technique and a variant known as the Best Step-down technique. Examples are shown using aerospace vehicle wings of high and low aspect ratio. In addition, a significant limitation in the current methods is revealed. The genetic algorithm arrived at a comparable or superior set of gages with significantly less human effort, and could be applied in instances when the current methods could not.

  9. Gage for measuring fluted oil field tubular members

    SciTech Connect

    Case, W.A.; Burt, J.R.

    1987-03-17

    A gage is described for measuring the nominal diameter of an elongated tubular member having circumferentially spaced apart radially outwardly extending flutes and for calibrating the amount of wear to the flutes and predicting the future wear life of the tubular member. The gage comprises: a first gage part including a pair of spaced apart colinear elongated first handlebar halves with a generally semi-circular first half ring positioned between the first handlebar halves. The first half ring includes at least one flute engaging surface which includes stepped arcuate flute engaging portions positioned at radii from the center of the first ring half corresponding to different diameters to be measured; a second gage part including a pair of spaced apart colinear elongated second handlebar halves with a generally semicircular second half ring positioned between the second handlebar halves. The second half ring includes at least one flute engaging surface which includes stepped arcuate flute engaging portions positioned a radii from the center of the second ring half corresponding to different diameters to be measured. The number of flute engaging surfaces of the first and second ring halves is equal to the number of flutes on the tubular member; and a hinge pivotally connecting together one handlebar half of the first gage part to one handlebar half of the second gage part.

  10. Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers ( Goodzeit gages'') for SSC magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.; Gilbertson, A.; Dougherty, M.

    1991-03-01

    These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched backing plate'' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a backing plate'' is used, the similarities or difficulties between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab -- what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations.

  11. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  12. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  13. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  14. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  15. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  16. Considerations for efficient airflow design in cleanrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2004-07-29

    A high-performance cleanroom should provide efficient energy performance in addition to effective contamination control. Energy-efficient designs can yield capital and operational cost savings, and can be part of a strategy to improve productivity in the cleanroom industry. Based upon in-situ measurement data from ISO Class 5 clean rooms, this article discusses key factors affecting cleanroom air system performance and benefits of efficient airflow design in clean rooms. Cleanroom HVAC systems used in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are very energy intensive, requiring large volumes of cleaned air to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations. There is a tendency, however, to design excessive airflow rates into cleanroom HVAC systems, due to factors such as design conservatism, lack of thorough understanding of airflow requirements, concerns about cleanliness reliability, and potential design and operational liabilities. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with system type and design, cleanroom functions, and the control of critical parameters such as temperature and humidity. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by cleanliness class have an impact on overall energy use. A previous study covering Europe and the US reveals annual cleanroom electricity usage for cooling and fan energy varies significantly depending on cleanliness class, and may account for up to three-quarters of total annual operating costs. A study on a semiconductor cleanroom in Japan found air delivery systems account for more than 30% of total power consumption. It is evident that the main factors dictating cleanroom operation energy include airflow rates and HVAC system efficiency. Improving energy efficiency in clean rooms may potentially contribute to significant savings in the initial costs of the facilities as well as operation and maintenance costs. For example, energy consumption by a typical chip

  17. Airflow limitation is accompanied by diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hellebrandová, L; Chlumský, J; Vostatek, P; Novák, D; Rýznarová, Z; Bunc, V

    2016-07-18

    Chronic airflow limitation, caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or by asthma, is believed to change the shape and the position of the diaphragm due to an increase in lung volume. We have made a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of diaphragm in supine position with pulmonary functions, respiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. We have studied the differences between patients with COPD, patients with asthma, and healthy subjects. Most interestingly we found the lung hyperinflation leads to the changes in diaphragmatic excursions during the breathing cycle, seen in the differences between the maximal expiratory diaphragm position (DPex) in patients with COPD and control group (p=0.0016). The magnitude of the diaphragmatic dysfunction was significantly related to the airflow limitation expressed by the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to slow vital capacity (FEV(1)/SVC), (%, p=0.0007); to the lung hyperinflation expressed as the ratio of the residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), (%, p=0.0018) and the extent of tidal volume constrain expressed as maximal tidal volume (V(Tmax)), ([l], p=0.0002); and the ratio of tidal volume to slow vital capacity (V(T)/SVC), (p=0.0038) during submaximal exercise. These results suggest that diaphragmatic movement fails to contribute sufficiently to the change in lung volume in emphysema. Tests of respiratory muscle function were related to the position of the diaphragm in deep expiration, e.g. neuromuscular coupling (P(0.1)/V(T)) (p=0.0232). The results have shown that the lung volumes determine the position of the diaphragm and function of the respiratory muscles. Chronic airflow limitation seems to change the position of the diaphragm, which thereafter influences inspiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. There is an apparent relationship between the position of the diaphragm and the pulmonary functions and exercise tolerance.

  18. Using a coordinate measuring machine to calibrate step gages at world class levels of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Zurcher, N.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to relate some of the experiences of using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to calibrate long end standards and step gages at measurement uncertainties of less than 0. 5{mu}m. It is not the intent of this paper to suggest that everyone should return to his or her laboratory and change the way CMMs are operated nor to suggest that the methods discussed here are even the best methods. The intent is to provide some food for thought, based on real experiences, about the use of a CMM to measure at low levels of uncertainty. As will become apparent, a lot of the issues discussed really apply to any dimensional measuring technique operating at low levels of uncertainty, not just a CMM. The discussion in this paper is based on measuring one-dimensional end standards and step gages placed along the x-axis of the Moore M-60 CMM located at the Oak Ridge Metrology Center, which is part of the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology at the Y-12 Plant (formerly used in manufacturing nuclear weapons parts) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. When the Cold War ended, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) pushed to make nuclear weapons technology available to U.S. industry. As part of this technology transfer effort, it was determined that the M-60 could be used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide a calibration service for step gages. Previously, U.S. industrialists had to go to Germany for step gage calibrations at the lowest levels of measurement uncertainty. Much of the discussion that follows is based on the process developed to use the M-60 for the NIST calibration.

  19. Airflow elicits a spider's jump towards airborne prey. I. Airflow around a flying blowfly

    PubMed Central

    Klopsch, Christian; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.; Barth, Friedrich G.

    2012-01-01

    The hunting spider Cupiennius salei uses airflow generated by flying insects for the guidance of its prey-capture jump. We investigated the velocity field of the airflow generated by a freely flying blowfly close to the flow sensors on the spider's legs. It shows three characteristic phases (I–III). (I) When approaching, the blowfly induces an airflow signal near the spider with only little fluctuation (0.013 ± 0.006 m s−1) and a strength that increases nearly exponentially with time (maximum: 0.164 ± 0.051 m s−1 s.d.). The spider detects this flow while the fly is still 38.4 ± 5.6 mm away. The fluctuation of the airflow above the sensors increases linearly up to 0.037 m s−1 with the fly's altitude. Differences in the time of arrival and intensity of the fly signal at different legs probably inform the spider about the direction to the prey. (II) Phase II abruptly follows phase I with a much higher degree of fluctuation (fluctuation amplitudes: 0.114 ± 0.050 m s−1). It starts when the fly is directly above the sensor and corresponds to the time-dependent flow in the wake below and behind the fly. Its onset indicates to the spider that its prey is now within reach and triggers its jump. The spider derives information on the fly's position from the airflow characteristics, enabling it to properly time its jump. The horizontal velocity of the approaching fly is reflected by the time of arrival differences (ranging from 0.038 to 0.108 s) of the flow at different legs and the exponential velocity growth rate (16–79 s−1) during phase I. (III) The air flow velocity decays again after the fly has passed the spider. PMID:22572032

  20. Diaphragm injury in individuals with airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Macgowan, N A; Evans, K G; Road, J D; Reid, W D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of diaphragm injury, to quantify the injury and number of macrophages at the light microscopic level, and to determine their association with airflow obstruction in humans. Partial-thickness diaphragm biopsies were obtained from 21 subjects going for thoracotomy surgery (FEV(1): 74 +/- 34% predicted; range: 16 to 122% predicted). Cross sections cut from frozen diaphragm were processed with H&E or processed for immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibody Ber-MAC3 (DAKO Corp., Carpinteria, CA) to label macrophages. Area fractions (A(A)) or the proportions of the cross- sectional area were determined by point counting all viable fields of H&E-stained diaphragm cross sections. A(A) were 66.2 +/- 9.0% for normal muscle, 17.6 +/- 7.2% for abnormal muscle, and 16.3 +/- 4.2% for connective tissue. Percent predicted FEV(1) was inversely related to the A(A) of abnormal muscle (r = -0.53, p < 0.01) and directly related to the A(A) of normal muscle (r = 0.37, p < 0.05). The number of macrophages was not related to % predicted FEV(1) (mean +/- SD: 0.41 +/- 0.18/fiber; 52 +/- 19/mm(2)). We conclude that increasing severity of airflow obstruction is associated with an increased A(A) of abnormal diaphragm and a decreased A(A) of normal diaphragm.

  1. Effects of differences in nasal anatomy on airflow distribution: a comparison of four individuals at rest.

    PubMed

    Segal, Rebecca A; Kepler, Grace M; Kimbell, Julia S

    2008-11-01

    Differences in nasal anatomy among human subjects may cause significant differences in respiratory airflow patterns and subsequent dosimetry of inhaled gases and particles in the respiratory tract. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study inter-individual differences in nasal airflow among four healthy individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were digitized and nasal-surface-area-to-volume ratios (SAVR) were calculated for 15 adults. Two males and two females, representative of the range of SAVR values, were selected for flow analysis. Nasal CFD models were constructed for each subject by a semi-automated process that provided input to a commercial mesh generator to generate structured hexahedral meshes (Gambit, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Steady-state inspiratory laminar airflow at 15 L/min was calculated using commercial CFD software (FIDAP, Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA). Streamline patterns, velocities, and helicity values were compared. In all subjects, the majority of flow passed through the middle and ventral regions of the nasal passages; however, the amount and location of swirling flow differed among individuals. Cross-sectional flow allocation analysis also indicated inter-individual differences. Laboratory water-dye experiments confirmed streamlines and velocity magnitudes predicted by the computational model. These results suggest that significant inter-individual differences exist in bulk airflow patterns in the nose.

  2. Study on airflow characteristics in the semi-closed irregular narrow flow channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuzhen; Hu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Linhang; Hu, Xudong; Jin, Yingzi

    2016-04-01

    The air-jet loom is widely used in the textile industry. The interaction mechanism of airflow and yarn is not clear in such a narrow flow channel, the gas consumption is relatively large, the yarn motion is unstable and the weft insertion is often interrupted during the operation. In order to study the characteristics of the semi-closed flow field in profiled dents, the momentum conservation equation is modified and the model parameters and boundary conditions are set. Compared with the different r, the ratio of profiled dent's thickness and gap, the results show that the smaller the r is, the smaller the velocity fluctuations of the airflow is. When the angle of profiled dents α is close to zero, the diffusion of the airflow will be less. The experiment is also conducted to verify the result of the simulation with a high-speed camera and pressure sensor in profiled dents. The airflow characteristics in the semi-closed irregular narrow flow channel in the paper would provide the theoretical basis for optimizing the weft insertion process of the air-jet loom.

  3. Experimental investigation of transient thermal behavior of an airship under different solar radiation and airflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Fu; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of the thermal behavior of airships is crucial to the development of airship technology. An experiment apparatus is constructed to investigate the thermal response characteristics of airships, and the transient temperature distributions of both hull and inner gas are obtained under the irradiation of a solar simulator and various airflow conditions. In the course of the research, the transient temperature change of the experimental airship is measured for four airflow speeds of 0 m/s (natural convection), 3.26 m/s, 5.5 m/s and 7.0 m/s, and two incident solar radiation values of 842.4 W/m2 and 972.0 W/m2. The results show that solar irradiation has significant influence on the airship hull and inner gas temperatures even if the airship stays in a ground airflow environment where the heat transfer is dominated by radiation and convection. The airflow around the airship is conducive to reduce the hull temperature and temperature nonuniformity. Transient thermal response of airships rapidly varies with time under solar radiation conditions and the hull temperature remains approximately constant in ˜5-10 min. Finally, a transient thermal model of airship is developed and the model is validated through comparison with the experimental data.

  4. Cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flippo, H.N.; Behrendt, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program in Pennsylvania. Data uses and funding were identified for 223 continuous-record stream gages operated in 1983; four are planned for discontinuance at the close of water-year 1985; two are suggested for conversion, at the beginning of the 1985 water year, for the collection of only continuous stage records. Two of 11 special-purpose short-term gages are recommended for continuation when the supporting project ends; eight of these gages are to be discontinued and the other will be converted to a partial-record type. Current operation costs for the 212 stations recommended for continued operation is $1,199,000 per year in 1983. The average standard error of estimation for instantaneous streamflow is 15.2%. An overall average standard error of 9.8% could be attained on a budget of $1,271,000, which is 6% greater than the 1983 budget, by adopted cost-effective stream-gaging operations. (USGS)

  5. On wind turbine power performance measurements at inclined airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, T. F.

    2004-07-01

    The average airflow inclination in complex terrain may be substantial. The airflow inclination affects wind turbine performance and also affects the cup anemometer being used in power performance measurements. In this article the overall dependence of the power curve on inclined airflow is analysed for its influence on both the wind turbine and the cup anemometer. The wind turbine performance analysis is based on results of measurements and theoretical calculations with the aeroelastic code HAWC coupled to a 3D actuator disc model for varying yaw angle. The cup anemometer analysis at inclined flow is based on an averaging of measured angular characteristics in a wind tunnel with the distribution of airflow inclination angles over time. The relative difference in annual energy production in terrain with inclined airflow compared with flat terrain is simulated for cup anemometers with theoretical optimal angular characteristics for two different definitions of wind speed, as well as for five commercial cup anemometers with measured angular characteristics. Copyright

  6. Experimental Investigation of the Induced Airflow of Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xun-Nian; Wang, Wan-Bo; Huang, Zong-Bo; Li, Hua-Xing

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the acceleration effect of corona discharge acting on air, we present an experimental study on the induced airflow produced by corona discharge between two parallel electrodes. The parameters investigated are the type of electrodes, actuation voltage and the distance in the absence of free airflow. The induced flow velocity is measured directly in the accelerated region using the particle image velocimetry technology. The results show that if corona discharge is not developed into arc discharge, the induced airflow velocity increases nearly linearly with the applied voltage and the maximum induced airflow velocity near the needle electrode reaches 36 m/s. It is expected that in the future, the result can be referred to in the research about effect of active flow control to reach much higher induced airflow speed.

  7. Induced airflow in flying insects II. Measurement of induced flow.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P; Jacobson, Nathaniel P

    2006-01-01

    The flapping wings of insects and birds induce a strong flow over their body during flight. Although this flow influences the sensory biology and physiology of a flying animal, there are very little data on the characteristics of this self-generated flow field or its biological consequences. A model proposed in the companion paper estimated the induced flow over flying insects. In this study, we used a pair of hot wire anemometers to measure this flow at two locations near the body of a tethered flapping hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The axial inflow anemometer measured the airflow prior to its entry into the stroke plane, whereas the radial outflow anemometer measured the airflow after it crossed the stroke plane. The high temporal resolution of the hot wire anemometers allowed us to measure not only the mean induced flow but also subtle higher frequency disturbances occurring at 1-4 times the wing beat frequency. These data provide evidence for the predictions of a mathematical model proposed in the companion paper. Specifically, the absolute value of the measured induced flow matches the estimate of the model. Also, as predicted by the model, the induced flow varies linearly with wing beat frequency. Our experiments also show that wing flexion contributes significantly to the observed higher frequency disturbances. Thus, the hot wire anemometry technique provides a useful means to quantify the aerodynamic signature of wing flexion. The phasic and tonic components of induced flow influence several physiological processes such as convective heat loss and gas exchange in endothermic insects, as well as alter the nature of mechanosensory and olfactory stimuli to the sensory organs of a flying insect.

  8. Evaluation of Pd-Cr Wires for Strain Gage Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Greer, L. C., III; Oberle, L. G.

    1995-01-01

    A newly developed alloy, palladium-13 weight percent chromium (Pd13Cr), was identified by United Technologies Research Center under a NASA contract to be the best material for high temperature strain gage applications. An electrical resistance strain gage that can provide accurate static strain measurement to a temperature higher than that of a commercially available gage is urgently needed in aerospace and aeronautics research. A strain gage made of a 25.4 micron (1 mil) diameter Pd13Cr wire has been recently demonstrated to be usable for static strain measurements to 800 C. This compares to the 400 C temperature limit of the commercially available strain gages. The performance of the Pd-Cr gage, however, strongly depends on the quality of the Pd13Cr wire. Four batches of Pd-Cr wires purchased from three different manufacturers were therefore evaluated to determine the best source of the wire for strain gage applications. The three suppliers were Precious Metal Institute in China, Sigmund Cohn Co., and G & S Titanium, Inc. in the United States. Two batches of wires obtained from Previous Metal Institute in 1987 and 1992, respectively are referred to herein as China87 and China92 wires. The mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of these wires, both as-received and after high temperature exposures at 800 C for 50 hours were analyzed. The elastic modulus and the failure strength of the wires were evaluated using a tensile test machine equipped with a laser speckle strain measurement system. The chemical and microstructural properties of the wires were inspected using a plasma atomic emission spectrometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). The electrical stability and repeatability of the wires were determined by measuring the electrical resistance of the wires during three thermal cycles to 1000 C and a ten-hour soak at 1000 C. As a result of this study, the wire which has the highest

  9. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry.

    PubMed

    Wasiolek, P T; Whicker, J J; Gong, H; Rodgers, J C

    1999-06-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s-1 to 9.7 cm s-1. There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s-1 to 35.5 cm s-1 with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%.

  10. Usability Evaluation of a Flight-Deck Airflow Hazard Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2004-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with unseen airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices, downdrafts, low level wind shear, microbursts, or turbulence from surrounding vegetation or structures near the landing site. These hazards can be dangerous even to airliners; there have been hundreds of fatalities in the United States in the last two decades attributable to airliner encounters with microbursts and low level wind shear alone. However, helicopters are especially vulnerable to airflow hazards because they often have to operate in confined spaces and under operationally stressful conditions (such as emergency search and rescue, military or shipboard operations). Providing helicopter pilots with an augmented-reality display visualizing local airflow hazards may be of significant benefit. However, the form such a visualization might take, and whether it does indeed provide a benefit, had not been studied before our experiment. We recruited experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots for a preliminary usability study to evaluate a prototype augmented-reality visualization system. The study had two goals: first, to assess the efficacy of presenting airflow data in flight; and second, to obtain expert feedback on sample presentations of hazard indicators to refine our design choices. The study addressed the optimal way to provide critical safety information to the pilot, what level of detail to provide, whether to display specific aerodynamic causes or potential effects only, and how to safely and effectively shift the locus of attention during a high-workload task. Three-dimensional visual cues, with varying shape, color, transparency, texture, depth cueing, and use of motion, depicting regions of hazardous airflow, were developed and presented to the pilots. The study results indicated that such a visualization system could be of significant value in improving safety during critical takeoff and landing operations, and also

  11. Empirical Observations on the Sensitivity of Hot Cathode Ionization Type Vacuum Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    A study of empirical methods of predicting tile relative sensitivities of hot cathode ionization gages is presented. Using previously published gage sensitivities, several rules for predicting relative sensitivity are tested. The relative sensitivity to different gases is shown to be invariant with gage type, in the linear range of gage operation. The total ionization cross section, molecular and molar polarizability, and refractive index are demonstrated to be useful parameters for predicting relative gage sensitivity. Using data from the literature, the probable error of predictions of relative gage sensitivity based on these molecular properties is found to be about 10 percent. A comprehensive table of predicted relative sensitivities, based on empirical methods, is presented.

  12. Practical approaches for application of hi-temperature strain gages on high temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1991-01-01

    Four major areas of interest with respect to utilizing strain gages on carbon/carbon (with SiC surfaces) and titanium matrix composites are addressed. Strain gage and adhesive combinations on carbon/carbon (C/C) at temperatures from minus 190 C to 540 C, half-bridge gaging for reducing apparent strain on C/C using Poisson's ratio and bending configurations, review of the 'field installation' techniques developed for gaging a C/C hypersonic generic elevon, and results of initial strain gaging efforts on titanium matrix composites are discussed. Current research in developing techniques for increasing the maximum temperature for strain gages on carbon/carbon are reviewed.

  13. Payload bay atmospheric vent airflow testing at the Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, James D., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several concerns related to venting the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay during launch led to laboratory experiments with a flight-type vent box installed in the wall of a subsonic wind tunnel. This report describes the test setups and procedures used to acquire data for characterization of airflow through the vent box and acoustic tones radiated from the vent-box cavity. A flexible boundary-layer spoiler which reduced the vent-tone amplitude is described.

  14. GAGE12 mediates human gastric carcinoma growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Song, Kyung-A; Chae, Ji-Hye; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2015-05-15

    The spontaneous metastasis from human gastric carcinoma (GC) remains poorly reproduced in animal models. Here, we established an experimental mouse model in which GC progressively developed in the orthotopic stomach wall and metastasized to multiple organs; the tumors colonized in the ovary exhibited typical characteristics of Krukenberg tumor. The expression of mesenchymal markers was low in primary tumors and high in those in intravasating and extravasating veins. However, the expression of epithelial markers did not differ, indicating that the acquisition of mesenchymal markers without a concordant loss of typical epithelial markers was associated with metastasis. We identified 35 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in GC cells metastasized to ovary, among which overexpression of GAGE12 family genes, the top-ranked DEGs, were validated. In addition, knockdown of the GAGE12 gene family affected transcription of many of the aforementioned 35 DEGs and inhibited trans-well migration, tumor sphere formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In accordance, GAGE12 overexpression augmented migration, tumor sphere formation and sustained in vivo tumor growth. Taken together, the GAGE12 gene family promotes GC growth and metastasis by modulating the expression of GC metastasis-related genes.

  15. High temperature strain gage technology for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Edward J.; Mcdaniel, Amos D.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a six month study that addressed specific issues to transfer the Pd-13Cr static strain sensor to a gas turbine engine environment. The application issues that were addressed include: (1) evaluation of a miniature, variable potentiometer for use as the ballast resistor, in conjunction with a conventional strain gage signal conditioning unit; (2) evaluation of a metal sheathed, platinum conductor leadwire assembly for use with the three-wire sensor; and (3) subjecting the sensor to dynamic strain cyclic testing to determine fatigue characteristics. Results indicate a useful static strain gage system at all temperature levels up to 1350 F. The fatigue characteristics also appear to be very promising, indicating a potential use in dynamic strain measurement applications. The procedure, set-up, and data for all tests are presented in this report. This report also discusses the specific strain gage installation technique for the Pd-13Cr gage because of its potential impact on the quality of the output data.

  16. Latin-square three-dimensional gage master

    DOEpatents

    Jones, L.

    1981-05-12

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  17. Polymer deformation gage measures thickness change in tensile tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyles, H. F.; Broyles, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight deformation gage attached to a polymer specimen determines the thickness changes undergone by the specimen during the testing of its tensile and elongation properties. Mechanical noise from outside sources is dampened when the assembly is hung on a light rubber band.

  18. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  19. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-19 Valves and gages... liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator...

  1. 13. VIEW OF SHEFFIELD GAGE, USED TO MEASURE ROUNDNESS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF SHEFFIELD GAGE, USED TO MEASURE ROUNDNESS OF WEAPON PARTS, AS PART OF THE FINAL PARTS INSPECTION PROCESS. (6/2/67) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. 46 CFR 98.25-45 - Liquid level gaging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gaging device. 98.25-45 Section 98.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  3. 46 CFR 98.25-45 - Liquid level gaging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gaging device. 98.25-45 Section 98.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  4. 46 CFR 98.25-45 - Liquid level gaging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gaging device. 98.25-45 Section 98.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  5. 46 CFR 98.25-45 - Liquid level gaging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gaging device. 98.25-45 Section 98.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  6. 46 CFR 98.25-45 - Liquid level gaging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gaging device. 98.25-45 Section 98.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  7. Early development of process automation with nucleonic measurement gages

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.S

    1989-10-01

    This article recounts the development of process automation system that rely on nucleonic sources for nondestructive measurement. The author details the formation and growth of a manufacturer and supplier of these systems. The development of the Accu Ray, the first nucleonic gage, is discussed.

  8. Development and characterization of PdCr temperature-compensated wire resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1989-01-01

    A temperature-compensated resistance static strain gage with potential to be used to 600 C was recently developed. Gages were fabricated from specially developed palladium-13 w/o chromium (Pd-13Cr) wire and platinum (Pt) compensator. When bonded to high temperature Hastelloy X, the apparent strain from room temperature to 600 C was within 400 microstrain for gages with no preheat treatment and within 3500 microstrain for gages with 16 hours prestabilization at 640 C. The apparent strain versus temperature relationship of stabilized PdCr gages were repeatable with the reproducibility within 100 microstrain during three thermal cycles to 600 C and an 11 hours soak at 600 C. The gage fabrication, construction and installation is described. Also, the coating system used for this compensated resistance strain gage is explained. The electrical properties of the strain sensing element and main characteristics of the compensated gage including apparent strain, drift and reproducibility are discussed.

  9. Development and calibration of buried wire gages for wall shear stress measurements in fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Sreedhara V.; Steinle, Frank W.

    1988-01-01

    Special methods were developed to arrange 'Buried Wire Gage' inserts flush to the contoured flow surfaces of instrument plugs of a boundary-layer flow apparatus. The fabrication process was aimed at producing proper bonding of the sensor wire to the substrate surface, without causing excessive surface waviness. A large number of gages were built and first calibrated for the resistance-temperature characteristics. The gages were then installed in a flow calibration apparatus and operated from a constant temperature anemometer system for a series of flow settings to derive the calibration constants of each of the gages. The flow settings included a range of subsonic freestream Mach numbers in order to help establish the gage calibration characteristics for compressible flow fields. This paper provides a description of the buried wire gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper gages, the procedure for calibrating the gages and the results of measurements performed for determining the calibration constants.

  10. The Evolution of Unidirectional Pulmonary Airflow.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C G

    2015-07-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the avian respiratory system is unique because air flows in the same direction through most of the gas-exchange tubules during both phases of ventilation. However, recent studies showing that unidirectional airflow also exists in crocodilians and lizards raise questions about the true phylogenetic distribution of unidirectional airflow, the selective drivers of the trait, the date of origin, and the functional consequences of this phenomenon. These discoveries suggest unidirectional flow was present in the common diapsid ancestor and are inconsistent with the traditional paradigm that unidirectional flow is an adaptation for supporting high rates of gas exchange. Instead, these discoveries suggest it may serve functions such as decreasing the work of breathing, decreasing evaporative respiratory water loss, reducing rates of heat loss, and facilitating crypsis. The divergence in the design of the respiratory system between unidirectionally ventilated lungs and tidally ventilated lungs, such as those found in mammals, is very old, with a minimum date for the divergence in the Permian Period. From this foundation, the avian and mammalian lineages evolved very different respiratory systems. I suggest the difference in design is due to the same selective pressure, expanded aerobic capacity, acting under different environmental conditions. High levels of atmospheric oxygen of the Permian Period relaxed selection for a thin blood-gas barrier and may have resulted in the homogeneous, broncho-alveolar design, whereas the reduced oxygen of the Mesozoic selected for a heterogeneous lung with an extremely thin blood-gas barrier. These differences in lung design may explain the puzzling pattern of ecomorphological diversification of Mesozoic mammals: all were small animals that did not occupy niches requiring a great aerobic capacity. The broncho-alveolar lung and the hypoxia of the Mesozoic may have restricted these mammals from exploiting

  11. Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick

  12. Coating permits use of strain gage in water and liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berven, B. B.

    1966-01-01

    Strain gage installation covered with a three-layer coating of commercial materials makes measurements in water and liquid hydrogen. It consists of a selected foil strain gage bonded with a modified commercial heat-curring epoxy cement. The outer protective layer of the gage installation may develop cracks when immersed in liquid hydrogen.

  13. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  14. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  15. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  16. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  17. 46 CFR 38.10-20 - Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gaging devices-TB/ALL. 38.10-20 Section 38... Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-20 Liquid level gaging devices—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with a liquid level gaging device of approved design to indicate the maximum...

  18. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  19. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  20. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  1. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  2. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  3. Effect of Airflow Exposure on the Tear Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Shizuka; Tung, Cynthia; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Zavislan, James; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the effect of airflow exposure on the tear meniscus and blink frequency in normal and evaporative dry eye subjects. Methods. In 9 normal subjects and 9 short tear breakup time (SBUT) dry eye subjects, lower tear meniscus height (TMH) and area (TMA) and blink frequency were measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after 5 minutes of airflow exposure (1.5 ± 0.5 m/s). Results. In SBUT dry eyes, both TMH and TMA decreased significantly (P = 0.027, P = 0.027) with a significant increase of blink frequency after airflow exposure, while significant increase in TMA was found in normal eyes. Conclusion. Measurement of the tear meniscus with anterior segment OCT seems to be useful as a noninvasive and objective method for evaluating the effect of airflow on tear film. PMID:22570766

  4. Airflow Actuation of Shortfin Mako Shark Denticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, Sean; Hubner, Paul; Lang, Amy

    2016-11-01

    The shortfin mako shark is covered in microscopic scales called denticles, which may act as a mechanism for passive flow control. Recent research has investigated the theory that reversing flow could passively bristle these denticles, which could delay flow separation. Water tunnel studies have supported this theory, yet a wind tunnel study at a greater dynamic pressure found no significant differences between an airfoil covered with mako skin and a smooth airfoil. A likely cause is that surface tension between denticles, which must be wet to retain flexibility, prevented bristling. This would not be an issue in water. To determine what reverse airflow characteristics cause denticle bristling in air, a benchtop study was conducted in which a jet of air was impinged upon a sample of wet mako skin in the reverse flow direction. A microscope and camera captured video of the denticles under the air jet, and image analysis techniques were used to detect bristling. Analysis shows sporadic bristling around 16 m/s (q = 150 Pa) but full bristling does not occur until above 35 m/s (q = 740 Pa). The free stream velocities required to achieve such reversal speeds are much higher. For this reason, mechanical analogues will be used rather than real skin in future studies of this mechanism. Funding from Boeing and NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  5. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  6. Alumina Encapsulated Strain Gage Not Mechanically Attached To The Substrate, Used to Temperature Compensate an Active High Temperature Gage In A Half-Bridge Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A temperature compensation element for a high-temperature strain gage and the method of fabricating the same. Preferably, the element is a "dummy" strain gage not mechanically attached to the substrate. The element is encapsulated in an insulative material and used to compensate an active high-temperature strain gage and wired in a half-bridge configuration. The temperature compensation element and high-temperature strain gage are fabricated using the method of the present invention. This method includes temporarily adhering the element to a heat sink, encapsulated in an insulative material and then removed from the heat sink. Next, the element is either stacked or placed near the active gage. Ideally, the element and the active gage have substantially similar heat transfer and electrical properties.

  7. Methane emissions and airflow patterns along longwall faces and through bleeder ventilation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schatzel, Steven J.; Dougherty, Heather N.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an investigation of longwall face and bleeder ventilation systems using tracer gas experiments and computer network ventilation. The condition of gateroad entries, along with the caved material’s permeability and porosity changes as the longwall face advances, determine the resistance of the airflow pathways within the longwall’s worked-out area of the bleeder system. A series of field evaluations were conducted on a four-panel longwall district. Tracer gas was released at the mouth of the longwall section or on the longwall face and sampled at various locations in the gateroads inby the shield line. Measurements of arrival times and concentrations defined airflow/gas movements for the active/completed panels and the bleeder system, providing real field data to delineate these pathways. Results showed a sustained ability of the bleeder system to ventilate the longwall tailgate corner as the panels retreated. PMID:26925166

  8. Measuring rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Delp, Woody

    2002-10-01

    During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for measuring the flow rates of outside air into HVAC systems. This document describes one particular technology for measuring these airflows, a system and a related protocol developed to evaluate this and similar measurement technologies under conditions without wind, and the results of our evaluations. We conclude that the measurement technology evaluated can provide a reasonably accurate measurement of OA flow rate over a broad range of flow, without significantly increasing airflow resistance.

  9. Reconstruction of sound source signal by analytical passive TR in the environment with airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Long; Li, Min; Yang, Debin; Niu, Feng; Zeng, Wu

    2017-03-01

    In the acoustic design of air vehicles, the time-domain signals of noise sources on the surface of air vehicles can serve as data support to reveal the noise source generation mechanism, analyze acoustic fatigue, and take measures for noise insulation and reduction. To rapidly reconstruct the time-domain sound source signals in an environment with flow, a method combining the analytical passive time reversal mirror (AP-TR) with a shear flow correction is proposed. In this method, the negative influence of flow on sound wave propagation is suppressed by the shear flow correction, obtaining the corrected acoustic propagation time delay and path. Those corrected time delay and path together with the microphone array signals are then submitted to the AP-TR, reconstructing more accurate sound source signals in the environment with airflow. As an analytical method, AP-TR offers a supplementary way in 3D space to reconstruct the signal of sound source in the environment with airflow instead of the numerical TR. Experiments on the reconstruction of the sound source signals of a pair of loud speakers are conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel with subsonic airflow to validate the effectiveness and priorities of the proposed method. Moreover the comparison by theorem and experiment result between the AP-TR and the time-domain beamforming in reconstructing the sound source signal is also discussed.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of White Light Fabry-Perot Interferometry Fiber-Optic Strain Gages when Measuring Small Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Cyr, William; Figueroa, Fernando; VanDyke, David; McVay, Greg; Mitchell, Mark

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate whether fiber optic strain gages (FOSG) are "better" sensors than typical foil gages. A particularly attractive feature of FOSG was their specified resolution of 0.01% of full-scale (0.1 micro strain for 1000 micro strain full-scale). This feature would make FOSG practical tank level sensors, by measuring very small strains on the support structure of a tank. A specific application in mind was to measure liquid oxygen tank level, with support beams that were predicted to contract approximately 11 micro strain as the tank goes from empty to full. Among various fiber optic technologies currently available, Fabry-Perot Interferometry using white light was selected. This technology exhibits highly desirable feature such as absolute strain measurement, linearity over its full-scale, and temperature compensation. However, experiment results suggest that the resolution is 0.8 micro strain, at best, calibration from one sensor to another can be off by 2.4 - 11.2%, and that temperature compensation is not fully predictable, with errors of up to 3.5 micro strain over an 11C range. Hence, when compared with classic foil gages, FOSG possess less accuracy, similar resolution and repeatability (precision), and superior linearity over their entire operating range. They are immune to EMI and their signals suffer minimal degradation over long distances. It is also expected that drift with time will be minimal in FOSG whereas the gage factor of foil sensors changes over time when exposed to varying environmental conditions. In conclusion, FOSG are "better" than foil gages as long as the application allows calibration of individual units as installed for operation.

  11. Airflow synchronous with oscillatory acceleration reflects involuntary respiratory muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard E; Lee, Hsueh-Tze; Loring, Stephen H

    2004-06-25

    To explore mechanisms causing involuntary airflow synchronous with oscillatory axial whole body acceleration (oscillatory axial acceleration, OAA) such as that during locomotion, we monitored airflow, acceleration, and electromyograms (EMGs) of the rib cage and abdominal muscles in standing subjects undergoing OAA at 3, 6, and 9 Hz at accelerations of 0.1-0.95 g. Subjects relaxed or performed static respiratory maneuvers at constant lung volume with glottis open. Oscillatory airflows (0.01-3.01 s(-1)) synchronous with OAA were not consistent with expectations for a passive respiratory system, and were larger during active respiratory efforts than during relaxation. Peak inspiratory airflow usually preceded peak upward acceleration by 90-180 degrees. In 80% of runs with respiratory muscles voluntarily activated or relaxed, EMGs showed activity synchronous with OAA. Changes in periodic muscle activity coincided with changes in oscillatory airflow. We conclude that periodic muscle activity, probably a reflex response to body wall deformation during OAA, strongly influences the involuntary airflow synchronous with OAA.

  12. Development of an Ultrasonic Airflow Measurement Device for Ducted Air

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Andrew B.; Aslam, Nauman; Underwood, Christopher P.; Danaher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an in-duct ultrasonic airflow measurement device has been designed, developed and tested. The airflow measurement results for a small range of airflow velocities and temperatures show that the accuracy was better than 3.5% root mean square (RMS) when it was tested within a round or square duct compared to the in-line Venturi tube airflow meter used for reference. This proof of concept device has provided evidence that with further development it could be a low-cost alternative to pressure differential devices such as the orifice plate airflow meter for monitoring energy efficiency performance and reliability of ventilation systems. The design uses a number of techniques and design choices to provide solutions to lower the implementation cost of the device compared to traditional airflow meters. The design choices that were found to work well are the single sided transducer arrangement for a “V” shaped reflective path and the use of square wave transmitter pulses ending with the necessary 180° phase changed pulse train to suppress transducer ringing. The device is also designed so that it does not have to rely on high-speed analogue to digital converters (ADC) and intensive digital signal processing, so could be implemented using voltage comparators and low-cost microcontrollers. PMID:25954952

  13. Cost effectiveness of stream-gaging program in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study of the cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Michigan. Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 129 continuous gaging stations being operated in Michigan as of 1984. One gaging station was identified as having insufficient reason to continue its operation. Several stations were identified for reactivation, should funds become available, because of insufficiencies in the data network. Alternative methods of developing streamflow information based on routing and regression analyses were investigated for 10 stations. However, no station records were reproduced with sufficient accuracy to replace conventional gaging practices. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the data-collection procedure for the ice-free season was conducted using a Kalman-filter analysis. To define missing-record characteristics, cross-correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation were computed at stations on the basis of daily mean discharge. Discharge-measurement data were used to describe the gage/discharge rating stability at each station. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis for a 9-month ice-free season show that the current policy of visiting most stations on a fixed servicing schedule once every 6 weeks results in an average standard error of 12.1 percent for the current $718,100 budget. By adopting a flexible servicing schedule, the average standard error could be reduced to 11.1 percent. Alternatively, the budget could be reduced to $700,200 while maintaining the current level of accuracy. A minimum budget of $680,200 is needed to operate the 129-gaging-station program; a budget less than this would not permit proper service and maintenance of stations. At the minimum budget, the average standard error would be 14.4 percent. A budget of $789,900 (the maximum analyzed) would result in a decrease in the average standard error to 9.07 percent. Owing to continual changes in the composition of the network

  14. HOLEGAGE 1.0 - STRAIN GAGE HOLE DRILLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    There is no simple and perfect way to measure residual stresses in metal parts that have been welded or deformed to make complex structures such as pressure vessels and aircraft, yet these locked-in stresses can contribute to structural failure by fatigue and fracture. However, one proven and tested technique for determining the internal stress of a metal part is to drill a test hole while measuring the relieved strains around the hole, such as the hole-drilling strain gage method described in ASTM E 837. The program HOLEGAGE processes strain gage data and provides additional calculations of internal stress variations that are not obtained with standard E 837 analysis methods. The typical application of the technique uses a three gage rosette with a special hole-drilling fixture for drilling a hole through the center of the rosette to produce a hole with very small gage pattern eccentricity error. Another device is used to control the drilling and halt the drill at controlled depth steps. At each step, strains from all three strain gages are recorded. The influence coefficients used by HOLEGAGE to compute stresses from relieved hole strains were developed by published finite element method studies of thick plates for specific hole sizes and depths. The program uses a parabolic fit and an interpolating scheme to project the coefficients to other hole sizes and depths. Additionally, published experimental data are used to extend the coefficients to relatively thin plates. These influence coefficients are used to compute the stresses in the original part from the strain data. HOLEGAGE will compute interior planar stresses using strain data from each drilled hole depth layer. Planar stresses may be computed in three ways including: a least squares fit for a linear variation with depth, an integral method to give incremental stress data for each layer, or by a linear fit to the integral data (with some surface data points omitted) to predict surface stresses before

  15. A siphon gage for monitoring surface-water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, T.D.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Socolow, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold

  16. A resistance strain gage with repeatable apparent strain to 800 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, J.-F.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental PdCr temperature-compensated resistance static-strain gages are described. The gages are developed in both fine-wire and thin-film forms. It is found that a PdCr wire strain gage coated with a flame-sprayed mixture of alumina and 4 wt pct zirconia demonstrates the smallest variation in and the best repeatability of apparent strain among the existing gages used at temperatures up to 800 C. Results of preliminary tests indicate uncompensated uncoated thin-film gages have potential usefulness at temperatures up to 1000 C.

  17. Development of a high temperature thin film static strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, Charles O.; Bailey, Richard S.; Grant, Howard P.; Przybyszewski, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective is to develop a new thin film resistance strain gage system which will be suitable for use inside gas turbine engines on blades or vanes at temperatures up to 1250 K. These gages are to be capable of making strain measurements to plus or minus 2000 microstrain with total errors of no more than plus or minus 10 percent during a 50 hour period. In addition to survival and stability in this hostile environment, attaining a low temperature coefficient of resistance, of the order of 20 ppm/K or less, is an important goal. This requirement arises from the presently unavoidable uncertainties in the measurement of exact temperatures inside gas turbine engines for use in making corrections for apparent strain.

  18. Adaptor for Measuring Principal Strains with Tuckerman Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, A E

    1943-01-01

    An adapter is described which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree.

  19. Mapping Connectivity Damage in the Case of Phineas Gage

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Irimia, Andrei; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Chambers, Micah C.; Kikinis, Ron; Toga, Arthur W.

    2012-01-01

    White matter (WM) mapping of the human brain using neuroimaging techniques has gained considerable interest in the neuroscience community. Using diffusion weighted (DWI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), WM fiber pathways between brain regions may be systematically assessed to make inferences concerning their role in normal brain function, influence on behavior, as well as concerning the consequences of network-level brain damage. In this paper, we investigate the detailed connectomics in a noted example of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) which has proved important to and controversial in the history of neuroscience. We model the WM damage in the notable case of Phineas P. Gage, in whom a “tamping iron” was accidentally shot through his skull and brain, resulting in profound behavioral changes. The specific effects of this injury on Mr. Gage's WM connectivity have not previously been considered in detail. Using computed tomography (CT) image data of the Gage skull in conjunction with modern anatomical MRI and diffusion imaging data obtained in contemporary right handed male subjects (aged 25–36), we computationally simulate the passage of the iron through the skull on the basis of reported and observed skull fiducial landmarks and assess the extent of cortical gray matter (GM) and WM damage. Specifically, we find that while considerable damage was, indeed, localized to the left frontal cortex, the impact on measures of network connectedness between directly affected and other brain areas was profound, widespread, and a probable contributor to both the reported acute as well as long-term behavioral changes. Yet, while significantly affecting several likely network hubs, damage to Mr. Gage's WM network may not have been more severe than expected from that of a similarly sized “average” brain lesion. These results provide new insight into the remarkable brain injury experienced by this noteworthy patient. PMID:22616011

  20. RANS and LES simulations of the airflow through nasal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics and health problems. The long-term goal of the OpenNOSE project is to develop a reliable open-source computational tool based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox that can assist surgeons in their daily practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the turbulence model and boundary conditions on simulations of the airflow in nasal cavities. The geometry, including paranasal sinuses, was reconstructed from a carefully selected CT scan, and RANS and LES simulations were carried out for steady inspiration and expiration. At a flow rate near 20 l/min, the flow is laminar in most of the domain. During the inspiration phase, turbulence develops in nasopharynx and oropharynx regions; during the expiration phase, another vortical region is observed down the nostrils. A comparison between different boundary conditions suggests the use of a total pressure condition, or alternatively a uniform velocity, at the inlet and outlet. In future work the same geometry will be used for setting up a laboratory experiment, intended to cross-validate the numerical results.

  1. Differences between nipher and slter shielded rain gages at two Colorado deposition monitoring sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigelow, David S.; Denning, A. Scott

    1990-01-01

    In the last decade the United States and Canada have made significant progress in establishing spatial ad temporal estimates of atmospheric deposition throughout North America. Fundamental to the wet-deposition portion of these estimates is the accurate and precise measurement of precipitation amount. Goodison and others (I-3) have reported on a new type of shielded snow gage known as the Canadian MSC Nipher shielded snow gage. Because this shielded snow gage has been shown to be superior to other precipitation gages for the estimation of snowfall amount, its design was adapted to the Universal Belfort precipitation gage (4), the dominant precipitation gage used at deposition monitoring sites in the United States. Favorable results taken from monitoring sites using this modified Nipher shielded snow gage (3-6) have prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Electric Power Research Institute to adopt the Nipher shielded Belfort gage as a standard piece of equipment in the Acid MODES and Operational Evaluation Network (OEN) monitoring programs and to propose that is be included as a standard snow gage in other North American deposition monitoring programs. This communication details preliminary results from two of nine NADP/NTN deposition monitoring sites selected by the Environmental Protection Agency to compare Nipher shielded Belfort precipitation gage volumes to volumes obtained from the standard Belfort gage used in the NADP/NTN monitoring program.

  2. Atmospheric emissions and trends of nitrous oxide deduced from 10 years of ALE-GAGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R.; Cunnold, D.; Alyea, F.; Rasmussen, R.; Simmonds, P.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) obtained during the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE) and the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE) for a period from 1978 to 1988 are presented and interpreted. It is observed that the average concentration in the Northern Hemisphere is 0.75 +/- 0.16 ppbv higher than in the Southern Hemisphere and that the global average linear trend in N2O lies in the range from 0.25 to 0.31 percent/year. The measured trends and latitudinal distributions are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that stratospheric photodissociation is the major atmospheric sink for N2O, while the cause of the N2O trend is suggested to be a combination of a growing tropical source and a growing Northern mid-latitude source. A 10-year average global N2O emission rate of (20.5 +/- 2.4) x 10 to the 12th g N2O/year is deduced from the ALE/GAGE data.

  3. Ultrasonic velocity meter used in stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayard, L.D.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Many streams and canals in Florida are affected by tides or control structures and experience very low flow velocities at times. For example, the St. Johns River in northeastern Florida is affected by tides for about 140 miles upstream from its mouth and many canals in the Miami area of southeastern Florida are controlled by manmade structures and other elements that cause a variable backwater effect and very low flow velocities. For these conditions, it becomes necessary to obtain a continuous index of mean velocity as well as stage in order to compute discharge. Point-velocity sensing systems have been used to relate point velocity to mean velocity but their usefulness commonly is limited because of the lack of an exact relation. The ultrasonic velocity meter (UVM) provides an alternative approach to measuring a velocity index that can be related to mean velocity; one that provides an integrated velocity at a prescribed elevation across a stream. Six stations in the tidal-affected lower St. Johns River basin are presently equipped with UVM's. Measuring sections are as narrow as 100 feet and as wide as 900 feet. Multiple acoustic paths are used to measure wide sections in a straight reach of river; crossing paths are used to measure sections in a bend of the river. Because of low velocity and variable backwater conditions, flow also is measured with UVM's in 11 canals in the Miami area that drain into The Everglades. At some of the canal sites transducers have been permanently mounted and a 'portable' UVM module is used to obtain instantaneous velocity readings.

  4. SMA actuators for vibration control and experimental determination of model parameters dependent on ambient airflow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.

    2016-05-01

    This article demonstrates the practical applicability of a method of modelling shape memory alloys (SMAs) as actuators. For this study, a pair of SMA wires was installed in an antagonistic manner to form an actuator, and a linear differential equation that describes the behaviour of the actuator’s generated force relative to its input voltage was derived for the limited range below the austenite onset temperature. In this range, hysteresis need not be considered, and the proposed SMA actuator can therefore be practically applied in linear control systems, which is significant because large deformations accompanied by hysteresis do not necessarily occur in most vibration control cases. When specific values of the parameters used in the differential equation were identified experimentally, it became clear that one of the parameters was dependent on ambient airflow velocity. The values of this dependent parameter were obtained using an additional SMA wire as a sensor. In these experiments, while the airflow distribution around the SMA wires was varied by changing the rotational speed of the fans in the wind tunnels, an input voltage was conveyed to the SMA actuator circuit, and the generated force was measured. In this way, the parameter dependent on airflow velocity was estimated in real time, and it was validated that the calculated force was consistent with the measured one.

  5. In situ measurements of atmospheric methane at GAGE/AGAGE sites during 1985-2000 and resulting source inferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Steele, L. P.; Fraser, P. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.; Porter, L. W.; O'Doherty, S.; Langenfelds, R. L.; Krummel, P. B.; Wang, H. J.; Emmons, L.; Tie, X. X.; Dlugokencky, E. J.

    2002-07-01

    Continuous measurements of methane since 1986 at the Global Atmospherics Gases Experiment/Advanced Global Atmospherics Gases Experiment (GAGE/AGAGE) surface sites are described. The precisions range from approximately 10 ppb at Mace Head, Ireland, during GAGE to better than 2 ppb at Cape Grim, Tasmania, during AGAGE (i.e., since 1993). The measurements exhibit good agreement with coincident measurements of air samples from the same locations analyzed by Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) except for differences of approximately 5 ppb before 1989 (GAGE lower) and about 4 ppb from 1991 to 1995 (GAGE higher). These results are obtained before applying a factor of 1.0119 to the GAGE/AGAGE values to place them on the Tohoku University scale. The measurements combined with a 12-box atmospheric model and an assumed atmospheric lifetime of 9.1 years indicates net annual emissions (emissions minus soil sinks) of 545 Tg CH4 with a variability of only +/-20 Tg from 1985 to 1997 but an increase in the emissions in 1998 of 37 +/- 10 Tg. The effect of OH changes inferred by Prinn et al. [2001] is to increase the estimated methane emissions by approximately 20 Tg in the mid-1980s and to reduce them by 20 Tg in 1997 and by more thereafter. Using a two-dimensional (2-D), 12-box model with transport constrained by the GAGE/AGAGE chlorofluorocarbon measurements, we calculate that the proportion of the emissions coming from the Northern Hemisphere is between 73 and 81%, depending on the OH distribution used. However, this result includes an adjustment of 5% derived from a simulation of the 2-D estimation procedure using the 3-D MOZART model. This adjustment is needed because of the very different spatial emission distributions of the chlorofluorocarbons and methane which makes chlorofluorocarbons derived transport rates inaccurate for the 2-D simulation of methane. The 2-D model combined with the annual cycle in OH from Spivakovsky et al. [2000] provide an acceptable

  6. Effect of Insertion of a Heat Flux Gage into a High Temperature Cylindrical Blackbody Cavity on the Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.; Horn, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed transient thermal models have been developed to simulate a heat flux gage calibration process capable of generating high heat flux levels. These heat flux levels are of interest to the reciprocating and gas turbine engine industries as well as the aerospace industry. The transient models are based on existing, experimentally validated steady state models of a cylindrical blackbody calibration system. The steady state models were modified to include insertion of a heat flux gage into the hot zone of the calibration system, time-varying electrical current that passes through the resistance heated blackbody, and the resulting heating of the heat flux gage. Heat fluxes computed using detailed transient models were compared to experimental measurements. The calculated and measured transient heat fluxes agreed to within 2 percent, indicating that the models had captured the physical phenomena in the transient calibration. The predicted and measured transient heat fluxes were also compared for two different blackbody configurations. The effect of convection on the blackbody extension was evaluated and found to be a minor factor.

  7. Morphological variation and airflow dynamics in the human nose.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Shackelford, Laura L; Georgi, J Nicole; Black, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    Airflow dynamics are recognized as being important to the functioning of the human nose in conditioning and filtering inspired air, yet these dynamics are poorly understood. Despite considerable research on airflow dynamics by otolaryngologists, respiratory physiologists, and toxicologists, major disagreements remain about the nature of airflow in the human nose. Specifically, there is little consensus about the character of nasal airflow regimes (laminar or turbulent) and about the major pathways of airflow through the internal chamber. Additionally, a number of features in the human nose have been argued to enhance airflow turbulence, thus increasing the exposure of moving air to the nasal mucosa and facilitating heat and moisture exchange in cold and/or dry climates. These features include: an inferior orientation of the nares; a nasal sill that is high relative to the floor of the internal nasal chamber; a nasal valve that is small in cross-sectional area relative to that of the internal chamber; and large, projecting conchae. The claim that these features affect airflow dynamics has never been tested. To clarify the nature of human nasal airflow and to test these claims of functional significance to nasal variation, we studied airflow across physiological flow rates using water and dye flowing through anatomically accurate acrylic models of human nasal air passageways (with adjustment of water flow rates to maintain dynamic similarity). The models were derived from direct casting of the nasal passageways of 10 Caucasian ("leptorrhine") cadavers (six male, four female). Measures of naris angle, nasal sill height, nasal valve area relative to internal chamber cross-sectional area, and relative projection of the inferior and middle turbinates were taken directly on the resulting casts. The relationships between aspects of nasal morphology and turbulent air flow were evaluated by examining the flow regimes (laminar, semiturbulent, or turbulent) at varying flow

  8. Evaluation of airflow patterns following procedures established by NUREG-1400.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brad G; Khan, Fenton; Mendoza, Donaldo P

    2006-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guide, NUREG-1400, addresses many aspects of air sampling in the work place. Here, we present detailed examples of the methodology used to conduct two qualitative airflow studies at different sites. In one test, smoke was used to evaluate the airflow patterns within a high-bay building for the purpose of determining appropriate locations for air monitoring equipment. The study revealed a stagnant layer of the air within the transfer area that made predicting movement of contamination within the transfer area difficult. Without conducting an airflow study, the stagnant layer may not have been identified and could have resulted in placement of samplers at inappropriate locations. In a second test, smoke was used to verify the effectiveness of an air space barrier curtain. The results showed that the curtain adequately separated the two air spaces. The methodology employed in each test provided sound, easy to interpret information that satisfied the requirements of each test. The methods described in this article can be applied at most facilities where determination of airflow patterns or the verification of suspected airflow patterns is required.

  9. A Summary of Numerous Strain-Gage Load Calibrations on Aircraft Wings and Tails in a Technological Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jerald M.; DeAngelis, V. Michael

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen aircraft structures that were calibrated for flight loads using strain gages are examined. The primary purpose of this paper is to document important examples of load calibrations on airplanes during the past four decades. The emphasis is placed on studying the physical procedures of calibrating strain-gaged structures and all the supporting analyses and computational techniques that have been used. The results and experiences obtained from actual data from 14 structures (on 13 airplanes and 1 laboratory test structure) are presented. This group of structures includes fins, tails, and wings with a wide variety of aspect ratios. Straight- wing, swept-wing, and delta-wing configurations are studied. Some of the structures have skin-dominant construction; others are spar-dominant. Anisotropic materials, heat shields, corrugated components, nonorthogonal primary structures, and truss-type structures are particular characteristics that are included.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of the U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging program in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.A.; Miller, R.L.; Butch, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the stream gaging program in Indiana was divided into three phases. The first phase involved collecting information concerning the data need and the funding source for each of the 173 surface water stations in Indiana. The second phase used alternate methods to produce streamflow records at selected sites. Statistical models were used to generate stream flow data for three gaging stations. In addition, flow routing models were used at two of the sites. Daily discharges produced from models did not meet the established accuracy criteria and, therefore, these methods should not replace stream gaging procedures at those gaging stations. The third phase of the study determined the uncertainty of the rating and the error at individual gaging stations, and optimized travel routes and frequency of visits to gaging stations. The annual budget, in 1983 dollars, for operating the stream gaging program in Indiana is $823,000. The average standard error of instantaneous discharge for all continuous record gaging stations is 25.3%. A budget of $800,000 could maintain this level of accuracy if stream gaging stations were visited according to phase III results. A minimum budget of $790,000 is required to operate the gaging network. At this budget, the average standard error of instantaneous discharge would be 27.7%. A maximum budget of $1 ,000,000 was simulated in the analysis and the average standard error of instantaneous discharge was reduced to 16.8%. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Airflow studies in a forced ventilated chamber with low partitions

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, W.K.; Tsui, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    A climate chamber was used to study experimentally the airflow characteristics in a ventilated space with low partitions. Two types of commonly used air distribution devices were selected for the study--a ceiling diffuser and side grille systems. A total of 16 tests were performed using the two diffusers with partition heights varying up to 1.8 m (5.91 ft) above floor level. From the measured results, the thermal comfort indices were assessed. A stabilization effect of airflow was found when the partition height reached 1.8 m (5.91 ft). Local draft risk was located in the occupied zone. Also, the modified Archimedes number proposed by Jackman (1990) was used to describe the indoor airflow in the absence of a workable design guide for partitioned spaces.

  12. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  13. Unidirectional pulmonary airflow patterns in the savannah monitor lizard.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Cieri, Robert L; Butler, James P; Farmer, C G

    2014-02-20

    The unidirectional airflow patterns in the lungs of birds have long been considered a unique and specialized trait associated with the oxygen demands of flying, their endothermic metabolism and unusual pulmonary architecture. However, the discovery of similar flow patterns in the lungs of crocodilians indicates that this character is probably ancestral for all archosaurs--the group that includes extant birds and crocodilians as well as their extinct relatives, such as pterosaurs and dinosaurs. Unidirectional flow in birds results from aerodynamic valves, rather than from sphincters or other physical mechanisms, and similar aerodynamic valves seem to be present in crocodilians. The anatomical and developmental similarities in the primary and secondary bronchi of birds and crocodilians suggest that these structures and airflow patterns may be homologous. The origin of this pattern is at least as old as the split between crocodilians and birds, which occurred in the Triassic period. Alternatively, this pattern of flow may be even older; this hypothesis can be tested by investigating patterns of airflow in members of the outgroup to birds and crocodilians, the Lepidosauromorpha (tuatara, lizards and snakes). Here we demonstrate region-specific unidirectional airflow in the lungs of the savannah monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus). The presence of unidirectional flow in the lungs of V. exanthematicus thus gives rise to two possible evolutionary scenarios: either unidirectional airflow evolved independently in archosaurs and monitor lizards, or these flow patterns are homologous in archosaurs and V. exanthematicus, having evolved only once in ancestral diapsids (the clade encompassing snakes, lizards, crocodilians and birds). If unidirectional airflow is plesiomorphic for Diapsida, this respiratory character can be reconstructed for extinct diapsids, and evolved in a small ectothermic tetrapod during the Palaeozoic era at least a hundred million years before the

  14. Resistance to airflow through bedding materials used in infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, D J; Helms, P; Matthew, D J; Skinner, D

    1982-01-01

    Various bedding materials used in infancy, including duvets (or continental quilts), were tested for airflow using the British Standards Institution tests for pillows or fabrics. Resistance was also measured when the items were placed on a dummy infant face. Measurements were made on washed and unwashed garments, which were tested both dry and wet. Results suggest that all the bedding materials tested are safe for use even in the newborn period. The duvets produced slightly lower resistance to breathing than conventional blankets and sheets. In view of the wide variety of infant bedding fabrics it seems desirable for standard airflow performance requirements to be introduced. PMID:7092309

  15. Reducing airflow energy use in multiple zone vav systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukur, Ahmed Gidado

    Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are the most popular HVAC systems in commercial buildings. VAV systems are designed to deliver airflows at design conditions which only occur for a few hours in a year. Minimizing energy use in VAV systems requires reducing the amount of airflow delivered through the system at part load conditions. Air Handling Unit (AHU) fans are the major drivers of airflow in VAV systems and installing a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is the most common method of regulating airflow in VAV systems. A VFD drive does not necessarily save energy without use of an appropriate control strategy. Static pressure reset (SPR) is considered to be the most energy efficient control strategy for AHU fans with VFDs installed. The implementation of SPR however has many challenges; for example, rogue zones--zones which have faulty sensors or failed controls and actuators, system dynamics like hunting and system diversity. By investigating the parameters associated with the implementation of SPR in VAV systems, a new, improved, more stable SPR algorithm was developed and validated. This approach was further improved using Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) to eliminate rogue zones. Additionally, a CO2-Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) based minimum airflow control was used to further reduce ventilation airflow and save more energy from SPR. Energy savings ranging from 25% to 51% were recorded in actual buildings with the new SPR algorithm. Finally, a methodology that utilizes historical VAV data was developed to estimate the potential savings that could be realized using SPR. The approach employed first determines an effective system loss coefficient as a function of mean damper position using the historical duct static pressure, VAV damper positions and airflows. Additionally, the historical data is used to identify the maximum mean duct damper position realizable as a result of insuring a sufficient number of VAVs are fully open at any time. Savings are

  16. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  17. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-03-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational ideas have now come full circle, and it is time to bring Gage and his texts and ideas to 21st-century physics teachers.

  18. Development of strain gages for use to 1311 K (1900 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1974-01-01

    A high temperature electric resistance strain gage system was developed and evaluated to 1366 K (2000 F) for periods of at least one hour. Wire fabricated from a special high temperature strain gage alloy (BCL-3), was used to fabricate the gages. Various joining techniques (NASA butt welding, pulse arc, plasma needle arc, and dc parallel gap welding) were investigated for joining gage filaments to each other, gage filaments to lead-tab ribbons, and lead-tab ribbons to lead wires. The effectiveness of a clad-wire concept as a means of minimizing apparent strain of BCL-3 strain gages was investigated by sputtering platinum coatings of varying thicknesses on wire samples and establishing the optimum coating thickness--in terms of minimum resistivity changes with temperature. Finally, the moisture-proofing effectiveness of barrier coatings subjected to elevated temperatures was studied, and one commercial barrier coating (BLH Barrier H Waterproofing) was evaluated.

  19. Recommended Strain Gage Application Procedures for Various Langley Research Center Balances and Test Articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center uses more than 10000 strain gages per year in supporting its various research programs. The character of the testing at LaRC is such that the types of strain gage installations, the materials they are applied to, and the test environments encountered, require many varied approaches for installing strain gages. These installations must be accomplished in the most technically discerning and appropriate manner. This technical memorandum is offered as an assisting guide in helping the strain gage user to determine the appropriate approach for a given strain gage application requirement. Specifically, this document offers detailed recommendations for strain gaging the following: LaRC-Designed balances, LARC custom transducers, certain composite materials and alloys, high-temperature test articles, and selected non-typical or unique materials or test conditions.

  20. Practical approaches for application of resistance type strain gages on high temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1991-01-01

    Four major areas of interest with respect to utilizing strain gages on carbon/carbon (with SiC surfaces) and titanium matrix composites are addressed. Strain gage and adhesive combinations on carbon/carbon (C/C) at temperatures from minus 190 C to to 540 C, half-bridge gaging for reducing apparent strain on C/C using Poisson's ratio and bending configurations, a review of the 'field installation' techniques developed for gaging a C/C hypersonic generic elevon, and results of initial strain gaging efforts on titanium matrix composites are discussed. Current research in developing techniques for increasing the maximum temperature for strain gages on carbon/carbon are reviewed.

  1. High temperature static strain measurement with an electrical resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1992-01-01

    An electrical resistance strain gage that can supply accurate static strain measurement for NASP application is being developed both in thin film and fine wire forms. This gage is designed to compensate for temperature effects on substrate materials with a wide range of thermal expansion coefficients. Some experimental results of the wire gage tested on one of the NASP structure materials, i.e., titanium matrix composites, are presented.

  2. Palladium-chromium static strain gage for high temperature propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1991-01-01

    The present electrical strain gage for high temperature static strain measurements is in its fine-wire and thin-film forms designed to be temperature-compensated on any substrate material. The gage element is of Pd-Cr alloy, while the compensator is of Pt. Because the thermally-induced apparent strain of this compensated wire strain gage is sufficiently small, with good reproducibility between thermal cycles to 800 C, output figures can be corrected within a reasonable margin of error.

  3. Field manual for the collection of Navajo Nation streamflow-gage data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Robert J.; Fisk, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    The Field Manual for the Collection of Navajo Nation Streamflow-Gage Data (Navajo Field Manual) is based on established (standard) U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging methods and provides guidelines specifically designed for the Navajo Department of Water Resources personnel who establish and maintain streamflow gages. The Navajo Field Manual addresses field visits, including essential field equipment and the selection of and routine visits to streamflow-gaging stations, examines surveying methods for determining peak flows (indirect measurements), discusses safety considerations, and defines basic terms.

  4. In-situ shear stress indicator using heated strain gages at the flow boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chi-An; Yang, Fuling

    2011-11-01

    This work borrows the concept of hot-wire anemometry and sketch a technique that uses local heat transfer to infer the flow field and the corresponding stress. Conventional strain gages were mounted at the flow solid boundary as the heat source and acrylic boundary was chosen for its low thermal conductivity ensuring heat accumulation when a gage is energized. The gage would now work in slightly overheated state and its self-heating leads to an additional thermal strain. When exposed to a flow field, heat is brought away by local forced convection, resulting in deviations in gage signal from that developed in quiescent liquid. We have developed a facility to achieve synchronous gage measurements at different locations on a solid boundary. Three steady flow motions were considered: circular Couette flow, rectilinear uniform flow, and rectilinear oscillating flow. Preliminary tests show the gage reading does respond to the imposed flow through thermal effects and greater deviation was measured in flows of higher shear strain rates. The correlation between the gage signals and the imposed flow field is further examined by theoretical analysis. We also introduced a second solid boundary to the vicinity of the gage in the two rectilinear flows. The gage readings demonstrate rises in its magnitudes indicating wall amplification effect on the local shear strain, agreeing to the drag augmentation by a second solid boundary reported in many multiphase flow literatures.

  5. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  6. Airflow energy harvesting with high wind velocities for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Z. J.; Tuddenham, S. B.; Zhu, M.

    2016-11-01

    An airflow energy harvester capable of harvesting energy from vortices at high speed is presented in this paper. The airflow energy harvester is implemented using a modified helical Savonius turbine and an electromagnetic generator. A power management module with maximum power point finding capability is used to manage the harvested energy and convert the low voltage magnitude from the generator to a usable level for wireless sensors. The airflow energy harvester is characterized using vortex generated by air hitting a plate in a wind tunnel. By using an aircraft environment with wind speed of 17 m/s as case study, the output power of the airflow energy harvester is measured to be 126 mW. The overall efficiency of the power management module is 45.76 to 61.2%, with maximum power point tracking efficiency of 94.21 to 99.72% for wind speed of 10 to 18 m/s, and has a quiescent current of 790 nA for the maximum power point tracking circuit.

  7. Study of Airflow Out of the Mouth During Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catford, J.C.; And Others

    Airflow outside the mouth is diagnostic of articulatory activities in the vocal tract, both total volume-velocity and the distribution of particle velocities over the flow-front being useful for this purpose. A system for recording and displaying both these types of information is described. This consists of a matrix of l6 hot-wire anemometer flow…

  8. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  13. Rainfall, streamflow, and peak stage data collected at the Murfreesboro, Tennessee, gaging network, March 1989 through July 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outlaw, G.S.; Butner, D.E.; Kemp, R.L.; Oaks, A.T.; Adams, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    Rainfall, stage, and streamflow data in the Murfreesboro area, Middle Tennessee, were collected from March 1989 through July 1992 from a network of 68 gaging stations. The network consists of 10 tipping-bucket rain gages, 2 continuous-record streamflow gages, 4 partial-record flood hydrograph gages, and 72 crest-stage gages. Data collected by the gages includes 5minute time-step rainfall hyetographs, 15-minute time-step flood hydrographs, and peak-stage elevations. Data are stored in a computer data base and are available for many computer modeling and engineering applications.

  14. Matilda Joslyn Gage: A Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Historian Looks at Witchcraft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ideas of the nineteenth century female historian, Matilda Joslyn Gage, who authored the book, "Woman, Church, and State." Focuses on Gage's ideas about women's history, particularly related to the role of the church and women persecuted for witchcraft. (CMK)

  15. Delamination in Composite Materials as Observed Using an Optical Fiber Strain Gage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-17

    lead to such failures. This project involves the use of an optical fiber strain gage In the configuration of a Michelson interferometer to study a...which lead to such failures. This project involves the use of an optical fiber strain gage in the configuration of a Michelson interferometer to study...12 Construction of Michelson Interferometer ............... 22 Optical Fringe Generation .............................. 27 Electronic Signal

  16. Strain gage sting balance 204-6. Calibration report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaettler, Heinz

    1986-12-01

    The strain gage sting balance 204-6 was developed for aerodynamic measurements on rocket models in the transonic and supersonic wind tunnel. Data are: X = +/- 50 (N); Y = +/- 150 (N); Z = +/- 400 (N); Mx = +/- 1.5 (Nm); My = +/- 20 (Nm); and Mz = +/- 10 (Nm). Compared to the existing balances of same size the ratio Y/Z is changed from 1:8 to 1:3.75. This change of specifications was introduced with regard to measurements to be taken with a sting providing automatic roll positioning around the X-axis. The resistance module was separately constructed and prestressed by a factor of 0.5, and connected to the model and sting part of the balance by electron-beam welding.

  17. High temperature static strain gage alloy development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Lemkey, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    The literature, applicable theory and finally an experimental program were used to identify new candidate alloy systems for use as the electrical resistance elements in static strain gages up to 1250K. The program goals were 50 hours of use in the environment of a test stand gas turbine engine with measurement accuracies equal to or better than 10 percent of full scale for strains up to + or - 2000 microstrain. As part of this effort, a computerized electrical resistance measurement system was constructed for use at temperatures between 300K and 1250K and heating and cooling rates of 250K/min and 10K/min. The two best alloys were an iron-chromium-aluminum alloy and a palladium base alloy. Although significant progress was made, it was concluded that a considerable additional effort would be needed to fully optimize and evaluate these candidate systems.

  18. Comparison of current meters used for stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is field and laboratory testing the performance of several current meters used throughout the world for stream gaging. Meters tested include horizontal-axis current meters from Germany, the United Kingdom, and the People's Republic of China, and vertical-axis and electromagnetic current meters from the United States. Summarized are laboratory test results for meter repeatability, linearity, and response to oblique flow angles and preliminary field testing results. All current meters tested were found to under- and over-register velocities; errors usually increased as the velocity and angle of the flow increased. Repeatability and linearity of all meters tested were good. In the field tests, horizontal-axis meters, except for the two meters from the People's Republic of China, registered higher velocity than did the vertical-axis meters.

  19. Durability investigation of a group of strain gage pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, P. S.; Hilten, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A durability investigation was conducted on a group of eighteen bonded-wire strain gage pressure transducers with ranges of 0 to 15 psig and 0 to 100 psig using an improved version of a previously developed technique. Some of the transducers were subjected to 40 million pressure cycles at a 5-Hz rate at laboratory ambient conditions, others were cycled at a temperature of 150 F (65.6 C). The largest change in sensitivity observed was 0.22% for a 100-psig transducer subjected to 40 million pressure cycles at 150 F. The largest change in zero pressure output observed was 0.91% FS for the same transducer. None of the transducers failed completely as a result of cycling at or below full scale pressure.

  20. Scanning LDV for vibration measurement of filiform hairs in crickets in response to induced airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santulli, C.; Finn, T. J.; Seidel, R.; Jeronimidis, G.

    2006-06-01

    Cercal hairs represent in cricket a wind sensitive escape system, able to detect the airflow generated from predating species. These sensors have been studied as a biomimetic concept to allow the development of MEMS for biomedical use. In particular, the behaviour of the hairs, including airflow response, resonant frequency and damping, has been investigated up to a frequency of 20 kHz. The microscopic nature of the hairs, the complex vibrations of excited hairs and the high damping of the system suggested that the use of Laser Doppler vibrometry could possibly improve the test performance. Two types of tests were performed: in the first case the hairs were indirectly excited using the signal obtained from a vibrating aluminium plate, whilst in the second case the hairs were directly excited using a white noise chirp. The results from the first experiment indicated that the hairs move in-phase with the exciting signal up to frequencies in the order of 10 kHz, responding to the vibration modes of the plate with a signal attenuation of 12 to 20 dB. The chirp experiment revealed the presence of rotational resonant modes at 6850 and 11300 Hz. No clear effect of hair length was perceivable on the vibration response of the filiform sensors. The obtained results proved promising to support the mechanical and vibration characterisation of the hairs and suggest that scanning Laser vibrometry can be used extensively on highly dampened biological materials.

  1. Single-strain-gage force/stiffness buckling prediction techniques on a hat-stiffened panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Larry D.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1991-01-01

    Predicting the buckling characteristics of a test panel is necessary to ensure panel integrity during a test program. A single-strain-gage buckling prediction method was developed on a hat-stiffened, monolithic titanium buckling panel. The method is an adaptation of the original force/stiffness method which requires back-to-back gages. The single-gage method was developed because the test panel did not have back-to-back gages. The method was used to predict buckling loads and temperatures under various heating and loading conditions. The results correlated well with a finite element buckling analysis. The single-gage force/stiffness method was a valid real-time and post-test buckling prediction technique.

  2. Response of hot element wall shear stress gages in laminar oscillating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Murphy, J. D.; Giddings, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the time-dependent response of hot element wall shear stress gages in unsteady periodic air flows is reported. The study has focused on wall shear stress in laminar oscillating flows produced on a flat plate by a free stream velocity composed of a mean component and a superposed sinusoidal variation. Two types of hot element gages, platinum film and flush wire, were tested for values of reduced frequency ranging from 0.14 to 2.36. Values of the phase angle of the wall shear stress variation relative to the free stream velocity, as indicated by the hot element gages, are compared with numerical prediction. The comparisons show that the gages indicate a wall shear stress variation that lags the true variation, and that the gages will also not indicate the correct wall shear stress variation in periodic turbulent flows.

  3. Cost effectiveness of the U.S. Geological Survey's stream-gaging program in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mades, D.M.; Oberg, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Data uses and funding sources were identified for 138 continuous-record discharge-gaging stations currently (1983) operated as part of the stream-gaging program in Illinois. Streamflow data from five of those stations are used only for regional hydrology studies. Most streamflow data are used for defining regional hydrology, defining rainfall-runoff relations, flood forecasting, regulating navigation systems, and water-quality sampling. Based on the evaluations of data use and of alternative methods for determining streamflow in place of stream gaging, no stations in the 1983 stream-gaging program should be deactivated. The current budget (in 1983 dollars) for operating the 138-station program is $768,000 per year. The average standard error of instantaneous discharge for the current practice for visiting the gaging stations is 36.5 percent. Missing stage record accounts for one-third of the 36.5 percent average standard error. (USGS)

  4. Quantum dots as mineral- and matrix-specific strain gages for bone biomechanical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peizhi; Xu, Jiadi; Morris, Michael; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David

    2009-02-01

    We report the use of quantum dots (Qdots) as strain gages in the study of bone biomechanics using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have developed solid state NMR sample cells for investigation of deformations of bone tissue components at loads up to several Mega Pascal. The size constraints of the NMR instrumentation limit the bone specimen diameter and length to be no greater than 2-3 mm and 30 mm respectively. Further, magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR experiments require the use of non-metallic apparatus that can be rotated at kilohertz rates. These experimental constraints preclude the use of standard biomechanical measurement systems. In this paper we explore the use of quantum dot center of gravity measurement as a strain gage technology consistent with the constraints of solid state NMR. We use Qdots that bind calcium (625 nm emission) and collagen (705 nm emission) for measurement of strain in these components. Compressive loads are applied to a specimen in a cell through a fine pitch screw turned with a mini-torque wrench. Displacement is measured as changes in the positions of arrays of quantum dots on the surface of a specimen. Arrays are created by spotting the specimen with dilute suspensions of Qdots. Mineral labeling is achieved with 705 nm carboxylated dots and matrix labeling with 565 nm quantum dots conjugated to collagen I antibodies. After each load increment the new positions of the quantum dots are measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in Qdot center of gravity as a function of applied load can be measured with submicron accuracy.

  5. Influence of Primary Gage Sensitivities on the Convergence of Balance Load Iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The connection between the convergence of wind tunnel balance load iterations and the existence of the primary gage sensitivities of a balance is discussed. First, basic elements of two load iteration equations that the iterative method uses in combination with results of a calibration data analysis for the prediction of balance loads are reviewed. Then, the connection between the primary gage sensitivities, the load format, the gage output format, and the convergence characteristics of the load iteration equation choices is investigated. A new criterion is also introduced that may be used to objectively determine if the primary gage sensitivity of a balance gage exists. Then, it is shown that both load iteration equations will converge as long as a suitable regression model is used for the analysis of the balance calibration data, the combined influence of non linear terms of the regression model is very small, and the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. The last requirement is fulfilled, e.g., if force balance calibration data is analyzed in force balance format. Finally, it is demonstrated that only one of the two load iteration equation choices, i.e., the iteration equation used by the primary load iteration method, converges if one or more primary gage sensitivities are missing. This situation may occur, e.g., if force balance calibration data is analyzed in direct read format using the original gage outputs. Data from the calibration of a six component force balance is used to illustrate the connection between the convergence of the load iteration equation choices and the existence of the primary gage sensitivities.

  6. Computational Investigation of Dynamic Glottal Aperture Effects on Respiratory Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yan, Hong; Dong, Haibo

    2008-11-01

    The periodic movement of the glottal aperture (vocal folds) during tidal breathing has been long recognized as a factor in altering the airflow dynamics in the tracheobrnchial region. The potential influence from these altered flow structures on the transport and deposition of inhaled particles is not known. However, studies devoted to this dynamic physiological feature are scarce due to the complex anatomy in of the larynx and numerical challenges in simulating dynamic geometries. In this study, a high-fidelity immersed boundary solver is used to investigate this problem. A 3D human oral-larynx-lung model is firstly reconstructed from MRI data. The role of the vocal fold movement and associated airflow characteristics such as vortex shedding, Coanda effect etc. during inhalation and exhalation are then numerically studied.

  7. Efficient airflow design for cleanrooms improves business bottom lines

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2003-01-05

    Based on a review of airflow design factors and in-situ energy measurements in ISO Cleanliness Class-5 cleanrooms, this paper addresses the importance of energy efficiency in airflow design and opportunities of cost savings in cleanroom practices. The paper discusses design factors that can long lastingly affect cleanroom system performance, and demonstrates benefits of energy efficient cleanroom design from viewpoints of environmental control and business operations. The paper suggests that a high performance cleanroom should not only be effective in contamination control, but also be efficient in energy and environmental performance. The paper also suggests that energy efficient design practice stands to bring in immediate capital cost savings and operation cost savings, and should be regarded by management as a strategy to improve business bottom lines.

  8. Air Trapping and Airflow Obstruction in Newborn Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Ryan J.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Bauer, Christian; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Gross, Thomas J.; Awadalla, Maged S.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Diwakar, Amit; Ochs, Matthias; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.; Meyerholz, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Air trapping and airflow obstruction are being increasingly identified in infants with cystic fibrosis. These findings are commonly attributed to airway infection, inflammation, and mucus buildup. Objectives: To learn if air trapping and airflow obstruction are present before the onset of airway infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Methods: On the day they are born, piglets with cystic fibrosis lack airway infection and inflammation. Therefore, we used newborn wild-type piglets and piglets with cystic fibrosis to assess air trapping, airway size, and lung volume with inspiratory and expiratory X-ray computed tomography scans. Micro–computed tomography scanning was used to assess more distal airway sizes. Airway resistance was determined with a mechanical ventilator. Mean linear intercept and alveolar surface area were determined using stereologic methods. Measurements and Main Results: On the day they were born, piglets with cystic fibrosis exhibited air trapping more frequently than wild-type piglets (75% vs. 12.5%, respectively). Moreover, newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis had increased airway resistance that was accompanied by luminal size reduction in the trachea, mainstem bronchi, and proximal airways. In contrast, mean linear intercept length, alveolar surface area, and lung volume were similar between both genotypes. Conclusions: The presence of air trapping, airflow obstruction, and airway size reduction in newborn piglets with cystic fibrosis before the onset of airway infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation indicates that cystic fibrosis impacts airway development. Our findings suggest that early airflow obstruction and air trapping in infants with cystic fibrosis might, in part, be caused by congenital airway abnormalities. PMID:24168209

  9. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  10. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    PubMed

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition.

  11. Energy Harvesting from Human Motion Using Footstep-Induced Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H.; Xu, R.; Seto, K.; Yeatman, E. M.; Kim, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an unobtrusive in-shoe energy harvester converting foot-strike energy into electricity to power wearable or portable devices. An air-pumped turbine system is developed to address the issues of the limited vertical deformation of shoes and the low frequency of human motion that impede harvesting energy from this source. The air pump is employed to convert the vertical foot-strike motion into airflow. The generated airflow passes through the miniaturized wind turbine whose transduction is realized by an electromagnetic generator. Energy is extracted from the generator with a higher frequency than that of footsteps, boosting the output power of the device. The turbine casing is specifically designed to enable the device to operate continuously with airflow in both directions. A prototype was fabricated and then tested under different situations. A 6 mW peak power output was obtained with a 4.9 Ω load. The achievable power from this design was estimated theoretically for understanding and further improvement.

  12. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Airflow in Nasopharynx.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shome, Biswadip; Wang, Lian-Ping; Santare, Michael H.; Szeri, Andras Z.; Prasad, Ajay K.; Roberts, David

    1996-11-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of airflow in nasopharynx (from the soft palate to the epiglottis) was conducted, using anatomically accurate model and finite element method, to study the influence of flow characteristics on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The results showed that the pressure drop in the nasopharynx is in the range 200-500 Pa. Ten different nasopharynx geometries resulting from three OSA treatment therapies (CPAP, mandibular repositioning devices, and surgery) were compared. The results confirmed that the airflow in the nasopharynx lies in the transitional flow regime and thus, a subtle change in the morphology caused by these treatment therapies has a large effect on the airflow. The onset of turbulence can cause as much as 40% of increase in pressure drop. For the transitional flow regime, the k-ɛ turbulence model was found to be the most appropriate model, when compared to the mixing length and the k-ω model, as it correctly reproduces the limiting laminar behavior. In addition, the pressure drop increased approximately as the square of the volumetric flow rate. Supported by NIH.

  13. Eyelashes divert airflow to protect the eye

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Mao, Wenbin; DeMercurio, Peter; Montero, Carmen; Clewis, Joel; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Eyelashes are ubiquitous, although their function has long remained a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the aerodynamic benefits of eyelashes. Through anatomical measurements, we find that 22 species of mammals possess eyelashes of a length one-third the eye width. Wind tunnel experiments confirm that this optimal eyelash length reduces both deposition of airborne particles and evaporation of the tear film by a factor of two. Using scaling theory, we find this optimum arises because of the incoming flow's interactions with both the eye and eyelashes. Short eyelashes create a stagnation zone above the ocular surface that thickens the boundary layer, causing shear stress to decrease with increasing eyelash length. Long eyelashes channel flow towards the ocular surface, causing shear stress to increase with increasing eyelash length. These competing effects result in a minimum shear stress for intermediate eyelash lengths. This design may be employed in creating eyelash-inspired protection for optical sensors. PMID:25716186

  14. Airflow calibration of a bellmouth inlet for measurement of compressor airflow in turbine-powered propulsion simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The development of turbine-powered propulsion simulators for high-speed wind tunnel models requires a bellmouth inlet which can accurately measure compressor-inlet airflow. A bellmouth inlet was instrumented with total pressure probes, static pressure probes, and thermocouples for airflow measurement. The bellmouth flowmeter against a critical venturi flowmeter was calibrated. The calibration was done at four inlet pressures ranging from 58 to 114 kPa. The bellmouth discharge coefficient varied as a function of bellmouth-throat Mach number. Over the range of Reynolds number and Mach number tested the Reynolds number was not a significant influence on the discharge coefficient. The overall accuracy of the bellmouth inlet as a flowmeter was estimated to be + or - 0.5% of the flowmeter reading.

  15. Collective Odor Source Estimation and Search in Time-Variant Airflow Environments Using Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the collective odor source localization (OSL) problem in a time-varying airflow environment using mobile robots. A novel OSL methodology which combines odor-source probability estimation and multiple robots’ search is proposed. The estimation phase consists of two steps: firstly, the separate probability-distribution map of odor source is estimated via Bayesian rules and fuzzy inference based on a single robot’s detection events; secondly, the separate maps estimated by different robots at different times are fused into a combined map by way of distance based superposition. The multi-robot search behaviors are coordinated via a particle swarm optimization algorithm, where the estimated odor-source probability distribution is used to express the fitness functions. In the process of OSL, the estimation phase provides the prior knowledge for the searching while the searching verifies the estimation results, and both phases are implemented iteratively. The results of simulations for large-scale advection–diffusion plume environments and experiments using real robots in an indoor airflow environment validate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed OSL method. PMID:22346650

  16. Long-term gage reliability for structural health monitoring of steel bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Vasilis A.; Fasl, Jeremiah; Reichenbach, Matt; Helwig, Todd; Wood, Sharon; Frank, Karl

    2012-04-01

    Real-time monitoring of fracture critical steel bridges can potentially enhance inspection practices by tracking the behavior of the bridge. Significant advances have occurred in recent years on the development of robust hardware for field monitoring applications. These systems can monitor, process, and store data from a variety of sensors (e.g. strain gages, crack propagation gages etc.) to track changes in the behavior of the bridge. Thus, for a long-term monitoring system to be successful, the reliability of gages that are to be monitored for several years is very important. This paper focuses on the results of a research study focused on developing a wireless monitoring system with a useful life of more than 10 years. An important aspect of the study is to identify strain gages and installation procedures that result in long lives as well as characterizing the effect of temperature fluctuations and other environmental factors on the sensor drift and noise. In long-term monitoring applications, slight sensor drift and noise can build up over time to produce misleading results. Thus, a wide variety of gages that can be used to monitor bridges have been tested for over a year through environmental tests. The environmental tests were developed to determine the durability of the gages and their protective coatings (e.g. zinc-based spray, wax and silicon, etc.) against humidity, sun exposure and other environmental effects that are expected in long-term bridge monitoring applications. Moreover, fatigue tests were performed to determine the fatigue category of the weldable gages and to reveal any debonding issues of the bondable gages. This paper focuses on the results of laboratory tests on gage durability that were conducted as part of a research project sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  17. High-Temperature Extensometry and PdCr Temperature-Compensated Wire Resistance Strain Gages Compared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A detailed experimental evaluation is underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center to compare and contrast the performance of the PdCr/Pt dual-element temperature-compensated wire resistance strain gage with that of conventional high-temperature extensometry. The advanced PdCr gage, developed by researchers at Lewis, exhibits desirable properties and a relatively small and repeatable apparent strain to 800 C. This gage represents a significant advance in technology because existing commercial resistance strain gages are not reliable for quasi-static strain measurements above approx. 400 C. Various thermal and mechanical loading spectra are being applied by a high-temperature thermomechanical uniaxial testing system to evaluate the two strain-measurement systems. This is being done not only to compare and contrast the two strain sensors, but also to investigate the applicability of the PdCr strain gage to the coupon-level specimen testing environment typically employed when the high-temperature mechanical behavior of structural materials is characterized. Strain measurement capabilities to 800 C are being investigated with a nickel-base superalloy, Inconel 100 (IN 100), substrate material and application to TMC's is being examined with the model system, SCS-6/Ti-15-3. Furthermore, two gage application techniques are being investigated in the comparison study: namely, flame-sprayed and spot welding. The apparent strain responses of both the weldable and flame-sprayed PdCr wire strain gages were found to be cyclically repeatable on both IN 100 and SCS-6/Ti-15-3 [0]_8. In general, each gage exhibited some uniqueness with respect to apparent strain behavior. Gages mounted on the IN 100 specimens tended to show a repeatable apparent strain within the first few cycles, because the thermal response of IN 100 was stable. This was not the case, however, for the TMC specimens, which typically required several thermal cycles to stabilize the thermal strain response. Thus

  18. Calibration and evaluation tests of strain gages for use on structure exposed to cryogenic and reentry temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Richard N.; Howard, J. Lawrence; Sikorra, Charles F.; Swegle, Allan R.

    Commercial strain gages were evaluated for proposed strain measurement on a Rene 41 honeycomb test panel to be subjected to temperatures from -423 F to +1600 F. Foil strain gages of three different temperature compensations, a weldable strain gage, and a capacitive strain gage, were tested to determine characteristics of apparent strain, strain sensitivity, and temperature operational limits under stabilized temperature and several heating and cooling temperature rates. Test results show that strain measurement over the total temperature range can be made using a combination of gages.

  19. Comparison of thin-film resistance heat-transfer gages with thin-skin transient calorimeter gages in conventional hypersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III

    1981-01-01

    Thin film gages deposited at the stagnation region of small (8.1-mm-diameter) hemispheres and gages mounted flush with the surface of a sharp-leading-edge flat plate were tested in the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel and in the Langley hypersonic CF4 tunnel. Two substrate materials were tested, quartz and a machinable glass-ceramic. Small hemispheres were also tested utilizing the thin-skin transient calorimeter technique usually employed in conventional tunnels. One transient calorimeter model was a thin shell of stainless steel, and the other was a thin-skin insert of stainless steel mounted into a hemisphere fabricated from a machinable-glass-ceramic. Measured heat-transfer rates from the various hemispheres were compared with one another and with predicted rates. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of using-film resistance heat-transfer gages in conventional hypersonic wind tunnels over a wide range of conditions.

  20. Calibration approaches for distributed hydrologic models in poorly gaged basins: implication for streamflow projections under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, S.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Steinschneider, S.; Khalil, A.; Brown, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    This study tests the performance and uncertainty of calibration strategies for a spatially distributed hydrologic model in order to improve model simulation accuracy and understand prediction uncertainty at interior ungaged sites of a sparsely gaged watershed. The study is conducted using a distributed version of the HYMOD hydrologic model (HYMOD_DS) applied to the Kabul River basin. Several calibration experiments are conducted to understand the benefits and costs associated with different calibration choices, including (1) whether multisite gaged data should be used simultaneously or in a stepwise manner during model fitting, (2) the effects of increasing parameter complexity, and (3) the potential to estimate interior watershed flows using only gaged data at the basin outlet. The implications of the different calibration strategies are considered in the context of hydrologic projections under climate change. To address the research questions, high-performance computing is utilized to manage the computational burden that results from high-dimensional optimization problems. Several interesting results emerge from the study. The simultaneous use of multisite data is shown to improve the calibration over a stepwise approach, and both multisite approaches far exceed a calibration based on only the basin outlet. The basin outlet calibration can lead to projections of mid-21st century streamflow that deviate substantially from projections under multisite calibration strategies, supporting the use of caution when using distributed models in data-scarce regions for climate change impact assessments. Surprisingly, increased parameter complexity does not substantially increase the uncertainty in streamflow projections, even though parameter equifinality does emerge. The results suggest that increased (excessive) parameter complexity does not always lead to increased predictive uncertainty if structural uncertainties are present. The largest uncertainty in future streamflow

  1. Crest-stage gaging stations in Oregon: a compilation of peak data collected from October 1952 to September 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friday, John

    1974-01-01

    A crest-stage gaging station provides an excellent means for determining peak water-surface elevations at a selected location on a stream channel. When related to streamflow, these data provide hydrologists with a knowledge of the flood experience of a drainage basin. If an adequate flood history is known, it is possible to estimate the probable magnitude and frequency of floods likely to occur in that basin, and this information is a valuable asset to anyone who must estimate design floods at proposed drainage structures. However, most design problems involve estimating peak flows on ungaged streams. This is difficult because the rate of storm runoff is not the same in all basins due to the influence of various basin characteristics which can either assist or retard the runoff. The crest-stage gaging program in Oregon is designed to provide a representative sampliing of peak flows at basins having a wide range in characteristics. Then, after sufficient data are collected, a statistical analysis can be made which will provide a means for estimating design floods at ungaged sites on the basis of known basin characteristics.This report is one of a series presenting a compilation of peak data collected at 232 crest-stage gaging stations in Oregon. The collection and publication of these data are made possible through mutual funding by State and Federal agencies. The Geological Survey, the Oregon State Highway Commission, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Bureau of Land Management are currently supporting 160 active crest-stage stations in Oregon.

  2. Airflow, gas deposition, and lesion distribution in the nasal passages.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, K T; Monticello, T M

    1990-01-01

    The nasal passages of laboratory animals and man are complex, and lesions induced in the delicate nasal lining by inhaled air pollutants vary considerably in location and nature. The distribution of nasal lesions is generally a consequence of regional deposition of the inhaled material, local tissue susceptibility, or a combination of these factors. Nasal uptake and regional deposition are are influenced by numerous factors including the physical and chemical properties of the inhaled material, such as water solubility and reactivity; airborne concentration and length of exposure; the presence of other air contaminants such as particulate matter; nasal metabolism, and blood and mucus flow. For certain highly water-soluble or reactive gases, nasal airflow patterns play a major role in determining lesion distribution. Studies of nasal airflow in rats and monkeys, using casting and molding techniques combined with a water-dye model, indicate that nasal airflow patterns are responsible for characteristic differences in the distribution of nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde in these species. Local tissue susceptibility is also a complex issue that may be a consequence of many factors, including physiologic and metabolic characteristics of the diverse cell populations that comprise each of the major epithelial types lining the airways. Identification of the principal factors that influence the distribution and nature of nasal lesions is important when attempting the difficult process of determining potential human risks using data derived from laboratory animals. Toxicologic pathologists can contribute to this process by carefully identifying the site and nature of nasal lesions induced by inhaled materials. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:2200663

  3. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Sina A; Loth, Daan W; Soler Artigas, María; Birkland, Timothy P; Wilk, Jemma B; Wain, Louise V; Brody, Jennifer A; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M; Strachan, David P; Deary, Ian J; Hofman, Albert; Gläser, Sven; Wilson, James F; North, Kari E; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R; Jarvis, Deborah L; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T; Kähönen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A; Hysi, Pirro G; Dupuis, Josée; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Hall, Ian P; Parks, William C; Tobin, Martin D; London, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating pathway-based methods with GWASs of pulmonary function and airflow obstruction would identify a broader repertoire of genes and processes influencing these traits. We performed two independent GWASs of lung function and applied gene set enrichment analysis to one of the studies and validated the results using the second GWAS. We identified 131 significantly enriched gene sets associated with lung function and clustered them into larger biological modules involved in diverse processes including development, immunity, cell signaling, proliferation and arachidonic acid. We found that enrichment of gene sets was not driven by GWAS-significant variants or loci, but instead by those with less stringent association P-values. Next, we applied pathway enrichment analysis to a meta-analyzed GWAS of airflow obstruction. We identified several biologic modules that functionally overlapped with those associated with pulmonary function. However, differences were also noted, including enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) processes specifically in the airflow obstruction study. Network analysis of the ECM module implicated a candidate gene, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), as a putative disease target. We used a knockout mouse model to functionally validate MMP10's role in influencing lung's susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. By integrating pathway analysis with population-based genomics, we unraveled biologic processes underlying pulmonary function traits and identified a candidate gene for obstructive lung disease.

  4. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Birkland, Timothy P.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Wain, Louise V.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B.; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H. Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C.; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M.; Strachan, David P.; Deary, Ian J.; Hofman, Albert; Gläser, Sven; Wilson, James F.; North, Kari E.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R. Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T.; Kähönen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Dupuis, Josée; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hall, Ian P.; Parks, William C.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating pathway-based methods with GWASs of pulmonary function and airflow obstruction would identify a broader repertoire of genes and processes influencing these traits. We performed two independent GWASs of lung function and applied gene set enrichment analysis to one of the studies and validated the results using the second GWAS. We identified 131 significantly enriched gene sets associated with lung function and clustered them into larger biological modules involved in diverse processes including development, immunity, cell signaling, proliferation and arachidonic acid. We found that enrichment of gene sets was not driven by GWAS-significant variants or loci, but instead by those with less stringent association P-values. Next, we applied pathway enrichment analysis to a meta-analyzed GWAS of airflow obstruction. We identified several biologic modules that functionally overlapped with those associated with pulmonary function. However, differences were also noted, including enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) processes specifically in the airflow obstruction study. Network analysis of the ECM module implicated a candidate gene, matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), as a putative disease target. We used a knockout mouse model to functionally validate MMP10's role in influencing lung's susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. By integrating pathway analysis with population-based genomics, we unraveled biologic processes underlying pulmonary function traits and identified a candidate gene for obstructive lung disease. PMID:26395457

  5. Problems Associated with Attaching Strain Gages to Titanium Alloy Ti-61-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Lemcoe, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Weldable strain gages have shown excellent high temperature characteristics for supersonic cruise aircraft application. The spotwelding attachment method, however, has resulted in serious reductions in the fatigue life of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) fatigue specimens. The reduction is so severe that the use of weldable strain gages on operational aircraft must be prohibited. The cause of the fatigue problem is thought to be a combination of the microstructure changes in the material caused by spotwelding and the presence of the flange of the stain gage. Brazing, plating, and plasma spraying were investigated as substitutes for spotwelding. The attachment of a flangeless gage by plasma spraying provided the most improvement in the fatigue life of the titanium.

  6. Calibration of strain-gage installations in aircraft structures for the measurement of flight loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skopinski, T H; Aiken, William S , Jr; Huston, Wilber B

    1954-01-01

    A general method has been developed for calibrating strain-gage installations in aircraft structures, which permits the measurement in flight of the shear or lift, the bending moment, and the torque or pitching moment on the principal lifting or control surfaces. Although the stress in structural members may not be a simple function of the three loads of interest, a straightforward procedure is given for numerically combining the outputs of several bridges in such a way that the loads may be obtained. Extensions of the basic procedure by means of electrical combination of the strain-gage bridges are described which permit compromises between strain-gage installation time, availability of recording instruments, and data reduction time. The basic principles of strain-gage calibration procedures are illustrated by reference to the data for two aircraft structures of typical construction, one a straight and the other a swept horizontal stabilizer.

  7. A hot-wire surface gage for skin friction and separation detection measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubesin, M. W.; Okuno, A. F.; Mateer, G. G.; Brosh, A.

    1975-01-01

    A heated-element, skin-friction gage employing a very low thermal conductivity support is described. It is shown that the effective dimension of the gage in the stream direction in only 0.06 mm, including the effects of heat conduction in the supporting material. Because of its small size, the calibration of the gage is independent of the kind of boundary-layer flow (whether laminar or turbulent) and is insensitive to pressure gradients. Construction tolerances can be maintained so that a single universal calibration can be applied. Multiple gages, sufficiently closely spaced so as to interfere with each other, are shown to provide accurate determinations of the locations of the points of boundary-layer separation and reattachment.

  8. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages as well as a feasibility test of an optical speckle technique for strain measurement are presented. The strain gage results are reported. Ten Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages were used for low cycle fatigue strain measurements to 950 K and .002 apparent strain on a JT12D burner can in a high pressure (10 atmospheres) burner test. The procedure for use of the strain gages involved extensive precalibration and postcalibration to correct for cooling rate dependence, drift, and temperature effects. Results were repeatable within + or - .0002 to .0006 strain, with best results during fast decels from 950 K. The results agreed with analytical prediction based on an axisymmetric burner model, and results indicated a non-uniform circumferential distribution of axial strain, suggesting temperature streaking.

  9. Evaluation of submarine strain-gage systems for monitoring coastal sediment migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, G. L.; Mcgrath, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Single and multiple strain-gage systems were respectively evaluated as in situ point and areal sensors for monitoring sand-height variations in coastal environments. Static loading tests indicate that gage response pressure is linear for sand heights up to 24 inches. Response pressures are a function of both sand height and aggregate density, with density being influenced by both sediment texture and degree of compaction. Poorer sediment sorting and greater compaction result in higher response pressures. Field tests in a beach foreshore environment indicate that the gage systems are effective qualitative instruments for monitoring long-period migration trends of beach sediments; whereas, short-period responses are not sufficiently reliable. The durability and compactness of the gage systems must be substantially increased for effective field operations. It is recommended that the systems' qualitative potentials be further developed, whereas their development as quantitative instruments be terminated. Further development should emphasize the construction of remote recording systems designed for semipermanent installation.

  10. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  11. Optimal Determination of Respiratory Airflow Patterns Using a Nonlinear Multicompartment Model for a Lung Mechanics System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hancao; Haddad, Wassim M.

    2012-01-01

    We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. PMID:22719793

  12. Optimal determination of respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system.

    PubMed

    Li, Hancao; Haddad, Wassim M

    2012-01-01

    We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles.

  13. Evaluation of airflow patterns in 2706-T and 2706-TA

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    1999-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the current placement of fixed head air samplers and continuous air monitors (CAMs) in the 2706-T and 2706-TA Complex. The airflow study consisted of 6 configurations of facility HVAC and HEPA filtration equipment to determine impacts on CAM location. The results of this study provide recommendations based on guidance in DOE G 411.1-8 and NUREG-1400 for placement of fixed head air samplers or CAMS within 2706-T and 2706-TA.

  14. Vapor-Generator Wand Helps To Reveal Airflow Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robelen, David B.

    1993-01-01

    In vapor-generator wand, liquid propylene glycol flows into electrically heated stainless-steel tube. Liquid boils in heated tube, and emerging vapor forms dense, smoke-like fog used to make airflow patterns visible. Built in variety of sizes, suitable for uses ranging from tabletop demonstrations to research in wind tunnels. For best viewing, plume illuminated by bright, focused incandescent spotlight at right angle to viewing direction. Viewing further enhanced by coating walls of test chamber with flat, dark color to minimize reflections and increase contrast.

  15. Performance evaluation of the Enraf-Nonius Model 872 radar gage

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.J.; Park, W.R.

    1992-12-01

    There are indications that the Enraf-Nonius Radar Gage installed in Tank 241-SY-101 may not be providing an accurate reading of the true surface level in the waste tank. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed an initial study to determine the effect of the following items on the distance read by the gage: Tank riser; Material permittivity and conductivity Foam; Proportion of supernatant to solid material in the field of view of the instrument; Physical geometry of the supernatant and solid material changing in the field of view with respect to time; and Varying water content in the solid material. The results of the tests indicate that distance measured by the radar gage is affected by the permittivity, conductivity, and angle of the target surface. These parameters affect the complex input impedance of the signal received by the radar gage to measure the distance to the target. In Tank 101-SY, the radar gage is placed on top of a 12 in. diameter riser. The riser affects the field of view of the instrument, and a much smaller target surface is detected when the radar beam propagates through a riser. In addition, the riser acts as a waveguide, and standing waves are enhanced between the target surface and the radar gage. The result is a change in the level measured by the radar gage due to changing properties of the target surface even when the distance to the target does not change. The test results indicate that the radar will not detect dry crust or foam. However, if the crust or foam is stirred so that it becomes wet, then the crust or foam became detectable. The level read using the radar gage decreased as the moisture in the crust or foam evaporated.

  16. Electrical Properties of Materials for Elevated Temperature Resistance Strain Gage Application. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to study the electrical resistances of materials that are potentially useful as resistance strain gages at 1000 C. Transition metal carbides and nitrides, boron carbide and silicon carbide were selected for the experimental phase of this research. Due to their low temperature coefficient of resistance and good stability, TiC, ZrC, B sub 4 C and beta-SiC are suggested as good candidates for high temperature resistance strain gage applications.

  17. Application of Temperature Sensitivities During Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new method is discussed that may be used to correct wind tunnel strain-gage balance load predictions for the influence of residual temperature effects at the location of the strain-gages. The method was designed for the iterative analysis technique that is used in the aerospace testing community to predict balance loads from strain-gage outputs during a wind tunnel test. The new method implicitly applies temperature corrections to the gage outputs during the load iteration process. Therefore, it can use uncorrected gage outputs directly as input for the load calculations. The new method is applied in several steps. First, balance calibration data is analyzed in the usual manner assuming that the balance temperature was kept constant during the calibration. Then, the temperature difference relative to the calibration temperature is introduced as a new independent variable for each strain--gage output. Therefore, sensors must exist near the strain--gages so that the required temperature differences can be measured during the wind tunnel test. In addition, the format of the regression coefficient matrix needs to be extended so that it can support the new independent variables. In the next step, the extended regression coefficient matrix of the original calibration data is modified by using the manufacturer specified temperature sensitivity of each strain--gage as the regression coefficient of the corresponding temperature difference variable. Finally, the modified regression coefficient matrix is converted to a data reduction matrix that the iterative analysis technique needs for the calculation of balance loads. Original calibration data and modified check load data of NASA's MC60D balance are used to illustrate the new method.

  18. Characteristics of Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric (EFPI) Fiber-Optic Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a comparison of the strain-measuring characteristics of one type of commercially available fiber-optic strain sensor with the performance of conventional resistance strain gages. Fabry-Perot type fiber-optic strain sensors were selected for this testing program. Comparative testing is emphasized and includes load testing at room temperature with apparent strain characterization cryogenically and at elevated temperatures. The absolute accuracy of either of these types of strain gages is not addressed.

  19. High-Temperature Extensometry and PdCr Temperature-Compensated Wire Resistance Strain Gages Compared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A detailed experimental evaluation is underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center to compare and contrast the performance of the PdCr/Pt dual-element temperature-compensated wire resistance strain gage with that of conventional high-temperature extensometry. The advanced PdCr gage, developed by researchers at Lewis, exhibits desirable properties and a relatively small and repeatable apparent strain to 800 C. This gage represents a significant advance in technology because existing commercial resistance strain gages are not reliable for quasi-static strain measurements above approximately 400 C. Various thermal and mechanical loading spectra are being applied by a high-temperature thermomechanical uniaxial testing system to evaluate the two strain-measurement systems. This is being done not only to compare and contrast the two strain sensors, but also to investigate the applicability of the PdCr strain gage to the coupon-level specimen testing environment typically employed when the high-temperature mechanical behavior of structural materials is characterized. Strain measurement capabilities to 800 C are being investigated with a nickel-base superalloy, Inconel 100 (IN 100), substrate material and application to TMC's is being examined with the model system, SCS-6/Ti-15-3. Furthermore, two gage application techniques are being investigated in the comparison study: namely, flame-sprayed and spot welding.

  20. Design and development of a miniature column-based interface (MCBI) stress gage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickman, Denis D.

    1993-04-01

    Tests are routinely conducted to evaluate the survivability, under simulated battlefield conditions, of buried military structures subjected to high-explosive loadings. The survivability assessments require the measurement of dynamic normal stresses induced at soil/structure interfaces. Stresses in excess of 10,000 psi and accelerations greater than 100,000 g's may be applied at interface locations. Normal-incidence interface stress gages currently used in such tests are incapable of accurately measuring stresses above 5,000 psi, and are sensitive to lateral accelerations and structure-transmitted stresses which distort the measurement. This study explores the design, development, and testing of a miniature, column-based, interface (MCBI) stress gage. The MCBI gage is designed to measure normal stresses up to 35,000 psi. Laboratory tests indicate that the gage produces a linear output due to applied pressure and is virtually insensitive to lateral stresses. Explosive tests have shown the MCBI gage compares favorably to commonly-used interface stress gages at stresses up to 3,000 psi and is survivable at stresses up to 25,000 psi.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Moss, M.E.; Smath, J.A.; Thomas, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 51 continuous stream gages currently being operated in Maine. Three stream-gages were identified as having insufficient reason to continue their operation. Operation of these stations were identified as having uses specific only to short-term studies; it is recommended that these stations be discontinued at the end of the data-collection phases of the studies. The remaining 45 stations should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. The current policy for operation of the 45-station program would require $180,300 per year. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow record is 18.5 percent. It was shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 45 sites could be maintained with a budget of $170,000 if the gaging resources were redistributed among the gages. A minimum budget of $155,000 is required to operate the 45-gage program; a budget less than this does not permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, the average standard error is 26.0 percent. The maximum budget analyzed was $350,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 9.2 percent. Large parts of Maine 's interior were identified as having sparse stream-flow data. It was recommended that this sparsity should be remedied as funds can be made available. (USGS)

  2. Reevaluating assembly evaluations with feature response curves: GAGE and assemblathons.

    PubMed

    Vezzi, Francesco; Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mishra, Bud

    2012-01-01

    In just the last decade, a multitude of bio-technologies and software pipelines have emerged to revolutionize genomics. To further their central goal, they aim to accelerate and improve the quality of de novo whole-genome assembly starting from short DNA sequences/reads. However, the performance of each of these tools is contingent on the length and quality of the sequencing data, the structure and complexity of the genome sequence, and the resolution and quality of long-range information. Furthermore, in the absence of any metric that captures the most fundamental "features" of a high-quality assembly, there is no obvious recipe for users to select the most desirable assembler/assembly. This situation has prompted the scientific community to rely on crowd-sourcing through international competitions, such as Assemblathons or GAGE, with the intention of identifying the best assembler(s) and their features. Somewhat circuitously, the only available approach to gauge de novo assemblies and assemblers relies solely on the availability of a high-quality fully assembled reference genome sequence. Still worse, reference-guided evaluations are often both difficult to analyze, leading to conclusions that are difficult to interpret. In this paper, we circumvent many of these issues by relying upon a tool, dubbed [Formula: see text], which is capable of evaluating de novo assemblies from the read-layouts even when no reference exists. We extend the FRCurve approach to cases where lay-out information may have been obscured, as is true in many deBruijn-graph-based algorithms. As a by-product, FRCurve now expands its applicability to a much wider class of assemblers - thus, identifying higher-quality members of this group, their inter-relations as well as sensitivity to carefully selected features, with or without the support of a reference sequence or layout for the reads. The paper concludes by reevaluating several recently conducted assembly competitions and the datasets that

  3. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  4. Forced-air patient warming blankets disrupt unidirectional airflow.

    PubMed

    Legg, A J; Hamer, A J

    2013-03-01

    We have recently shown that waste heat from forced-air warming blankets can increase the temperature and concentration of airborne particles over the surgical site. The mechanism for the increased concentration of particles and their site of origin remained unclear. We therefore attempted to visualise the airflow in theatre over a simulated total knee replacement using neutral-buoyancy helium bubbles. Particles were created using a Rocket PS23 smoke machine positioned below the operating table, a potential area of contamination. The same theatre set-up, warming devices and controls were used as in our previous study. This demonstrated that waste heat from the poorly insulated forced-air warming blanket increased the air temperature on the surgical side of the drape by > 5°C. This created convection currents that rose against the downward unidirectional airflow, causing turbulence over the patient. The convection currents increased the particle concentration 1000-fold (2 174 000 particles/m(3) for forced-air warming vs 1000 particles/m(3) for radiant warming and 2000 particles/m(3) for the control) by drawing potentially contaminated particles from below the operating table into the surgical site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:407-10.

  5. CFD simulation of turbulent airflow around wind turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbrooks, David N.

    The airflow around wind turbines has proved to be a difficult problem to approach by means of today's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. One reason for this difficulty lies within the stall characteristics of turbine airfoils. For the purposes of this research, the popular commercial CFD code, FLUENT was employed to facilitate the understanding of airflow around wind turbines through the study of various turbulence models. Parallel processing was employed to enhance computational performance as well as lower simulation times. The system used for simulation is the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI Wind Turbine. The coefficients of pressure for the airfoil were extracted from the simulated data and compared against data obtained during the NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine data campaign. Since power is a driving factor of the design of wind turbine blades, the aspect of power was also examined and compared. After the completion of the baseline study, a parametric study was carried out to examine the effects of rotor speed downstream of the turbine blades.

  6. Analysis of streamflow-gaging network for monitoring stormwater in small streams in the Puget Sound Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Voss, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    The streamflow-gaging network in the Puget Sound basin was analyzed for its capacity to monitor stormwater in small streams. The analysis consisted of an inventory of active and inactive gages and an evaluation of the coverage and resolution of the gaging network with an emphasis on lowland areas. The active gaging network covers much of the Puget Lowland largely by gages located at sites on larger streams and rivers. Assessments of stormwater impacts and management will likely require streamflow information with higher spatial resolution than provided by the current gaging network. Monitoring that emphasizes small streams in combination with approaches for estimating streamflow at ungaged sites provides an alternative to expanding the current gaging network that can improve the spatial resolution of streamflow information in the region. The highest priority gaps in the gaging network are low elevation basins close to the Puget Sound shoreline and sites that share less than 10 percent of the drainage area of an active gage. Although small, lowland sites with long records of streamflow are particularly valuable to maintain in the region, other criteria for prioritizing sites in the gaging network should be based on the specific questions that stormwater managers need to answer.

  7. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  8. A laboratory evaluation of a regulated airflow through wheat at four combinations of temperature and humidity on the productivity of three species of stored product mites.

    PubMed

    Thind, B B; Dunn, J A

    2002-01-01

    Aeration is a promising alternative to the use of pesticides for the control of storage insects by cooling bulk grain, but its effectiveness against mite pests is neither fully understood nor optimised. For this reason, the productivity of three species of storage mites, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus longior, was studied in a laboratory-based experiment at four combinations of temperature and humidity (10 degrees C and 70% RH, 10 degrees C and 80% RH, 20 degrees C and 70% RH, 20 degrees C and 80% RH) with and without an airflow (at 10 m3/h/tonne, equalling 2.5 1/s/tonne, in tubes containing 15 g of grain). This is the first time that a study has examined the three principal components of aeration separately from each other. The effect of these factors was different for each species. For A. siro, temperature was the most important factor, while airflow and humidity were of similar but lesser importance. For T. longior, temperature was more important than humidity, while the reverse was true for L. destructor. For these two species, airflow was the least important factor. The airflow decreased the productivity of L. destructor and T. longior but increased the productivity of A. siro. This increase in productivity confirms that, in practice, prevention of mite infestations, in particular A. siro, will require storage of grain at low temperature, relative humidity and moisture content.

  9. Estimating Engine Airflow in Gas-Turbine Powered Aircraft with Clean and Distorted Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Steenken, W. G.; Yuhas, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The P404-GF-400 Powered F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the impact of inlet-generated total-pressure distortion on estimating levels of engine airflow. Five airflow estimation methods were studied. The Reference Method was a fan corrected airflow to fan corrected speed calibration from an uninstalled engine test. In-flight airflow estimation methods utilized the average, or individual, inlet duct static- to total-pressure ratios, and the average fan-discharge static-pressure to average inlet total-pressure ratio. Correlations were established at low distortion conditions for each method relative to the Reference Method. A range of distorted inlet flow conditions were obtained from -10 deg. to +60 deg. angle of attack and -7 deg. to +11 deg. angle of sideslip. The individual inlet duct pressure ratio correlation resulted in a 2.3 percent airflow spread for all distorted flow levels with a bias error of -0.7 percent. The fan discharge pressure ratio correlation gave results with a 0.6 percent airflow spread with essentially no systematic error. Inlet-generated total-pressure distortion and turbulence had no significant impact on the P404-GE400 engine airflow pumping. Therefore, a speed-flow relationship may provide the best airflow estimate for a specific engine under all flight conditions.

  10. IEA BESTEST Multi-Zone Non-Airflow In-Depth Diagnostic Cases: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.; Alexander, D.; Felsmann, C.; Strachan, P.; Wijsman, A.

    2011-11-01

    This paper documents a set of in-depth diagnostic test cases for multi-zone heat transfer models that do not include the heat and mass transfer effects of airflow between zones. The multi-zone non-airflow test cases represent an extension to IEA BESTEST (Judkoff and Neymark 1995a).

  11. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  12. Levels at Streamflow Gaging Stations--A CD-ROM Based Training Class

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K. Michael; Jacobson, Nathan; Erickson, Robert; Landon, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Streamgages record the elevation of the water surface above some reference surface, or datum. This datum is assumed to remain unchanged throughout the life of the gage. However, the elevation of gages and their supporting structures often change over time as a result of earthmovement, floods, ice, and debris. The surveying practice of leveling is used to establish datum for new gage structures and to check for vertical movement of those structures over time. Vertical changes in gage structures can affect stage-discharge relations and, thus, could result in incorrect discharge determinations. Datum checks are used to correct stage-discharge relations and allow the USGS to document gage datum throughout the life of a gage. This training presentation describes methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey to run levels at gaging stations. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos found within the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class is registered as class SW1307 with the National Training Center of the U.S. Geologcial Survey. The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director 8.5(1) and is contained in the file 'WRI-4002.exe', which should auto-launch after the CD-ROM is inserted in the PC. The program only runs on a windows-based personal computer (PC). A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of the narration that accompanies the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to the narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file ' Intro.html'. The file 'Intro.html' is on the CD-ROM containing the presentation and is available from the presentation's help menu.

  13. A Theoretical Study on Airflow Motive Force and Heat Transfer by the Water Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuyuki

    On assuming the abscissa moving uniformly with the horizontal airflow in disregard of gravity, airflow motive force and heat transfer by the water spray have been easily analyzed theoretically. Here main results are as follows. The theoretical maximum airflow motive pressure is proportional to both the initial relative velocity of waterdrop and the relative water flow per unit cross-sectional area of the apparatus to the airflow or the moving abscissa but unrelated to the size of waterdrop. The airflow motive pressure approaches to the above maximum with an increase in the length of the apparatus. Making the waterdrop size smaller has an effect on the aparatus to get longer virtually. The initial velocity of waterdrop or the spraying nozzle pressure has little effect on the heat transfer between the air and the water.

  14. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  15. Bronchial hypersecretion, chronic airflow limitation, and peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Brille, D

    1981-11-01

    Men with and men without a history of peptic ulcers were compared using respiratory symptoms and spirographic measurements taken from data recorded in an epidemiologic study. Among the 1,049 men examined, 7% reported a history of peptic ulcer. A clear relationship appeared between bronchial hypersecretion and peptic ulcers. It persisted after adjustment for age, smoking habits, social class, and country of origin. Men with ulcers inhaled tobacco smoke more often. Ulcers, smoking, and chronic phlegm were independently related to a lower body build index. It seems that the relationship between smoking and ulcers was greater among men with chronic phlegm, and it is postulated that peptic ulcers and "chronic bronchitis" might be related to a "common secretory disorder." After adjustment for age, men with a history of peptic ulcers had, not a lower FEV1, but a higher vital capacity. A slightly lower FEV1/VC ratio cannot in such cases be considered as an index of chronic airflow limitation.

  16. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores

    PubMed Central

    Dressaire, Emilie; Yamada, Lisa; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of basidiomycete fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable winds for dispersal—that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only 1 cm high and lift spores 10 cm or more into the air. This work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding and explains their high water needs. PMID:26929324

  17. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14449.001 PMID:27097104

  18. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    PubMed

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  19. Airflow design for cleanrooms and its economic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2002-08-20

    A cleanroom is designed to control the concentration of airborne particles. As a result, large amount of cleaned air is often required to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations in critical cleanroom environment. Cleanroom environmental systems (HVAC systems) in semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are much more energy intensive compared to their counterparts (HVAC systems) serving commercial buildings such as typical office buildings. There is a tendency in cleanroom design and operation, however, to provide excessive airflow rates by HVAC systems, largely due to design conservatism, lack of understanding in airflow requirements, and more often, concerns such as cleanliness reliability, design and operational liabilities. A combination of these likely factors can easily result in HVAC systems' over-design. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with the system design, cleanroom functions, and critical parameter control including temperatures and humidities. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by ''cleanliness class'' [1],[2] often cast large impact on energy use. A review of studies on cleanroom operation costs indicated that energy costs could amount to 65-75% of the total annual cost associated with cleanroom operation and maintenance in some European countries[3]. Depending on cleanroom cleanliness classes, annual cleanroom electricity use for cooling and fan energy ranged approximately between 1,710 kWh/m{sup 2} and 10,200 kWh/m{sup 2} (or 160 kWh/ft{sup 2} and 950 kWh/ft{sup 2}) in California[4], USA. Cleanroom fan energy use typically consumed half of total HVAC energy use in three states in the USA[5]. For cleanrooms in a wafer-process semiconductor factory in Japan[6], HVAC systems used 43% of power consumption of an entire cleanroom factory, while air delivery systems account for 30% of the total power consumption. Fan energy use for cleanrooms of ISO Classes 3,4,5 collectively

  20. Hidden Connections between Regression Models of Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Hidden connections between regression models of wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data are investigated. These connections become visible whenever balance calibration data is supplied in its design format and both the Iterative and Non-Iterative Method are used to process the data. First, it is shown how the regression coefficients of the fitted balance loads of a force balance can be approximated by using the corresponding regression coefficients of the fitted strain-gage outputs. Then, data from the manual calibration of the Ames MK40 six-component force balance is chosen to illustrate how estimates of the regression coefficients of the fitted balance loads can be obtained from the regression coefficients of the fitted strain-gage outputs. The study illustrates that load predictions obtained by applying the Iterative or the Non-Iterative Method originate from two related regression solutions of the balance calibration data as long as balance loads are given in the design format of the balance, gage outputs behave highly linear, strict statistical quality metrics are used to assess regression models of the data, and regression model term combinations of the fitted loads and gage outputs can be obtained by a simple variable exchange.

  1. A Method for Removal of Bakelite-Impregnated Wire Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Richard H.

    1943-01-01

    An increasing interest is being shown in the use of wire-type strain gages to measure static and dynamic stresses in aircraft-engine parts. Bakelite cement has been found satisfactory as a bonding agent for attaching the strain gages to machine parts that must operate at elevated temperatures. On many occasions, it is desired to remove Bakelite-cemented gages from the test parts for the purpose of replacing faulty gages or of returning the parts to service after strain measurements have been completed. Removal of the gages by means of scraping without prior treatment is very unsatisfactory because it is tedious and almost invariably damages the finished surface. Various solvents have been tried, but all attempts in this direction have been unsuccessful inasmuch as Bakelite cement, when properly baked, forms a polymer of very high molecular weight that resists the action of solvents. This report presents a gas-flame method of removal that is rapid and does not inure the structural part.

  2. Improved Regression Analysis of Temperature-Dependent Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2015-01-01

    An improved approach is discussed that may be used to directly include first and second order temperature effects in the load prediction algorithm of a wind tunnel strain-gage balance. The improved approach was designed for the Iterative Method that fits strain-gage outputs as a function of calibration loads and uses a load iteration scheme during the wind tunnel test to predict loads from measured gage outputs. The improved approach assumes that the strain-gage balance is at a constant uniform temperature when it is calibrated and used. First, the method introduces a new independent variable for the regression analysis of the balance calibration data. The new variable is designed as the difference between the uniform temperature of the balance and a global reference temperature. This reference temperature should be the primary calibration temperature of the balance so that, if needed, a tare load iteration can be performed. Then, two temperature{dependent terms are included in the regression models of the gage outputs. They are the temperature difference itself and the square of the temperature difference. Simulated temperature{dependent data obtained from Triumph Aerospace's 2013 calibration of NASA's ARC-30K five component semi{span balance is used to illustrate the application of the improved approach.

  3. Evaluation of GE-167 Silicone Rubber (RTV) For Possible Service As A Moisture-Barrier For Certain Strain Gage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The Langley Research Center uses strain gages in a wide variety of demanding test environments. Strain gage installations, depending on the testing scenario, may see high temperatures, cryogenic temperature, moisture accumulation, mechanical abuse, or any combination of these conditions. At Langley, there is often a need to provide protection for strain gages against moisture and mechanical abuse, especially when large-scale, harsh environment testing is to be encountered. This technical memorandum discusses the evaluation of a room temperature curing silicone rubber sealant manufactured by the General Electric Company for consideration as a moisture-barrier for certain strain gage installations.

  4. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  5. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  7. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  8. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  9. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  11. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  12. 42 CFR 84.154 - Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.154 Airflow resistance test; Type B and Type BE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance shall...

  13. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  14. USGS reservoir and lake gage network: Elevation and volumetric contents data, and their uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroska, Anita C.

    2014-01-01

    In December of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) marked the 125th anniversary of the installation of its first official water level and streamflow gage, on the Rio Grande at Embudo, New Mexico. The gage was installed because it was recognized that water data were important to expanding irrigation needs. The USGS is a federal agency that provides nationally consistent and unbiased surface-water elevation and streamflow data at more than 10,000 gaging locations in the United States, about 330 of which are lakes and reservoirs (referred to hereafter as lakes) (Figure 1). The job of quantifying water resources, whether lakes, streams, or aquifers, is fundamental to proper water management and conservation of resources.

  15. Nineteenth-century inhibitory theories of thinking: Bain, Ferrier, Freud (and Phineas Gage).

    PubMed

    Macmillan, M

    2000-08-01

    The theories of thinking of Alexander Bain, David Ferrier, and Sigmund Freud are examined and their relation to Phineas Gage explored. During the 19th century Ferrier derived an inhibitory-motor theory of thinking from a similar theory of Bain's, and aspects of Freud's theory of thinking resemble both. All 3 theories were modeled on the sensory-motor reflex, and all proposed that thinking was inhibited action. Ferrier used his theory to explain the behavior of monkeys whose frontal lobes were ablated and the disinhibited behavior Phineas Gage exhibited after massive damage to his frontal lobes. I show there is some possibility that Freud knew the Bain-Ferrier theory of thinking and its application to Gage.

  16. Detection of Bi-Directionality in Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    An indicator variable was developed for both visualization and detection of bi-directionality in wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. First, the calculation of the indicator variable is explained in detail. Then, a criterion is discussed that may be used to decide which gage outputs of a balance have bi- directional behavior. The result of this analysis could be used, for example, to justify the selection of certain absolute value or other even function terms in the regression model of gage outputs whenever the Iterative Method is chosen for the balance calibration data analysis. Calibration data of NASA s MK40 Task balance is analyzed to illustrate both the calculation of the indicator variable and the application of the proposed criterion. Finally, bi directionality characteristics of typical multi piece, hybrid, single piece, and semispan balances are determined and discussed.

  17. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-04

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature is described. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical. 1 figure.

  18. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, David J.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical.

  19. Visualization of the Airflow around a Life-Sized, Heated, Breathing Mannequin at Ultralow Windspeeds

    PubMed Central

    Schmees, Darrah K.; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Vincent, James H.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been considerable progress in developing particle size-selective criteria for aerosol sampling and exposure assessment that relate more realistically to actual human exposures than previously. An important aspect has been the aspiration efficiency—the ‘inhalability’—with which particles enter through the nose and mouth of aerosol-exposed individuals during breathing. Most of the reported experiments to determine inhalability have been conducted in wind tunnels with life-sized, breathing mannequins, for windspeeds from 0.5 m s−1 and above. A few experiments have been reported for calm air. However, nothing has been reported for the intermediate range from 0.5 m s−1 downward, and it so happens—as we now know—that this corresponds to most industrial workplaces. The research described in this paper represents a first step toward filling this knowledge gap. It focuses on identifying the features of the airflow near the mannequin at such low windspeeds that might have important influences on the nature of particle transport, and hence on inhalability, and eventually the performances of personal aerosol samplers mounted in the breathing zone. We have carried out flow visualization experiments for the realistic range of windspeeds indicated, investigating specifically the effect of the air jet released into the freestream during expiration and the effect of the upward-moving boundary layer near the body associated with the buoyancy of air in that region as a result of heat received from the warm body. We set out to identify the combinations of conditions—external windspeed, breathing mode (nose versus mouth breathing), breathing rate and body temperature—where such factors need to be taken into account. We developed an experimental system that allowed the visualization of smoke traces, providing very good observation of how the flow was modified as conditions changed. From inspection of a large number of moving

  20. Ceramic Strain Gages for Use at Temperatures up to 1500 Celsius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto; Fralick, Gustave (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film strain gages were successfully demonstrated at temperatures beyond 1500 C. High temperature static strain tests revealed that the piezoresistive response and electrical stability of the ceramic sensors depended on the thickness of the ITO films comprising the active strain elements. When 2.5 microns-thick ITO films were employed as the active strain elements, the piezoresistive response became unstable at temperatures above 1225 C. In contrast to this, ceramic sensors prepared with 5 microns-thick ITO were stable beyond 1430 C and sensors prepared with 8 microns-thick ITO survived more than 20 hr of operation at 1481 C. Very thick (10 microns) ITo strain gages were extremely stable and responsive at 1528 C. ESCA depth profiles confirmed that an interfacial reaction between the ITO strain gage and alumina substrate was responsible for the high temperature electrical stability observed. Similar improvements in high temperature stability were achieved by doping the active ITO strain elements with aluminum. Several Sic-Sic CMC constant strain beams were instrumented with ITO strain gages and delivered to NASA for testing. Due to the extreme surface roughness of the CMC substrates, new lithography techniques and surface preparation methods were developed. These techniques relied heavily on a combination of Sic and A12O3 cement layers to provide the necessary surface finish for efficient pattern transfer. Micro-contact printing using soft lithography and PDMS stamps was also used to successfully transfer the thin film strain gage patterns to the resist coated CMC substrates. This latter approach has considerable potential for transferring the thin film strain gage patterns to the extremely rough surfaces associated with the CMC's.

  1. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  2. Calibration characteristics of IRAD GAGE vibrating wire stressmeter at normal and high temperature. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P. K.; Hatfield, R. W.; Runstadler, Jr., P. W.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes calibration studies of the IRAD GAGE Vibrating Wire Stressmeter. The work has been performed for the University of California, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, to understand and interpret the behavior and performance of the stressmeter in Climax granite. To help interpret the results obtained in Climax granite, the study also included calibration tests of the gage in other materials: Barre granite, aluminum, and Lucite. Stressmeter calibrations were carried out in thin rock slabs by determining the relation between the stressmeter readings and uniaxial plane stresses. Calibrations were also conducted under biaxial and triaxial stress fields.

  3. Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  4. Wire-Strain-Gage Hinge-Moment Indicators for Use in Tests of Airplane Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Howard B.

    1944-01-01

    The design and construction of various forms of strain-gage spring units and hinge-moment assemblies are discussed with particular reference to wind-tunnel test, although the indicators may be used equally well in flight tests. Strain-gage specifications are given, and the techniques of their application and use are described briefly. Testing, calibration and operation of hinge-moment indicators are discussed and precautions necessary for successful operation are stressed. Difficulties that may be encountered are summarized along with the possible causes.

  5. Evaluation of a Quartz Bourdon Pressure Gage of Wind Tunnel Mach Number Control System Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using the National Transonic Facility's high accuracy Mach number measurement system as part of a closed loop Mach number control system. The theoretical and experimental procedures described are applicable to the engineering design of pressure control systems. The results show that the dynamic response characteristics of the NTF Mach number gage (a Ruska DDR-6000 quartz absolute pressure gage) coupled to a typical length of pressure tubing were only marginally acceptable within a limited range of the facility's total pressure envelope and could not be used in the Mach number control system.

  6. On the stable hovering of an asymmetric body in oscillatory airflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Weathers, Annie; Childress, Stephen; Zhang, Jun

    2010-03-01

    A free rigid body, built with up-down asymmetry can hover in a vertical oscillatory airflow if the airflow amplitude and frequency exceed certain thresholds. The key to free hovering lies in the difference in drag coefficients as the airflow passes the object in two opposite directions. The hovering motion is surprisingly stable and robust, lasting for thousands of oscillation periods. We describe a series of flow visualizations of vortex shedding by the hovering object, which show how correcting moments restore its orientation, leading to stable hovering. This study may shed light on the stability of the hovering flight of insects.

  7. Disorders of resonance and airflow secondary to cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Ann W

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to help the reader understand what contributes to normal resonance for speech production. In addition, the reader will learn about the types of resonance disorders and their characteristics. The causes of resonance disorders will be described with a guideline on how they should be treated. This article also includes a discussion of normal airflow for speech and the perceptual speech characteristics that often occur when there is abnormal nasal airflow. Secondary characteristics of nasal airflow, including weak or omitted consonants, short utterance length, nasal grimace, and compensatory articulation productions, are also described.

  8. Instrumentation, methods of flood-data collection and transmission, and evaluation of streamflow-gaging network in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glatfelter, D.R.; Butch, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    The study results indicate that installation of streamflow-gaging stations at 15 new sites would improve collection of flood data. Instrumenting the 15 new sites plus 26 existing streamflow-gaging stations with telemetry, preferably data-collection platforms with satellite transmitters, would improve transmission of data to users of the information.

  9. Airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a 16-generation tracheobronchial airway model

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to achieve both manageable simulation and local accuracy of airflow and nanoparticle deposition in a representative human tracheobronchial (TB) region, the complex airway network was decomposed into adjustable triple-bifurcation units, spreading axially and laterally. Gi...

  10. Modeling Airflow Using Subject-Specific 4DCT-Based Deformable Volumetric Lung Models

    PubMed Central

    Ilegbusi, Olusegun J.; Li, Zhiliang; Seyfi, Behnaz; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P.

    2012-01-01

    Lung radiotherapy is greatly benefitted when the tumor motion caused by breathing can be modeled. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of using anisotropic and subject-specific tissue elasticity for simulating the airflow inside the lungs. A computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) based approach is presented to simulate airflow inside a subject-specific deformable lung for modeling lung tumor motion and the motion of the surrounding tissues during radiotherapy. A flow-structure interaction technique is employed that simultaneously models airflow and lung deformation. The lung is modeled as a poroelastic medium with subject-specific anisotropic poroelastic properties on a geometry, which was reconstructed from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation for known airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effects of anisotropy are also presented on both the spatiotemporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis. PMID:23365554

  11. Evaluation of circumferential airflow uniformity entering combustors from compressors. Volume 1: Discussion of data and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shadowen, J. H.; Egan, W. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The compressor discharge airflow uniformity of two compressors from advanced engines, the J58 and F100/F401, was studied. Compressor discharge pressures and temperatures at up to 33 circumferential rake locations allowed the airflow distribution to be ascertained and computer plotted. Several flight conditions and compressor variables, i.e., inlet distortion, modified seals, etc., were analyzed. An unexpectedly high nonuniform airflow was found for both compressors. Circumferential airflow deviation differences of up to 52% from maximum to minimum were found for the J58, and up to 40% for the F100/F401. The effects of aerodynamic and thermal distortion were found to be additive. The data were analyzed for influence of exit guide vane wakes and found free of any effect. Data system errors were small in relation to the measured pressure and temperature variations.

  12. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-3, Gage Blocks, Mechanical Comparators and Electronic Comparators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This third in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes gage blocks and mechanical and electronic comparators. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials needed, (7)…

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-2, Fixed Gages, Dividers, Calipers, and Micrometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology dscribes fixed gages, dividers, calipers, vernier and dial calipers, and micrometers. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (l) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  14. A New Correction Technique for Strain-Gage Measurements Acquired in Transient-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance

    1996-01-01

    Significant strain-gage errors may exist in measurements acquired in transient-temperature environments if conventional correction methods are applied. As heating or cooling rates increase, temperature gradients between the strain-gage sensor and substrate surface increase proportionally. These temperature gradients introduce strain-measurement errors that are currently neglected in both conventional strain-correction theory and practice. Therefore, the conventional correction theory has been modified to account for these errors. A new experimental method has been developed to correct strain-gage measurements acquired in environments experiencing significant temperature transients. The new correction technique has been demonstrated through a series of tests in which strain measurements were acquired for temperature-rise rates ranging from 1 to greater than 100 degrees F/sec. Strain-gage data from these tests have been corrected with both the new and conventional methods and then compared with an analysis. Results show that, for temperature-rise rates greater than 10 degrees F/sec, the strain measurements corrected with the conventional technique produced strain errors that deviated from analysis by as much as 45 percent, whereas results corrected with the new technique were in good agreement with analytical results.

  15. The operation and maintenance of a crest-stage gaging station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friday, John

    1965-01-01

    Rigid datum controls must be maintained at the gage site throughout the period of record. Physical changes of the site resulting from flood flows or manmade alterations must be evaluated. If a drainage structure such as a culvert is part of the site features, free-flow conditions must be maintained or obstructions carefully documented.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopp, R.D.; Ulery, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study of the cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in New Jersey are documented. This study is part of a 5-year nationwide analysis undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. This report identifies the principal uses of the data and relates those uses to funding sources, applies, at selected stations, alternative less costly methods (that is flow routing, regression analysis) for furnishing the data, and defines a strategy for operating the program which minimizes uncertainty in the streamflow data for specific operating budgets. Uncertainty in streamflow data is primarily a function of the percentage of missing record and the frequency of discharge measurements. In this report, 101 continuous stream gages and 73 crest-stage or stage-only gages are analyzed. A minimum budget of $548,000 is required to operate the present stream-gaging program in New Jersey with an average standard error of 27.6 percent. The maximum budget analyzed was $650,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 17.8 percent. The 1983 budget of $569,000 resulted in a standard error of 24.9 percent under present operating policy. (USGS)

  17. Silicon strain gages bonded on stainless steel using glass frit for strain sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongyang; Cheng, Xingguo; Leng, Yi; Cao, Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a steel pressure sensor using strain gages bonded on a 17-4 PH stainless steel (SS) diaphragm based on glass frit technology is proposed. The strain gages with uniform resistance are obtained by growing an epi-silicon layer on a single crystal silicon wafer using epitaxial deposition technique. The inorganic glass frits are used as the bonding material between the strain gages and the 17-4 PH SS diaphragm. Our results show that the output performances of sensors at a high temperature of 125 °C are almost equal those at room temperature, which indicates that the glass frit bonding is a good method and may lead to a significant advance in the high temperature applicability of silicon strain gage sensors. Finally, the microstructure of the cured organic adhesive and the fired glass frit are compared. It may be concluded that the defects of the cured organic adhesive deteriorate the hysteresis and repeatability errors of the sensors.

  18. Basic Skills for Gages& Measurement. New Paradigm for Effective Workforce Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO. Workplace Literacy Services Center.

    This document contains the materials required by individuals enrolled in a workplace course in basic skills for gages and measurements that was developed by a community college for a St. Louis (Missouri) electric company. The guide begins with an outline of the 12-day course, which covers the types, components, use, and care of the following…

  19. Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis for Extended Independent Variable Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A new method was developed that makes it possible to use an extended set of independent calibration variables for an iterative analysis of wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration data. The new method permits the application of the iterative analysis method whenever the total number of balance loads and other independent calibration variables is greater than the total number of measured strain gage outputs. Iteration equations used by the iterative analysis method have the limitation that the number of independent and dependent variables must match. The new method circumvents this limitation. It simply adds a missing dependent variable to the original data set by using an additional independent variable also as an additional dependent variable. Then, the desired solution of the regression analysis problem can be obtained that fits each gage output as a function of both the original and additional independent calibration variables. The final regression coefficients can be converted to data reduction matrix coefficients because the missing dependent variables were added to the data set without changing the regression analysis result for each gage output. Therefore, the new method still supports the application of the two load iteration equation choices that the iterative method traditionally uses for the prediction of balance loads during a wind tunnel test. An example is discussed in the paper that illustrates the application of the new method to a realistic simulation of temperature dependent calibration data set of a six component balance.

  20. Low-flow characteristics at gaging stations on the Wisconsin, Fox, and Wolf rivers, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, W.A.; Holmstrom, B.K.

    1977-01-01

    The magnitude of the low-flow characteristics are in some instances affected by the period of record. These characteristics can vary as much as ±30 percent at some gaging stations depending on whether or not the severe drought of the 1930's was included in the analysis.

  1. Loads calibrations of strain gage bridges on the DAST project Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.

    1980-01-01

    The details of and results from the procedure used to calibrate strain gage bridges for measurement of wing structural loads for the DAST project ARW-1 wing are presented. Results are in the form of loads equations and comparison of computed loads vs. actual loads for two simulated flight loading conditions.

  2. JUSTIFICATION FOR A REDUCTION IN THE CREST-STAGE GAGE PROGRAM IN LOUISIANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, Richard A.; Carlson, Darrell D.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    1985-01-01

    The crest-stage gage program in Louisiana was evaluated to determine if the data were adequate for use in developing regional flood-frequency equations and to determine if any crest-stage gage stations could be discontinued. An abundance of data at many crest-stage gage stations and a lack of data for urban areas and flat-slope areas indicated a need for a shift in the number, type, and locations of gages. Correlations and comparisons of annual peak discharges and watershed characteristics of 96 existing stations resulted in the elimination of 72 stations and the addition of one new station, reducing the total network to 25 stations that could be used for future flood-frequency analyses. The adequacy of the reduced network for development and verification of regional flood-frequency equations was tested by comparing a set of regional flood-frequency equations developed using data from the full network with a set developed using data from the reduced network.

  3. An evaluation of the crest-stage gage program in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, R.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Wiche, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The crest-stage gage program in Louisiana was evaluated to determine if the data were adequate for use in developing regional flood-frequency equations and to determine if any crest-stage gages could be discontinued. An abundance of data at many crest-stage stations and a lack of data for urban area and flat-slope areas indicated a need for a shift in the number, type, and locations of gages. Extensive correlations and comparisons of annual peak flows and watershed characteristics of 96 sites resulted in a reduced network of 25 stations that could potentially be used as index sites. The adequacy of the reduced network for development and verification of regional flood-frequency equations was tested by comparing a set of regional flood-frequency equations developed using data from the full network with a set developed using data from the reduced network. The results indicate that the crest-stage gage network can be reduced to 25 stations and still provide adequate information for future flood-frequency analyses. (USGS)

  4. "The Crack between Nature Illusory and Nature Real": Matilda Joslyn Gage's Visions of Feminist Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Hayes

    Born in Cicero, New York, in 1826, Matilda Joslyn Gage became one of the leaders of the American women's rights movement. Her book "Woman, Church, and State," first published in 1893, is a work of feminist history and theory that anticipates many of the feminist critiques which are now familiar: social class, imperialism, sexual…

  5. 46 CFR 32.20-20 - Liquid level gaging-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gaging-T/ALL. 32.20-20 Section 32.20-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-20 Liquid level gaging—T/ALL. On tankships, the construction...

  6. Airflow obstruction: is it asthma or is it COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Rogliani, Paola; Ora, Josuel; Puxeddu, Ermanno; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of guideline recommendations, diagnostic confusion between COPD and asthma appears common, and often it is very difficult to decide whether the obstruction is caused by asthma or COPD in a patient with airway obstruction. However, there are well-defined features that help in differentiating asthma from COPD in the presence of fixed airflow obstruction. Nonetheless, the presentations of asthma and COPD can converge and mimic each other, making it difficult to give these patients a diagnosis of either condition. The association of asthma and COPD in the same patient has been designated mixed asthma–COPD phenotype or overlap syndrome. However, since the absence of a clear definition and the inclusion of patients with different characteristics under this umbrella term, it may not facilitate treatment decisions, especially in the absence of clinical trials addressing this heterogeneous population. We are realizing that neither asthma nor COPD are single diseases, but rather syndromes consisting of several endotypes and phenotypes, consequently comprising a spectrum of diseases that must be recognized and adequately treated with targeted therapy. Therefore, we must treat patients by personalizing therapy on the basis of those treatable traits present in each subject. PMID:27942210

  7. The incompressibility assumption in computational simulations of nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Cal, Ismael R; Cercos-Pita, Jose Luis; Duque, Daniel

    2017-04-03

    Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package. At low flow rates and warm climatological conditions, similar results were obtained from both approaches, showing that density variations need not be taken into account to obtain a good prediction of all flow features, at least for usual breathing conditions. This agrees with most of the simulations previously reported, at least as far as the incompressibility assumption is concerned. However, parameters like nasal resistance and wall shear stress distribution differ for air temperatures below [Formula: see text]C approximately. Therefore, density variations should be considered for simulations at such low temperatures.

  8. Factors affecting distribution of airflow in a human tracheobronchial cast.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B S; Sussman, R G; Lippmann, M

    1993-09-01

    Air velocity was measured at end airways of hollow replicate casts of the human tracheobronchial tree in order to determine the flow distribution within casts extending to 3 mm diameter airways. Measurements were made by hot-wire anemometry for constant inspiratory flow rates of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 L.min-1. Average flow distribution among the lung lobes was as follows: right upper, 18.5%; right middle, 9.2%; right lower, 32.3%; left upper, 15.7%; and left lower, 24.3%. An empirical model derived from the experimental flow distribution data demonstrated the effect of various morphometric parameters of the hollow cast on the distribution of airflow. Airway cross-sectional area, branching angle and total path-length were found to have the greatest influence. As the tracheal flow rate decreased from 60 to 7.5 L.min-1, the influence of branching angle was reduced, while total path-length became more influential. These results provide evidence for the transition of flow regimes within the TB tree within normal physiological flow ranges.

  9. Chronic airflow limitation in developing countries: burden and priorities.

    PubMed

    Aït-Khaled, Nadia; Enarson, Donald A; Ottmani, Salah; El Sony, Asma; Eltigani, Mai; Sepulveda, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory disease has never received priority in relation to its impact on health. Estimated DALYs lost in 2002 were 12% globally (similar for industrialized and developing countries). Chronic airflow limitation (due mainly to asthma and COPD) alone affects more than 100 million persons in the world and the majority of them live in developing countries. International guidelines for management of asthma (GINA) and COPD (GOLD) have been adopted and their cost-effectiveness demonstrated in industrialized countries. As resources are scarce in developing countries, adaptation of these guidelines using only essential drugs is required. It remains for governments to set priorities. To make these choices, a set of criteria have been proposed. It is vital that the results of scientific investigations are presented in these terms to facilitate their use by decision-makers. To respond to this emerging public health problem in developing countries, WHO has developed 2 initiatives: "Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL)" and the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)", and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (The Union) has launched a new initiative to increase affordability of essential asthma drugs for patients in developing countries termed the "Asthma Drug Facility" (ADF), which could facilitate the care of patients living in these parts of the world.

  10. Evaluation of airflow patterns following procedures established by NUREG-1400

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Khan, Fenton; Mendoza, Donaldo P.

    2006-07-26

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's NUREG-1400 addresses many aspects of air sampling in the work place. Here, we present two detailed examples of the implementation of qualitative air flow studies at different scales using guidelines established by NUREG-1400. In one test, smoke was used to evaluate the airflow patterns within the transfer area of the 105 KE Basin, located on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The purpose of the study was to determine appropriate locations for air monitoring equipment in support of sludge water pumping activities. The study revealed a stagnant layer of the air within the transfer area that made predicting movement of contamination within the transfer area difficult. Without conducting an air flow study, the stagnant layer would not have been identified, and could have resulted in locating samplers at inappropriate locations. In a second test, smoke was used to verify the effectiveness of an air space barrier curtain. The results showed that the curtain adequately separated the two air spaces. The methodology employed in each test provided sound, easy to interpret information that satisfied the requirements of each test.

  11. High-Resolution CFD Simulation of Airflow and Tracer Dispersion in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M J; Chan, S T; Lundquist, J K

    2005-11-02

    In 2004, a research project--the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (NYC UDP)--was launched by the Department of Homeland Security with the goal to improve the permanent network of wind stations in and around New York City and to enhance the city's emergency response capabilities. Encompassing both field studies and computer modeling, one of the program's objectives is to improve and validate urban dispersion models using the data collected from field studies and to transfer the improved capabilities to NYC emergency agencies. The first two field studies were conducted in March and August 2005 respectively and an additional study is planned for the summer of 2006. Concurrently model simulations, using simple to sophisticated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, have been performed to aid the planning of field studies and also to evaluate the performance of such models. Airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas such as NYC are extremely complicated. Some of the contributing factors are complex geometry, variable terrain, coupling between local and larger scale flows, deep canyon mixing and updrafts/downdrafts caused by large buildings, street channeling and upstream transport, roof features, and heating effects, etc. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), we have developed a CFD model, FEM3MP, to address some of the above complexities. Our model is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate physics for modeling airflow and dispersion in the urban environment. Also utilized in the model are finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex geometries and a semi-implicit projection method for efficient time-integration. A description of the model can be found in Gresho and Chan (1998), Chan and Stevens (2000). Predictions from our model are continuously being verified against data from field studies, such as URBAN 2000

  12. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The safety-of-flight parameters for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces were monitored; each contained four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty-one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads. Pre-test predictions of strain gage responses were produced using finite element method models of the interface fittings. Predicted and measured test strains are presented. A load testing rig and three hydraulic jacks were used to apply combinations of shear, bending, and axial loads to the interface fittings. Hardware deflections under load were measured using photogrammetry and transducers. Due to deflections in the interface fitting hardware and test rig, finite element model techniques were used to calculate the reaction loads throughout the applied load range, taking into account the elastically-deformed geometry. The primary load equations were selected based on multiple calibration metrics. An independent set of validation cases was used to validate each derived equation. The 2-sigma residual errors for the shear loads were less than eight percent of the full-scale calibration load; the 2-sigma residual errors for the bending moment loads were less than three percent of the full-scale calibration load. The derived load equations for shear, bending, and axial loads are presented, with the calculated errors for both the calibration cases and the independent validation load cases.

  13. Lung sound intensity in patients with emphysema and in normal subjects at standardised airflows.

    PubMed Central

    Schreur, H J; Sterk, P J; Vanderschoot, J; van Klink, H C; van Vollenhoven, E; Dijkman, J H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common auscultatory finding in pulmonary emphysema is a reduction of lung sounds. This might be due to a reduction in the generation of sounds due to the accompanying airflow limitation or to poor transmission of sounds due to destruction of parenchyma. Lung sound intensity was investigated in normal and emphysematous subjects in relation to airflow. METHODS: Eight normal men (45-63 years, FEV1 79-126% predicted) and nine men with severe emphysema (50-70 years, FEV1 14-63% predicted) participated in the study. Emphysema was diagnosed according to pulmonary history, results of lung function tests, and radiographic criteria. All subjects underwent phonopneumography during standardised breathing manoeuvres between 0.5 and 2 1 below total lung capacity with inspiratory and expiratory target airflows of 2 and 1 l/s respectively during 50 seconds. The synchronous measurements included airflow at the mouth and lung volume changes, and lung sounds at four locations on the right chest wall. For each microphone airflow dependent power spectra were computed by using fast Fourier transformation. Lung sound intensity was expressed as log power (in dB) at 200 Hz at inspiratory flow rates of 1 and 2 l/s and at an expiratory flow rate of 1 l/s. RESULTS: Lung sound intensity was well repeatable on two separate days, the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.77 to 0.94 between the four microphones. The intensity was strongly influenced by microphone location and airflow. There was, however, no significant difference in lung sound intensity at any flow rate between the normal and the emphysema group. CONCLUSION: Airflow standardised lung sound intensity does not differ between normal and emphysematous subjects. This suggests that the auscultatory finding of diminished breath sounds during the regular physical examination in patients with emphysema is due predominantly to airflow limitation. Images PMID:1440459

  14. Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Gu, Wei-Mei; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one.

  15. Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss—an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26°C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s-1; (2) Ta 32°C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s-1; (3) Ta 32°C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s-1 (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss under the 32/80 with airflow condition were significantly higher compared to those under the 26/50 condition, and significantly lower than those under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). An alleviated heat load due to increased airflow was considered to exist between the 32/80 with still air and the 26/50 conditions. Airflow reduces the duration of wakefulness by decreasing Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss in a warm humid condition.

  16. Bioinspired carbon nanotube fuzzy fiber hair sensor for air-flow detection.

    PubMed

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Ehlert, Gregory J; Dickinson, Benjamin T; Phillips, David M; Ray, Cody W; Reich, Greg W; Baur, Jeffery W

    2014-05-28

    Artificial hair sensors consisting of a piezoresistive carbon-nanotube-coated glass fiber embedded in a microcapillary are assembled and characterized. Individual sensors resemble a hair plug that may be integrated in a wide range of host materials. The sensors demonstrate an air-flow detection threshold of less than 1 m/s with a piezoresistive sensitivity of 1.3% per m/s air-flow change.

  17. Evaluation of circumferential airflow uniformity entering combustors from compressors. Volume 2: Data supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shadowen, J. H.; Egan, W. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the airflow uniformity leaving compressors and entering combustors was made using compressors from two advanced engines, the J58 and F100/F401. The data used in the analysis of each case is presented in tabular form and computer-generated profile plots. A plot of the square root of the dynamic pressure ratio, which is similar to airflow deviation, is also presented.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of the Federal stream-gaging program in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 77 continuous stream gages currently being operated in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey with a budget of $446,000. Two stream gages were identified as not being used sufficiently to warrant continuing their operation. Operation of these stations should be considered for discontinuation. Data collected at two other stations were identified as having uses primarily related to short-term studies; these stations should also be considered for discontinuation at the end of the data collection phases of the studies. The remaining 73 stations should be kept in the program for the foreseeable future. The current policy for operation of the 77-station program requires a budget of $446,000/yr. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow records is 10.1%. It was shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 77 sites could be maintained with a budget of $430,500 if resources were redistributed among the gages. A minimum budget of $428,500 is required to operate the 77-gage program; a smaller budget would not permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, with optimized operation, the average standard error would be 10.4%. The maximum budget analyzed was $650,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 5.5%. The study indicates that a major component of error is caused by lost or missing data. If perfect equipment were available, the standard error for the current program and budget could be reduced to 7.6%. This also can be interpreted to mean that the streamflow data have a standard error of this magnitude during times when the equipment is operating properly. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Haribalan; Jain, Ravi; Douglas, Richard G.; Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery) on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics. PMID:27249219

  20. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    PubMed

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  1. An investigation on airflow in disordered nasal cavity and its corrected models by tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. K.; Chung, S. K.

    2004-06-01

    Knowledge of airflow characteristics in nasal cavities is essential to understand the physiology and pathology aspects of nasal breathing. Several studies have utilized physical models of the healthy nasal cavity to investigate the relationship between nasal anatomy and airflow. Since the final goal of these works is their contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of nasal diseases, therefore, the next step in this topic must be followed by the studies for disordered nasal cavities. In this paper, airflows in normal and abnormal nasal cavities and surgically created models, which simulate surgical treatment, are investigated experimentally by PIV. High-resolution computerized tomogram data and careful manipulation of the model surface by the ear, nose and throat doctor provide more sophisticated nasal cavity models. The correlation based correction PIV algorithm with window offset is used for PIV flow analysis. Average and RMS distributions in sagittal and coronal sections are obtained for inspiratory and expiratory nasal airflows. Comparisons in nasal airflows for both normal and abnormal cases are also examined. Airflow characteristics that are related to the abnormalities in the nasal cavity are proposed. In the case of simulations of surgical operations, velocity and RMS distributions in coronal section change locally, this may cause some difficulties in physiologic functions of noses and may hurt mucosal surface.

  2. Observing and quantifying airflows in the infection control of aerosol- and airborne-transmitted diseases: an overview of approaches.

    PubMed

    Tang, J W; Noakes, C J; Nielsen, P V; Eames, I; Nicolle, A; Li, Y; Settles, G S

    2011-03-01

    With concerns about the potential for the aerosol and airborne transmission of infectious agents, particularly influenza, more attention is being focused on the effectiveness of infection control procedures to prevent hospital-acquired infections by this route. More recently a number of different techniques have been applied to examine the temporal-spatial information about the airflow patterns and the movement of related, suspended material within this air in a hospital setting. Closer collaboration with engineers has allowed clinical microbiologists, virologists and infection control teams to assess the effectiveness of hospital isolation and ventilation facilities. The characteristics of human respiratory activities have also been investigated using some familiar engineering techniques. Such studies aim to enhance the effectiveness of such preventive measures and have included experiments with human-like mannequins using various tracer gas/particle techniques, real human volunteers with real-time non-invasive Schlieren imaging, numerical modelling using computational fluid dynamics, and small scale physical analogues with water. This article outlines each of these techniques in a non-technical manner, suitable for a clinical readership without specialist airflow or engineering knowledge.

  3. Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2008-10-01

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  4. Comparison between Mach 2 rarefied airflow modification by an electrical discharge and numerical simulation of airflow modification by surface heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisse, J. D.; Léger, L.; Depussay, E.; Lago, V.; Burtschell, Y.

    2009-10-01

    This study is devoted to numerical and experimental investigations about the influence of an electrical discharge over a flat plate immersed in a rarefied Mach 2 airflow. Regarding the experimental work, a negative dc discharge is created by applying a potential difference gap between two spanwise aluminum electrodes flush mounted on the plate. The electrode placed close to the leading edge is connected to the negative dc voltage, the second one is grounded. The influence due to the presence of the electric discharge is investigated with a glass Pitot tube by measuring the pressure proles above the flat plate. These experimental results are compared to the numerical work, where the effect of a surface temperature increase is simulated. Different effects can be attributed to the electrical discharge: the ionization of the gas above the plate with the creation of charged species, the acceleration of the positive charged species, the heat of the gas volume above the flat plate, and the heating of the surface of the flat plate. The Pitot probe measurements have shown a thickening of the boundary layer and the increasing of the angle of the shock wave, and the simulation of the surface temperature increase shows the same effect. These arguments let to think that the heating effect due to the temperature increase in the flat plate is the major one among the other effects mentioned above.

  5. Airflow-directed in situ electrospinning of a medical glue of cyanoacrylate for rapid hemostasis in liver resection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Long, Yun-Ze; Chen, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Shu-Liang; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xingyu; Huang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-07-21

    Rapid hemostasis of solitary organs is still a big challenge in surgical procedures or after major trauma in both civilians and on the battlefield. Here, we report the first use of an airflow-directed in situ electrospinning method to precisely and homogeneously deposit a medical glue of n-octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (OCA) ultrathin fibers onto a wound surface to realize rapid hemostasis in dozens of seconds. In vivo and in vitro experiments on pig liver resection demonstrate that the self-assembled electrospun OCA membrane with high strength, good flexibility and integrity is very compact and no fluid seeping is observed even under a pressure of 147 mm Hg. A similar effect has been achieved in an in vivo experiment on pig lung resection. The results provide a very promising alternative for rapid hemostasis of solitary organs as well as other traumas, providing evidence that the postoperative drainage tube may not be always necessary for surgery in the near future.

  6. Use of flumes in metering discharge at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Schneider, V.R.

    1982-01-01

    Flumes for metering discharge are usually of two general types--critical-flow flumes and supercritical-flow flumes. In this report the principles underlying the design of each are discussed, the most commonly used flumes of each of the two types are described, and discharge ratings for each are presented. Considerations in choosing and fitting the appropriate flume for a given situation are discussed along with construction techniques and operational experiences.

  7. Rain-induced subsurface airflow and Lisse effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, H.; Jiao, J.J.; Weeks, E.P.

    2008-01-01

    Water-level increase after rainfall is usually indicative of rainfall recharge to groundwater. This, however, may not be true if the Lisse effect occurs. This effect represents the water-level increase in a well driven by airflow induced by an advancing wetting front during highly intensive rains. The rainwater, which may behave like a low-permeability lid, seals the ground surface so that the air pressure beneath the wetting front is increased because of air compression due to downward movement of the wetting front. A rapid and substantial rise of the water level in the well screened below water table, which bears no relationship to groundwater recharge, can be induced when various factors such as soil properties and the rain-runoff condition combine favorably. A transient, three-dimensional and variably saturated flow model was employed to study the air and groundwater flows in the soil under rain conditions. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to evaluate the reliability of the theory of the Lisse effect presented by Weeks to predict its magnitude in modeled situations that mimic the physical complexity of real aquifers, and to conduct parametric studies on the sensitivity of the water-level rise in the well to soil properties and the rain event. The simulation results reveal that the magnitude of the Lisse effect increases with the ponding depth. Soil permeability plays a key role in generating the Lisse effect. The water-level rise in the well is delayed relative to the air-pressure rise in the unsaturated zone when the soil permeability is low, and the maximum water-level rise is less than the maximum air pressure induced by rain infiltration. The simulation also explores the sensitivity of the Lisse effect to the van Genuchten parameters and the water table depth. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Physiographic and land cover attributes of the Puget Lowland and the active streamflow gaging network, Puget Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher; Sevier, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial information for the active streamflow gaging network in the Puget Sound Basin was compiled to support regional monitoring of stormwater effects to small streams. The compilation includes drainage area boundaries and physiographic and land use attributes that affect hydrologic processes. Three types of boundaries were used to tabulate attributes: Puget Sound Watershed Characterization analysis units (AU); the drainage area of active streamflow gages; and the catchments of Regional Stream Monitoring Program (RSMP) sites. The active streamflow gaging network generally includes sites that represent the ranges of attributes for lowland AUs, although there are few sites with low elevations (less than 60 meters), low precipitation (less than 1 meter year), or high stream density (greater than 5 kilometers per square kilometers). The active streamflow gaging network can serve to provide streamflow information in some AUs and RSMP sites, particularly where the streamflow gage measures streamflow generated from a part of the AU or that drains to the RSMP site, and that part of the AU or RSMP site is a significant fraction of the drainage area of the streamgage. The maximum fraction of each AU or RSMP catchment upstream of a streamflow gage and the maximum fraction of any one gaged basin in an AU or RSMP along with corresponding codes are provided in the attribute tables.

  9. Cost effective stream-gaging strategies for the Lower Colorado River basin; the Blythe field office operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, Edward J.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the theoretical developments and illustrates the applications of techniques that recently have been assembled to analyze the cost-effectiveness of federally funded stream-gaging activities in support of the Colorado River compact and subsequent adjudications. The cost effectiveness of 19 stream gages in terms of minimizing the sum of the variances of the errors of estimation of annual mean discharge is explored by means of a sequential-search optimization scheme. The search is conducted over a set of decision variables that describes the number of times that each gaging route is traveled in a year. A gage route is defined as the most expeditious circuit that is made from a field office to visit one or more stream gages and return to the office. The error variance is defined as a function of the frequency of visits to a gage by using optimal estimation theory. Currently a minimum of 12 visits per year is made to any gage. By changing to a six-visit minimum, the same total error variance can be attained for the 19 stations with a budget of 10% less than the current one. Other strategies are also explored. (USGS)

  10. In-Flight Capability for Evaluating Skin-Friction Gages and Other Near-Wall Flow Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Pipitone, Brett J.; Krake, Keith L.; Richwine, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An 8-in.-square boundary-layer sensor panel has been developed for in-flight evaluation of skin-friction gages and other near-wall flow sensors on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture (FTF). Instrumentation on the sensor panel includes a boundary-layer rake, temperature sensors, static pressure taps, and a Preston tube. Space is also available for skin-friction gages or other near-wall flow sensors. Pretest analysis of previous F-15B/FTF flight data has identified flight conditions suitable for evaluating skin-friction gages. At subsonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel closely approximates the two-dimensional (2D), law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layer, and skin-friction estimates from the Preston tube and the rake (using the Clauser plot method) can be used to evaluate skin-friction gages. At supersonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel becomes complex, and other means of measuring skin friction are needed to evaluate the accuracy of new skin-friction gages. Results from the flight test of a new rubber-damped skin-friction gage confirm that at subsonic Mach numbers, nearly 2D, law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers exist over the sensor panel. Sensor panel data also show that this new skin-friction gage prototype does not work in flight.

  11. Numerical investigation of wind-induced airflow and interunit dispersion characteristics in multistory residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Ai, Z T; Mak, C M; Niu, J L

    2013-10-01

    Compared with the buoyancy-dominated upward spread, the interunit dispersion of pollutants in wind-dominated conditions is expected to be more complex and multiple. The aim of this study is to investigate the wind-induced airflow and interunit pollutant dispersion in typical multistory residential buildings using computational fluid dynamics. The mathematical model used is the nonstandard k-ε model incorporated with a two-layer near-wall modification, which is validated against experiments of previous investigators. Using tracer gas technique, the reentry of exhaust air from each distinct unit to other units on the same building, under different practical conditions, is quantified, and then, the possible dispersion routes are revealed. The units on the floor immediately below the source on the windward side, and vertically above it on the leeward side, where the reentry ratios are up to 4.8% and 14.9%, respectively, should be included on the high-infection list. It is also found that the presence of balconies results in a more turbulent near-wall flow field, which in turn significantly changes the reentry characteristics. Comparison of the dispersion characteristics of the slab-like building and the more complicated building in cross (#) floorplan concludes that distinctive infectious control measures should be implemented in these two types of buildings.

  12. Airflow analyses using thermal imaging in Arizona's Meteor Crater as part of METCRAX II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzielanek, A. Martina; Vogt, Roland; Cermak, Jan; Maric, Mateja; Feigenwinter, Iris; Whiteman, C. David; Lehner, Manuela; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Krauß, Matthias G.; Bernhofer, Christian; Pitacco, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In October 2013 the second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) took place at the Barringer Meteorite Crater (aka Meteor Crater) in north central Arizona, USA. Downslope-windstorm-type flows (DWF), the main research objective of METCRAX II, were measured by a comprehensive set of meteorological sensors deployed in and around the crater. During two weeks of METCRAX II five infrared (IR) time lapse cameras (VarioCAM® hr research & VarioCAM® High Definition, InfraTec) were installed at various locations on the crater rim to record high-resolution images of the surface temperatures within the crater from different viewpoints. Changes of surface temperature are indicative of air temperature changes induced by flow dynamics inside the crater, including the DWF. By correlating thermal IR surface temperature data with meteorological sensor data during intensive observational periods the applicability of the IR method of representing flow dynamics can be assessed. We present evaluation results and draw conclusions relative to the application of this method for observing air flow dynamics in the crater. In addition we show the potential of the IR method for METCRAX II in 1) visualizing airflow processes to improve understanding of these flows, and 2) analyzing cold-air flows and cold-air pooling.

  13. Insight into drop runback on hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces by shearing airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2009-11-01

    Drop runback has many diverse applications including airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. In this talk, we use surface science and fluid dynamics principles to explain incipient runback for a drop exposed to shearing airflow. Through experiments with single drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 μl) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface (SHS), wetting parameters such as surface tension, drop shape and contact angle are found to be major controllers of the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. Exponential functions are proposed that relate air velocity to drop base length and projected area. By normalizing the results, the three water systems can be collapsed to a single curve that also explains results from other researchers, vastly increasing predictive power. SHS are seen to shed drops more easily compared to the other surfaces, with evidence that the drops roll along the surface instead of sliding. Using high speed video, oscillating drop shape and variation of contact angles are also analyzed as they change with air and drop speed.

  14. High Temperature - Thin Film Strain Gages Based on Alloys of Indium Tin Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J.; Cooke, James D.; Bienkiewicz, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    A stable, high temperature strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) was demonstrated at temperatures up to 1050 C. These strain sensors exhibited relatively large, negative gage factors at room temperature and their piezoresistive response was both linear and reproducible when strained up to 700 micro-in/in. When cycled between compression and tension, these sensors also showed very little hysteresis, indicating excellent mechanical stability. Thin film strain gages based on selected ITO alloys withstood more than 50,000 strain cycles of +/- 500 micro-in/in during 180 hours of testing in air at 1000 C, with minimal drift at temperature. Drift rates as low as 0.0009%/hr at 1000 C were observed for ITO films that were annealed in nitrogen at 700 C prior to strain testing. These results compare favorably with state of the art 10 micro-m thick PdCr films deposited by NASA, where drift rates of 0.047%/hr at 1050 C were observed. Nitrogen annealing not only produced the lowest drift rates to date, but also produce the largest dynamic gage factors (G = 23.5). These wide bandgap, semiconductor strain sensors also exhibited moderately low temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) at temperatures up to 1100 C, when tested in a nitrogen ambient. A TCR of +230 ppm/C over the temperature range 200 C < T < 500 C and a TCR of -469 ppm/C over the temperature range 600 C < T < 1100 C was observed for the films tested in nitrogen. However, the resistivity behavior changed considerably when the same films were tested in oxygen ambients. A TCR of -1560 ppm/C was obtained over the temperature range of 200 C < T < 1100 C. When similar films were protected with an overcoat or when ITO films were prepared with higher oxygen contents in the plasma, two distinct TCR's were observed. At T < 800 C, a linear TCR of -210 ppm/C was observed and at T > 800 C, a linear TCR of -2170 DDm/C was observed. The combination of a moderately low TCR and a relatively large gage

  15. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    PubMed Central

    Spilak, Michal P.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device. The first part of the experiment investigated the air-flow characteristics in the breathing zone. In the second part, particle removal efficiency was estimated. Measured in the breathing zone, the room air cleaner demonstrated high turbulence intensity, high velocity and turbulence diffusivity level, with a particle reduction rate of 52% compared to baseline after 30 minutes. The TLA device delivered a laminar airflow to the breathing zone with a reduction rate of 99.5%. During a periodical duvet lifting mimicking a subject’s movement in bed, the particle concentration was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between the duvet and the laying body. PMID:27898693

  16. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, David H.; James, R.W.; Gillen, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program in Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia. Data uses and funding sources were identified for 99 continuously operated stream gages in Maryland , Delaware, and the District of Columbia. The current operation of the program requires a budget of $465,260/year. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow records is 11.8%. It is shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 99 sites could be maintained with a budget of $461,000, if resources were redistributed among the gages. (USGS)

  17. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of Inflatable Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammed, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on integrating a large hatch penetration into inflatable modules of various constructions. This paper also compares load predictions with test measurements. The strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric methods and strain gages mounted to select clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain data collected from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurements, even when the material transitioned from the low load to high load strain region of the curve. The full-scale torus design module showed mixed results as well in the lower load and high strain regions. After thorough analysis of photogrammetric measurements, strain gage measurements, and predicted load, the photogrammetric measurements seem to be off by a factor of two.

  18. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of an Inflatable Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Gerard D.; Selig, Molly; Litteken, Doug; Oliveras, Ovidio

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the integration of a large hatch penetration into an inflatable module. This paper also documents the comparison of analytical load predictions with measured results utilizing strain measurement. Strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric measurement and through measurement obtained from strain gages mounted to selected clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain measurement obtained from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurement especially after the fabric has transitioned through the low load/high strain region of the curve. Test results for the full-scale torus showed mixed results in the lower load and thus lower strain regions. Overall strain, and thus load, measured by strain gages and photogrammetry tracked fairly well with analytical predictions. Methods and areas of improvements are discussed.

  19. Combined Load Diagram for a Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    Combined Load Diagrams for Direct-Read, Force, and Moment Balances are discussed in great detail in the paper. The diagrams, if compared with a corresponding combined load plot of a balance calibration data set, may be used to visualize and interpret basic relationships between the applied balance calibration loads and the load components at the forward and aft gage of a strain-age balance. Lines of constant total force and moment are identified in the diagrams. In addition, the lines of pure force and pure moment are highlighted. Finally, lines of constant moment arm are depicted. It is also demonstrated that each quadrant of a Combined Load Diagram has specific regions where the applied total calibration force is at, between, or outside of the balance gage locations. Data from the manual calibration of a Force Balance is used to illustrate the application of a Combined Load Diagram to a realistic data set.

  20. Comparison of a tipping-bucket and electronic weighing precipitation gage for snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Schäppi, B.; Molnar, P.; Burlando, P.; Sevruk, B.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of a heated tipping-bucket and an electronic weighing precipitation gage for snowfall was conducted over a 173 day period in winter 2009 and 2010 at the Zermatt weather station in the Swiss Alps (1638 m a.s.l.). The main advantages of the electronic weighing system were lower evaporation losses and a higher accuracy in assessing the beginning of snowfall events. The tipping-bucket gage measured overall 23.7% less precipitation due to heating-related losses, and showed a mean delay of ˜ 30 min in recording the beginning of the events. The delay can be explained by the time it takes to melt the snow and fill the first tip at the given time sampling resolution (˜ 20 min) and by evaporation losses (˜ 10 min). The delay is important if accurate identification of the beginning of events is required.

  1. The choice of strain gage for use in a large superconducting alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrero, C.; Desogus, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical strain gages are investigated from ambient to liquid-helium temperatures. Experimental determination of the curves of apparent strain vs. temperature were especially considered, because of the role of thermal and mechanical stresses in a superconducting rotor in the cooling and operational phases. Commercially available Karma and modified-Karma alloy foil strain gages were used. These were either applied on the surface of supports of Cu, Al, Incar, AISI 304L, Araldite, and Nb, or embedded inside the specimen. Results are analyzed in terms of 4.2 to 7.2 range, 4.2 to 30 K range, reversal temperature, behavior with strain, and power dissipation effects. Conclusions are formulated with proposed applications to a wide range of technological items which require stress measurement and control in a narrow temperature range near 4.2 K.

  2. High temperature static strain gage development contract, tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented for the first two tasks to develop resistive strain gage systems for use up to 1250 K on blades and vanes in gas turbine engines under tests. The objective of these two tasks was to further improve and evaluate two static strain gage alloys identified as candidates in a previous program. Improved compositions were not found for either alloy. Further efforts on the Fe-11.9Al-10.6Cr weigth percent alloy were discontinued because of time dependent drift problems at 1250 K in air. When produced as a 6.5 micrometer thick sputtered film, the Pd-13Cr weight percent alloys is not sufficiently stable for this use in air at 1250 K and a protective overcoat system will need to be developed.

  3. New approach for calibration and interpretation of IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.

    1986-05-01

    IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters were installed in the Spent Fuel Facility at the Nevada Test Site to measure the change in in-situ stress during the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This paper discusses the results of removing a cylindrical section of rock and gages as a unit through overcoring, and the subsequent post-test calibration of the stressmeters in the laboratory. The estimated in-situ stresses based on post test calibration data are quite consistent with those directly measured in nearby holes. The magnitude of stress change calculated from pre-test calibration data is generally much smaller than that estimated from post test calibration data. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Comparison of Heat Flux Gages for High Enthalpy Flows - NASA Ames and IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehle, Stefan; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg; Fasoulas, Stefanos; Martinez, Edward; Raiche, George

    2016-01-01

    This article is a companion to a paper on heat flux measurements as initiated under a Space Act Agreement in 2011. The current focus of this collaboration between the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of the University of Stuttgart and NASA Ames Research Center is the comparison and refinement of diagnostic measurements. A first experimental campaign to test different heat flux gages in the NASA Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) and the Plasmawindkanaele (PWK) at IRS was established. This paper focuses on the results of the measurements conducted at IRS. The tested gages included a at face and hemispherical probe head, a 4" hemispherical slug calorimeter, a null-point calorimeter from Ames and a null-point calorimeter developed for this purpose at IRS. The Ames null-point calorimeter was unfortunately defective upon arrival. The measured heat fluxes agree fairly well with each other. The reason for discrepancies can be attributed to signal-to-noise levels and the probe geometry.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of the US Geological Survey stream-gaging program in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darling, M.E.; Lamb, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the results of the cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Arkansas. Data uses and funding sources were identified for the daily-discharge stations. All daily-discharge stations were found to be in one or more data use categories, and none were candidates for alternate methods which would result in discontinuation or conversion to a partial record station. The cost for operation of daily-discharge stations and routing costs to partial record stations, crest gages, pollution control stations as well as seven recording ground-water stations was evaluated in the Kalman-Filtering Cost-Effective Resource allocation (K-CERA) analysis. This operation under current practices requires a budget of $292,150. The average standard error of estimate of streamflow record for the Arkansas District was analyzed at 33 percent.

  6. Force instrumentation for cryogenic wind tunnels using one-piece strain-gage balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    The use of cryogenic temperatures in wind tunnels to achieve high Reynolds numbers has imposed a harsh operating environment on the force balance. Laboratory tests were conducted to study the effect cryogenic temperatures have on balance materials, gages, wiring, solder, adhesives, and moisture proofing. Wind tunnel tests were conducted using a one piece three component balance to verify laboratory results. These initial studies indicate that satisfactory force data can be obtained under steady state conditions.

  7. Cost effectiveness of the U.S. Geological Survey's stream-gaging program in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Osen, L.L.; Hughes, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    A minimum budget of $510,000 is required to operate the program; a budget less than this does not permit proper service and maintenance of the gaging stations. At this minimum budget, the theoretical average standard error of instantaneous discharge is 14.4%. The maximum budget analyzed was $650,000 and resulted in an average standard of error of instantaneous discharge of 7.2%. 

  8. 46 CFR 32.20-20 - Liquid level gaging-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gaging-T/ALL. 32.20-20 Section 32.20-20... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-20 Liquid level gaging—T/ALL. On tankships, the construction or conversion of which is started on or after July 1, 1951, a method for determining the level of the liquid...

  9. 46 CFR 32.20-20 - Liquid level gaging-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gaging-T/ALL. 32.20-20 Section 32.20-20... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-20 Liquid level gaging—T/ALL. On tankships, the construction or conversion of which is started on or after July 1, 1951, a method for determining the level of the liquid...

  10. 46 CFR 32.20-20 - Liquid level gaging-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gaging-T/ALL. 32.20-20 Section 32.20-20... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-20 Liquid level gaging—T/ALL. On tankships, the construction or conversion of which is started on or after July 1, 1951, a method for determining the level of the liquid...

  11. 46 CFR 32.20-20 - Liquid level gaging-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gaging-T/ALL. 32.20-20 Section 32.20-20... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-20 Liquid level gaging—T/ALL. On tankships, the construction or conversion of which is started on or after July 1, 1951, a method for determining the level of the liquid...

  12. Microstructure Evolution and Composition Control during the Processing of Thin-gage Metallic Foil (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. Document contains color. 14. ABSTRACT The manufacture of thin-gage superalloy and gamma- titanium -aluminide...pack rolling of plate and sheet. Foils of the superalloy LSHR and the near-gamma titanium aluminide Ti-45.5Al-2Cr-2Nb made by this approach...magnetron sputtering, electron-beam physical vapor deposition, superalloys, gamma- titanium -aluminide alloys 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  13. Modelling the Effect of Tree Foliage on Sprayer Airflow in Orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melese Endalew, Ayenew; Debaer, Christof; Rutten, Nick; Vercammen, Jef; Delele, Mulugeta Admasu; Ramon, Herman; Nicolaï, Bart M.; Verboven, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The effect of tree foliage on sprayer airflow through pear trees in a fruit orchard was studied and modelled in detail. A new three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics model that integrates the 3-D canopy architecture with a local closure model to simulate the effect of the stem and branches and leaves of trees separately on airflow was developed. The model was validated with field observations made in an experimental orchard (pcfruit, Sint-Truiden, Belgium) in spring and summer 2008 and was used to investigate the airflow from three air-assisted orchard sprayers (Condor V, Duoprop and AirJet quatt). Velocity magnitudes were measured before and behind leafless and fully-leafed pear canopies across the row while the operating sprayers are passing along the row, and were compared with the simulations. The simulation results predicted the measured values well with all the local relative errors within 20%. The effect of foliar density on airflow from the three air assisted sprayers was manifested by changing the magnitude and direction of the sprayers' air velocity behind the canopy, especially at the denser regions of the canopy and by changing the pattern of velocity decay horizontally along the jet. The developed methodology will also allow a thorough investigation of atmospheric airflow in canopy structures.

  14. The fluid dynamics of canine olfaction: unique nasal airflow patterns as an explanation of macrosmia

    PubMed Central

    Craven, Brent A.; Paterson, Eric G.; Settles, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    The canine nasal cavity contains hundreds of millions of sensory neurons, located in the olfactory epithelium that lines convoluted nasal turbinates recessed in the rear of the nose. Traditional explanations for canine olfactory acuity, which include large sensory organ size and receptor gene repertoire, overlook the fluid dynamics of odorant transport during sniffing. But odorant transport to the sensory part of the nose is the first critical step in olfaction. Here we report new experimental data on canine sniffing and demonstrate allometric scaling of sniff frequency, inspiratory airflow rate and tidal volume with body mass. Next, a computational fluid dynamics simulation of airflow in an anatomically accurate three-dimensional model of the canine nasal cavity, reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans, reveals that, during sniffing, spatially separate odour samples are acquired by each nostril that may be used for bilateral stimulus intensity comparison and odour source localization. Inside the nose, the computation shows that a unique nasal airflow pattern develops during sniffing, which is optimized for odorant transport to the olfactory part of the nose. These results contrast sharply with nasal airflow in the human. We propose that mammalian olfactory function and acuity may largely depend on odorant transport by nasal airflow patterns resulting from either the presence of a highly developed olfactory recess (in macrosmats such as the canine) or the lack of one (in microsmats including humans). PMID:20007171

  15. The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide is influenced by airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Togores, B; Bosch, M; Agustí, A G

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) is often estimated from measurements of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COexh). This study investigates whether the presence of airflow obstruction significantly alters the relationship between COexh and COHb. Eighty-one regular smokers were prospectively studied and divided in four groups according to the presence and severity of airflow obstruction (none, mild, moderate, severe). In each subject, the authors measured in this order: 1) arterial blood gases; 2) haemoglobin concentration and COHb (by co-oxymetry); 3) COexh; 4) lung volumes; and 5) forced spirometry. The size of the measurement error (deltaCO) was calculated from the difference between COHb and COexh. Neither the smoking history nor COexh were different in the four groups of subjects studied. In contrast, deltaCO increased in parallel to the degree of airflow obstruction. DeltaCO was >2% (a threshold value normally used in the clinic to separate smokers from nonsmokers) only in patients with severe airflow obstruction. A stepwise multivariate analysis showed that both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (percentage reference) and COHb contributed significantly (p<0.0001) to predict deltaCO. This study shows that the estimation of carboxyhaemoglobin from exhaled carbon monoxide measurements can be inaccurate in patients with severe airflow obstruction. In these patients, the direct measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin seems advisable in clinical practice.

  16. The effects of inferior turbinoplasty on nasal airflow during cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Zojaji, R; Keshavarzmanesh, M; Bakhshaee, M; Behdani, R; Esmaeelzadeh, S; MazloumFarsiBaf, M

    2016-04-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most common and challenging cosmetic procedures. One of the complications of rhinoplasty associated with dissatisfaction is nasal obstruction, which is often due to narrowing of the nasal valve area. Application of certain procedures such as turbinoplasty can prevent and correct this problem. This study aim was to investigate the effect of inferior turbinoplasty in reduction of airflow resistance and nasal obstruction. Using active anterior rhinomanometry, nasal airflow was measured in 50 patients who underwent cosmetic rhinoplasty and bilateral turbinoplasty before and 6 months after surgery. None of the patients subjectively complained of nasal obstruction before or after surgery. According to rhinomanometry results, improvement in nasal airflow was seen both in inspiration and expiration, although only expiration was significant (p = 0.034). Airflow changes in males and females and in different age groups was not significant (p > 0.05). It appears that rhinoplasty does not adversely affect nasal airflow when it is accompanied by simple adjuvant procedure inferior turbinoplasty.

  17. Investigation on the nasal airflow characteristics of anterior nasal cavity stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Chen, D.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, J.; Deng, J.

    2016-01-01

    We used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the inspiratory airflow profiles of patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis who underwent curative surgery, by comparing pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics. Twenty patients with severe anterior nasal cavity stenosis, including one case of bilateral stenosis, underwent computed tomography (CT) scans for CFD modelling. The pre- and postoperative airflow characteristics of the nasal cavity were simulated and analyzed. The narrowest area of the nasal cavity in all 20 patients was located within the nasal valve area, and the mean cross-sectional area increased from 0.39 cm2 preoperative to 0.78 cm2 postoperative (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the mean airflow velocity in the nasal valve area decreased from 6.19 m/s to 2.88 m/s (P<0.01). Surgical restoration of the nasal symmetry in the bilateral nasal cavity reduced nasal resistance in the narrow sides from 0.24 Pa.s/mL to 0.11 Pa.s/mL (P<0.01). Numerical simulation of the nasal cavity in patients with anterior nasal cavity stenosis revealed structural changes and the resultant patterns of nasal airflow. Surgery achieved balanced bilateral nasal ventilation and decreased nasal resistance in the narrow region of the nasal cavity. The correction of nasal valve stenosis is not only indispensable for reducing nasal resistance, but also the key to obtain satisfactory curative effect. PMID:27533764

  18. Three-dimensional airflow and sediment transport patterns over barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander B.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2017-02-01

    Airflow dynamics and potential sediment transport were measured and modelled across various barchan dune topographies and incident wind conditions. Modification of near surface flow was recorded simultaneously in three dimensions (3D) using dense arrays of high-resolution 3D ultrasonic anemometers. In situ measurements provided rigorous validation and calibration for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. Measured and modelled results show good agreement between flow velocity, directionality, and turbulence intensity. Modelling of characteristic airflow conditions and surface shear stress beyond the instrument locations, elucidated airflow dynamics across the entire landform surface at an unprecedented level of detail. Emergent turbulent airflow patterns were identified in the form of two counter-rotating vortices that converge at the dune centreline downwind of the dune crest. Integrating a sediment transport function with CFD surface airflow allows for the spatial mapping of flux patterns across the entirety of the dune and interdune surface. On the stoss slope and laterally along the outer barchan arms, there is strong potential sediment flux in response to increased streamwise stress. In lee-side locations, sediment transport remains at 'above threshold' conditions and is redirected in response to complex turbulent vortices identified in the overlying wake zone. The precision of the models allows for the identification of complex flow perturbations and associated surface stresses that prove difficult to measure in the field. CFD in combination with a sediment transport function is demonstrated to be a useful tool in investigating morphodynamics of mobile dune systems.

  19. Tuberculosis associates with both airflow obstruction and low lung function: BOLD results

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F. S.; Coton, Sonia; Kato, Bernet; Tan, Wan C.; Studnicka, Michael; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn; Mannino, David; Bateman, Eric D.; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In small studies and cases series, a history of tuberculosis has been associated with both airflow obstruction, which is characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and restrictive patterns on spirometry. Objective To assess the association between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric abnormalities in adults. Methods The study was performed in adults, aged 40 and above, who took part in the multicentre cross-sectional, general population-based, Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on a history of tuberculosis. The associations between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction were assessed within each participating centre, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. These estimates were stratified by high and low/middle income countries, according to gross national income. Results A self-reported history of tuberculosis was associated with airflow obstruction (adjusted odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval 1.83-3.42) and spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio = 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.42-3.19). Conclusion A history of tuberculosis was associated with both airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction, and should be considered as a potentially important cause of obstructive disease and low lung function, particularly where tuberculosis is common. PMID:26113680

  20. Computer simulation of airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, B.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1995-12-01

    Knowledge of airflow patterns in the human lung is important for an analysis of lung diseases and drug delivery of aerosolized medicine for medical treatment. However, very little systematic information is available on the pattern of airflow in the lung and on how this pattern affects the deposition of toxicants in the lung, and the efficacy of aerosol drug therapy. Most previous studies have only considered the airflow through a single bifurcating airway. However, the flow in a network of more than one bifurcation is more complicated due to the effect of interrelated lung generations. Because of the variation of airway geometry and flow condition from generation to generation, a single bifurcating airway cannot be taken as a representative for the others in different generations. The flow in the network varies significantly with airway generations because of a redistribution of axial momentum by the secondary flow motions. The influence of the redistribution of flow is expected in every generation. Therefore, a systematic information of the airflow through a multi-generation tracheobronchial conducting airway is needed, and it becomes the purpose of this study. This study has provided information on airflow in a lung model which is necessary to the study of the deposition of toxicants and therapeutic aerosols.

  1. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Frank, D O; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G J M; Rhee, J S

    2013-10-18

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning.

  2. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to examine airflow characteristics in Empty Nose Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Tim; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Thamboo, Andrew; Velasquez, Nathalia; Nayak, Jayakar V.; Sellier, Mathieu; Moin, Parviz

    2016-11-01

    The enigmatic disorder, empty nose syndrome (ENS), presents with a complex subjective symptom profile despite objectively patent nasal airways, and recent reports suggest that surgical augmentation of the nasal airway can improve quality of life and ENS-related complaints. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed both prior to, and following, inferior turbinate augmentation to model the resultant changes in airflow patterns and better understand the pathophysiology of ENS. An ENS patient with marked reduction in ENS symptoms following turbinate augmentation was identified, and pre- and post-operative CT imaging was collected. A Finite element framework with the variational multiscale method (Esmaily-Moghadam, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 2015) was used to compute the airflow, temperature, and moisture transport through the nasal cavity. Comparison of the CFD results following corrective surgery showed higher levels of airflow turbulence. Augmentation produced 50%, 25%, and 25% increases in root mean square pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux respectively. These results provide insight into the changes in nasal airflow characteristics attainable through surgical augmentation, and by extension, how nasal airflow patterns may be distorted in the 'overly patent' airway of ENS patients. Supported by Stanford University CTR and Fulbright New Zealand.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of the streamflow-gaging program in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druse, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the results of a cost-effectiveness study of the streamflow-gaging program in Wyoming. Regression analysis or hydrologic flow-routing techniques were considered for 24 combinations of stations from a 139-station network operated in 1984 to investigate suitability of techniques for simulating streamflow records. Only one station was determined to have sufficient accuracy in the regression analysis to consider discontinuance of the gage. The evaluation of the gaging-station network, which included the use of associated uncertainty in streamflow records, is limited to the nonwinter operation of the 47 stations operated by the Riverton Field Office of the U.S. Geological Survey. The current (1987) travel routes and measurement frequencies require a budget of $264,000 and result in an average standard error in streamflow records of 13.2%. Changes in routes and station visits using the same budget, could optimally reduce the standard error by 1.6%. Budgets evaluated ranged from $235,000 to $400,000. A $235,000 budget increased the optimal average standard error/station from 11.6 to 15.5%, and a $400,000 budget could reduce it to 6.6%. For all budgets considered, lost record accounts for about 40% of the average standard error. (USGS)

  4. Overcoats for the Improved Performance of PdCr High Temperature Thin Film Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J.; Dyer, S. E.; Cooke, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Overcoat protection schemes for thin film devices have typically focused on inhibiting the growth of native oxides formed on the sensor surface, rather than on improving the passivating nature of these native oxides. Here, thin sputtered Cr overcoats and heat treatments in varying oxygen partial pressures enhanced the passivating nature of native Cr203 films formed on PdCr thin film strain gages. Results of strain tests using sensors protected using this approach are presented and the implications are discussed. PdCr gages with sputtered Cr overcoats withstood 12,000 dynamic strain cycles of 1100 micro-epsilon during 100 hours of testing at a temperature of 1000 C in air. Gage factors of 1.3 with drift rates as low as 0.1 Omega/hr were achieved for devices having a nominal resistance of approximately 100 Omega's. TCR's ranging from +550 ppm/C to +798 ppm/C were realized depending on the overcoat and thermal history. Possible mechanisms for an anomaly in the electrical characteristics of these films at 800 C and improvements in stability due to the use of overcoats are presented.

  5. Fiber-Optic Strain-Gage Tank Level Measurement System for Cryogenic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mitchell, Mark; Langford, Lester

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of tank level, particularly for cryogenic propellants, has proven to be a difficult problem. Current methods based on differential pressure, capacitance sensors, temperature sensors, etc.; do not provide sufficiently accurate or robust measurements, especially at run time. These methods are designed to measure tank-level, but when the fluids are in supercritical state, the liquid-gas interface disappears. Furthermore, there is a need for a non-intrusive measurement system; that is, the sensors should not require tank modifications and/or disturb the fluids. This paper describes a simple, but effective method to determine propellant mass by measuring very small deformations of the structure supporting the tank. Results of a laboratory study to validate the method, and experimental data from a deployed system are presented. A comparison with an existing differential pressure sensor shows that the strain gage system provides a much better quality signal across all regimes during an engine test. Experimental results also show that the use of fiber optic strain gages (FOSG) over classic foil strain gages extends the operation time (before the system becomes uncalibrated), and increases accuracy. Finally, a procedure is defined whereby measurements from the FOSG mounted on the tank supporting structure are compensated using measurements of a FOSG mounted on a reference plate and temperature measurements of the structure. Results describing the performance of a deployed system that measures tank level during propulsion tests are included.

  6. Comparison of Iterative and Non-Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Load Calculation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of iterative and non-iterative strain-gage balance load calculation methods was compared using data from the calibration of a force balance. Two iterative and one non-iterative method were investigated. In addition, transformations were applied to balance loads in order to process the calibration data in both direct read and force balance format. NASA's regression model optimization tool BALFIT was used to generate optimized regression models of the calibration data for each of the three load calculation methods. This approach made sure that the selected regression models met strict statistical quality requirements. The comparison of the standard deviation of the load residuals showed that the first iterative method may be applied to data in both the direct read and force balance format. The second iterative method, on the other hand, implicitly assumes that the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. Therefore, the second iterative method only works if the given balance data is processed in force balance format. The calibration data set was also processed using the non-iterative method. Standard deviations of the load residuals for the three load calculation methods were compared. Overall, the standard deviations show very good agreement. The load prediction accuracies of the three methods appear to be compatible as long as regression models used to analyze the calibration data meet strict statistical quality requirements. Recent improvements of the regression model optimization tool BALFIT are also discussed in the paper.

  7. Map showing major drainage basins and stream-gaging stations in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rader, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This map report shows the 27 major drainage basins, locations of the 71 permanent stream- gaging stations, and the primary rivers, lakes, and reservoirs of Massachusetts. These features are presented at a scale of 1:400,000 (map size about 36 by 24 inches). The map also lists uses of streamflow data. The map was produced from a digital data base using a Geographic Information System (GIS). It shows information about the stream-gaging stations that can be accessed from the digital data base--stream-gaging station number and name, telemetry code, and cooperating agency. By use of GIS and the major basin divides from the data base, additional data bases could be grouped to produce other hydrologic planning maps. The drainage divides were digitized from paper maps into the GIS at a scale of 1:24,000. The map was compiled from original maps that was produced by the USGS in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environment Management.

  8. Flame Spray Strain Gages with Improved Durability and Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave (Technical Monitor); Gregory, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this APP research program was to improve the bond coats used in the fabrication of flame sprayed instrumentation. Typically. a bond coat is applied to a superalloy surface prior to the application of a thin dielectric coating onto which instrumentation is placed. After affixing the instrumentation, a much thicker ceramic topcoat is typically applied to protect the instrumentation from harsh environments. The fatigue life of NiCoCrAlY coated superalloys was extended beyond current state-of-the-art by relatively simple and cost effective means. Heat treatment in reduced oxygen partial pressures at 1750 to 1800 F effectively doubled the fatigue life of NiCoCrAlY coated substrates relative to as-sprayed substrates and when used in conjunction with platinum diffusion barriers yielded a four fold increase in the fatigue life of NiCoCrAlY coated substrates. Further improvements in the fatigue life of thermally sprayed coatings were made by employing intermediate coatings, which minimized thermal expansion differences between the bond coat and top coat. Combinatorial chemistry experiments yielded an optimum composition for an intermediate TCE matching coating that showed considerable promise in extending the fatigue life of thermal spray instrumentation. The intermediate coating had two functions: to reduce the surface roughness of the peaks and valleys associated with the as-sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coat, and to produce a thin layer of a mixture of Al2O3 and NiCoCrAlY that exhibited an intermediate TCE. The optimal composition of the intermediate coating consisted of 60 wt% Al2O3 and 40 wt% NiCoCrAlY, as determined by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDS). Intermediate coatings having this composition were prepared by physical vapor deposition and the resulting coating systems are being evaluated in our test facility.

  9. Testing experience with unheated stain-gage balances in the NTF. [National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Peter F.; Ferris, Alice T.

    1986-01-01

    A series of cryogenic (cryo) cycles was conducted in the cryo chamber at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) in order to identify the cause of apparent strain shifts in axial force with temperature for the Pathfinder I model and to minimize their effects. The results of the investigation indicated that the major cause of axial force end point shifts and thermal hysteresis loops was the thickness of the Teflon insulation on the instrumentation wires crossing the balance. By reducing the thickness of the insulation and the total number and size of the wires, apparent strain values were achieved for the model with instrumentation wires which were nearly identical to those for the model without wires. Because of the special design features used, the balance output was very accurate and repeatable over the entire NTF temperature range, even with balance thermal gradients as large as 64 F and transient conditions as large as 3 F/minute.

  10. Competition between pressure effects and airflow influence for the performance of plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegseis, J.; Barckmann, K.; Grundmann, S.; Frey, J.; Tropea, C.

    2014-05-15

    The present work addresses the combined influence of pressure variations and different airflow velocities on the discharge intensity of plasma actuators. Power consumption, plasma length, and discharge capacitance were investigated systematically for varying pressure levels (p = 0.1–1 bar) and airflow velocities (U{sub ∞}=0−100 m/s) to characterize and quantify the favorable and adverse effects on the discharge intensity. In accordance with previous reports, an increasing plasma actuator discharge intensity is observed for decreasing pressure levels. At constant pressure levels, an adverse airflow influence on the electric actuator performance is demonstrated. Despite the improved discharge intensity at lower pressure levels, the seemingly improved performance of the plasma actuators is accompanied with a more pronounced drop of the relative performance. These findings demonstrate the dependency of the (kinematic and thermodynamic) environmental conditions on the electric performance of plasma actuators, which in turn affects the control authority of plasma actuators for flow control applications.

  11. Airflow resistance measurement for a layer of granular material based on the Helmholtz resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Nishizu, Takahisa; Tomatsu, Eiji; Katsuno, Nakako

    2017-04-01

    A Helmholtz resonance technique was employed to predict the airflow resistance of layers of granular materials, namely glass beads, brown rice, soybean, adzuki beans, and corn kernels. Each granular sample was placed on the tube mouth of an open-type Helmholtz resonator. The resonant frequency was determined by measuring the electric impedance of a loudspeaker that was installed in the resonator and driven by a chirp signal linearly sweeping from 90 to 220 Hz for 6.0 s. For a changing sample layer thickness, the resonant frequency was measured, and the specific airflow resistance was calculated by measuring the static pressure drop required for N2 gas to flow through the layer at a constant velocity of 0.042 m/s. When the thickness of the layer was fixed, the Helmholtz resonant frequency decreased as the specific airflow resistance increased, regardless of the kind of granular material.

  12. Microphonic versus end-tidal carbon dioxide nasal airflow detection in neonates with apnea.

    PubMed

    Toubas, P L; Duke, J C; Sekar, K C; McCaffree, M A

    1990-12-01

    Impedance pneumography in combination with expired CO2 monitoring are commonly used techniques for detecting central and obstructive apnea in infants. In this investigation an American Telephone and Telegraph StarSet-1 3000-ohm self-actuating microphone connected to the end of an infant cannula was used to monitor neonatal nasal airflow to detect breaths and apnea. The microphone was placed in a soundproof container to eliminate environmental sound artifacts. Analyses of 100 breaths from five patient samples during active and quiet sleep showed that there was no significant difference between microphone and expired CO2 recording of respiration. The techniques were 98% and 96% sensitive, respectively. Microphonic detection of nasal airflow identified 27 of the 32 episodes of upper airway obstruction (84.2%) registered by end-tidal CO2 recording. Inspiratory and expiratory events could also be well documented. Microphonic recording of nasal airflow is a reliable and inexpensive technique to detect apnea.

  13. A New Load Residual Threshold Definition for the Evaluation of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2016-01-01

    A new definition of a threshold for the detection of load residual outliers of wind tunnel strain-gage balance data was developed. The new threshold is defined as the product between the inverse of the absolute value of the primary gage sensitivity and an empirical limit of the electrical outputs of a strain{gage. The empirical limit of the outputs is either 2.5 microV/V for balance calibration or check load residuals. A reduced limit of 0.5 microV/V is recommended for the evaluation of differences between repeat load points because, by design, the calculation of these differences removes errors in the residuals that are associated with the regression analysis of the data itself. The definition of the new threshold and different methods for the determination of the primary gage sensitivity are discussed. In addition, calibration data of a six-component force balance and a five-component semi-span balance are used to illustrate the application of the proposed new threshold definition to different types of strain{gage balances. During the discussion of the force balance example it is also explained how the estimated maximum expected output of a balance gage can be used to better understand results of the application of the new threshold definition.

  14. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  15. What is normal nasal airflow? A computational study of 22 healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nasal airflow is essential for functioning of the human nose. Given individual variation in nasal anatomy, there is yet no consensus what constitutes normal nasal airflow patterns. We attempt to obtain such information that is essential to differentiate disease-related variations. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated nasal airflow in 22 healthy subjects during resting breathing. Streamline patterns, airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, wall stress, turbulence, and vortical flow characteristics under quasi-steady state were analyzed. Patency ratings, acoustically measured minimum cross-sectional area (MCA), and rhinomanometric nasal resistance (NR) were examined for potential correlations with morphological and airflow-related variables. Results Common features across subjects included: >50% total pressure-drop reached near the inferior turbinate head; wall shear stress, NR, turbulence energy, and vorticity were lower in the turbinate than in the nasal valve region. However, location of the major flow path and coronal velocity distributions varied greatly across individuals. Surprisingly, on average, more flow passed through the middle than the inferior meatus and correlated with better patency ratings (r=-0.65, p<0.01). This middle flow percentage combined with peak post-vestibule nasal heat loss and MCA accounted for >70% of the variance in subjective patency ratings and predicted patency categories with 86% success. Nasal index correlated with forming of the anterior dorsal vortex. Expected for resting breathing, the functional impact for local and total turbulence, vorticity, and helicity was limited. As validation, rhinomanometric NR significantly correlated with CFD simulations (r=0.53, p<0.01). Conclusion Significant variations of nasal airflow found among healthy subjects; Key features may have clinically relevant applications. PMID:24664528

  16. How much does nasal cavity morphology matter? Patterns and rates of olfactory airflow in phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Eiting, Thomas P.; Perot, J. Blair; Dumont, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of the nasal cavity in mammals with a good sense of smell includes features that are thought to improve olfactory airflow, such as a dorsal conduit that delivers odours quickly to the olfactory mucosa, an enlarged olfactory recess at the back of the airway, and a clear separation of the olfactory and respiratory regions of the nose. The link between these features and having a good sense of smell has been established by functional examinations of a handful of distantly related mammalian species. In this paper, we provide the first detailed examination of olfactory airflow in a group of closely related species that nevertheless vary in their sense of smell. We study six species of phyllostomid bats that have different airway morphologies and foraging ecologies, which have been linked to differences in olfactory ability or reliance. We hypothesize that differences in morphology correlate with differences in the patterns and rates of airflow, which in turn are consistent with dietary differences. To compare species, we make qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the patterns and rates of airflow through the olfactory region during both inhalation and exhalation across the six species. Contrary to our expectations, we find no clear differences among species in either the patterns of airflow through the airway or in rates of flow through the olfactory region. By and large, olfactory airflow seems to be conserved across species, suggesting that morphological differences appear to be driven by other mechanical demands on the snout, such as breathing and feeding. Olfactory ability may depend on other aspects of the system, such as the neurobiological processing of odours that work within the existing morphology imposed by other functional demands on the nasal cavity. PMID:25520358

  17. Aerodynamic-wave break-up of liquid sheets in swirling airflows and combustor modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental mean drop diameter data were obtained for the atomization of liquid sheets injected axially downstream in high velocity swirling and nonswirling airflow. Conventional simplex pressure atomizing fuel nozzles and splash type fuel injectors were studied under simulated combustor inlet airflow conditions. A general empirical expression relating recirprocal mean drop diameter to airstream mass velocity was obtained and is presented. The finest degree of atomization, i.e., the highest value of the coefficient C, was obtained with swirl can combustor modules (C = 15) as compared with pressure atomizing nozzles (C = 12).

  18. A Comparative Study of Airflow and Odorant Deposition in the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Joseph; Rumple, Christopher; Ranslow, Allison; Quigley, Andrew; Pang, Benison; Neuberger, Thomas; Krane, Michael; van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The complex structure of the mammalian nasal cavity provides a tortuous airflow path and a large surface area for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. Due to the small and contorted structure of the nasal turbinals, nasal anatomy and function remains poorly understood in most mammals. Here, we utilize high-resolution MRI scans to reconstruct anatomically-accurate models of the mammalian nasal cavity. These data are used to compare the form and function of the mammalian nose. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of nasal airflow and odorant deposition are presented and used to compare olfactory function across species (primate, rodent, canine, feline, ungulate).

  19. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.

  20. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune’s symmetry axis — that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected. PMID:26572966

  1. Two-dimensional airflow modeling underpredicts the wind velocity over dunes.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Britt; Strobl, Severin; Parteli, Eric J R; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the average turbulent wind field over a barchan dune by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. We find that the fractional speed-up ratio of the wind velocity over the three-dimensional barchan shape differs from the one obtained from two-dimensional calculations of the airflow over the longitudinal cut along the dune's symmetry axis - that is, over the equivalent transverse dune of same size. This finding suggests that the modeling of the airflow over the central slice of barchan dunes is insufficient for the purpose of the quantitative description of barchan dune dynamics as three-dimensional flow effects cannot be neglected.

  2. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  3. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  4. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  6. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  7. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  8. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  9. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  10. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  11. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  12. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.157 Airflow resistance... feet) per minute. (c) The exhalation resistance to a flow of air at a rate of 85 liters (3 cubic...

  13. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.156 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall...

  14. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  15. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  16. The study of droplet-laden turbulent air-flow over waved water surface by direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhinin, Oleg A.; Troitskaya, Yuliya I.; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S.

    2016-04-01

    The detailed knowledge of the interaction of wind with surface water waves is necessary for correct parameterization of turbulent exchange at the air-sea interface in prognostic models. At sufficiently strong winds, sea-spray-generated droplets interfere with the wind-waves interaction. The results of field experiments and laboratory measurements (Andreas et al., JGR 2010) show that mass fraction of air-borne spume water droplets increases with the wind speed and their impact on the carrier air-flow may become significant. Phenomenological models of droplet-laden marine atmospheric boundary layer (Kudryavtsev & Makin, Bound.-Layer Met. 2011) predict that droplets significantly increase the wind velocity and suppress the turbulent air stress. The results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent particle-laden Couette flow over a flat surface show that inertial particles may significantly reduce the carrier flow vertical momentum flux (Richter & Sullivan, GRL 2013). The results also show that in the range of droplet sizes typically found near the air-sea interface, particle inertial effects are significant and dominate any particle-induced stratification effects. However, so far there has been no attempt to perform DNS of a droplet-laden air-flow over waved water surface. In this report, we present results of DNS of droplet-laden, turbulent Couette air-flow over waved water surface. The carrier, turbulent Couette-flow configuration in DNS is similar to that used in previous numerical studies (Sullivan et al., JFM 2000, Shen et al., JFM 2010, Druzhinin et al., JGR 2012). Discrete droplets are considered as non-deformable solid spheres and tracked in a Lagrangian framework, and their impact on the carrier flow is modeled with the use of a point-force approximation. The droplets parameters in DNS are matched to the typical known spume-droplets parameters in laboratory and field experiments. The DNS results show that both gravitational settling of droplets and

  17. Response of cricket and spider motion-sensing hairs to airflow pulsations

    PubMed Central

    Kant, R.; Humphrey, J. A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions are presented for the angular displacement, velocity and acceleration of motion-sensing filiform hairs exposed to airflow pulsations of short time duration. The specific situations of interest correspond to a spider intentionally moving towards a cricket, or an insect unintentionally moving towards or flying past a spider. The trichobothria of the spider Cupiennius salei and the cercal hairs of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are explored. Guided by earlier work, the spatial characteristics of the velocity field due to a flow pulsation are approximated by the local incompressible flow field due to a moving sphere. This spatial field is everywhere modulated in time by a Gaussian function represented by the summation of an infinite Fourier series, thus allowing an exploration of the spectral dependence of hair motion. Owing to their smaller total inertia, torsional restoring constant and total damping constant, short hairs are found to be significantly more responsive than long hairs to a flow pulsation. It is also found that the spider trichobothria are underdamped, while the cercal hairs of the cricket are overdamped. As a consequence, the spider hairs are more responsive to sudden air motions. Analysis shows that while two spiders of different characteristic sizes and lunge velocities can generate pulsations with comparable energy content, the associated velocity fields display different patterns of spatial decay with distance from the pulsation source. As a consequence, a small spider lunging at a high velocity generates a smaller telltale far-field velocity signal than a larger spider lunging at a lower velocity. The results obtained are in broad agreement with several of the observations and conclusions derived from combined flow and behavioural experiments performed by Casas et al. for running spiders, and by Dangles et al. for spiders and a physical model of spiders lunging at crickets. PMID:19324674

  18. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of airflow orientation with respect to strip electrode on ozone production of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, J.; Pekárek, S.; Soukup, I.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effect of airflow orientation with respect to the strip active electrode on concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide produced in a planar generator based on the surface dielectric barrier discharge. The orientation of the airflow was tested in parallel and perpendicular with respect to the strips. It was found that in the investigated range of average discharge power, the ozone concentration increases approximately by 25% when airflow was oriented in parallel with respect to the strips in comparison with perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Similarly the increase of nitrogen dioxide concentration was observed for parallel orientation of the airflow with respect to the strips in comparison with the perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Within the range of wavelengths from 250 to 1100 nm, the changes of intensities of spectral lines associated with airflow orientation have been observed. A 3D numerical model describing ion trajectories and airflow patterns have also been developed.

  19. Experimental and numerical study on effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models based on the parameters measured in the experiments performed in a wind tunnel. The validated CFD model by experimental data is used to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 x 10(4) to 5.43 x 10(4) (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under the conditions that the liquid temperature is lower than the air temperature. Although there are differences of mass transfer coefficients between these two methods, the mass transfer coefficients determined by these two methods are significantly related.

  20. Visualization by discharge illumination technique and modification by plasma actuator of rarefied Mach 2 airflow around a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, L.; Sellam, M.; Barbosa, E.; Depussay, E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of plasma actuators for flow control has received considerable attention in recent years. This kind of device seems to be an appropriate means of raising abilities in flow control thanks to total electric control, no moving parts and a fast response time. The experimental work presented here shows, firstly, the non-intrusive character of the visualization of the density field of an airflow around a cylinder obtained using a plasma luminescence technique. Experiments are made in a continuous supersonic wind tunnel. The static pressure in the flow is 8 Pa, the mean free path is about 0.3 mm and the airflow velocity is 510 m s-1. Pressure measurements obtained by means of glass Pitot tube without the visualization discharge are proposed. Measured and simulated pressure profiles are in good agreement in the region near the cylinder. There is good correlation between numerical simulations of the supersonic flow field, analytical model predictions and experimental flow visualizations obtained by a plasma luminescence technique. Consequently, we show that the plasma luminescence technique is non-intrusive. Secondly, the effect of a dc discharge on a supersonic rarefied air flow around a cylinder is studied. An electrode is flush mounted on the cylinder. Stagnation pressure profiles are examined for different electrode positions on the cylinder. A shock wave modification depending on the electrode location is observed. The discharge placed at the upstream stagnation point induces an upstream shift of the bow shock, whereas a modification of the shock wave shape is observed when it is placed at 45° or 90°.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of impacts of an obstruction on airflow in underground mines

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L.; Goodman, G.; Martikainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous airflow monitoring can improve the safety of the underground work force by ensuring the uninterrupted and controlled distribution of mine ventilation to all working areas. Air velocity measurements vary significantly and can change rapidly depending on the exact measurement location and, in particular, due to the presence of obstructions in the air stream. Air velocity must be measured at locations away from obstructions to avoid the vortices and eddies that can produce inaccurate readings. Further, an uninterrupted measurement path cannot always be guaranteed when using continuous airflow monitors due to the presence of nearby equipment, personnel, roof falls and rib rolls. Effective use of these devices requires selection of a minimum distance from an obstacle, such that an air velocity measurement can be made but not affected by the presence of that obstacle. This paper investigates the impacts of an obstruction on the behavior of downstream airflow using a numerical CFD model calibrated with experimental test results from underground testing. Factors including entry size, obstruction size and the inlet or incident velocity are examined for their effects on the distributions of airflow around an obstruction. A relationship is developed between the minimum measurement distance and the hydraulic diameters of the entry and the obstruction. A final analysis considers the impacts of continuous monitor location on the accuracy of velocity measurements and on the application of minimum measurement distance guidelines. PMID:26388684

  2. Detection of Mouse Cough Based on Sound Monitoring and Respiratory Airflow Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyan; Lai, Kefang; Lomask, Joseph Mark; Jiang, Bert; Zhong, Nanshan

    2013-01-01

    Detection for cough in mice has never yielded clearly audible sounds, so there is still a great deal of debates as to whether mice can cough in response to tussive stimuli. Here we introduce an approach for detection of mouse cough based on sound monitoring and airflow signals. 40 Female BALB/c mice were pretreated with normal saline, codeine, capasazepine or desensitized with capsaicin. Single mouse was put in a plethysmograph, exposed to aerosolized 100 µmol/L capsaicin for 3 min, followed by continuous observation for 3 min. Airflow signals of total 6 min were recorded and analyzed to detect coughs. Simultaneously, mouse cough sounds were sensed by a mini-microphone, monitored manually by an operator. When manual and automatic detection coincided, the cough was positively identified. Sound and sound waveforms were also recorded and filtered for further analysis. Body movements were observed by operator. Manual versus automated counts were compared. Seven types of airflow signals were identified by integrating manual and automated monitoring. Observation of mouse movements and analysis of sound waveforms alone did not produce meaningful data. Mouse cough numbers decreased significantly after all above drugs treatment. The Bland-Altman and consistency analysis between automatic and manual counts was 0.968 and 0.956. The study suggests that the mouse is able to present with cough, which could be detected by sound monitoring and respiratory airflow waveform changes. PMID:23555643

  3. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of respiratory airflow in human nasal cavity and its characteristic dimension study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Yu, Chi

    2008-04-01

    To study the airflow distribution in human nasal cavity during respiration and the characteristic parameters of nasal structure, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate representations of 30 adult nasal cavity models were reconstructed based on processed tomography images collected from normal people. The airflow fields in nasal cavities were simulated by fluid dynamics with finite element software ANSYS. The results showed that the difference of human nasal cavity structure led to different airflow distribution in the nasal cavities and variation of the main airstream passing through the common nasal meatus. The nasal resistance in the regions of nasal valve and nasal vestibule accounted for more than half of the overall resistance. The characteristic model of nasal cavity was extracted on the basis of characteristic points and dimensions deduced from the original models. It showed that either the geometric structure or the airflow field of the two kinds of models was similar. The characteristic dimensions were the characteristic parameters of nasal cavity that could properly represent the original model in model studies on nasal cavity.

  4. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  5. Computational and experimental study of airflow around a fan powered UVGI lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Tavakoli, Behtash; Glauser, Mark; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2011-11-01

    The quality of indoor air environment is very important for improving the health of occupants and reducing personal exposure to hazardous pollutants. An effective way of controlling air quality is by eliminating the airborne bacteria and viruses or by reducing their emissions. Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) lamps can effectively reduce these bio-contaminants in an indoor environment, but the efficiency of these systems depends on airflow in and around the device. UVGI lamps would not be as effective in stagnant environments as they would be when the moving air brings the bio-contaminant in their irradiation region. Introducing a fan into the UVGI system would augment the efficiency of the system's kill rate. Airflows in ventilated spaces are quite complex due to the vast range of length and velocity scales. The purpose of this research is to study these complex airflows using CFD techniques and validate computational model with airflow measurements around the device using Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The experimental results including mean velocities, length scales and RMS values of fluctuating velocities are used in the CFD validation. Comparison of these data at different locations around the device with the CFD model predictions are performed and good agreement was observed.

  6. Citric acid cough threshold and airway responsiveness in asthmatic patients and smokers with chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Auffarth, B; de Monchy, J G; van der Mark, T W; Postma, D S; Koëter, G H

    1991-01-01

    The relation between citric acid cough threshold and airway hyperresponsiveness was investigated in 11 non-smoking patients with allergic asthma (mean FEV1 94% predicted) and 25 non-atopic smokers with chronic airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 65% predicted). Cough threshold was determined on two occasions by administering doubling concentrations of citric acid. Seven of the 11 asthmatic subjects and 14 of 25 smokers with chronic airflow obstruction had a positive cough threshold on both test days. Cough threshold measurements were reproducible in both groups (standard deviation of duplicate measurements 1.2 doubling concentrations in asthma, 1.1 doubling concentrations in chronic airflow obstruction). Citric acid provocation did not cause bronchial obstruction in most patients, though four patients had a fall in FEV1 of more than 20% for a short time on one occasion only. No significant difference in cough threshold was found between the two patient groups despite differences in baseline FEV1 values. There was no significant correlation between cough threshold and the provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) histamine in either group. Thus sensory nerves can be activated with a tussive agent in patients with asthma and chronic airflow obstruction without causing bronchial smooth muscle contraction. PMID:1948792

  7. Airflow produced by dielectric barrier discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Kazuo; Tanaka, Motofumi; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi

    2007-09-15

    We observed a novel type of airflow produced by an atmospheric rf discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes. The electrodes were a bare metal rod 1 mm in diameter and a glass-coated metal rod 3.2 mm in diameter. The thrust, measured by a pendulum, increased with discharge input power.

  8. Turbine Air-Flow Test Rig CFD Results for Test Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Josh

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Turbine Air-Flow Test (TAFT) rig computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for test matrix. The topics include: 1) TAFT Background; 2) Design Point CFD; 3) TAFT Test Plan and Test Matrix; and 4) CFD of Test Points. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  9. Test-Retest Reliability of Respiratory Resistance Measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallena, Sally K.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Johnson, Arthur T.; Vossoughi, Jafar; Tian, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine reliability of the airflow perturbation device (APD) to measure respiratory resistance within and across sessions during resting tidal (RTB) and postexercise breathing in healthy athletes, and during RTB across trials within a session in athletes with paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, AIRFLOW PRODUCTS AFP30

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AFP30 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Airflow Products. The pressure drop across the filter was 62 Pa clean and 247 Pa dust loaded. The filtration effici...

  11. Cooling tower irrigator layout with allowances for non-uniformity of the airflow velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnov, A. S.; Ryabushenko, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article covers the results of analysis of aerodynamic processes in the cooling tower irrigator and provides the approaches to optimal layout of preformed packing blocks (of the irrigator) developed based on these results. The analysis of the airflow velocity field in the cooling towers shows that the irrigation space can be broken down into the following zones: the peripheral zone of the cooling tower near the airblast windows, the zone near the cooling tower center, and the intermediate zone. Furthermore, the highest level of nonuniformity of the airflow velocity field in cooling towers is in the zone adjoining the tower's airblast windows. The proposed concept of the cooling tower irrigator's layout is made with allowances for the airflow velocity field characteristics in the cross-section of the irrigation space of the cooling tower. Based on this concept, we suggest that higher irrigator blocks should be placed in the zone of increased airflow consumption, which provides the possibility to enhance the hydraulic resistance and, respectively, decrease the gas flow velocity as well as to boost the efficiency of chilling the circulating water in the cooling tower. For this purpose, additional irrigator blocks can be of the same design as the main irrigator. As an option, it is possible to use blocks of the geometry and design other than the main irrigator block in the cooling tower.

  12. Airflow produced by dielectric barrier discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuo; Tanaka, Motofumi; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi

    2007-09-01

    We observed a novel type of airflow produced by an atmospheric rf discharge between asymmetric parallel rod electrodes. The electrodes were a bare metal rod 1 mm in diameter and a glass-coated metal rod 3.2 mm in diameter. The thrust, measured by a pendulum, increased with discharge input power.

  13. Discharge, gage height, and elevation of 100-year floods in the Hudson River basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    The flood discharge that may be expected to be equaled or exceeded on the average of once in 100 years (100-year flood) was computed by the log-Pearson Type-III frequency relation for 72 stations in the Hudson River basin. These discharges and, where available, their corresponding gage height and elevation above mean sea level are presented in tabular form. A short explanation of computation methods is included. The data are to be used as part of a federally funded study of the water resources and related land resources of the Hudson River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Dynamic Calibrator for Airblast Pressure Gages to 10,000 PSI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-27

    program was to review the KALS ph13 entire spectrum of pressure gage calibration system concepts, and to reoommend a calibration system for DNU field...system bandwidth of 300 kHz (_3 dS point) results in a peak overpressure measurement error of 1.2% vwth a 10,000 pai • 8 -~~ -- - shook at 1 kiloton...limitation in the driver and a 150 psi limit In the driven tube. These upper limits were chosen 14 1ý t ’. 0 0 8 0008 0~ &a J4’ 0_ 0 * 0 G 0 Q 4a In * - ~ 15

  15. Use of photostress and strain gages to analyze behavior of weldments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambrell, S. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Tensile and pure bending tests were conducted on specimens having welded joints made from 2219-T87 aluminum alloy and 2319 filler. Data were collected using photoelastic coatings and strain gages. Stress-strain relationships and contraction ratios were determined at several points in a grid covering the weld material and heat affected zone. Material behavior was nonlinear and nonuniform at all points in the grid and contraction ratios did not conform to those predicted by Chakrabarty's plasticity theory. Yielding in joints made using four new welding procedures was examined. None of the new procedures produced more uniform yielding in the joint.

  16. Data uses and funding of the streamflow-gaging program in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This project documents the uses, funding, and availability of the streamflow data currently collected in North Dakota. Presently (1984), 94 streamflow-gaging stations are operated in North Dakota on a budget of $663,000. Station type, data uses, and funding sources are identified for each of the 94 stations. Data from all stations have multiple uses. All stations have sufficient justification for continuation, but five stations primarily are used in short-term research studies. Those five stations are scheduled to be discontinued at the end of the 1985 water year. (USGS)

  17. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  18. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, John R.; Farmer, CG

    2013-01-01

    The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi). Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similarity of the avian and alligator lung and the similarity in the patterns of airflow raise the possibility that these features are plesiomorphic for Archosauria and therefore did not evolve in response to selection for flapping flight or an endothermic metabolism, as has been generally assumed. To further test the hypothesis that unidirectional airflow is ancestral for Archosauria, we measured airflow in the lungs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). As in birds and alligators, air flows cranially to caudally in the cervical ventral bronchus, and caudally to cranially in the dorsobronchi in the lungs of Nile crocodiles. We also visualized the gross anatomy of the primary, secondary and tertiary pulmonary bronchi of C. niloticus using computed tomography (CT) and microCT. The cervical ventral bronchus, cranial dorsobronchi and cranial medial bronchi display similar characteristics to their proposed homologues in the alligator, while there is considerable variation in the tertiary and caudal group bronchi. Our data indicate that the aspects of the crocodilian bronchial tree that maintain the aerodynamic valves and thus generate unidirectional airflow, are ancestral for Archosauria. PMID:23638399

  19. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  20. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Chen, Tony; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.; Bessette, Denis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes strain-gage calibration loading through the application of known loads of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 airplane. The primary goal of this test is to produce a database suitable for deriving load equations for left and right wing root and fold shear; bending moment; torque; and all eight wing control-surface hinge moments. A secondary goal is to produce a database of wing deflections measured by string potentiometers and the onboard flight deflection measurement system. Another goal is to produce strain-gage data through both the laboratory data acquisition system and the onboard aircraft data system as a check of the aircraft system. Thirty-two hydraulic jacks have applied loads through whiffletrees to 104 tension-compression load pads bonded to the lower wing surfaces. The load pads covered approximately 60 percent of the lower wing surface. A series of 72 load cases has been performed, including single-point, double-point, and distributed load cases. Applied loads have reached 70 percent of the flight limit load. Maximum wingtip deflection has reached nearly 16 in.