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Sample records for airfoil section characteristics

  1. The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J

    1949-01-01

    Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.

  2. Two-dimensional Aerodynamic Characteristics of 34 Miscellaneous Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K , Jr; Smith, Hamilton A

    1949-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of 34 miscellaneous airfoils tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels are presented. The data include lift, drag, and in some cases, pitching-moment characteristics, for Reynolds numbers between 3.0 x 10 (exp 6) and 9.0 x 10 (exp 6).

  3. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Number of Modified NACA Four-Digit-Series Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K., Jr.; Cohen, Kenneth G.

    1947-01-01

    Theoretical pressure distributions and measured lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics at three values of Reynolds number are presented for a group of NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections modified for high-speed applications. The effectiveness of flaps applied to these airfoils and the effect of standard leading-edge roughness were also investigated at one value of Reynolds number. Results are also presented of tests of three conventional NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections.

  4. The Development of Cambered Airfoil Sections Having Favorable Lift Characteristics at Supercritical Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J

    1948-01-01

    Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined, from two-dimensional windtunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NPiCA 6-series airfoils. The experimental results confirm the design expectations in demonstrating for the NACA S-series airfoils either no variation, or an Increase from the low-speed design value, In the lift coefficient at a constant angle of attack with increasing Mach number above the critical. It was not found possible to improve the variation with Mach number of the slope of the lift curve for these airfoils above that for the NACA 6-series airfoils. The drag characteristics of the new airfoils are somewhat inferior to those of the NACA 6- series with respect to divergence with Mach number, but the pitching-moment characteristics are more favorable for the thinner new sections In demonstrating somewhat smaller variations of moment coefficient with both angle of attack and Mach number. The effect on the aero&ynamic characteristics at high Mach numbers of removing the cusp from the trailing-edge regions of two 10-percent-chord-thick NACA 6-series airfoils is determined to be negligible.

  5. Airfoil Section Characteristics as Affected by Variations of the Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Sherman, Albert

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.

  6. The characteristics of 78 related airfoil sections from tests in the variable-density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Ward, Kenneth E; Pinkerton, Robert M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of a large group of related airfoils was made in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a large value of the Reynolds number. The tests were made to provide data that may be directly employed for a rational choice of the most suitable airfoil section for a given application. The variation of the aerodynamic characteristics with variations in thickness and mean-line form were systematically studied. (author)

  7. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick airfoil section designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted to determine the low-speed two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick airfoil designed for general aviation applications (GA(W)-1). The results were compared with predictions based on a theoretical method for calculating the viscous flow about the airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Reynolds numbers based on airfoil chord varied from 2.0 million to 20.0 million. Maximum section lift coefficients greater than 2.0 were obtained and section lift-drag ratio at a lift coefficient of 1.0 (climb condition) varied from about 65 to 85 as the Reynolds number increased from about 2.0 million to 6.0 million.

  8. Airfoil section characteristics as applied to the prediction of air forces and their distribution on wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Rhode, R V

    1938-01-01

    The results of previous reports dealing with airfoil section characteristics and span load distribution data are coordinated into a method for determining the air forces and their distribution on airplane wings. Formulas are given from which the resultant force distribution may be combined to find the wing aerodynamic center and pitching moment. The force distribution may also be resolved to determine the distribution of chord and beam components. The forces are resolved in such a manner that it is unnecessary to take the induced drag into account. An illustration of the method is given for a monoplane and a biplane for the conditions of steady flight and a sharp-edge gust. The force determination is completed by outlining a procedure for finding the distribution of load along the chord of airfoil sections.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet baseline airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an executive-jet baseline airfoil model was conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The primary goal of the test was to measure airfoil aerodynamic characteristics over a wide range of flow conditions that encompass two design points. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735 with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6) based on chord, respectively, and normal-force coefficients of 0.98 and 0.51, respectively. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.250 to 0.780 and a chord Reynolds number range from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -2 deg to a maximum below 10 deg with one exception in which the maximum was 14 deg for a Mach number of 0.250 at a chord Reynolds number of 4.5 x 10(exp 6). Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The adaptive-wall test section had flexible top and bottom walls and rigid sidewalls. Wall interference was minimized by the movement of the adaptive walls, and the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics were corrected for any residual top and bottom wall interference.

  10. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13-percent-thick airfoil section designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.; Somers, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low-speed section characteristics of a 13 percent-thick airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with NACA 12 percent-thick sections and with the 17 percent-thick NASA airfoil. The tests were conducted ovar a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.35. Chord Reynolds numbers varied from about 2,000,000 to 9,000,000.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Four Republic Airfoil Sections from Tests in Langley Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Milton M.

    1945-01-01

    Four airfoils sections, designed by the Republic Aviation Corporation for the root and tip sections of the XF-12 airplane, were tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels to obtain their aerodynamic characteristics. Lift characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, 9,000,000, and 14,000,000, whereas drag characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, and 9,000,000. Pressure distributions were obtained for one of the root sections for several angles of attack at a Reynolds number of 2,600,000. Comparison of the root section that appeared best from the tests with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic section has a higher maximum lift and higher calculated critical speeds, but a higher minimum drag. In addition, with standard roughness applied to the leading edge, the maximum lift of the Republic airfoil is lower than that of the NACA airfoil. Comparison of the Republic tip section with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic airfoil has a lower maximum lift and a higher minimum drag than the NACA airfoil. The calculated critical speeds of the Republic section are slightly higher than those of the NACA section.

  12. Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 Airfoils with 20-Percent-chord External-Airfoil Flaps of NACA 23012 Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C; Abbott, Ira H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of the general aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils, each equipped with a 0.20c external flap of NACA 23012 section. The tests were made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot and variable-density wind tunnels and covered a range of Reynolds numbers that included values corresponding to those for landing conditions of a wide range of airplanes. Besides a determination of the variation of lift and drag characteristics with position of the flap relative to the main airfoil, complete aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil-flap combination with a flap hinge axis selected to give small hinge moments were measured in the two tunnels. Some measurements of air loads on the flap itself in the presence of the wing were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel.

  13. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Wedge Airfoil Sections Including Unsteady Flow Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick J.

    1959-01-01

    A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted on a 20-percent-thick single-wedge airfoil section. Steady-state forces and moments were determined from pressure measurements at Mach numbers from 0.70 to about 1.25. Additional information on the flows about the single wedge is provided by means of instantaneous pressure measurements at Mach numbers up to unity. Pressure distributions were also obtained on a symmetrical double-wedge or diamond-shaped profile which had the same leading-edge included angle as the single-wedge airfoil. A comparison of the data on the two profiles to provide information on the effects of the afterbody showed that with the exception of drag, the single-wedge profile proved to be aerodynamically superior to the diamond profile in all respects. The lift effectiveness of the single-wedge airfoil section far exceeded that of conventional thin airfoil sections over the speed range of the investigation. Pitching-moment irregularities, caused by negative loadings near the trailing edge, generally associated with conventional airfoils of equivalent thicknesses were not exhibited by the single-wedge profile. Moderately high pulsating pressures existing over the base of the single-wedge airfoil section were significantly reduced as the Mach number was increased beyond 0.92 and the boundaries of the dead airspace at the base of the model converged to eliminate the vortex street in the wake. Increasing the leading-edge radius from 0 to 1 percent of the chord had a minor effect on the steady-state forces and generally raised the level of pressure pulsations over the forward part of the single-wedge profile.

  14. Effect of Flap Deflection on Section Characteristics of S813 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of small deflections of a 30% chord, simple flap on the section characteristics of a tip airfoil, the S813, designed for 20- to 30-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been evaluated theoretically. The decrease in maximum lift coefficient due to leading-edge roughness increases in magnitude with increasing, positive flap deflection and with decreasing Reynolds number.

  15. An Experimental Study of Airfoil Icing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.; Sotos, R. G.; Solano, F. R.

    1982-01-01

    A full scale general aviation wing with a NACA 63 sub 2 A415 airfoil section was tested to determine icing characteristics for representative rime and glaze icing conditions. Measurements were made of ice accretion shapes and resultant wing section drag coefficient levels. It was found that the NACA 63 sub 2 A415 wing section was less sensitive to rime and glaze icing encounters for climb conditions.

  16. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L J; Hull, G F; Dryden, H L

    1925-01-01

    This report deals with an experimental investigation of the aerodynamical characteristics of airfoils at high speeds. Lift, drag, and center of pressure measurements were made on six airfoils of the type used by the air service in propeller design, at speeds ranging from 550 to 1,000 feet per second. The results show a definite limit to the speed at which airfoils may efficiently be used to produce lift, the lift coefficient decreasing and the drag coefficient increasing as the speed approaches the speed of sound. The change in lift coefficient is large for thick airfoil sections (camber ratio 0.14 to 0.20) and for high angles of attack. The change is not marked for thin sections (camber ratio 0.10) at low angles of attack, for the speed range employed. At high speeds the center of pressure moves back toward the trailing edge of the airfoil as the speed increases. The results indicate that the use of tip speeds approaching the speed of sound for propellers of customary design involves a serious loss in efficiency.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body configuration with two advanced general aviation airfoil sections and simple flap systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a general aviation wing equipped with NACA 65 sub 2-415, NASA GA(W)-1, and NASA GA(PC)-1 airfoil sections were examined. The NASA GA(W)-1 wing was equipped with plain, split, and slotted partial- and full-span flaps and ailerons. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing was equipped with plain, partial- and full-span flaps. Experimental chordwise static-pressure distribution and wake drag measurements were obtained for the NASA GA(PC)-1 wing at the 22.5-percent spanwise station. Comparisons were made between the three wing configurations to evaluate the wing performance, stall, and maximum lift capabilities. The results of this investigation indicated that the NASA GA(W)-1 wing had a higher maximum lift capability and almost equivalent drag values compared with both the NACA 65 sub 2-415 and NASA GA(PC)-1 wings. The NASA GA(W)-1 had a maximum lift coefficient of 1.32 with 0 deg flap deflection, and 1.78 with 41.6 deg deflection of the partial-span slotted flap. The effectiveness of the NASA GA(W)-1 plain and slotted ailerons with differential deflections were equivalent. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing with full-span flaps deflected 0 deg for the design climb configuration showed improved lift and drag performance over the cruise flap setting of -10 deg.

  18. Maximum Mean Lift Coefficient Characteristics at Low Tip Mach Numbers of a Hovering Helicopter Rotor Having an NACA 64(1)A012 Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Robert D., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the Langley helicopter test tower to determine experimentally the maximum mean lift-coefficient characteristics at low tip Mach number and a limited amount of drag- divergence data at high tip Mach number of a helicopter rotor having an NACA 64(1)AO12 airfoil section and 8 deg of linear washout. Data are presented for blade tip Mach numbers M(t) of 0.29 to 0.74 with corresponding values 6 6 of tip Reynolds number of 2.59 x 10(exp 6) and 6.58 x 10(exp 6). Comparisons are made between the data from the present rotor with results previously obtained from two other rotors: one having NACA 0012 airfoil sections and the other having an NACA 0009 airfoil tip section. At low tip Mach numbers, the maximum mean lift coefficient for the blade having the NACA 64(1)AO12 section was about 0.08 less than that obtained with the blade having the NACA 0009 tip section and 0.21 less than the value obtained with the blade having the NACA 0012 tip section. Blade maximum mean lift coefficient values were not obtained for Mach number values greater than 0.47 because of a blade failure encountered during the tests. The effective mean lift-curve slope required for predicting rotor thrust varied from 5.8 for the tip Mach nuniber range of 0.29 to 0.55 to a value of 6.65 for a tip Mach number of 0.71. The blade pitching-moment coefficients were small and relatively unaffected by changes in thrust coefficient and Mach number. In the instances in which stall was reached, the break in the blade pitching-moment curve was in a stable direction. The efficiency of the rotor decreased with an increase in tip speed. Expressed as figure of merit, at a tip Mach number of 0.29 the maximum value was about 0.74. Similar measurements made on another rotor having an NACA 0012 airfoil and with a rotor having an NACA 0009 tip section, showed a value of 0.75. Synthesized section lift and profile-drag characteristics for the rotor-blade airfoil section are presented as an

  19. The effects of variations in Reynolds number between 3.0 x 10sub6 and 25.0 x 10sub6 upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a number of NACA 6-series airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K, Jr; Bursnall, William J

    1950-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation made to determine the two-dimensional lift and drag characteristics of nine NACA 6-series airfoil section at Reynolds numbers of 15.0 x 10sub6, 20.0 x 10sub6, and 25.0 x 10sub6. Also presented are data from NACA Technical Report 824 for the same airfoils at Reynolds numbers of 3.0 x 10sub6, 6.0 x 10sub6, and 9.0 x 10sub6. The airfoils selected represent sections having variations in the airfoil thickness, thickness form, and camber. The characteristics of an airfoil with a split flap were determined in one instance, as was the effect of surface roughness. Qualitative explanations in terms of flow behavior are advanced for the observed types of scale effect.

  20. Turbine airfoil having outboard and inboard sections

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzola, Stefan; Marra, John J

    2015-03-17

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and formed from at least an outboard section and an inboard section such that an inner end of the outboard section is attached to an outer end of the inboard section. The outboard section may be configured to provide a tip having adequate thickness and may extend radially inward from the tip with a generally constant cross-sectional area. The inboard section may be configured with a tapered cross-sectional area to support the outboard section.

  1. The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N

    1932-01-01

    Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics.

  2. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Full-Scale Propellers Having 2, 3, and 4 Blades of Clark Y and R.A.F. 6 Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P; Biermann, David

    1938-01-01

    Aerodynamic tests were made of seven full-scale 10-foot-diameter propellers of recent design comprising three groups. The first group was composed of three propellers having Clark y airfoil sections and the second group was composed of three propellers having R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections, the propellers of each group having 2, 3, and 4 blades. The third group was composed of two propellers, the 2-blade propeller taken from the second group and another propeller having the same airfoil section and number of blades but with the width and thickness 50 percent greater. The tests of these propellers reveal the effect of changes in solidity resulting either from increasing the number of blades or from increasing the blade width propeller design charts and methods of computing propeller thrust are included.

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of seven symmetrical airfoil sections through 180-degree angle of attack for use in aerodynamic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldahl, R E; Klimas, P C

    1981-03-01

    When work began on the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) program at Sandia National Laboratories, it was recognized that there was a paucity of symmetrical airfoil data needed to describe the aerodynamics of turbine blades. Curved-bladed Darrieus turbines operate at local Reynolds numbers (Re) and angles of attack (..cap alpha..) seldom encountered in aeronautical applications. This report describes (1) a wind tunnel test series conducted at moderate values of Re in which 0 less than or equal to ..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 180/sup 0/ force and moment data were obtained for four symmetrical blade-candidate airfoil sections (NACA-0009, -0012, -0012H, and -0015), and (2) how an airfoil property synthesizer code can be used to extend the measured properties to arbitrary values of Re (10/sup 4/ less than or equal to Re less than or equal to 10/sup 7/) and to certain other section profiles (NACA-0018, -0021, -0025).

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Data for a Number of NACA 6A-Series Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K., Jr.

    1946-01-01

    The NACA 6A-series airfoil sections were designed to eliminate the trailing-edge cusp which is characteristic of the NACA 6-series sections. Theoretical data are presented for NACA 6A-series basic thickness forms having the position of minimum pressure at 30-, 40-, and 50-percent chord and with thickness ratios varying from 6 percent to 15 percent. Also presented are data for a mean line designed to maintain straight sides on the cambered sections. The experimental results of a two dimensional wind tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of five NACA 64A-series airfoil sections and two NACA 63A-series airfoil sections are presented. An analysis of these results, which were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3 x 10(exp 6), 6 x 10(exp 6), and 9 x 10(exp 6), indicates that the section minimum drag and maximum lift characteristics of comparable NACA 6-series and 6A-series airfoil sections are essentially the same. The quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients and angles of zero lift of NACA 6A-series airfoil sections are slightly more negative than those of corresponding NACA 6-series airfoil sections. The position of the aerodynamic center and the lift-curve slope of smooth NACA 6-series sections. The addition of standard leading-edge roughness causes the lift-curve slope of the newer sections to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness ratio.

  5. A study of test section configuration for shock tube testing of transonic airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for alleviating wall interference effects in a shock tube test section intended for testing two-dimensional transonic airfoils. The first method involves contouring the test section walls to match approximate streamlines in the flow. Contours are matched to each airfoil tested to produce results close to those obtained in a conventional wind tunnel. Data from a previous study and the present study for two different airfoils demonstrate that useful results are obtained in a shock tube using a test section with contoured walls. The second method involves use of a fixed-geometry slotted-wall test section to provide automatic flow compensation for various airfoils. The slotted-wall test section developed exhibited the desired performance characteristics in the approximate Mach number range 0.82 to 0.89, as evidenced by good agreement obtained between shock tube and wind tunnel results for several airfoil flows.

  6. Aerodynamic Characteristics at High and Low Subsonic Mach Numbers of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 Airfoil Sections at Angles of Attack from -2 Degrees to 30 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Critzos, Chris C.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel of the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 airfoil sections. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.3 to that for tunnel choke, at angles of attack from -2deg to 30deg, and with the surface. of each airfoil smooth-and with roughness applied at the leading edge.The Reynolds numbers of the tests ranged from 0.8 x 10(exp 6) to 4.4 x 10(exp 6). The results are presented as variations of lift, drag, and quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients with Mach number.

  7. Analysis of viscous transonic flow over airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Wu, Jiunn-Chi; Sankar, L. N.

    1987-01-01

    A full Navier-Stokes solver has been used to model transonic flow over three airfoil sections. The method uses a two-dimensional, implicit, conservative finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented as prescribed for the Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop to be held at the AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The NACA 0012, RAE 2822 and Jones airfoils have been investigated for both attached and separated transonic flows. Predictions for pressure distributions, loads, skin friction coefficients, boundary layer displacement thickness and velocity profiles are included and compared with experimental data when possible. Overall, the results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  8. A Systematic Investigation of Pressure Distributions at High Speeds over Five Representative NACA Low-Drag and Conventional Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J; Nitzberg, Gerald E; Olson, Robert N

    1945-01-01

    Pressure distributions determined from high-speed wind-tunnel tests are presented for five NACA airfoil sections representative of both low-drag and conventional types. Section characteristics of lift, drag, and quarter-chord pitching moment are presented along with the measured pressure distributions for the NACA 65sub2-215 (a=0.5), 66sub2-215 (a=0.6), 0015, 23015, and 4415 airfoils for Mach numbers up to approximately 0.85. A critical study is made of the airfoil pressure distributions in an attempt to formulate a set of general criteria for defining the character of high speed flows over typical airfoil shapes. Comparisons are made of the relative characteristics of the low-drag and conventional airfoils investigated insofar as they would influence the high-speed performance and the high-speed stability and control characteristics of airplanes employing these wing sections.

  9. Airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Ristau, Neil; Siden, Gunnar Leif

    2015-07-21

    An airfoil includes a leading edge, a trailing edge downstream from the leading edge, a pressure surface between the leading and trailing edges, and a suction surface between the leading and trailing edges and opposite the pressure surface. A first convex section on the suction surface decreases in curvature downstream from the leading edge, and a throat on the suction surface is downstream from the first convex section. A second convex section is on the suction surface downstream from the throat, and a first convex segment of the second convex section increases in curvature.

  10. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  11. Theoretical and experimental data for a number of NACA 6A-series airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K , Jr

    1948-01-01

    The NACA 6a-series airfoil sections were designed to eliminate the trailing-edge cusp which is characteristic of the NACA 6a-series sections. Theoretical data are presented for NACA 6a-series basic thickness forms having the position of minimum pressure of 30, 40, and 50 percent chord and with thickness ratios varying from 6 percent to 15 percent. Also presented are data for a mean line designed to maintain straight sides on the cambered sections.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of an improved 10-percent-thick NASA supercritical airfoil. [Langley 8 foot transonic tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    Refinements in a 10 percent thick supercritical airfoil produced improvements in the overall drag characteristics at normal force coefficients from about 0.30 to 0.65 compared with earlier supercritical airfoils which were developed for a normal force coefficient of 0.7. The drag divergence Mach number of the improved supercritical airfoil (airfoil 26a) varied from approximately 0.82 at a normal force coefficient to of 0.30, to 0.78 at a normal force coefficient of 0.80 with no drag creep evident. Integrated section force and moment data, surface pressure distributions, and typical wake survey profiles are presented.

  13. Stiffness characteristics of airfoils under pulse loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kevin Eugene

    The turbomachinery industry continually struggles with the adverse effects of contact rubs between airfoils and casings. The key parameter controlling the severity of a given rub event is the contact load produced when the airfoil tips incur into the casing. These highly non-linear and transient forces are difficult to calculate and their effects on the static and rotating components are not well understood. To help provide this insight, experimental and analytical capabilities have been established and exercised through an alliance between GE Aviation and The Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory. One of the early findings of the program is the influence of blade flexibility on the physics of rub events. The core focus of the work presented in this dissertation is to quantify the influence of airfoil flexibility through a novel modeling approach that is based on the relationship between applied force duration and maximum tip deflection. This relationship is initially established using a series of forward, non-linear and transient analyses in which simulated impulse rub loads are applied. This procedure, although effective, is highly inefficient and costly to conduct by requiring numerous explicit simulations. To alleviate this issue, a simplified model, named the pulse magnification model, is developed that only requires a modal analysis and a static analyses to fully describe how the airfoil stiffness changes with respect to load duration. Results from the pulse magnification model are compared to results from the full transient simulation method and to experimental results, providing sound verification for the use of the modeling approach. Furthermore, a unique and highly efficient method to model airfoil geometries was developed and is outlined in this dissertation. This method produces quality Finite Element airfoil definitions directly from a fully parameterized mathematical model. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by comparing modal

  14. Closed-form equations for the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of airfoil sections in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Closed-form equations for the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients of two dimensional airfoil sections in steady subsonic flow were obtained from published theoretical and experimental results. A turbulent boundary layer was assumed to exist on the airfoil surfaces. The effects of section angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and the specific airfoil type were considered. The equations were applicable through an angle of attack range of -180 deg to +180 deg; however, above about + or - 20 deg, the section characteristics were assumed to be functions only of angle of attack. A computer program is presented which evaluates the equations for a range of Mach numbers and angles of attack. Calculated results for the NACA 23012 airfoil section were compared with experimental data.

  15. Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Having a 25% Integral-Type Trailing Edge Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional ARC2D Navier-Stokes flow solver analyses were conducted to predict the sectional aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped NACA-0015 airfoil section. To facilitate the analyses and the generation of the computational grids, the airfoil with the deflected trailing edge flap was treated as a single element airfoil with no allowance for a gap between the flap's leading edge and the base of the forward portion of the airfoil. Generation of the O-type computational grids was accomplished using the HYGRID hyperbolic grid generation program. Results were obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers, angles of attack and flap deflections. The predicted sectional lift, drag and pitching moment values for the airfoil were then cast in tabular format (C81) to be used in lifting-line helicopter rotor aerodynamic performance calculations. Similar were also generated for the flap. Mathematical expressions providing the variation of the sectional lift and pitching moment coefficients for the airfoil and for the flap as a function of flap chord length and flap deflection angle were derived within the context of thin airfoil theory. The airfoil's sectional drag coefficient were derived using the ARC2D drag predictions for equivalent two dimensional flow conditions.

  16. Airfoil shape for flight at subsonic speeds. [design analysis and aerodynamic characteristics of the GAW-1 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, R. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An airfoil is examined that has an upper surface shaped to control flow accelerations and pressure distribution over the upper surface and to prevent separation of the boundary layer due to shock wave formulation at high subsonic speeds well above the critical Mach number. A highly cambered trailing edge section improves overall airfoil lifting efficiency. Diagrams illustrating supersonic flow and shock waves over the airfoil are shown.

  17. A recontoured, upper surface designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of a modified NACA 65 (0.82) (9.9) airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    A recontoured upper surface was designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of a modified NACA 65 (0.82)(9.9) airfoil section which was tested at Mach numbers of 0.3 and 0.4 and Reynolds numbers of 2.3x10(6) and 4.3x10(6). The original 6-series section was tested for comparison with the recontoured section. The recontoured profile was found to have a higher maximum lift coefficient at all test conditions than the original airfoil. The recontoured airfoil showed less drag and nearly the same pitching moment characteristics as the original 6-series airfoil at all test conditions. The improvements found for the recontoured airfoil of the present study are similar to those found during previous investigations of recontoured 6-series airfoils with less camber.

  18. An experimental study of dynamic stall on advanced airfoil sections. Volume 1: Summary of the experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.; Mcalister, K. W.; Carr, L. W.; Pucci, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    The static and dynamic characteristics of seven helicopter sections and a fixed-wing supercritical airfoil were investigated over a wide range of nominally two dimensional flow conditions, at Mach numbers up to 0.30 and Reynolds numbers up to 4 x 10 to the 6th power. Details of the experiment, estimates of measurement accuracy, and test conditions are described in this volume (the first of three volumes). Representative results are also presented and comparisons are made with data from other sources. The complete results for pressure distributions, forces, pitching moments, and boundary-layer separation and reattachment characteristics are available in graphical form in volumes 2 and 3. The results of the experiment show important differences between airfoils, which would otherwise tend to be masked by differences in wind tunnels, particularly in steady cases. All of the airfoils tested provide significant advantages over the conventional NACA 0012 profile. In general, however, the parameters of the unsteady motion appear to be more important than airfoil shape in determining the dynamic-stall airloads.

  19. Acoustic radiation and surface pressure characteristics of an airfoil due to incident turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterson, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise and unsteady surface pressure characteristics of an isolated airfoil in a uniform mean velocity, homogeneous, nearly-isotropic turbulence field was conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed with a 23 cm chord, two dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil over a free stream Mach number range of 0.1 to 0.5. Far-field noise spectra and directivity were measured in an anechoic chamber that surrounded the tunnel open jet test section. Spanwise and chordwise distribution of unsteady airfoil surface pressure spectra and surface pressure cross-spectra were obtained. Incident turbulence intensities, length scales, spectra, and spanwise cross-spectra, required in the calculation of far-field noise and surface pressure characteristics were also measured.

  20. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13.1-percent-thick, high-lift airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K. R.; Ormsbee, A. I.; Awker, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Low speed sectional characteristics of a high lift airfoil are studied and a comparison is made of those characteristics with the predictions of the theoretical methods used in the airfoil's design. The 13.1 percent-thick, UI-1720 airfoil was found to achieve the predicted maximum lift coefficient of nearly 2.0. No upper-surface, flow separation was found below the stall angle of attack of 16 degrees; it appeared that stall was due to an abrupt leading edge flow separation.

  1. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13.1-percent-thick, high-lift airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K. R.; Ormsbee, A. I.; Awker, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the low-speed, sectional characteristics of a high-lift airfoil, and comparison of these characteristics with the predictions of the theoretical methods used in the airfoil's design. The 13.1% thick UI-1720 airfoil was found to achieve the predicted maximum lift coefficient of nearly 2.0. No upper-surface flow separation was found below the stall angle of attack of 16 deg; it appeared that stall was due to an abrupt leading-edge flow separation.

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics of three helicopter rotor airfoil sections at Reynolds number from model scale to full scale at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 0.90. [conducted in Langley 6 by 28 inch transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, K. W.; Bingham, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langely 6 by 28 inch transonic tunnel to determine the two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of three helicopter rotor airfoils at Reynolds numbers from typical model scale to full scale at Mach numbers from about 0.35 to 0.90. The model scale Reynolds numbers ranged from about 700,00 to 1,500,000 and the full scale Reynolds numbers ranged from about 3,000,000 to 6,600,000. The airfoils tested were the NACA 0012 (0 deg Tab), the SC 1095 R8, and the SC 1095. Both the SC 1095 and the SC 1095 R8 airfoils had trailing edge tabs. The results of this investigation indicate that Reynolds number effects can be significant on the maximum normal force coefficient and all drag related parameters; namely, drag at zero normal force, maximum normal force drag ratio, and drag divergence Mach number. The increments in these parameters at a given Mach number owing to the model scale to full scale Reynolds number change are different for each of the airfoils.

  3. Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 of an inch (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

  4. Assessment of dual-point drag reduction for an executive-jet modified airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet modified airfoil and discusses drag reduction relative to a baseline airfoil for two cruise design points. A modified airfoil was tested in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) for Mach numbers ranging from 0.250 to 0.780 and chord Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.0 x 10(exp 6) to 18.0 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from minus 2 degrees to almost 10 degrees. Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735, chord Reynolds numbers were 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6), and normal-force coefficients were 0.98 and 0.51. Test data are presented graphically as integrated force and moment coefficients and chordwise pressure distributions. The maximum normal-force coefficient decreases with increasing Mach number. At a constant normal-force coefficient in the linear region, as Mach number increases an increase occurs in the slope of normal-force coefficient versus angle of attack, negative pitching-moment coefficient, and drag coefficient. With increasing Reynolds number at a constant normal-force coefficient, the pitching-moment coefficient becomes more negative and the drag coefficient decreases. The pressure distributions reveal that when present, separation begins at the trailing edge as angle of attack is increased. The modified airfoil, which is designed with pitching moment and geometric constraints relative to the baseline airfoil, achieved drag reductions for both design points (12 and 22 counts). The drag reductions are associated with stronger suction pressures in the first 10 percent of the upper surface and weakened shock waves.

  5. Post-stall wind tunnel data for NACA 44XX series airfoil sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1985-01-01

    Wind turbine blades operate over a wide angle of attach range. Unlike aircraft, a wind turbine's angle of attach range extends deep into stall where the three-dimensional performance characteristics of airfoils are not generally known. Peak power predictions upon which wind turbine components are sized depend on a good understanding of a blade's post-stall characteristics. The purpose of this wind tunnel study is to characterize the performance characteristics of a blade in stall as a function of its aspect ratio, airfoil thickness, and Reynolds number. This report documents results of the wind tunnel investigation of constant chord blades having four aspect ratios, with NACA 44XX series airfoil sections, at angles of attack ranging from -10/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/. Tests were conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 0.25 x 106 to 1.0 x 106. The thickness ratios studied were 0.18, 0.15, and 0.12, and 0.09. The aspect ratios were 6, 9, 12 and infinity. Results of force and pitching moment measurements over the angle of attack range for all combinations of Reynolds numbers, thickness, and aspect ratios, and the effects of boundary layer tripping are presented.

  6. Effects of Compressibility on the Maximum Lift Characteristics and Spanwise Load Distribution of a 12-Foot-Span Fighter-Type Wing of NACA 230-Series Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, F E

    1945-01-01

    Lift characteristics and pressure distribution for a NACA 230 wing were investigated for an angle of attack range of from -10 to +24 degrees and Mach range of from 0.2 to 0.7. Maximum lift coefficient increased up to a Mach number of 0.3, decreased rapidly to a Mach number of 0.55, and then decreased moderately. At high speeds, maximum lift coefficient was reached at from 10 to 12 degrees beyond the stalling angle. In high-speed stalls, resultant load underwent a moderate shift outward.

  7. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.P.; Ochs, S.S.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Horizontal axis wind turbine post stall airfoil characteristics synthesization

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L. . Wind Energy Research Center); Ostowari, C. )

    1991-06-01

    Blade-element/momentum performance prediction codes are routinely used for wind turbine design and analysis. A weakness of these codes is their inability to consistently predict peak power upon which the machine structural design and cost are strongly dependent. The purpose of this study was to compare post-stall airfoil characteristics synthesization theory to a systematically acquired wind tunnel data set in which the effects of aspect ratio, airfoil thickness, and Reynolds number were investigated. The results of this comparison identified discrepancies between current theory and the wind tunnel data which could not be resolved. Other factors not previously investigated may account for these discrepancies and have a significant effect on peak power prediction. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Horizontal axis wind turbine post stall airfoil characteristics synthesization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangler, James L.; Ostowari, Cyrus

    1995-01-01

    Blade-element/momentum performance prediction codes are routinely used for wind turbine design and analysis. A weakness of these codes is their inability to consistently predict peak power upon which the machine structural design and cost are strongly dependent. The purpose of this study was to compare post-stall airfoil characteristics synthesization theory to a systematically acquired wind tunnel data set in which the effects of aspect ratio, airfoil thickness, and Reynolds number were investigated. The results of this comparison identified discrepancies between current theory and the wind tunnel data which could not be resolved. Other factors not previously investigated may account for these discrepancies and have a significant effect on peak power prediction.

  10. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  11. New airfoil sections for general aviation aircraft. [cruising and flap development tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A program has been undertaken to develop new airfoil sections suitable for general aviation aircraft, utilizing theoretical and experimental advanced technology developed in recent years primarily for subsonic jet transport and military aircraft. The airfoil development program is one component of the Advanced Technology Light Twin program sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center. Two-dimensional tests of a new airfoil have demonstrated high cruising performance over a fairly wide C sub 1 range, and a C sub 1 max value of 3.69 with Fowler flap and no leading-edge devices. Experimental and theoretical development of additional configurations is under way.

  12. Development of a database of aerodynamic information for wind turbine airfoil sections

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory staff (OSU/AARL) continue to develop a database of aerodynamic information for wind turbine airfoil sections. The purpose is to provide sufficient aerodynamic information, about various and different airfoil sections, to assist airfoil and rotor designers in efforts to improve wind turbine rotor efficiencies. Steady state and pitch oscillation data are taken in the OSU/AARL 3x5 subsonic wind tunnel, with and without model leading edge grit roughness. Each airfoil model is subjected to the same test matrix thereby allowing relative comparisons. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the testing methods, typical results, how the data can be accessed and used by the wind energy community, and future plans.

  13. Increasing prototype airfoil fabrication efficiency through the use of sectional molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karges, Adam T.

    Airfoil development has always been important in the aeronautics industry. Current airfoil development techniques are being applied to design larger and more efficient wind turbine blades. To verify simulation results, a prototype blade must be built and tested. Current wing or blade structures are fabricated using traditional molding techniques. These large molds, particularly those used for wind turbine blades, can be fabricated from composite materials formed over a master shape. This process can be time and material intensive. This project develops techniques and methodology to build cavity molds using sectional pieces directly fabricated by computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling. A mold cavity was machined into tooling foam using CNC milling. This process allowed for mold creation without fabricating a master airfoil. Employment of several mold sections makes the machining process much easier and allows machine shops to produce larger, previously unfeasible, airfoil molds using limited machining length.

  14. Large-scale aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as tested in the variable density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Anderson, Raymond F

    1931-01-01

    In order to give the large-scale characteristics of a variety of airfoils in a form which will be of maximum value, both for airplane design and for the study of airfoil characteristics, a collection has been made of the results of airfoil tests made at full-scale values of the reynolds number in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They have been corrected for tunnel wall interference and are presented not only in the conventional form but also in a form which facilitates the comparison of airfoils and from which corrections may be easily made to any aspect ratio. An example showing the method of correcting the results to a desired aspect ratio has been given for the convenience of designers. In addition, the data have been analyzed with a view to finding the variation of the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with their thickness and camber.

  15. Design of transonic airfoil sections using a similarity theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the available methods for transonic airfoil and wing design indicates that the most powerful technique is the numerical optimization procedure. However, the computer time for this method is relatively large because of the amount of computation required in the searches during optimization. The optimization method requires that base and calibration solutions be computed to determine a minimum drag direction. The design space is then computationally searched in this direction; it is these searches that dominate the computation time. A recent similarity theory allows certain transonic flows to be calculated rapidly from the base and calibration solutions. In this paper the application of the similarity theory to design problems is examined with the object of at least partially eliminating the costly searches of the design optimization method. An example of an airfoil design is presented.

  16. Characteristics of the NACA 23012 Airfoil from Tests in the Full-Scale and Variable-Density Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Clay, William C

    1936-01-01

    This report gives the results of tests in the NACA full-scale and variable-density tunnels of a new wing section, the NACA 23012, which is one of the more promising of an extended series of related airfoils recently developed. The tests were made at several values of the Reynolds number between 1,000,000 and 8,000,000. The new airfoil develops a reasonably high maximum lift and a low profile drag, which results in an unusually high value of the speed-range index. In addition, the pitching-moment coefficient is very small. The superiority of the new section over well-known and commonly used sections of small camber and moderate thickness is indicated by making a direct comparison with variable-density tests of the NACA 2212, the well-known NACA family airfoil that most nearly resembles it. The superiority is further indicated by comparing the characteristics with those obtained from full-scale-tunnel tests of the Clark y airfoil.

  17. Summary of Airfoil Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stivers, Louis S.; Abbott, Ira H.; von Doenhoff, Albert E.

    1945-01-01

    Recent airfoil data for both flight and wind-tunnel tests have been collected and correlated insofar as possible. The flight data consist largely of drag measurements made by the wake-survey method. Most of the data on airfoil section characteristics were obtained in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel. Detail data necessary for the application of NACA 6-serles airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures, together with recent data for the NACA 24-, 44-, and 230-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6- and 7-series airfoils and their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Data and methods are given for rapidly obtaining the approximate pressure distributions for NACA four-digit, five-digit, 6-, and 7-series airfoils. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed. The data indicate that the effects of surface condition on the lift and drag characteristics are at least as large as the effects of the airfoil shape and must be considered in airfoil selection and the prediction of wing characteristics. Airfoils permitting extensive laminar flow, such as the NACA 6-series airfoils, have much lower drag coefficients at high speed and cruising lift coefficients than earlier types-of airfoils if, and only if, the wing surfaces are sufficiently smooth and fair. The NACA 6-series airfoils also have favorable critical-speed characteristics and do not appear to present unusual problems associated with the application of high-lift and lateral-control devices. Much of the data given in the NACA Advance Confidential Report entitled "Preliminary Low-Drag-Airfoil and Flap Data from

  18. Investigation in the Langley 19-foot Pressure Tunnel of Two Wings of NACA 65-210 and 64-210 Airfoil Sections with Various Type Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Spooner, Stanley H

    1949-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel to determine the maximum lift and stalling characteristics of two thin wings equipped with several types of flaps. Split, single slotted, and double slotted flaps were tested on one wing which had NACA 65-210 airfoil sections and split and double slotted flaps were tested on the other, which had NACA 64-210 airfoil sections. Both wings were zero sweep, an aspect ratio of 9, and a taper ratio of 0.4.

  19. Notes on the theoretical characteristics of two-dimensional supersonic airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, H Reese

    1947-01-01

    The shock expansion method of the NACA TN No. 1143 was used to determine the principal aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional supersonic airfoils. A discussion is given of the effect of thickness ratio, free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, camber, thickness distribution, and aileron deflection. The calculations indicated that the minimum drag of supersonic airfoils is obtained when the maximum thickness is behind the 0.50 chord. The center of pressure obtained for a symmetrical supersonic airfoil was found to be ahead of the 0.50 chord.

  20. Trends of Reynolds number effects on two-dimensional airfoil characteristics for helicopter rotor analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, G. K.; Johnson, W.

    1983-01-01

    The primary effects of Reynolds number on two dimensional airfoil characteristics are discussed. Results from an extensive literature search reveal the manner in which the minimum drag and maximum lift are affected by the Reynolds number. C sub d sub min and C sub l sub max are plotted versus Reynolds number for airfoils of various thickness and camber. From the trends observed in the airfoil data, universal scaling laws and easily implemented methods are developed to account for Reynolds number effects in helicopter rotor analyses.

  1. Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen

    2000-01-01

    Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

  2. Flow characteristics over NACA4412 airfoil at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genç, Mustafa Serdar; Koca, Kemal; Hakan Açıkel, Halil; Özkan, Gökhan; Sadık Kırış, Mehmet; Yıldız, Rahime

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the flow phenomena over NACA4412 were experimentally observed at various angle of attack and Reynolds number of 25000, 50000 and 75000, respectively. NACA4412 airfoil was manufactured at 3D printer and each tips of the wing were closed by using plexiglas to obtain two-dimensional airfoil. The experiments were conducted at low speed wind tunnel. The force measurement and hot-wire experiments were conducted to obtain data so that the flow phenomenon at the both top and bottom of the airfoil such as the flow separation and vortex shedding were observed. Also, smoke-wire experiment was carried out to visualize the surface flow pattern. After obtaining graphics from both force measurement experiment and hot-wire experiment compared with smoke wire experiment, it was noticed that there is a good coherence among the experiments. It was concluded that as Re number increased, the stall angle increased. And the separation bubble moved towards leading edge over the airfoil as the angle of attack increased.

  3. Robust, optimal subsonic airfoil shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Method system, and product from application of the method, for design of a subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape and incorporating one or more constraints on the airfoil geometric parameters and flow characteristics. The resulting design is robust against variations in airfoil dimensions and local airfoil shape introduced in the airfoil manufacturing process. A perturbation procedure provides a class of airfoil shapes, beginning with an initial airfoil shape.

  4. Characteristics of merging shear layers and turbulent wakes of a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, Desmond; Horne, W. Clifton

    1988-01-01

    Flow characteristics in the vicinity of the trailing edge of a single-slotted airfoil flap are presented and analyzed. The experimental arrangement consisted of a NACA 4412 airfoil equipped with a NACA 4415 flap whose angle of deflection was 21.8 deg. The flow remained attached over the model surfaces except in the vicinity of the flap trailing edge where a small region of boundary-layer separation extended over the aft 7 percent of flap chord. The flow was complicated by the presence of a strong, initially inviscid jet emanating from the slot between airfoil and flap, and a gradual merging of the main airfoil wake and flap suction-side boundary layer. Downstream of the flap, the airfoil and flap wakes fully merged to form an asymmetrical curved wake. The airfoil configuration was tested at an angle of attack of 8.2 deg, at a Mach number of 0.09, and a chord based Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10 to the 6th power in the Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Surface pressure measurements were made on the airfoil and flap and on the wind tunnel roof and floor. It was estimated that the wall interference increased the C sub L by 7 percent and decreased the C sub M by 4.5 percent. Velocity characteristics were quantified using hot-wire anemometry in regions of flow with preferred direction and low turbulence intensity. A 3-D laser velocimeter was used in regions of flow recirculation and relatively high turbulence intensity.

  5. Characteristics of merging shear layers and turbulent wakes of a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Desmond; Horne, W. Clifton

    1988-02-01

    Flow characteristics in the vicinity of the trailing edge of a single-slotted airfoil flap are presented and analyzed. The experimental arrangement consisted of a NACA 4412 airfoil equipped with a NACA 4415 flap whose angle of deflection was 21.8 deg. The flow remained attached over the model surfaces except in the vicinity of the flap trailing edge where a small region of boundary-layer separation extended over the aft 7 percent of flap chord. The flow was complicated by the presence of a strong, initially inviscid jet emanating from the slot between airfoil and flap, and a gradual merging of the main airfoil wake and flap suction-side boundary layer. Downstream of the flap, the airfoil and flap wakes fully merged to form an asymmetrical curved wake. The airfoil configuration was tested at an angle of attack of 8.2 deg, at a Mach number of 0.09, and a chord based Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10 to the 6th power in the Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Surface pressure measurements were made on the airfoil and flap and on the wind tunnel roof and floor. It was estimated that the wall interference increased the C sub L by 7 percent and decreased the C sub M by 4.5 percent. Velocity characteristics were quantified using hot-wire anemometry in regions of flow with preferred direction and low turbulence intensity. A 3-D laser velocimeter was used in regions of flow recirculation and relatively high turbulence intensity.

  6. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Slotted Clark Y Wing as Affected by the Auxiliary Airfoil Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Shortal, Joseph A

    1932-01-01

    Aerodynamic force tests on a slotted Clark Y wing were conducted in a vertical wind tunnel to determine the best position for a given auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. A systematic series of 100 changes in location of the auxiliary airfoil were made to cover all the probable useful ranges of slot gap, slot width, and slot depth. The results of the investigation may be applied to the design of automatic or controlled slots on wings with geometric characteristics similar to the wing tested. The best positions of the auxiliary airfoil were covered by the range of the tests, and the position for desired aerodynamic characteristics may easily be obtained from charts prepared especially for the purpose.

  7. A flight investigation of blade-section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having RC-SC2 airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure data at 90 percent blade radius for a helicopter main rotor with RC-SC2 blade sections was obtained. Concurrent measurements were made of vehicle flight state, performance and some rotor loads. The test envelope included hover, level flight from about 65 to 144 knots, climb and descent, and collective fixed maneuvers. Airfoil pressure distributions obtained in flight agree with those theoretical calculations for two dimensional, steady flow.

  8. CFD aerodynamic analysis of non-conventional airfoil sections for very large rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Sieros, G.; Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aerodynamic performance of flat-back and elliptically shaped airfoils is analyzed on the basis of CFD simulations. Incompressible and low-Mach preconditioned compressible unsteady simulations have been carried out using the k-w SST and the Spalart Allmaras turbulence models. Time averaged lift and drag coefficients are compared to wind tunnel data for the FB 3500-1750 flat back airfoil while amplitudes and frequencies are also recorded. Prior to separation averaged lift is well predicted while drag is overestimated keeping however the trend in the tests. The CFD models considered, predict separation with a 5° delay which is reflected on the load results. Similar results are provided for a modified NACA0035 with a rounded (elliptically shaped) trailing edge. Finally as regards the dynamic characteristics in the load signals, there is fair agreement in terms of Str number but significant differences in terms of lift and drag amplitudes.

  9. Experimental investigation of a 10-percent-thick helicopter rotor airfoil section designed with a viscous transonic analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, K. W.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 6- by 28-Inch Transonic Tunnel to determine the two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 10-percent-thick helicopter rotor airfoil at Mach numbers from 0.33 to 0.87 and respective Reynolds numbers from 4.9 x 10 to the 6th to 9.8 x 10 to the 6th. This airfoil, designated the RC-10(N)-1, was also investigated at Reynolds numbers from 3.0 x 10 to the 6th to 7.3 x 10 to the 6th at respective Mach numbers of 0.33 to 0.83 for comparison wit the SC 1095 (with tab) airfoil. The RC-10(N)-1 airfoil was designed by the use of a viscous transonic analysis code. The results of the investigation indicate that the RC-10(N)-1 airfoil met all the design goals. At a Reynolds number of about 9.4 x 10 to the 6th the drag divergence Mach number at zero normal-force coefficient was 0.815 with a corresponding pitching-moment coefficient of zero. The drag divergence Mach number at a normal-force coefficient of 0.9 and a Reynolds number of about 8.0 x 10 to the 6th was 0.61. The drag divergence Mach number of this new airfoil was higher than that of the SC 1095 airfoil at normal-force coefficients above 0.3. Measurements in the same wind tunnel at comparable Reynolds numbers indicated that the maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC-10(N)-1 airfoil was higher than that of the NACA 0012 airfoil for Mach numbers above about 0.35 and was about the same as that of the SC 1095 airfoil for Mach numbers up to 0.5.

  10. Desirable airfoil characteristics for large variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to define the desirable airfoil characteristics for large variable-speed wind turbines, a systematic study was performed using a series of airfoils designed to have similar aerodynamic properties, except for the amount of lift, which varied over a wide range. For several airfoil combinations, blade shapes were designed for a 750-kW wind turbine with a 48.8-m diameter rotor using the optimization code PROPGA together with PROPID, which is an inverse design method for horizontal-axis wind turbines. Roughness effects, including the consideration of dirty-blade performance in the blade-shape optimization process, were also considered and are discussed. The results and conclusions reveal practical design implications that should aid in the aerodynamic blade design of not only large but also other sizes of variable-speed wind turbines.

  11. A unique measurement technique to study laminar-separation bubble characteristics on an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, J. P.; Mangalam, S. M.; Berry, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A 'nonintrusive', multielement heat-transfer sensor was designed to study laminar-separation bubble characteristics on a NASA LRN (1)-1010 low-Reynolds number airfoil. The sensor consists of 30 individual nickel films, vacuum-deposited on a thin substrate (0.05 mm) that was bonded to the airfoil model with the sensor array placed streamwise on the airfoil upper surface. Experiments were conducted on a 15-cm chord model in the 50,000-300,000 chord Reynolds number range. Time history as well as spectral analysis of signals from surface film gauges were simultaneously obtained to determine the location of laminar separation and the subsequent behavior of the separated shear layer. In addition to the successful determination of laminar separation, a new phenomenon involving a large phase shift in dynamic shear stresses across the separation and reattachment points was observed.

  12. Effect of advanced rotorcraft airfoil sections on the hover performance of a small-scale rotor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althoff, Susan L.

    1988-01-01

    A hover test was conducted on a small scale rotor model for two sets of tapered rotor blades. The baseline rotor blade set used a NACA 0012 airfoil section, whereas the second rotor blade set had advanced rotorcraft airfoils distributed along the radius. The experiment was conducted for a range of thrust coefficients and tip speeds, and the data were compared to the predictions of three analytical methods. The data show the advantage of the advanced airfoils at the higher rotor thrust levels; two of the analyses predicted the correct data trends.

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Two airfoils are used on the main rotor blade of the UH-60A helicopter, the SC1095 and the SC1094 R8. Measurements of the section lift, drag, and pitching moment have been obtained in ten wind tunnel tests for the SC1095 airfoil, and in five of these tests, measurements have also been obtained for the SC1094 R8. The ten wind tunnel tests are characterized and described in the present study. A number of fundamental parameters measured in these tests are compared and an assessment is made of the adequacy of the test data for use in look-up tables required by lifting-line calculation methods.

  14. The variation with Reynolds number of pressure distribution over an airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkerton, Robert M

    1938-01-01

    Pressures were simultaneously measured at 54 orifices distributed over the midspan section of a 5 by 30-inch rectangular model of the NACA 4412 airfoil in the variable-density tunnel. These measurements were made at 17 angles of attack from -20 degrees to 30 degrees for eight values of the effective Reynolds number form approximately 100,000 to 8,200,000. Accurate data were thus obtained for studying the variation of pressure distribution with Reynolds number. These results on the NACA 4412 section indicated that the pressure distribution is practically unaffected by changes in Reynolds number except where separation is involved.

  15. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  16. Flow field characteristics study of a flapping airfoil using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiralaei, M. R.; Alighanbari, H.; Hashemi, S. M.

    2011-10-01

    The flow field of a flapping airfoil in Low Reynolds Number (LRN) flow regime is associated with complex nonlinear vortex shedding and viscous phenomena. The respective fluid dynamics of such a flow is investigated here through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM). The governing equations are the unsteady, incompressible two-dimensional Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. The airfoil is a thin ellipsoidal geometry performing a modified figure-of-eight-like flapping pattern. The flow field and vortical patterns around the airfoil are examined in detail, and the effects of several unsteady flow and system parameters on the flow characteristics are explored. The investigated parameters are the amplitude of pitching oscillations, phase angle between pitching and plunging motions, mean angle of attack, Reynolds number (Re), Strouhal number (St) based on the translational amplitudes of oscillations, and the pitching axis location ( x / c ). It is shown that these parameters change the instantaneous force coefficients quantitatively and qualitatively. It is also observed that the strength, interaction, and convection of the vortical structures surrounding the airfoil are significantly affected by the variations of these parameters.

  17. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of the OLS/TAAT airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Cross, Jeffrey L.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Two flight tests have been conducted that obtained extension pressure data on a modified AH-1G rotor system. These two tests, the Operational Loads Survey (OLS) and the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) used the same rotor set. In the analysis of these data bases, accurate 2-D airfoil data is invaluable, for not only does it allow comparison studies between 2- and 3-D flow, but also provides accurate tables of the airfoil characteristics for use in comprehensive rotorcraft analysis codes. To provide this 2-D data base, a model of the OLS/TAAT airfoil was tested over a Reynolds number range from 3 x 10 to the 6th to 7 x 10 to the 7th and between Mach numbers of 0.34 to 0.88 in the NASA Langley Research Center's 6- by 28-Inch Transonic Tunnel. The 2-D airfoil data is presented as chordwise pressure coefficient plots, as well as lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficient plots and tables.

  18. The further development of circulation control airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, N. J.

    1987-01-01

    The performance trends of circulation control airfoils are reviewed and observations are made as to where improvements in performance and expansion of the flight envelope may be feasible. A new analytically defined family of airfoils is suggested, all of which maintain the fore and aft symmetry required for stopped rotor application. It is important to recognize that any improvements in section capabilities may not be totally applicable to the present vehicle operation. It remains for the designers of the rotor system to reappraise the three dimensional operating environment in view of the different airfoil operating characteristics and for the airfoil definitions to be flexible while maintaining satisfactory levels of performance.

  19. The method of complex characteristics for transonic airfoil design, with an application to compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, M.; Garabedian, P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of mathematical models to study physical problems of current interest to aeronautical engineers has been made possible by the development of numerical techniques to compute solutions of the differential equations of transonic aerodynamics. These advances have encouraged the improvement of supercritical wing technology. A method to determined steady, shockless flow of an inviscid, compressible fluid past a cascade of airfoils in the (x,y)-plane is considered, taking into account also the case of an isolated airfoil. The method of complex characteristics solves the equations in the hodograph plane by extending all variables into the complex domain, where the notion of type is no longer significant. Attention is given to the mathematical background, the method of complex characteristics, and numerical calculations.

  20. Wall interference assessment/correction (WIAC) for transonic airfoil data from porous and shaped wall test sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Green, Lawrence L.

    1990-01-01

    An existing computational wall interference assessment/correction (WIAC) procedure is applied to two sets of transonic airfoil data obtained from the same model tested in both a porous, planar-wall and a solid, shaped-wall test section. The published airfoil data from the porous test section agrees reasonably well with the published data from the shaped wall test section, although some differences exist. The WIAC procedure is applied to the data to assess and correct any wall interference effects; WIAC corrections generally improve the correlation between the two data sets. As an independent verification, both the published and WIAC corrected airfoil data are compared to Navier-Stokes calculations. Correlations are generally better between the WIAC corrected data and the Navier-Stokes calculations than between similar correlations with the published data.

  1. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Transport-type Airfoil in a Simulated Heavy Rain Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated heavy rain on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 64-210 airfoil section equipped with leading-and trailing-edge high-lift devices were investigated in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The model had a chord of 2.5 ft, a span of 8 ft, and was mounted on the tunnel centerline between two large endplates. Aerodynamic measurements in and out of the simulated rain environment were obtained for dynamic pressures of 30 and 50 psf and an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 20 degrees for the cruise configuration. The rain intensity was varied to produce liquid water contents ranging from 16 to 46 gm/cu m. The results obtained for various rain intensity levels and tunnel speeds showed significant losses in maximum lift capability and increases in drag for a given lift as the liquid water content was increased. The results obtained on the landing configuration also indicate a progressive decrease in the angle of attack at which maximum lift occurred and an increase in the slope of the pitching-moment curve as the liquid water content was increased. The sensitivity of test results to the effects of the water surface tension was also investigated. A chemical was introduced into the rain environment that reduced the surface tension of water by a factor of 2. The reduction in the surface tension of water did not significantly alter the level of performance losses for the landing configuration.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Basic Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuya; Kawakita, Masatoshi; Iijima, Takayoshi; Koga, Mitsuhiro; Kihira, Mitsuhiko; Funaki, Jiro

    The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils have been researched in higher Reynolds-number ranges more than 106, in a historic context closely related with the developments of airplanes and fluid machineries in the last century. However, our knowledge is not enough at low and middle Reynolds-number ranges. So, in the present study, we investigate such basic airfoils as a NACA0015, a flat plate and the flat plates with modified fore-face and after-face geometries at Reynolds number Re < 1.0×105, using two- and three-dimensional computations together with wind-tunnel and water-tank experiments. As a result, we have revealed the effect of the Reynolds number Re upon the minimum drag coefficient CDmin. Besides, we have shown the effects of attack angle α upon various aerodynamic characteristics such as the lift coefficient CL, the drag coefficient CD and the lift-to-drag ratio CL/CD at Re = 1.0×102, discussing those effects on the basis of both near-flow-field information and surface-pressure profiles. Such results suggest the importance of sharp leading edges, which implies the possibility of an inversed NACA0015. Furthermore, concerning the flat-plate airfoil, we investigate the influences of fore-face and after-face geometries upon such effects.

  3. A flight investigation of blade section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having NLR-1T airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Stevens, D. D.; Tomaine, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted using a teetering-rotor AH-1G helicopter to obtain data on the aerodynamic behavior of main-rotor blades with the NLR-1T blade section. The data system recorded blade-section aerodynamic pressures at 90 percent rotor radius as well as vehicle flight state, performance, and loads. The test envelope included hover, forward flight, and collective-fixed maneuvers. Data were obtained on apparent blade-vortex interactions, negative lift on the advancing blade in high-speed flight and wake interactions in hover. In many cases, good agreement was achieved between chordwise pressure distributions predicted by airfoil theory and flight data with no apparent indications of blade-vortex interactions.

  4. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beaseley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0317) designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 17 percent thick low speed airfoil (LS(1)-0417) and the 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0313). Theoretical predictions of the drag rise characteristics of this airfoil are also provided. The tests were conducted in the Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2 million to 12 million, and an angle of attack range from about -8 to 20 deg.

  5. Effects of thickness on the aerodynamic characteristics of an initial low-speed family of airfoils for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the effects of airfoil thickness-ratio on the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of an initial family of airfoils. The results were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a subsonic viscous method. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Chord Reynolds numbers varied from about 2.0 x 1 million to 9.0 x 1 million.

  6. The role of airfoil geometry in minimizing the effect of insect contamination of laminar flow sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maresh, J. L.; Bragg, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been developed to predict the contamination of an airfoil by insects and the resultant performance penalty. Insect aerodynamics have been modeled and the impingement of insects on an airfoil are solved by calculating their trajectories. Upon impact, insect rupture and the resulting height of the debris is determined based on experimental data. A boundary layer analysis is performed to determine which insects cause boundary layer transition and the resultant drag penalty. A contaminated airfoil figure of merit is presented to be used to compare airfoil susceptibility. Results show that the insect contamination effects depend on accretion conditions, airfoil angle of attack and Reynolds number. The importance of the stagnation region to designing airfoils for minimum drag penalties is discussed.

  7. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Chen, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient. The design maximum lift coefficient was 2.1 at a Reynolds number of 9.7 million. The airfoil with a smooth surface and with surface roughness was tested at angles of attack from 6 deg to 26 deg, Reynolds numbers (based on airfoil chord) from 2.0 million to 12.9 million, and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.35. The experimental results are compared with values predicted by theory. The experimental pressure distributions observed at angles of attack up to at least 12 deg were similar to the theoretical values except for a slight increase in the experimental upper-surface pressure coefficients forward of 26 percent chord and a more severe gradient just behind the minimum-pressure-coefficient location. The maximum lift coefficients were measured with the model surface smooth and, depending on test conditions, varied from 1.5 to 1.6 whereas the design value was 2.1.

  8. Porous airfoil and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A porous airfoil having venting cavities with contoured barrier walls, formed by a core piece, placed beneath a porous upper and lower surface area that stretches over the nominal chord of an airfoil is employed, to provide an airfoil configuration that becomes self-adaptive to very dissimilar flow conditions to thereby improve the lift and drag characteristics of the airfoil at both subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4412 airfoil sction with flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockfen, Alex E.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2009-09-01

    Wing-in-Ground vehicles and aerodynamically assisted boats take advantage of increased lift and reduced drag of wing sections in the ground proximity. At relatively low speeds or heavy payloads of these craft, a flap at the wing trailing-ground-effect flow id numerically investigated in this study. The computational method consists of a steady-state, incompressible, finite volume method utilizing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Grid generation and solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are completed flow with a flap, as well as ground-effect motion without a flap. Aerodynamic forces are plain flap. Changes in the flow introduced with the flap addition are also discussed. Overall, the use of a flap on wings with small attack angles is found to be beneficial for small flap deflections up to 5% of the chord, where the contribution of lift augmentation exceeds the drag increase, yielding an augmented lift-to-drag ratio

  10. Investigation of the Kline-Fogleman airfoil section for rotor blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumsdaine, E.; Johnson, W. S.; Fletcher, L. M.; Peach, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a wedgeshaped airfoil with sharp leading edge and a spanwise step were conducted. The airfoil was tested with variations of the following parameters: (1) Reynolds number, (2) step location, (3) step shape, (4) apex angle, and (5) with the step on either the upper or lower surface. The results are compared with a flat plate and with wedge airfoils without a step having the same aspect ratio. Water table tests were conducted for flow visualization and it was determined that the flow separates from the upper surface at low angles of attack. The wind tunnel tests show that the lift/drag ratio of the airfoil is lower than for a flat plate and the pressure data show that the airfoil derives its lift in the same manner as a flat plate.

  11. Airfoil Heat Transfer Characteristics in Syngas and Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzotta, D.W.; Chyu, M.K.; Alvin, M.A.

    2007-05-01

    Hydrogen or coal-derivative syngas turbines promise increased efficiency with exceptionally low NOx emissions compared to the natural gas based turbines. To reach this goal, turbine inlet temperature (TIT) will need to be elevated to a level exceeding 1700°C [1, 2]. The thermal load induced by such a temperature increase alone will lead to immense challenges in maintaining material integrity of turbine components. In addition, as working fluid in the gas path will primarily be steam, possibly mixed with carbon oxides, the aero-thermal characteristic in a hydrogen turbine is expected to be far different from that of air/nitrogen enriched gas stream in a gas turbine. For instance, steam has distinctly higher density and specific heat in comparison to a mixture of air and combustion gases as they are expanded in a conventional gas turbine. Even if the temperature limits remain about the same, the expansion in a hydrogen turbine will have to proceed with a greater enthalpy drop and therefore requires a larger number of stages. This also implies that the flow areas may need to be expanded and blade span to be enlarged. Meanwhile, a greater number of stages and hot surfaces need to be protected. This also suggests that current cooling technology available for modern day gas turbines has to be significantly improved. The ultimate goal of the present study is to systematically investigate critical issues concerning cooling technology as it is applicable to oxy-fuel and hydrogen turbine systems, and the main scope is to develop viable means to estimate the thermal load on the turbine “gas side”, that is eventually to be removed from the “coolant side”, and to comparatively quantify the implication of external heat load and potential thermal barrier coating (TBC) degradation on the component durability and lifing. The analysis is based on two well-tested commercial codes, FLUENT and ANSYS.

  12. Airfoil Dynamic Stall and Rotorcraft Maneuverability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    2000-01-01

    The loading of an airfoil during dynamic stall is examined in terms of the augmented lift and the associated penalties in pitching moment and drag. It is shown that once stall occurs and a leading-edge vortex is shed from the airfoil there is a unique relationship between the augmented lift, the negative pitching moment, and the increase in drag. This relationship, referred to here as the dynamic stall function, shows limited sensitivity to effects such as the airfoil section profile and Mach number, and appears to be independent of such parameters as Reynolds number, reduced frequency, and blade sweep. For single-element airfoils there is little that can be done to improve rotorcraft maneuverability except to provide good static C(l(max)) characteristics and the chord or blade number that is required to provide the necessary rotor thrust. However, multi-element airfoils or airfoils with variable geometry features can provide augmented lift in some cases that exceeds that available from a single-element airfoil. The dynamic stall function is shown to be a useful tool for the evaluation of both measured and calculated dynamic stall characteristics of single element, multi-element, and variable geometry airfoils.

  13. The effect of wall interference upon the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincenti, Walter G; Graham, Donald J

    1946-01-01

    The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of wall interference for an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel are presented. Analytical equations are derived which relate the characteristics of an airfoil in the tunnel at subsonic speeds with the characteristics in free air. The analysis takes into consideration the effect of fluid compressibility and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small as compared with the diameter of the tunnel. The development is restricted to an untwisted, constant-chord airfoil spanning the middle of the tunnel. Brief theoretical consideration is also given to the problem of choking at high speeds. Results are then presented of tests to determine the low-speed characteristics of an NACA 4412 airfoil for two chord-diameter ratios. While, on the basis of these experiments, no appraisal is possible of the accuracy of the corrections at high speeds, the data indicate that at low Mach numbers the analytical results are valid, even for relatively large values of the chord-diameter ratio.

  14. Evaluation of CFD to Determine Two-Dimensional Airfoil Characteristics for Rotorcraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Marilyn J.; Wong, Tin-Chee; Potsdam, Mark; Baeder, James; Phanse, Sujeet

    2004-01-01

    The efficient prediction of helicopter rotor performance, vibratory loads, and aeroelastic properties still relies heavily on the use of comprehensive analysis codes by the rotorcraft industry. These comprehensive codes utilize look-up tables to provide two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics. Typically these tables are comprised of a combination of wind tunnel data, empirical data and numerical analyses. The potential to rely more heavily on numerical computations based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations has become more of a reality with the advent of faster computers and more sophisticated physical models. The ability of five different CFD codes applied independently to predict the lift, drag and pitching moments of rotor airfoils is examined for the SC1095 airfoil, which is utilized in the UH-60A main rotor. Extensive comparisons with the results of ten wind tunnel tests are performed. These CFD computations are found to be as good as experimental data in predicting many of the aerodynamic performance characteristics. Four turbulence models were examined (Baldwin-Lomax, Spalart-Allmaras, Menter SST, and k-omega).

  15. Nonlinear power flow feedback control for improved stability and performance of airfoil sections

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2013-09-03

    A computer-implemented method of determining the pitch stability of an airfoil system, comprising using a computer to numerically integrate a differential equation of motion that includes terms describing PID controller action. In one model, the differential equation characterizes the time-dependent response of the airfoil's pitch angle, .alpha.. The computer model calculates limit-cycles of the model, which represent the stability boundaries of the airfoil system. Once the stability boundary is known, feedback control can be implemented, by using, for example, a PID controller to control a feedback actuator. The method allows the PID controller gain constants, K.sub.I, K.sub.p, and K.sub.d, to be optimized. This permits operation closer to the stability boundaries, while preventing the physical apparatus from unintentionally crossing the stability boundaries. Operating closer to the stability boundaries permits greater power efficiencies to be extracted from the airfoil system.

  16. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed, two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 13percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 13 percent thick low speed airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle of attack frange from about -8 deg to 10 deg. The objective of retaining good high-lift low speed characteristics for an airfoil designed to have good medium speed cruise performance was achieved.

  17. Numerical Simulations of the Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.

  18. Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Coolant Flow Characteristics in Cooled Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damerow, W. P.; Murtaugh, J. P.; Burggraf, F.

    1972-01-01

    The flow characteristics of turbine airfoil cooling system components were experimentally investigated. Flow models representative of leading edge impingement, impingement with crossflow (midchord cooling), pin fins, feeder supply tube, and a composite model of a complete airfoil flow system were tested. Test conditions were set by varying pressure level to cover the Mach number and Reynolds number range of interest in advanced turbine applications. Selected geometrical variations were studied on each component model to determine these effects. Results of these tests were correlated and compared with data available in the literature. Orifice flow was correlated in terms of discharge coefficients. For the leading edge model this was found to be a weak function of hole Mach number and orifice-to-impinged wall spacing. In the impingement with crossflow tests, the discharge coefficient was found to be constant and thus independent of orifice Mach number, Reynolds number, crossflow rate, and impingement geometry. Crossflow channel pressure drop showed reasonable agreement with a simple one-dimensional momentum balance. Feeder tube orifice discharge coefficients correlated as a function of orifice Mach number and the ratio of the orifice-to-approach velocity heads. Pin fin data was correlated in terms of equivalent friction factor, which was found to be a function of Reynolds number and pin spacing but independent of pin height in the range tested.

  19. Unsteady Airloads on Airfoils in Reverse Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya

    2014-11-01

    This work gives insight into the influence of airfoil characteristics on unsteady airloads for rotor applications where local airfoil sections may operate at high and/or reverse flow angles of attack. Two-dimensional wind tunnel experiments have been performed on four airfoil sections to investigate the effects of thickness, camber, and trailing edge shape on unsteady airloads (lift, pressure drag, and pitching moment). These model rotor blades were tested through 360 deg of incidence for 104 <=Re <=106 . Unsteady pressure transducers were mounted on the airfoil surface to measure the high frequency, dynamic pressure variations. The temporal evolution of chordwise pressure distributions and resulting airloads is quantified for each airfoil in each of the three unsteady wake regimes present in reverse flow. Specifically, the influence of the formation, growth, and shedding of vortices on the surface pressure distribution is quantified and compared between airfoils with a sharp geometric trailing edge and those with a blunt geometric trailing edge. These findings are integral to mitigation of rotor blade vibrations for applications where airfoil sections are subjected to reverse flow, such as high-speed helicopters and tidal turbines.

  20. An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a new general aviation airfoil in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Weislogel, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    A low speed airfoil, the GA(W)-2, - a 13% thickness to chord ratio airfoil was evaluated. The wing of a Beech Sundowner was modified at by adding balsa ribs and covered with aluminum skin, to alter the existing airfoil shape to that of the GA(W)-2 airfoil. The aircraft was flown in a flight test program that gathered wing surface pressures and wake data from which the lift drag, and pitching moment of the airfoil could be determined. After the base line performance of the airfoil was measured, the drag due to surface irregularities such as steps, rivets and surface waviness was determined. The potential reduction of drag through the use of surface coatings such as KAPTON was also investigated.

  1. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, KBMQ; Fagan, A. F.; Mankbadi, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a tip vortex from a NACA0012 airfoil is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4x10(exp 4). Initially, data for a stationary airfoil held at various angles-of-attack (alpha) are gathered. Detailed surveys are done for two cases: alpha=10 deg with attached flow and alpha=25 deg with massive flow separation on the upper surface. Distributions of various properties are obtained using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity and turbulent stresses at various streamwise locations. For all cases, the vortex core is seen to involve a mean velocity deficit. The deficit apparently traces to the airfoil wake, part of which gets wrapped by the tip vortex. At small alpha, the vortex is laminar within the measurement domain. The strength of the vortex increases with increasing alpha but undergoes a sudden drop around alpha (is) greater than 16 deg. The drop in peak vorticity level is accompanied by transition and a sharp rise in turbulence within the core. Data are also acquired with the airfoil pitched sinusoidally. All oscillation cases pertain to a mean alpha=15 deg while the amplitude and frequency are varied. An example of phase-averaged data for an amplitude of +/-10 deg and a reduced frequency of k=0.2 is discussed. All results are compared with available data from the literature shedding further light on the complex dynamics of the tip vortex.

  2. Icing characteristics of a natural-laminar-flow, a medium-speed, and a swept, medium-speed airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    1991-01-01

    Tests were conducted at the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center to determine the icing characteristics of three modern airfoils, a natural laminar flow, a medium speed and a swept medium speed airfoil. Tests measured the impingement characteristics and drag degradation for angles of attack typifying cruise and climb for cloud conditions typifying the range that might be encountered in flight. The maximum degradation occurred for the cruise angle of attack for the long glaze ice condition for all three airfoils with increases over baseline drag being 486 percent, 510 percent, and 465 percent for the natural laminar flow, the medium speed and the swept medium speed airfoil respectively. For the climb angle of attack, the maximum drag degradation (and extent of impingement) observed were also for the long glaze ice condition, and were 261 percent, 181 percent and 331 percent respectively. The minimum drag degradation (and extent of impingement) occurred for the cruise condition and for the short, rime spray which increases over baseline drag values of 47 percent, 28 percent and 46 percent respectively.

  3. Aerodynamics Characteristics of Multi-Element Airfoils at -90 Degrees Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A developed method has been applied to calculate accurately the viscous flow about airfoils normal to the free-stream flow. This method has special application to the analysis of tilt rotor aircraft in the evaluation of download. In particular, the flow about an XV-15 airfoil with and without deflected leading and trailing edge flaps at -90 degrees incidence is evaluated. The multi-element aspect of the method provides for the evaluation of slotted flap configurations which may lead to decreased drag. The method solves for turbulent flow at flight Reynolds numbers. The flow about the XV-15 airfoil with and without flap deflections has been calculated and compared with experimental data at a Reynolds number of one million. The comparison between the calculated and measured pressure distributions are very good, thereby, verifying the method. The aerodynamic evaluation of multielement airfoils will be conducted to determine airfoil/flap configurations for reduced airfoil drag. Comparisons between the calculated lift, drag and pitching moment on the airfoil and the airfoil surface pressure will also be presented.

  4. The Effects of Blowing Over Various Trailing-edge Flaps on an NACA 0006 Airfoil Section, Comparisons with Various Types of Flaps on other Airfoil Sections, and an Analysis of Flow and Power Relationships for Blowing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dods, J. B., Jr.; Watson, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a two-dimensional investigation conducted to determine the effect of blowing over various types of trailing-edge flaps on a wing having the NACA 0006 airfoil section and a drooped-nose flap. The position and profile of the trailing-edge flap, the nozzle height, and the location of the flap with respect to the nozzle were found to be important variables. Data from many investigations were used to make an evaluation of the effects of blowing on lift. An analysis was made of flow and power relationships for blowing systems.

  5. Method of making an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moracz, Donald J. (Inventor); Cook, Charles R. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of making an airfoil includes stacking plies in two groups. A separator ply is positioned between the two groups of plies. The groups of plies and the separator ply are interconnected to form an airfoil blank. The airfoil blank is shaped, by forging or other methods, to have a desired configuration. The material of the separator ply is then dissolved or otherwise removed from between the two sections of the airfoil blank to provide access to the interior of the airfoil blank. Material is removed from inner sides of the two separated sections to form core receiving cavities. After cores have been placed in the cavities, the two sections of the airfoil blank are interconnected and the shaping of the airfoil is completed. The cores are subsequently removed from the completed airfoil.

  6. Method of making an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moracz, Donald J. (Inventor); Cook, Charles R. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved method of making an airfoil includes stacking plies in two groups. A separator ply is positioned between the two groups of plies. The groups of plies and the separator ply are interconnected to form an airfoil blank. The airfoil blank is shaped, by forging or other methods, to have a desired configuration. The material of the separator ply is then dissolved or otherwise removed from between the two sections of the airfoil blank to provide access to the interior of the airfoil blank. Material is removed from inner sides of the two separated sections to form core receiving cavities. After cores have been placed in the cavities, the two sections of the airfoil blank are interconnected and the shaping of the airfoil is completed. The cores are subsequently removed from the completed airfoil.

  7. Wind-tunnel results for a modified 17-percent-thick low-speed airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to evaluate the effects on performance of modifying a 17-percent-thick low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was altered to reduce the pitching-moment coefficient by increasing the forward loading and to increase the climb lift-drag ratio by decreasing the aft upper surface pressure gradient. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.07 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle-of-attack range from about -10 deg to 20 deg.

  8. Summary of Airfoil Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Ira H; Von Doenhoff, Albert E; Stivers, Louis, Jr

    1945-01-01

    The historical development of NACA airfoils is briefly reviewed. New data are presented that permit the rapid calculation of the approximate pressure distributions for the older NACA four-digit and five-digit airfoils by the same methods used for the NACA 6-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6 and 7-series airfoils together with their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Detail data necessary for the application of the airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures placed at the end of the paper. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed, together with aerodynamic problems of application. (author)

  9. A parameter identification problem arising from a two-dimensional airfoil section model

    SciTech Connect

    Cerezo, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    The development of state space models for aeroelastic systems, including unsteady aerodynamics, is particularly important for the design of highly maneuverable aircraft. In this work we present a state space formulation for a special class of singular neutral functional differential equations (SNFDE) with initial data in C(-1, 0). This work is motivated by the two-dimensional airfoil model presented by Burns, Cliff and Herdman in. In the same authors discuss the validity of the assumptions under which the model was formulated. They pay special attention to the derivation of the evolution equation for the circulation on the airfoil. This equation was coupled to the rigid-body dynamics of the airfoil in order to obtain a complete set of functional differential equations that describes the composite system. The resulting mathematical model for the aeroelastic system has a weakly singular component. In this work we consider a finite delay approximation to the model presented in. We work with a scalar model in which we consider the weak singularity appearing in the original problem. The main goal of this work is to develop numerical techniques for the identification of the parameters appearing in the kernel of the associated scalar integral equation. Clearly this is the first step in the study of parameter identification for the original model and the corresponding validation of this model for the aeroelastic system.

  10. Experimental ice shape and performance characteristics for a multi-element airfoil in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Brian M.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Namdar, Bahman S.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the ice accretion patterns and performance of characteristics of a multi-element airfoil was undertaken at the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Several configurations were examined to determine the ice shape and performance characteristics. The testing included glaze, rime, and mixed icing regimes. Tunnel cloud conditions were set to correspond to those typical of the operating environment for commercial transport aircraft. Measurements acquired included ice profile tracings and aerodynamic forces both during the accretion process and in a post-accretion evaluation over a range of angle of attack. Substantial ice accretions developed on the main wing, flaps, and slat surfaces. Force measurements indicate severe performance degradation, especially near CL max, for both light and heavy ice accretion. Frost was seen on the lower surface of the airfoil which was found to contribute significantly to the force components.

  11. Wind tunnel tests of two airfoils for wind turbines operating at high reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Sommers, D.; Tangler, J.

    2000-06-29

    The objectives of this study were to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for Reynolds numbers up to 6 x 106 and to acquire the section characteristics of two airfoils being considered for large, megawatt-size wind turbines. One airfoil, the S825, was designed to achieve a high maximum lift coefficient suitable for variable-speed machines. The other airfoil, the S827, was designed to achieve a low maximum lift coefficient suitable for stall-regulated machines. Both airfoils were tested in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) for smooth, fixed-transition, and rough surface conditions at Reynolds numbers of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 x 106. The results show the maximum lift coefficient of both airfoils is substantially underpredicted for Reynolds numbers over 3 x 106 and emphasized the difficulty of designing low-lift airfoils for high Reynolds numbers.

  12. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of three rotorcraft airfoils at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 0.90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    Three airfoils designed for helicopter rotor application were investigated in the Langley 6- by 28-inch Transonic Tunnel to determine the two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.34 to 0.88 and respective Reynolds numbers from about 4.4 x 10(6) power to 9.5 x 10(6) power. The airfoils have thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12. Trailing-edge reflex was applied to minimize pitching moment. The maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC(3)-12 airfoil is from 0.1 to 0.2 higher, depending on Mach number M, than that of the NACA 0012 airfoil tested in the same facility. The maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC(3)-10 is about equal to that of the NACA 0012 at Mach numbers to 0.40 and is higher than that of the NACA 0012 at Mach numbers above 0.40. The maximum normal force coefficient of the RC(3)-08 is about 0.19 lower than that of the NACA 0012 at a Mach number of 0.35 and about 0.05 lower at a Mach number of 0.54. The drag divergence Mach number of the RC(3)-08 airfoil at normal-force coefficients below 0.1 was indicated to be greater than the maximum test Mach number of 0.88. At zero lift, the drag-divergence Mach numbers of the RC(3)-12 and the RC(3)-10 are about 0.77 and 0.82, respectively.

  13. The Effectiveness at High Speeds of a 20-Percent-chord Plain Trailing-edge Flap on the NACA 65-210 Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stivers, Louis S., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the lift-control effectiveness of a 20-percent-chord plain trailing-edge flap on the NACA 65-210 airfoil section from section lift-coefficient data obtained at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.875. In addition, the effectiveness of the plain flap as a lift-control device has been compared with the corresponding effectiveness of both a spoiler and a dive-recovery flag on the INCA 65-210 airfoil section.

  14. Optimization of natural laminar flow airfoils for high section lift-to-drag ratios in the lower Reynolds number range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, Werner; Vemuru, Chandra S.

    1989-01-01

    Relatively thin natural-laminar-flow airfoils were arranged optimally for different design lift coefficients in the wing chord Reynolds number ranges of 200,000-600,00 and 0.875 x 10 to the 6th to 2 x 10 to the 6th. The 9.5 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-010, the 7.9 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-012, the 10.4 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-015, and the 8.2 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-017 were designed for high lift-to-drag ratios using Drela's design and analysis.

  15. Numerical evaluations of the effect of leading-edge protuberances on the static and dynamic stall characteristics of an airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Wang, F. B.

    2013-12-01

    Wavy leading edge modifications of airfoils through imitating humpback whale flippers has been considered as a viable passive way to control flow separation. In this paper, flows around a baseline 634-021 airfoil and one with leading-edge sinusoidal protuberances were simulated using S-A turbulence model. When studying the static stall characteristics, it is found that the modified airfoil does not stall in the traditional manner, with increasing poststall lift coefficients. At high angles of attack, the flows past the wavy leading edge stayed attached for a distance, while the baseline foil is in a totally separated flow condition. On this basis, the simulations of pitch characteristic were carried out for both foils. At high angles of attack mild variations in lift and drag coefficients of the modified foil can be found, leading to a smaller area of hysteresis loop. The special structure of wavy leading edge can help maintain high consistency of the flow field in dynamic pitching station within a particular range of angles of attack.

  16. Assessment of the aerodynamic characteristics of thick airfoils in high Reynolds and moderate Ma numbers using CFD modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospathopoulos, John M.; Papadakis, Giorgos; Sieros, Giorgos; Voutsinas, Spyros G.; Chaviaropoulos, Takis K.; Diakakis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of thick airfoils in high Reynolds number is assessed using two different CFD RANS solvers: the compressible MaPFlow and the incompressible CRES-flowNS-2D both equipped with the k-ω SST turbulence model. Validation is carried out by comparing simulations against existing high Reynolds experimental data for the NACA 63-018 airfoil in the range of -10° to 20°. The use of two different solvers aims on one hand at increasing the credibility in the results and on the other at quantifying the compressibility effects. Convergence of steady simulations is achieved within a mean range of -10° to 14° which refers to attached or light stall conditions. Over this range the simulations from the two codes are in good agreement. As stall gets deeper, steady convergence ceases and the simulations must switch to unsteady. Lift and drag oscillations are produced which increase in amplitude as the angle of attack increases. Finally in post stall, the average CL is found to decrease up to ~24° or 32° for the FFA or the NACA 63-018 airfoils respectively, and then recover to higher values indicating a change in the unsteady features of the flow.

  17. Wind-tunnel investigation of NACA 23012, 23021, and 23030 airfoils equipped with 40-percent-chord double slotted flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Thomas A; Recant, Isidore G

    1941-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the NACA 7 by 10-foot win tunnel to determine the effect of the deflection of main and auxiliary slotted flaps on the aerodynamic section characteristics of large-chord NACA 23012, 23021, 23030 airfoils equipped with 40-percent-chord double slotted flaps. The complete aerodynamic section characteristics and envelope polar curves are given for each airfoil-flap combination. The effect of airfoil thickness is shown, and comparisons are made of single slotted flaps with double slotted flaps on each of the airfoils.

  18. Performance characteristics from wind-tunnel tests of a low-Reynolds-number airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, Robert J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Jouty, Remi

    1988-01-01

    Wind tunnel lift and pitching-moment data have been obtained from pressure measurements, and drag data from wake surveys, for an Eppler 387 low Reynolds number airfoil over the Re range of 60,000 to 460,000; oil flow visualizations were also used to determine laminar separation and turbulent reattachment locations. Airfoil performance is found to be dominated by laminar separation bubbles below Re 200,000, and two flow regimes, namely laminar separations with and without turbulent reattachment, were observed at the same angle-of-attack for an Re of 60,000.

  19. The impact of unilateral vibrations on aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in transonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamuraev, V.; Kalinina, A.

    2016-06-01

    The work is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the influence of forced vibrations of a surface element on one side of the airfoil on the shock-wave structure of transonic flow around. The influence of parameters of oscillations on the airfoil wave drag and the lift force were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated for constant maximum velocity amplitude, which is close in magnitude to the sound velocity in the incoming flow, and for a wide range of frequencies. The arising of additional lift force is shown.

  20. An Empirical Method Permitting Rapid Determination of the Area, Rate and Distribution of Water-Drop Impingement on an Airfoil of Arbitrary Section at Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergrun, N. R.

    1951-01-01

    An empirical method for the determination of the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils of arbitrary section is presented. The procedure represents an initial step toward the development of a method which is generally applicable in the design of thermal ice-prevention equipment for airplane wing and tail surfaces. Results given by the proposed empirical method are expected to be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of heated-wing design, and can be obtained from a few numerical computations once the velocity distribution over the airfoil has been determined. The empirical method presented for incompressible flow is based on results of extensive water-drop. trajectory computations for five airfoil cases which consisted of 15-percent-thick airfoils encompassing a moderate lift-coefficient range. The differential equations pertaining to the paths of the drops were solved by a differential analyzer. The method developed for incompressible flow is extended to the calculation of area and rate of impingement on straight wings in subsonic compressible flow to indicate the probable effects of compressibility for airfoils at low subsonic Mach numbers.

  1. Computational design and analysis of flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  2. Computer program to prepare airfoil characteristic data for use in helicopter performance calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program developed to prepare wind tunnel generated airfoil data for input into helicopter performance prediction programs is described. The program provides for numerically cross plotting the data, plotting the data, and tabulating and punching the tabulated result into computer cards for use in the rotorcraft flight simulation model.

  3. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  4. A new airfoil design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henne, P. A.; Gregg, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    The present airfoil design concept is based on utilizing unconventional geometry characteristics near the airfoil trailing edge which include a finite trailing edge thickness, strongly divergent trailing edge upper and lower surfaces, and high surface curvature on the lower surface at or near the lower surface trailing edge. This paper presents computational analyses of airfoils and a wing utilizing the concept, airfoil validation wind tunnel test results of several configurations, and wing-validation wind tunnel test results for a complete wing design. In addition to validating the concept, the airfoil and wing testing provided additional detailed data to better understand the aerodynamic advantage of such an unconventional trailing edge configuration. It is demonstrated that the concept represents a significant step in airfoil technology beyond that achieved with the Supercritical Airfoil. This concept provides the aerodynamicist an additional degree of design freedom and flexibility previously unrecognized.

  5. Natural laminar flow airfoil design considerations for winglets on low-speed airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Winglet airfoil section characteristics which significantly influence cruise performance and handling qualities of an airplane are discussed. A good winglet design requires an airfoil section with a low cruise drag coefficient, a high maximum lift coefficient, and a gradual and steady movement of the boundary layer transition location with angle of attack. The first design requirement provides a low crossover lift coefficient of airplane drag polars with winglets off and on. The other requirements prevent nonlinear changes in airplane lateral/directional stability and control characteristics. These requirements are considered in the design of a natural laminar flow airfoil section for winglet applications and chord Reynolds number of 1 to 4 million.

  6. Airfoil structure

    DOEpatents

    Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.

    1998-01-13

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.

  7. Airfoil structure

    DOEpatents

    Frey, Gary A.; Twardochleb, Christopher Z.

    1998-01-01

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally "C" configuration of the airfoil. The generally "C" configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion.

  8. Analysis of a theoretically optimized transonic airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lores, M. E.; Burdges, K. P.; Shrewsbury, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical optimization was used in conjunction with an inviscid, full potential equation, transonic flow analysis computer code to design an upper surface contour for a conventional airfoil to improve its supercritical performance. The modified airfoil was tested in a compressible flow wind tunnel. The modified airfoil's performance was evaluated by comparison with test data for the baseline airfoil and for an airfoil developed by optimization of leading edge of the baseline airfoil. While the leading edge modification performed as expected, the upper surface re-design did not produce all of the expected performance improvements. Theoretical solutions computed using a full potential, transonic airfoil code corrected for viscosity were compared to experimental data for the baseline airfoil and the upper surface modification. These correlations showed that the theory predicted the aerodynamics of the baseline airfoil fairly well, but failed to accurately compute drag characteristics for the upper surface modification.

  9. Study of a new airfoil used in reversible axial fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Chaojun; Wei, Baosuo; Gu, Chuangang

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the reverse ventilation of axial flow are analyzed. An s shaped airfoil with a double circular arc was tested in a wind tunnel. The experimental results showed that the characteristics of this new airfoil in reverse ventilation are the same as those in normal ventilation, and that this airfoil is better than the existing airfoils used on reversible axial fans.

  10. Subsonic natural-laminar-flow airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Dan M.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the development history of natural laminar-flow (NLF) airfoil profiles under guidance of an experimentally well-verified theoretical method for the design of airfoils suited to virtually all subcritical applications. This method, the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Program, contains a conformal-mapping method for airfoils having prescribed velocity-distribution characteristics, as well as a panel method for the analysis of potential flow about given airfoils and a boundary-layer method. Several of the NLF airfoils thus obtained are discussed.

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils V : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, and 244

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This collection of data on airfoils has been made from published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of tests.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.

  13. Drag Measurements at Transonic Speeds of NACA 65-009 Airfoils Mounted on a Freely Falling Body to Determine the Effects of Sweepback and Aspect Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.; Thompson, Jim Rogers

    1947-01-01

    Drag measurements at transonic speeds on rectangular airfoils and on airfoils swept back 450 are reported. These airfoils, which were mounted on cylindrical test bodies, are part of a series being tested in free drops from high altitude to determine the effect of variation of basic airfoil parameters on airfoil drag characteristics at transonic speeds. These rectangular and swept-back airfoils had the same span, airfoil section (NACA 65-009), and chord perpendicular to the leading edge. The tests were made to compare the drag of rectangular and sweptback airfoils at a higher aspect ratio than had been used in a similar comparison reported previously. The results showed that the drag of the swept-back airfoil was less than 0.15 that of the rectangular airfoil at a Mach number of 1.00 and less than 0.30 that of the rectangular airfoil at a Mach number of 1.17. A comparison of these swept-back airfoils with similar airfoils of lower aspect ratio previously tested by the same method indicated that in the investigated speed range reduction in aspect ratio results in increased drag. In the highest part of the investigated speed range, however, the drag coefficient of the high-aspect-ratio swept-back airfoils showed a tendency to approach that of the lower-aspect-ratio swept-back airfoils. A similar comparison for the rectangular airfoils showed that delay in the drag rise and a reduction in drag at supercritical speeds can be realIzed through reduction in aspect ratio. These results confirm those reported in NACA ACR No. L5J16.

  14. User's manual for a 0.3-m TCT wall interference assessment/correction procedure: 8- by 24-inch airfoil test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A transonic Wall-Interference Assessment/Correction (WIAC) procedure has been developed and verified for the 8- by 24-inch airfoil test section of the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. This report is a user's manual for the correction procedure. It includes a listing of the computer procedure file as well as input for and results from a step-by-step sample case.

  15. Nonlinear Behavior of a Typical Airfoil Section with Control Surface Freeplay: A Numerical and Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, M. D.; Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.; Virgin, L. N.

    1997-01-01

    A three degree-of-freedom aeroelastic typical section with control surface freeplay is modeled theoretically as a system of piecewise linear state-space models. The system response is determined by time marching of the governing equations using a standard Runge-Kutta algorithm in conjunction with Henon's method for integrating a system of equations to a prescribed surface of phase space section. Henon's method is used to locate the "switching points" accurately and efficiently as the system moves from one linear region into another. An experimental model which closely approximates the three degree-of-freedom, typical section in two-dimensional, incompressible flow has been created to validate the theoretical model. Consideration is given to modeling realistically the structural damping present in the experimental system. The effect of the freeplay on the system response is examined numerically and experimentally. The development of the state-space model offers a low-order, computationally efficient means of modeling fully the freeplay nonlinearity and may offer advantages in future research which will investigate the effects of freeplay on the control of flutter in the typical section.

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of wings with cambered external airfoil flaps, including lateral control, with a full-span flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    The results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the NACA 23012, the NACA 23021, and the Clark Y airfoils, each equipped with a cambered external-airfoil flap, are presented in this report. The purpose of the research was to determine the relative merit of the various airfoils in combination with the cambered flap and to investigate the use of the flap as a combined lateral-control and high-lift device.

  17. A computer program for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 16-series airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksymiuk, C. M.; Watson, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program written in a table ""look-up'' format, is presented which provides a comprehensive data base on NACA 16-series airfoils. The geometry covered is limited to cambers for a design-lift coefficient from 0.0 to 0.7 and thickness ratios from 4 to 21%. The data include Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.6, angles of attack from -4 to 8 degrees, and lift coefficients from 0.0 to 0.8. Extrapolation is used to obtain data from Mach numbers, angles of attack, and lift coefficients beyond those for which data are available. A routine to adjust the lift and drag coefficients beyond stall is included. The uses and limitations of the program are also discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils III : continuation of reports nos. 93 and 124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1924-01-01

    This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this is the one most suited for international use and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and date of test.

  19. Experimental determination of the laminar separation bubble characteristics on an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omeara, M. M.; Mueller, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in order to document the structure and behavior of laminar separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers. Data of this type is necessary if the currently insufficient analytical and numerical models are to be improved. The laminar separation bubble which forms on a NACA 66(3)-018 airfoil model was surveyed at chord Reynolds numbers ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 at angles of attack from 8 to 12 degrees. The effects of the various testing conditions on the separation bubble were isolated, and the data was analyzed in relation to existing separation bubble correlations in order to test their low Reynolds number applicability. This analysis indicated that the chord Reynolds number and the disturbance environment strongly influence the experimental pressure distributions. These effects must be included in any analytic prediction technique applied to the low Reynolds number flight regime.

  20. The Surface Pressure Response of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Immersed in Grid Turbulence. Volume 1; Characteristics of the Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bereketab, Semere; Wang, Hong-Wei; Mish, Patrick; Devenport, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Two grids have been developed for the Virginia Tech 6 ft x 6 ft Stability wind tunnel for the purpose of generating homogeneous isotropic turbulent flows for the study of unsteady airfoil response. The first, a square bi-planar grid with a 12" mesh size and an open area ratio of 69.4%, was mounted in the wind tunnel contraction. The second grid, a metal weave with a 1.2 in. mesh size and an open area ratio of 68.2% was mounted in the tunnel test section. Detailed statistical and spectral measurements of the turbulence generated by the two grids are presented for wind tunnel free stream speeds of 10, 20, 30 and 40 m/s. These measurements show the flows to be closely homogeneous and isotropic. Both grids produce flows with a turbulence intensity of about 4% at the location planned for the airfoil leading edge. Turbulence produced by the large grid has an integral scale of some 3.2 inches here. Turbulence produced by the small grid is an order of magnitude smaller. For wavenumbers below the upper limit of the inertial subrange, the spectra and correlations measured with both grids at all speeds can be represented using the von Karman interpolation formula with a single velocity and length scale. The spectra maybe accurately represented over the entire wavenumber range by a modification of the von Karman interpolation formula that includes the effects of dissipation. These models are most accurate at the higher speeds (30 and 40 m/s).

  1. Additional Testing of the DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Iced Airfoil Section in the Ohio State University 7x10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, Gerald; Dresse, John J.; LaNoe, Karine; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for fundamental research in Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS) was established through three international conferences sponsored by the FAA. A joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994 with the Ohio State University playing a critical role for wind tunnel and analytical research. Two entries of a full-scale 2-dimensional tailplane airfoil model of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were made in The Ohio State University 7x10 ft wind tunnel. This report describes the second test entry that examined additional ice shapes and roughness, as well as airfoil section differences. The addition data obtained in this test fortified the original database of aerodynamic coefficients that permit a detailed analysis of flight test results with an OSU-developed analytical program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections at flight Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic coefficients, C(L), C(M), and C(He), were obtained by integrating static pressure coefficient, C(P), values obtained from surface taps. Comparisons of clean and iced airfoil results show a significant decrease in the tailplane aeroperformance (decreased C(Lmax), decreased stall angle, increased C(He)) for all ice shapes with the grit having the lease affect and the LEWICE shape having the greatest affect. All results were consistent with observed tailplane stall phenomena and constitute an effective set of data for comprehensive analysis of ICTS.

  2. An improved viscid/inviscid interaction procedure for transonic flow over airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R. R.; Mead, H. R.; Jameson, A.

    1985-01-01

    A new interacting boundary layer approach for computing the viscous transonic flow over airfoils is described. The theory includes a complete treatment of viscous interaction effects induced by the wake and accounts for normal pressure gradient effects across the boundary layer near trailing edges. The method is based on systematic expansions of the full Reynolds equation of turbulent flow in the limit of Reynolds numbers, Reynolds infinity. Procedures are developed for incorporating the local trailing edge solution into the numerical solution of the coupled full potential and integral boundary layer equations. Although the theory is strictly applicable to airfoils with cusped or nearly cusped trailing edges and to turbulent boundary layers that remain fully attached to the airfoil surface, the method was successfully applied to more general airfoils and to flows with small separation zones. Comparisons of theoretical solutions with wind tunnel data indicate the present method can accurately predict the section characteristics of airfoils including the absolute levels of drag.

  3. Transonic airfoil and axial flow rotary machine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Naonori; Iwatani, Junji

    2015-09-01

    Sectional profiles close to a tip 124 and a part between a midportion 125 and a hub 123 are shifted to the upstream of an operating fluid flow in a sweep direction. Accordingly, an S shape is formed in which the tip 124 and the part between the midportion 125 and the hub 123 protrude. As a result, it is possible reduce various losses due to shook, waves, thereby forming a transonic airfoil having an excellent aerodynamic characteristic.

  4. The effect of undulating leading-edge modifications on NACA 0021 airfoil characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamzadeh, N.; Kelso, R. M.; Dally, B. B.; Hansen, K. L.

    2013-11-01

    In spite of its mammoth physical size, the humpback whale's manoeuvrability in hunting has captured the attention of biologists as well as fluid mechanists. It has now been established that the protrusions on the leading-edges of the humpback's pectoral flippers, known as tubercles, account for this species' agility and manoeuvrability. In the present work, Prandtl's nonlinear lifting-line theory was employed to propose a hypothesis that the favourable traits observed in the performance of tubercled lifting bodies are not exclusive to this form of leading-edge configuration. Accordingly, a novel alternative to tubercles was introduced and incorporated into the design of four airfoils that underwent wind tunnel force and pressure measurement tests in the transitional flow regime. In addition, a Computation Fluid Dynamics study was performed using the Shear Stress Transport transitional model in the context of unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes at several attack angles. The results from the numerical investigation are in reasonable agreement with those of the experiments, and suggest the presence of features that are also observed in flows over tubercled foils, most notably a distinct pair of streamwise vortices for each wavelength of the tubercle-like feature.

  5. DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Airfoil Section Testing in the Ohio State University 7x10 Wind Tunnel. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltner, Dale; McKee, Michael; LaNoe, Karine; Gregorek, Gerald; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ice contaminated tailplane stall (ICTS) has been found to be responsible for 16 accidents with 139 fatalities over the last three decades, and is suspected to have played a role in other accidents and incidents. The need for fundamental research in this area has been recognized at three international conferences sponsored by the FAA since 1991. In order to conduct such research, a joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994: the Ohio State University has played an important role in this effort. The program employs icing tunnel testing, dry wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and analysis using a six-degrees-of-freedom computer code tailored to this problem. A central goal is to quantify the effect of tailplane icing on aircraft stability and control to aid in the analysis of flight test procedures to identify aircraft susceptibility to ICTS. This report contains the results ot testing of a full scale 2D model of a tailplane section of NASA's Icing Research Aircraft, with and without ice shapes, in an Ohio State University 7 x 10 Low Speed wind tunnel in 1994. The results have been integrated into a comprehensive database of aerodynamic coefficients and stability and control derivatives that will permit detailed analysis of flight test results with the analytical computer program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections, as well as two velocities to evaluate Reynolds number effects. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and hinge moment coefficients were obtained. In addition. instrumentation for use during flight testing was verified to be effective, all components showing acceptable fidelity. Comparison of clean and iced airfoil results show the ice shapes causing a significant decrease in the magnitude of CLmax (from -1.3 to -0.64) and associated stall angle (from -18.6 deg to -8.2 deg). Furthermore, the ice shapes caused an increase in hinge moment coefficient of approximately 0.02, the change being markedly abrupt

  6. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  7. An airfoil design method for viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Narramore, J. C.; Sankar, L. N.

    1990-01-01

    An airfoil design procedure is described that has been incorporated into an existing two-dimensional Navier-Stokes airfoil analysis method. The resulting design method, an iterative procedure based on a residual-correction algorithm, permits the automated design of airfoil sections with prescribed surface pressure distributions. This paper describes the inverse design method and the technique used to specify target pressure distributions. An example airfoil design problem is described to demonstrate application of the inverse design procedure. It shows that this inverse design method develops useful airfoil configurations with a reasonable expenditure of computer resources.

  8. Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

  9. Static-thrust Investigation of Full-scale PV-2 Helicopter Rotors Having NACA 0012.6 and 23012.6 Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipson, Stanley

    1946-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to compare the performance of two 25-ft-diam rotors which had identical dimensions and were similar in construction but different in blade airfoil-sections. Tests were conducted at indicated blade pitch angles from 3 degrees to 11.5 degrees and rotor speeds of 200, 290, and 371 rpm. The 23012.6 rotor required 2 percent less power to hover than the 0012.6. At thrust coefficients above design, the performance of the 23012.6 became better than the 0012.6 rotor.

  10. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14-percent-thick NASA phase 2 supercritical airfoil designed for a lift coefficient of 0.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.; Mcghee, R. J.; Allison, D. O.

    1980-01-01

    The low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14 percent thick supercritical airfoil are documented. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The effects of varying chord Reynolds number from 2,000,000 to 18,000,000 at a Mach number of 0.15 and the effects of varying Mach number from 0.10 to 0.32 at a Reynolds number of 6,000,000 are included.

  11. Wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23030 airfoil with various arrangements of slotted flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Recant, I G

    1940-01-01

    AN investigation was made of a large-chord NACA 23030 airfoil with a 40- and a 25.66 percent-chord slotted flap to determine the section aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil affected by flap chord, slot shape, flap position, and flap deflection. The flap positions for maximum lift, the position for minimum drag at moderate and high lift coefficients, and the complete section aerodynamic characteristics of selected optimum arrangements are given. Envelope polar of various flap arrangements are included. The relative merits of slotted flaps of different chords on the NACA 23030 airfoil are discussed, and a comparison is made of each flap size with a corresponding flap size on the NACA 23021 and 23012 airfoils. The lowest profile drags at moderate lift coefficients were obtained with an easy entrance to the slot. The 25.66-percent-chord slotted flap gave lower drag than the 40-percent-chord flap for lift coefficients less than 1.8, but the 40-percent-chord flap gave considerably lower drag for lift coefficients. The drag coefficients at moderate and high lift coefficients were greater with both sizes of flap on the NACA 23030 airfoil than on either the NACA 23021 or the NACA 23012 airfoil. The maximum lift coefficient for the deflections tested with either flap was practically independent of airfoil.

  12. Airfoil treatments for vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has taken three airfoil related approaches to decreasing the cost of energy of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) systems; airfoil sections designed specifically for VAWTs, vortex generators (VGs), and ''pumped spoiling.'' SNL's blade element airfoil section design effort has led to three promising natural laminar flow (NLF) sections. One section is presently being run on the SNL 17-m turbine. Increases in peak efficiency and more desirable dynamic stall regulation characteristics have been observed. Vane-type VGs were fitted on one DOE/Alcoa 100 kW VAWT. With approximately 12% of span having VGs, annual energy production increased by 5%. Pumped spoiling utilizes the centrifugal pumping capabilities of hollow blades. With the addition of small perforations in the surface of the blades and valves controlled by windspeed at the ends of each blade, lift spoiling jets may be generated inducing premature stall and permitting lower capacity, lower cost drivetrain components. SNL has demonstrated this concept on its 5-m turbine and has wind tunnel tested perforation geometries on one NLF section.

  13. The method of complex characteristics for design of transonic blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of computational methods were developed to obtain shockless or near shockless flow past two-dimensional airfoils. The approach used was the method of complex characteristics, which determines smooth solutions to the transonic flow equations based on an input speed distribution. General results from fluid mechanics are presented. An account of the method of complex characteristics is given including a description of the particular spaces and coordinates, conformal transformations, and numerical procedures that are used. The operation of the computer program COMPRES is presented along with examples of blade sections designed with the code. A user manual is included with a glossary to provide additional information which may be helpful. The computer program in Fortran, including numerous comment cards is listed.

  14. Computational Analysis of Dual Radius Circulation Control Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Vatsa, V. N.; Rumsey, C. L.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the work is to use multiple codes and multiple configurations to provide an assessment of the capability of RANS solvers to predict circulation control dual radius airfoil performance and also to identify key issues associated with the computational predictions of these configurations that can result in discrepancies in the predicted solutions. Solutions were obtained for the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) dual radius circulation control airfoil and the General Aviation Circulation Control (GACC) dual radius airfoil. For the GTRI-DR airfoil, two-dimensional structured and unstructured grid computations predicted the experimental trend in sectional lift variation with blowing coefficient very well. Good code to code comparisons between the chordwise surface pressure coefficients and the solution streamtraces also indicated that the detailed flow characteristics were matched between the computations. For the GACC-DR airfoil, two-dimensional structured and unstructured grid computations predicted the sectional lift and chordwise pressure distributions accurately at the no blowing condition. However at a moderate blowing coefficient, although the code to code variation was small, the differences between the computations and experiment were significant. Computations were made to investigate the sensitivity of the sectional lift and pressure distributions to some of the experimental and computational parameters, but none of these could entirely account for the differences in the experimental and computational results. Thus, CFD may indeed be adequate as a prediction tool for dual radius CC flows, but limited and difficult to obtain two-dimensional experimental data prevents a confident assessment at this time.

  15. Darrieus wind-turbine airfoil configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliore, P. G.; Fritschen, J. R.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose was to determine what aerodynamic performance improvement, if any, could be achieved by judiciously choosing the airfoil sections for Darrieus wind turbine blades. Ten different airfoils, having thickness to chord ratios of twelve, fifteen and eighteen percent, were investigated. Performance calculations indicated that the NACA 6-series airfoils yield peak power coefficients at least as great as the NACA. Furthermore, the power coefficient-tip speed ratio curves were broader and flatter for the 6-series airfoils. Sample calculations for an NACA 63 sub 2-015 airfoil showed an annual energy output increase of 17 to 27% depending upon rotor solidity, compared to an NACA 0015 airfoil. An attempt was made to account for the flow curvature effects associated with Darrieus turbines by transforming the NACA 63 sub 2-015 airfoil to an appropriate shape.

  16. Second Stage Turbine Bucket Airfoil.

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Liming; Ahmadi, Majid; Humanchuk, David John; Moretto, Nicholas; Delehanty, Richard Edward

    2003-05-06

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  17. Aerodynamic Forces and Loadings on Symmetrical Circular-Arc Airfoils with Plain Leading-Edge and Plain Trailing-Edge Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Jones F; Underwood, William J; Nuber, Robert J; Cheesman, Gail A

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel and in the Langley two-dimensional low-pressure tunnel of 6- and 10-percent-thick symmetrical circular-arc airfoil sections at low Mach numbers and several Reynolds numbers. The airfoils were equipped with 0.15-chord plain leading-edge flaps and 0.20-chord plan trailing-edge flaps. The section lift and pitching-moment characteristics were determined for both airfoils with the flaps deflected individually and in combination. The section drag characteristics were obtained for the 6-percent-thick airfoil with the flaps partly deflected as low-drag-control flaps and for airfoils with the flaps neutral. Surface pressures were measured on the 6-percent-thick airfoil section with the flaps deflected either individually or in appropriate combination to furnish flap load and hinge-moment data applicable to the structural design of the airfoil. A generalized method is developed that permits the determination of the chordwise pressure distribution over sharp-edge airfoils with plain leading-edge flaps and plain trailing-edge flaps of arbitrary size and deflection.

  18. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Effects of Profile Modification and Tabs on the Characteristics of Ailerons on a Low-Drag Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Robert M; Holtzclaw, Ralph W

    1944-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine the effect of control-surface profile modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA low-drag airfoil equipped with a 0.20-chord and a 0.15-chord aileron. Tab characteristics have been obtained for 0.20-aileron chord tabs on two of the 0.20-chord ailerons. Basic data are presented from which the effect of tabs can be calculated for specific cases. The data are sufficient for the solution of problems of fixed tabs with a differential linkage, as well as simple and spring-linked balancing tabs.

  19. Hybrid airfoil design methods for full-scale ice accretion simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Farooq

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a design method together with a design philosophy that allows the design of "subscale" or "hybrid" airfoils that simulate fullscale ice accretions. These subscale or hybrid airfoils have full-scale leading edges and redesigned aft-sections. A preliminary study to help develop a design philosophy for the design of hybrid airfoils showed that hybrid airfoils could be designed to simulate full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics and, therefore, ice accretion. The study showed that the primary objective in such a design should be to determine the aft section profile that provides the circulation necessary for simulating full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics. The outcome of the study, therefore, reveals circulation control as the main design variable. To best utilize this fact, this thesis describes two innovative airfoil design methods for the design of hybrid airfoils. Of the two design methods, one uses a conventional flap system while the other only suggests the use of boundary-layer control through slot-suction on the airfoil upper surface as a possible alternative for circulation control. The formulation of each of the two design methods is described in detail, and the results from each method are validated using wind-tunnel test data. The thesis demonstrates the capabilities of each method with the help of specific design examples highlighting their application potential. In particular, the flap-system based hybrid airfoil design method is used to demonstrate the design of a half-scale hybrid model of a full-scale airfoil that simulates full-scale ice accretion at both the design and off-design conditions. The full-scale airfoil used is representative of a scaled modern business-jet main wing section. The study suggests some useful advantages of using hybrid airfoils as opposed to full-scale airfoils for a better understanding of the ice accretion process and the related issues. Results

  20. High Lift, Low Pitching Moment Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Two families of airfoil sections which can be used for helicopter/rotorcraft rotor blades or aircraft propellers of a particular shape are prepared. An airfoil of either family is one which could be produced by the combination of a camber line and a thickness distribution or a thickness distribution which is scaled from these. An airfoil of either family has a unique and improved aerodynamic performance. The airfoils of either family are intended for use as inboard sections of a helicopter rotor blade or an aircraft propeller.

  1. Composite airfoil assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  2. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  3. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1996-10-08

    Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

  4. Description and Performance Characteristics of a Captive Airfoil Balloon System Used in the Initial Phase of the Aeropalynologic Survey Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silbert, Mendel N.

    1967-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a system analysis and operational evaluation of a captive airfoil balloon system. The system was used operationally in support of an Aeropalynologic Survey Project at NASA Wallops Island, Virginia, during the summer of 1966.

  5. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 deg swept high-wing model having a double-slotted flap system and a supercritical airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Goodson, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was conducted over an angle-of-attack range from about -4 deg to 20 deg in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effects of a double-slotted flap, high-lift system on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 deg swept high-wing model having a supercritical airfoil. The wing had an aspect ratio of 6.78 and a taper ratio of 0.36; the double-slotted flap consisted of a 35-percent-chord flap with a 15-percent-chord vane. The model was tested with a 15-percent-chord leading-edge slat.

  6. Navy propeller section characteristics as used in propeller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1926-01-01

    This report contains artificial aerodynamic characteristics of a set of propeller sections to be used in designing propellers by means of the blade element theory. Characteristics computed from model propeller tests for a single section are extended to cover sections of Navy propeller sections at high Reynolds Number in the variable density tunnel of the NACA.

  7. Wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of slotted flaps with extended lips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G

    1941-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the effect of slot-lip location on the aerodynamic section characteristics of an NACA 23012 airfoil with a 30-percent-chord slotted flap. Tests were made with slot lips located at 90 and 100 percent of the airfoil chord and with two different flap shapes. The results are compared with a slotted flap previously developed by the National advisory Committee for Aeronautics with a slot lip located at 83 percent of the airfoil chord. The extension of the slot lip to the rear increased the section lift and pitching-moment coefficients. Comparisons made on a basis of pitching moment for a given tail length show that the Fowler type flap, lip extended to trailing edge of the airfoil, has the greatest section lift coefficient. For moderate tail lengths, 2 to 3 chord lengths, there was only a slight difference between the previously developed slotted flap and the slotted flap with slot lip extended to 90 percent of the airfoil chord. Of the three flaps tested, the Fowler flap had the lowest drag coefficient at high lift coefficients. The extension of the lower surface at the leading edge of the slot had a negligible effect on the profile drag of the airfoil-flap arrangement with the flap deflected when the lip terminated at 90 percent of the airfoil chord.

  8. Airfoil shape for flight at subsonic speeds

    DOEpatents

    Whitcomb, Richard T.

    1976-01-01

    An airfoil having an upper surface shaped to control flow accelerations and pressure distribution over the upper surface and to prevent separation of the boundary layer due to shock wave formulation at high subsonic speeds well above the critical Mach number. A highly cambered trailing edge section improves overall airfoil lifting efficiency.

  9. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23021 Airfoil with a 0.32-Airfoil-Chord Double Slotted Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, Jack; Riebe, John M

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was made in the LMAL 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a NACA 23021 airfoil with a double slotted flap having a chord 32 percent of the airfoil chord (0.32c) to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics with the flaps deflected at various positions. The effects of moving the fore flap and rear flap as a unit and of deflecting or removing the lower lip of the slot were also determined. Three positions were selected for the fore flap and at each position the maximum lift of the airfoil was obtained with the rear flap at the maximum deflection used at that fore-flap position. The section lift of the airfoil increased as the fore flap was extended and maximum lift was obtained with the fore flap deflected 30 deg in the most extended position. This arrangement provided a maximum section lift coefficient of 3.31, which was higher than the value obtained with either a 0.2566c or a 0.40c single-slotted-flap arrangement and 0.25 less than the value obtained with a 0.4c double-slotted-flap arrangement on the same airfoil. The values of the profile-drag coefficient obtained with the 0.32c double slotted flap were larger than those for the 0.2566c or 0.40c single slotted flaps for section lift coefficients between 1.0 and approximately 2.7. At all values of the section lift coefficient above 1.0, the 0.40c double slotted flap had a lower profile drag than the 0.32c double slotted flap. At various values of the maximum section lift coefficient produced by various flap defections, the 0.32c double slotted flap gave negative section pitching-moment coefficients that were higher than those of other slotted flaps on the same airfoil. The 0.32c double slotted flap gave approximately the same maximum section lift coefficient as, but higher profile-drag coefficients over the entire lift range than, a similar arrangement of a 0.30c double slotted flap on an NACA 23012 airfoil.

  10. Generalized multi-point inverse airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    In a rather general sense, inverse airfoil design can be taken to mean the problem of specifying a desired set of airfoil characteristics, such as the airfoil maximum thickness ratio, pitching moment, part of the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development, etc., then from this information determine the corresponding airfoil shape. This paper presents a method which approaches the design problem from this perspective. In particular, the airfoil is divided into segments along which, together with the design conditions, either the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development may be prescribed. In addition to these local desired distributions, single parameters like the airfoil thickness can be specified. The problem of finding the airfoil shape is determined by coupling an incompressible, inviscid, inverse airfoil design method with a direct integral boundary-layer analysis method and solving the resulting nonlinear equations via a multidimensional Newton iteration technique. The approach is fast and easily allows for interactive design. It is also flexible and could be adapted to solving compressible, inverse airfoil design problems.

  11. Summary of high-lift and control surface research on NASA general aviation airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

    1981-01-01

    Summary findings and bibliographical information are presented for airfoil and airfoil-related research conducted at Wichita State University during the past decade. Topics include flap, aileron, and spoiler design data for new airfoils, extensive flow measurements, modifications to older airfoils, new symmetrical sections and contributions to analytical methods for cases with partial separation.

  12. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a model having a 42 deg swept low wing with a supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and a T-tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a general research model which simulated an advance configuration for a commercial transport airplane with a T tail. The model had a 42 deg swept, aspect ratio 6.78 wing with a supercritical airfoil and a high lift system which consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted flap. Various slat and flap deflection combinations represented clean, take off, and landing configurations. Effects on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined for two flow through, simulated engine nacelles located on the sides of the fuselage near the rear of the model.

  13. Multiple piece turbine engine airfoil with a structural spar

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.

    2011-10-11

    A multiple piece turbine airfoil having an outer shell with an airfoil tip that is attached to a root with an internal structural spar is disclosed. The root may be formed from first and second sections that include an internal cavity configured to receive and secure the one or more components forming the generally elongated airfoil. The internal structural spar may be attached to an airfoil tip and place the generally elongated airfoil in compression. The configuration enables each component to be formed from different materials to reduce the cost of the materials and to optimize the choice of material for each component.

  14. Darrieus wind-turbine airfoil configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Fritschen, J.R.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what aerodynamic performance improvement, if any, could be achieved by judiciously choosing the airfoil sections for Darrieus wind turbine blades. Analysis was limited to machines using two blades of infinite aspect ratio, having rotor solidites from seven to twenty-one percent, and operating at maximum Reynolds numbers of approximately three million. Ten different airfoils, having thickness to chord ratios of twelve, fifteen and eighteen percent, were investigated. Performance calculations indicated that the NACA 6-series airfoils yield peak power coefficients at least as great as the NACA four-digit airfoils which have historically been chosen for Darrieus turbines. Furthermore, the power coefficient-tip speed ratio curves were broader and flatter for the 6-series airfoils. Sample calculations for an NACA 63/sub 2/-015 airfoil showed an annual energy output increase of 17 to 27% depending upon rotor solidity, compared to an NACA 0015 airfoil. An attempt was made to account for the flow curvature effects associated with Darrieus turbines by transforming the NACA 63/sub 2/-015 airfoil to an appropriate shape.

  15. AFSMO/AFSCL- AIRFOIL SMOOTHING AND SCALING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L

    1994-01-01

    Since its early beginnings, NASA has been actively involved in the design and testing of airfoil sections for a wide variety of applications. Recently a set of programs has been developed to smooth and scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program, AFSMO, utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic-spline techniques to iteratively smooth the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. The camber and thickness distribution of the smooth airfoil are also computed. The scaling program, AFSCL, may then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specified maximum thickness. Once the thickness distribution has been scaled, it is combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. The airfoil smoothing and scaling programs are written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and have been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 70K (octal) of 60 bit words. Both programs generate plotted output via CALCOMP type plotting calls. These programs were developed in 1983.

  16. Airfoil shape for a turbine bucket

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Susan Marie; By, Robert Romany; Tressler, Judd Dodge; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Sims, Calvin Levy

    2005-06-28

    Third stage turbine buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth Table I wherein X and Y values are in inches and the Z values are non-dimensional values from 0 to 0.938 convertible to Z distances in inches by multiplying the Z values by the height of the airfoil in inches. The X and Y values are distances which, when connected by smooth continuing arcs, define airfoil profile sections at each distance Z. The profile sections at each distance Z are joined smoothly to one another to form a complete airfoil shape. The X and Y distances may be scalable as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled up or scaled down airfoil section for the bucket. The nominal airfoil given by the X, Y and Z distances lies within an envelop of .+-.0.150 inches in directions normal to the surface of the airfoil.

  17. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 6716 and NACA 4416 airfoils with 35 percent-chord single-slotted flaps. [low turbulence pressure tunnel tests to determine two dimensional lift and pitching moment characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional lift and pitching-moment characteristics of an NACA 6716 and an NACA 4416 airfoil with 35-percent-chord single-slotted flaps. Both models were tested with flaps deflected from 0 deg to 45 deg, at angles of attack from minus 6 deg to several degrees past stall, at Reynolds numbers from 3.0 million to 13.8 million, and primarily at a Mach number of 0.23. Tests were also made to determine the effect of several slot entry shapes on performance.

  18. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with Various Arrangements of Slotted Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris , Thomas A

    1939-01-01

    An investigation was made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and in the variable-density wind tunnel of the NACA 23012 airfoil with various slotted-flap arrangements. The purpose of the investigation in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel was to determine the airfoil section aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap shape, slot shape, and flap location. The flap position for maximum lift; polars for arrangements favorable for take-off and climb; and complete lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics for selected optimum arrangements were determined. The best arrangements were tested in the variable-density tunnel at an effective Reynolds number of 8,000,000. In addition, data from both wind tunnels are included for plain, split, external-airfoil, and Fowler flaps for purposes of comparison.

  19. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 16-percent-thick variable-geometry airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.; Noonan, K. W.; Mcghee, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of climb, cruise, and landing configurations. These tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.35, a chord Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 1 million to 20.0 x 1 million, and an angle-of-attack range from -8 deg to 20 deg. Results show that the maximum section lift coefficients increased in the Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 1 million to 9.0 x 1 million and reached values of approximately 2.1, 1.8, and 1.5 for the landing, climb, and cruise configurations, respectively. Stall characteristics, although of the trailing-edge type, were abrupt. The section lift-drag ratio of the climb configuration with fixed transition near the leading edge was about 78 at a lift coefficient of 0.9, a Mach number of 0.15, and a Reynolds number of 4.0 x 1 million. Design lift coefficients of 0.9 and 0.4 for the climb and cruise configurations were obtained at the same angle of attack, about 6 deg, as intended. Good agreement was obtained between experimental results and the predictions of a viscous, attached-flow theoretical method.

  20. Transonic airfoil design code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Garabedian, P.; Korn, D.

    1980-01-01

    Program aids in design of shockless airfoils, assists development of fuel-conserving, supercritical wings. Algorithm calculates approximate airfoil shape given prescribed pressure distribution. This allows design of families of transonic airfoils for use in aircraft wings or turbine and compressor blades. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution on CDC-6000.

  1. Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nhan Huu

    A new powered-lift airfoil concept called Leading Edge Embedded Fan (LEEF) is proposed for Extremely Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) and Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. The LEEF airfoil concept is a powered-lift airfoil concept capable of generating thrust and very high lift-coefficient at extreme angles-of attack (AoA). It is designed to activate only at the take-off and landing phases, similar to conventional flaps or slats, allowing the aircraft to operate efficiently at cruise in its conventional configuration. The LEEF concept consists of placing a crossflow fan (CFF) along the leading-edge (LE) of the wing, and the housing is designed to alter the airfoil shape between take-off/landing and cruise configurations with ease. The unique rectangular cross section of the crossflow fan allows for its ease of integration into a conventional subsonic wing. This technology is developed for ESTOL aircraft applications and is most effectively applied to General Aviation (GA) aircraft. Another potential area of application for LEEF is tiltrotor aircraft. Unlike existing powered high-lift systems, the LEEF airfoil uses a local high-pressure air source from cross-flow fans, does not require ducting, and is able to be deployed using distributed electric power systems throughout the wing. In addition to distributed lift augmentation, the LEEF system can provide additional thrust during takeoff and landing operation to supplement the primary cruise propulsion system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a conventional airfoil/wing using the NACA 63-3-418 section, commonly used in GA, and a LEEF airfoil/wing embedded into the same airfoil section were carried out to evaluate the advantages of and the costs associated with implementing the LEEF concept. Computational results show that significant lift and augmented thrust are available during LEEF operation while requiring only moderate fan power

  2. Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.; Choo, Yung K.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Pennline, James A.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Slater, John W.; Burke, Kevin M.; Nolan, Gerald J.; Brown, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    SmaggIce version 1.2 is a computer program for preparing and analyzing iced airfoils. It includes interactive tools for (1) measuring ice-shape characteristics, (2) controlled smoothing of ice shapes, (3) curve discretization, (4) generation of artificial ice shapes, and (5) detection and correction of input errors. Measurements of ice shapes are essential for establishing relationships between characteristics of ice and effects of ice on airfoil performance. The shape-smoothing tool helps prepare ice shapes for use with already available grid-generation and computational-fluid-dynamics software for studying the aerodynamic effects of smoothed ice on airfoils. The artificial ice-shape generation tool supports parametric studies since ice-shape parameters can easily be controlled with the artificial ice. In such studies, artificial shapes generated by this program can supplement simulated ice obtained from icing research tunnels and real ice obtained from flight test under icing weather condition. SmaggIce also automatically detects geometry errors such as tangles or duplicate points in the boundary which may be introduced by digitization and provides tools to correct these. By use of interactive tools included in SmaggIce version 1.2, one can easily characterize ice shapes and prepare iced airfoils for grid generation and flow simulations.

  3. Status of the special-purpose airfoil families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J. L.; Somers, D. M.

    1987-12-01

    This work is directed at developing thin and thick airfoil families, for rotors with diameters of 10 to 30 m, that enhance energy output at low to medium wind speeds and provide more consistent operating characteristics with lower fatigue loads at high wind speeds. Performance is enhanced through the use of laminar flow, while more consistent rotor operating characteristics at high wind speeds are achieved by tailoring the airfoil such that the maximum lift coefficient C sub 1 max is largely independent of roughness effects. Using the Eppler airfoil design code, two thin and one thick airfoil family were designed; each family has a root, outboard, and tip airfoil. Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to verify the predicted performance characteristics for both a thin and thick outboard airfoil from these families. Atmospheric tests on full-scale wind turbines will complete the verification process.

  4. Status of the special-purpose airfoil families

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1987-12-01

    This work is directed at developing thin and thick airfoil families, for rotors with diameters of 10 to 30 m, that enhance energy output at low to medium wind speeds and provide more consistent operating characteristics with lower fatigue loads at high wind speeds. Performance is enhanced through the use of laminar flow, while more consistent rotor operating characteristics at high wind speeds are achieved by tailoring the airfoil such that the maximum lift coefficient C/sub 1,max/ is largely independent of roughness effects. Using the Eppler airfoil design code, two thin and one thick airfoil family were designed; each family has a root, outboard, and tip airfoil. Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to verify the predicted performance characteristics for both a thin and thick outboard airfoil from these families. Atmospheric tests on full-scale wind turbines will complete the verification process. 3 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Separated transonic airfoil flow calculations with a nonequilibrium turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, L. S.; Johnson, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Navier-Stokes transonic airfoil calculations based on a recently developed nonequilibrium, turbulence closure model are presented for a supercritical airfoil section at transonic cruise conditions and for a conventional airfoil section at shock-induced stall conditions. Comparisons with experimental data are presented which show that this nonequilibrium closure model performs significantly better than the popular Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith equilibrium algebraic models when there is boundary-layer separation that results from the inviscid-viscous interactions.

  6. Performance predictions of VAWTs with NLF airfoil blades

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, C.; Leclerc, C.; Paraschivoiu, I.

    1997-02-01

    The successful design of an efficient Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) can be obtained only when appropriate airfoil sections have been selected. Most VAWTs currently operating worldwide use blades of symmetrical NACA airfoil series. As these blades were designed for aviation applications, Sandia National Laboratories developed a family of airfoils specifically designed for VAWTs in order to decrease the Cost of Energy (COE) of the VAWT (Berg, 1990). Objectives formulated for the blade profile were: modest values of maximum lift coefficient, low drag at low angle of attack, high drag at high angle of attack, sharp stall, and low thickness-to-chord ratio. These features are similar to those of Natural Laminar Flow airfoils (NLF) and gave birth to the SNLA airfoil series. This technical brief illustrates the benefits and losses resulting from using NLF airfoils on VAWT blades. To achieve this goal, the streamtube model of Paraschivoiu (1988) is used to predict the performance of VAWTs equipped with blades of various airfoil shapes. The airfoil shapes considered are the conventional airfoils NACA 0018 and NACA 0021, and the SNLA 0018/50 airfoil designed at Sandia. Furthermore, the potential benefit of reducing the airfoil drag is clearly illustrated by the presentation of the individual contributions of lift and drag to power.

  7. Effectiveness of spoilers on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a high performance Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path allowing lower surface air to escape to the upper surface as the spoiler opens alleviates control reversal and hysteresis tendencies. Spoiler cross-sectional shape variations generally have a modest influence on control characteristics. A series of comparative tests of vortex generators applied to the (GA-W)-1 airfoil show that triangular planform vortex generators are superior to square planform vortex generators of the same span.

  8. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Daniel L.; van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  9. Third-stage turbine bucket airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Pirolla, Peter Paul; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Humanchuk, David John; Brassfield, Steven Robert; Wilson, Paul Stuart

    2002-01-01

    The third-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinates defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  10. Second-stage turbine bucket airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; By, Robert Romany; Sims, Calvin L.; Hyde, Susan Marie

    2002-01-01

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X and Y values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket. The second-stage wheel has sixty buckets.

  11. Simplified dragonfly airfoil aerodynamics at Reynolds numbers below 8000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham

    2009-07-01

    Effective aerodynamics at Reynolds numbers lower than 10 000 is of great technological interest and a fundamental scientific challenge. The current study covers a Reynolds number range of 2000-8000. At these Reynolds numbers, natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development. Insect wings are commonly characterized by corrugated airfoils. In particular, the airfoil of the dragonfly, which is able to glide, can be used for two-dimensional aerodynamic study of fixed rigid wings. In this study, a simplified dragonfly airfoil is numerically analyzed in a steady free-stream flow. The aerodynamic performance (such as mean and fluctuating lift and drag), are first compared to a "traditional" low Reynolds number airfoil: the Eppler-E61. The numerical results demonstrate superior performances of the corrugated airfoil. A series of low-speed wind and water tunnel experiments were performed on the corrugated airfoil, to validate the numerical results. The findings indicate quantitative agreement with the mean wake velocity profiles and shedding frequencies while validating the two dimensionality of the flow. A flow physics numerical study was performed in order to understand the underlying mechanism of corrugated airfoils at these Reynolds numbers. Airfoil shapes based on the flow field characteristics of the corrugated airfoil were built and analyzed. Their performances were compared to those of the corrugated airfoil, stressing the advantages of the latter. It was found that the flow which separates from the corrugations and forms spanwise vortices intermittently reattaches to the aft-upper arc region of the airfoil. This mechanism is responsible for the relatively low intensity of the vortices in the airfoil wake, reducing the drag and increasing the flight performances of this kind of corrugated airfoil as compared to traditional low Reynolds number airfoils such as the Eppler E-61.

  12. Transonic airfoil analysis and design in nonuniform flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. F.; Lan, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    A nonuniform transonic airfoil code is developed for applications in analysis, inverse design and direct optimization involving an airfoil immersed in propfan slipstream. Problems concerning the numerical stability, convergence, divergence and solution oscillations are discussed. The code is validated by comparing with some known results in incompressible flow. A parametric investigation indicates that the airfoil lift-drag ratio can be increased by decreasing the thickness ratio. A better performance can be achieved if the airfoil is located below the slipstream center. Airfoil characteristics designed by the inverse method and a direct optimization are compared. The airfoil designed with the method of direct optimization exhibits better characteristics and achieves a gain of 22 percent in lift-drag ratio with a reduction of 4 percent in thickness.

  13. A computer program for the design and analysis of low-speed airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Somers, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A conformal mapping method for the design of airfoils with prescribed velocity distribution characteristics, a panel method for the analysis of the potential flow about given airfoils, and a boundary layer method have been combined. With this combined method, airfoils with prescribed boundary layer characteristics can be designed and airfoils with prescribed shapes can be analyzed. All three methods are described briefly. The program and its input options are described. A complete listing is given as an appendix.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Shock-stall Flutter of an Airfoil using the Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, K.

    1993-08-01

    In order to confirm qualitatively that the experimentally observed, unusual flutter phenomenon for a high-aspect-ratio (non-tailored) forward swept wing model is indeed shock-stall flutter, the aeroelastic response calculation of a two-dimensional airfoil whose vibration characteristics are similar to those of the typical section of a forward swept wing, has been performed by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. By examination of the flow pattern, pressure distribution and the behavior of the unsteady aerodynamic forces during the diverging oscillation of the airfoil, it is concluded that (i) this is a shock-stall flutter, in which the large-scale shock-induced flow separation plays a dominant role and (ii) there is a mechanism of energy input into the elastic system of the airfoil, leading to nearly a single-degree-of-freedom flutter.

  15. Determination of forced convective heat transfer coefficients for subsonic flows over heated asymmetric NANA 4412 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dag, Yusuf

    Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0

  16. Development of drive mechanism for an oscillating airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticht, Clifford D.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an in-draft wind tunnel test section which will be used to study the dynamic stall of airfoils oscillating in pitch is described. The hardware developed comprises a spanned airfoil between schleiren windows, a four bar linkage, flywheels, a drive system and a test section structure.

  17. On the Design of Lifting Airfoils with High Critical Mach Number Using Full Potential Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropinski, M. C. A.

    We wish to construct airfoils that have the highest free-stream Mach number for a given set of geometric constraints for which the flow is nowhere supersonic. Nonlifting airfoils that maximize the critical Mach number for a given cross-sectional area are known to possess long sonic segments at their critical speed. To construct lifting airfoils, we proceed under the conjecture that an airfoil with a high value of has the longest possible arc length of sonic velocity over its upper and lower surface. In Kropinski etal. (1995) the lifting problem was tackled in transonic small-disturbance theory. In this paper we numerically construct lifting airfoils with high using the full potential theory and we show that these airfoils have significantly higher than some standard airfoils. We also construct airfoils with higher values of the lift coefficient, by relaxing the speed constraint on the lower surface of the airfoil to have a value less than sonic.

  18. Design and test of a natural laminar flow/large Reynolds number airfoil with a high design cruise lift coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolesar, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    Research activity on an airfoil designed for a large airplane capable of very long endurance times at a low Mach number of 0.22 is examined. Airplane mission objectives and design optimization resulted in requirements for a very high design lift coefficient and a large amount of laminar flow at high Reynolds number to increase the lift/drag ratio and reduce the loiter lift coefficient. Natural laminar flow was selected instead of distributed mechanical suction for the measurement technique. A design lift coefficient of 1.5 was identified as the highest which could be achieved with a large extent of laminar flow. A single element airfoil was designed using an inverse boundary layer solution and inverse airfoil design computer codes to create an airfoil section that would achieve performance goals. The design process and results, including airfoil shape, pressure distributions, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented. A two dimensional wind tunnel model was constructed and tested in a NASA Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel which enabled testing at full scale design Reynolds number. A comparison is made between theoretical and measured results to establish accuracy and quality of the airfoil design technique.

  19. Airfoil self-noise and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow. The prediction methods for the individual self-noise mechanisms are semiempirical and are based on previous theoretical studies and data obtained from tests of two- and three-dimensional airfoil blade sections. The self-noise mechanisms are due to specific boundary-layer phenomena, that is, the boundary-layer turbulence passing the trailing edge, separated-boundary-layer and stalled flow over an airfoil, vortex shedding due to laminar boundary layer instabilities, vortex shedding from blunt trailing edges, and the turbulent vortex flow existing near the tip of lifting blades. The predictions are compared successfully with published data from three self-noise studies of different airfoil shapes. An application of the prediction method is reported for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements. A computer code of the method is given.

  20. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils with Fowler Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Anderson, Walter B

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests made of a Clark y airfoil with a Clark y Fowler flap and of an NACA 23012 airfoil with NACA Fowler flaps. Some of the tests were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and others in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoils and on the flaps for several angles of attack with the flaps located at the maximum-lift settings. A test installation was used in which the model was mounted in the wind tunnel between large end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are given in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as plots of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and for the flaps alone.

  1. Summary of Drag Characteristics of Practical-Construction Wing Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, John H , Jr

    1948-01-01

    The effect of several parameters on the drag characteristics of practical-construction wing sections have been considered and evaluated. The effects considered were those of surface roughness, surface waviness, compressive load, and de-icers. The data were obtained from a number of tests in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels.

  2. Figures of merit for airfoil/aircraft design integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughmer, Mark D.; Somers, Dan M.

    1988-01-01

    Because the airfoil can so strongly impact other aspects of an aircraft configuration, it is important that the airfoil design process be integrated with that of the aircraft to achieve the best possible performance of a new flight vehicle. To aid in preliminary design efforts, several aerodynamic figures of merit are presented which facilitate the matching of the airfoil performance characteristics to those of the aircraft. These figures of merit are fairly general and can assist the airfoil design process for flight vehicles designed for maximum endurance, range, or ceiling. Although specifically applicable to vehicles for which the wing area is sized by some required minimum airspeed, the discussion is pertinent to all airfoil/aircraft matching situations and points the way for developing similar figures of merit to aid the airfoil/aircraft design process for any flight vehicle.

  3. An analytical study for the design of advanced rotor airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical study has been conducted to design and evaluate two airfoils for helicopter rotors. The best basic shape, designed with a transonic hodograph design method, was modified to meet subsonic criteria. One airfoil had an additional constraint for low pitching-moment at the transonic design point. Airfoil characteristics were predicted. Results of a comparative analysis of helicopter performance indicate that the new airfoils will produce reduced rotor power requirements compared to the NACA 0012. The hodograph design method, written in CDC Algol, is listed and described.

  4. Airfoil design method using the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Narramore, J. C.; Sankar, L. N.

    1991-01-01

    An airfoil design procedure is described that was incorporated into an existing 2-D Navier-Stokes airfoil analysis method. The resulting design method, an iterative procedure based on a residual-correction algorithm, permits the automated design of airfoil sections with prescribed surface pressure distributions. The inverse design method and the technique used to specify target pressure distributions are described. It presents several example problems to demonstrate application of the design procedure. It shows that this inverse design method develops useful airfoil configurations with a reasonable expenditure of computer resources.

  5. Airfoil design for variable RPM horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoerck, Anders

    1990-01-01

    The design criteria for new airfoils for a variable speed horizontal axis wind turbine are described. The two series of airfoils developed are characterized by high design lift coefficients in order to achieve small blade chords, high lift drag ratios for the airfoil sections designed for the outer part of the blade, performance insensitivity to surface roughness, and a gentle stall at an angle of attack in order to reduce excessive loads. Each series consists of airfoils with varying thickness to chord ratios for different radial stations. Interpolation between the two series is possible.

  6. The design and analysis of low-speed airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Somers, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    PROFILE program solves diverse and inverse airfoil-flow problems. It combines conformational mapping method for design of airfoils with prescribed velocity-distribution characteristics, panel method for potential-flow analysis, and boundary-layer method. PROFILE is written in FORTRAN IV for implementation on CDC 6000-series computer.

  7. Analytical studies of new airfoils for wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Calhoun, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    Computer studies were conducted to analyze the potential gains associated with utilizing new airfoils for large wind turbine rotor blades. Attempts to include 3-dimensional stalling effects were inconclusive. It is recommended that blade pressure measurements be made to clarify the nature of blade stalling. It is also recommended that new laminar flow airfoils be used as rotor blade sections.

  8. Smoothing and scaling airfoil coordinates on a personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, P.K.C.; Scott, G.N.

    1989-12-01

    A mainframe computer program written for smoothing and scaling successfully coordinates by Harry L. Morgan, Jr., of NASA Langley Research Center was successfully adapted for use on personal computers (IBM PC or compatible microcomputers). The program was modified with a new format for input/output files, keyboard selection of plotting and printing options, and the ability to preview plots on a PC monitor before pen plotting. The new source code was then recompiled on a PC and used mainly for the purpose of supporting in-house aerodynamic research work. It was made compatible with other in-house codes. This report lists the system specifications for PCs and describes briefly the NASA Langley program and its theories used for smoothing and scaling airfoil coordinates. A flow chart of the program and the input/output files are explained in detail. A step-by-step manual of executing the code on a PC and the results of sample runs are included. Also included is an evaluation section of airfoil performance characteristics by using a low Reynolds number airfoil design and analysis computer code created by Dr. Eppler to demonstrate the significance or any discrepancies as a result of the smoothing and scaling. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Airfoil System for Cruising Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Liu, Tianshu (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An airfoil system includes an airfoil body and at least one flexible strip. The airfoil body has a top surface and a bottom surface, a chord length, a span, and a maximum thickness. Each flexible strip is attached along at least one edge thereof to either the top or bottom surface of the airfoil body. The flexible strip has a spanwise length that is a function of the airfoil body's span, a chordwise width that is a function of the airfoil body's chord length, and a thickness that is a function of the airfoil body's maximum thickness.

  10. Preliminary Investigation to Determine Propeller Section Characteristics by Measuring the Pressure Distribution on an NACA 10-(3)(08)-03 Propeller Under Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Albert J; Liner, George

    1948-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the propeller-section characteristics by measuring the pressure distribution on the airfoil sections of a rotating propeller. The pressures were measured at nine radial stations on an NACA 10-(3)(08)-03 design two-blade propeller. This paper presents the results of the pressure measurements in the form of normal-force and moment coefficients and covers a range of nominal angle of attack (simple blade element theory) from 0 degrees to 4 degrees for a section Mach number range of approximately 0.6 to 1.15 for the outboard stations and approximately 0.3 to 0.6 for inboard stations.

  11. An experimental investigation of the effect of vortex generators on the aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA 0021 airfoil undergoing large amplitude pitch oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Rueger, M.L.; Gregorek, G.M. . Dept. of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    A NACA 0021 14-chord airfoil was subjected to large amplitude pitch oscillations in The Ohio State University Low Speed Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 6}. Surface pressures were measured with an electronically scanned pressure measurement system at sampling rates up to 50 Hz. Data were acquired for the clean airfoil and for the airfoil with vortex generators located at 0.1 and 0.3 chord distances aft of the leading edge. The vortex generators increase the maximum lift coefficient and the lift curve slope for both the static and dynamic tests. The magnitude and detail of the vortex generator effects were found to depend on the amplitude and frequency of the pitch oscillations. 18 refs., 76 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P.; Pepper, Edward

    1940-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests of several propeller, cuff, and spinner combinations were conducted in the 20 foot propeller-research tunnel. Three propellers, which ranged in diameter from 8.4 to 11.25 feet, were tested at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners of two diameters. The tests covered a blade angle range from 20 deg to 65 deg. The effect of spinner diameter and propeller cuffs on the characteristics of one propeller was determined. Test were also conducted using a propeller which incorporated aerodynamically good shank sections and using one which incorporated the NACA 16 series sections for the outer 20 percent of the blades. Compressibility effects were not measured, owing to the low testing speeds. The results indicated that a conventional propeller was slightly more efficient when tested in conjunction with a 28 inch diameter spinner than with a 23 inch spinner, and that cuffs increased the efficiency as well as the power absorption characteristics. A propeller having good aerodynamic shanks was found to be definitely superior from the efficiency standpoint to a conventional round-shank propeller with or without cuffs; this propeller would probably be considered structurally impracticable, however. The propeller incorporating the NACA 16 series sections at the tims were found to have a slightly higher efficiency than a conventional propeller; the take-off characteristics appeared to be equally good. The effects noted above probably would be accentuated at helical speeds at which compressibility effects would enter.

  13. Internal-external flow integration for a thin ejector-flapped wing section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolard, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    Thin airfoil theories of an ejector flapped wing section are reviewed. The global matching of the external airfoil flow with the ejector internal flow and the overall ejector flapped wing section aerodynamic performance are examined. Mathematical models of the external and internal flows are presented. The delineation of the suction flow coefficient characteristics are discussed. The idealized lift performance of an ejector flapped wing relative to a jet augmented flapped wing are compared.

  14. Russian Laminar Flow Airfoils 3rd Part: Measurements on the Profile No. 2315 BIS with Ava-Nose Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegels, F.

    1947-01-01

    The tests on the Russian airfoil 2315 Bis were continued. This airfoil shows, according to Moscow tests, good laminar flow characteristics. Several tests were prepared in the large wind tunnel at Gottingen; partial results were obtained.

  15. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  16. Effect of Compressibility on Pressure Distribution over an Airfoil with a Slotted Frise Aileron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luoma, Avro A

    1944-01-01

    Pressure distribution measurements were made over an airfoil with slotted Frise aileron up to 0.76 Mach at various angles of attack and aileron defections. Section characteristics were determined from these pressure data. Results indicated loss of aileron rolling power for deflections ranging from -12 Degrees to -19 Degrees. High stick forces for non-differential deflections incurred at high speed, which were due to overbalancing tendency of up-moving aileron, may precipitate serious control difficulties. Detailed results are presented graphically.

  17. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  18. Micro-actuation characteristics of rocket conical shell sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, W. K.; Han, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Tzou, H. S.

    2006-05-01

    Rocket fairings, load-carrying structures of solid rocket motor case, e.g., inter-stage joint, satellite-rocket joint, etc., usually take the shape of conical shell sections. This paper is to evaluate spatially distributed microscopic control characteristics of distributed actuator patches bonded on conical shell surfaces. The converse effect of piezoelectric materials has been recognized as one of the best electromechanical effects for precision distributed control applications. The resultant control forces and micro-control actions induced by the distributed actuators depend on applied voltages, geometrical (e.g., spatial segmentation and shape) and material (i.e., various actuator materials) properties. Mathematical models and modal domain governing equations of the conical shell section laminated with distributed actuator patches are presented first, followed by formulations of distributed control forces and micro-control actions which can be divided into longitudinal/circumferential membrane and bending control components. Spatially distributed electromechanical microscopic actuation characteristics and control effects resulting from various longitudinal/circumferential actions of actuator patches are evaluated.

  19. Some new airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer approach to the design and analysis of airfoils and some common problems concerning laminar separation bubbles at different lift coefficients are briefly discussed. Examples of application to ultralight airplanes, canards, and sailplanes with flaps are given.

  20. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Plasma Actuator Control of Modified Flat-back Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Benjamin; Corke, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Flat-back airfoil designs have been proposed for use on the inboard portion of large wind turbine blades because of their good structural characteristics. These structural characteristics are achieved by adding material to the aft portion of the airfoil while maintaining the camber of the origional airfoil shape. The result is a flat vertical trailing edge which increases the drag and noise produced by these airfoils. In order to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of these airfoils, the use of single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators was investigated experimentally and numerically. To accomplish this, a rounded trailing edge was added to traditional flat-back airfoil and plasma actuators were used symmetrically to control the flow separation casued by the blunt trailing edge. The actuators were used asymmetrically in order to vector the wake and increase the lift produced by the airfoil similar to adding camber.

  1. Tailored airfoils for vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of a family of airfoil sections designed to be used as blade elements of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. This evolution consists of extensive computer simulation, wind tunnel testing and field testing. The process reveals that significant reductions in system costs-of-energy and increases in fatigue lifetime may be expected for VAWT systems using these blade elements.

  2. Tailored airfoils for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines*

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1984-08-01

    The evolution of a family of airfoil sections designed to be used as blade elements of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. This evolution consists of extensive computer simulation, wind tunnel testing and field testing. The process reveals that significant reductions in system cost-ofenergy and increases in fatigue lifetime may be expected for VAWT systems using these blade elements.

  3. Tailored airfoils for vertical axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1984-11-01

    The evolution of a family of airfoil sections designed to be used as blade elements of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. This evolution consists of extensive computer simulation, wind tunnel testing and field testing. The process reveals that significant reductions in system costs-of-energy and increases in fatigue lifetime may be expected for VAWT systems using these blade elements.

  4. NASA supercritical airfoils: A matrix of family-related airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA supercritical airfoil development program is summarized in a chronological fashion. Some of the airfoil design guidelines are discussed, and coordinates of a matrix of family related supercritical airfoils ranging from thicknesses of 2 to 18 percent and over a design lift coefficient range from 0 to 1.0 are presented.

  5. Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.

    2014-06-01

    , compatibility for the different airfoil family members, etc.) and with the ultimate objective that the airfoils will reduce the blade loads. In this paper the whole airfoil design process and the main characteristics of the airfoil family are described. Some force coefficients for the design Reynolds number are also presented. The new designed airfoils have been studied with computational calculations (panel method code and CFD) and also in a wind tunnel experimental campaign. Some of these results will be also presented in this paper.

  6. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    2000-01-01

    Airfoils for the tip and mid-span regions of a wind turbine blade have upper surface and lower surface shapes and contours between a leading edge and a trailing edge that minimize roughness effects of the airfoil and provide maximum lift coefficients that are largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil in one embodiment is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen to seventeen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 2,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.4 to 1.5. In another embodiment, the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen percent to sixteen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 3,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 0.7 to 1.5. Another embodiment of the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a Reynolds in a range of about 1,500,000 to 4,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.0 to 1.5.

  7. Airfoils for wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    2000-05-30

    Airfoils for the tip and mid-span regions of a wind turbine blade have upper surface and lower surface shapes and contours between a leading edge and a trailing edge that minimize roughness effects of the airfoil and provide maximum lift coefficients that are largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil in one embodiment is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen to seventeen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 2,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.4 to 1.5. In another embodiment, the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen percent to sixteen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 3,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 0.7 to 1.5. Another embodiment of the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a Reynolds in a range of about 1,500,000 to 4,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.0 to 1.5.

  8. An Approach to the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Bradford E.

    1997-01-01

    A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integral turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the laminar flow toward the desired amount. An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

  9. An approach to the constrained design of natural laminar flow airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Bradford Earl

    1995-01-01

    A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integml turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the larninar flow toward the desired amounl An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

  10. Robust, Optimal Subsonic Airfoil Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2014-01-01

    A method has been developed to create an airfoil robust enough to operate satisfactorily in different environments. This method determines a robust, optimal, subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape, and imposes the necessary constraints on the design. Also, this method is flexible and extendible to a larger class of requirements and changes in constraints imposed.

  11. Wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.; Tangler, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to leading-edge roughness effects. The 24 percent thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur at a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. Data were obtained with transition free and transition fixed for Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds number of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 6}, the maximum lift coefficient with transition free is 1.32, which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted maximum lift coefficient of almost 1.6. With transition fixed at the leading edge, the maximum lift coefficient is 1.22. The small difference in maximum lift coefficient between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low maximum-lift-coefficient tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

  12. An experimental low Reynolds number comparison of a Wortmann FX67-K170 airfoil, a NACA 0012 airfoil and a NACA 64-210 airfoil in simulated heavy rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Anthony P.; Hansman, R. John

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were conducted on Wortmann FX67-K170, NACA 0012, and NACA 64-210 airfoils at rain rates of 1000 mm/hr and Reynolds numbers of 310,000 to compare the aerodynamic performance degradation of the airfoils and to attempt to identify the various mechanisms which affect performance in heavy rain conditions. Lift and drag were measured in dry and wet conditions, a variety of flow visualization techniques were employed, and a computational code which predicted airfoil boundary layer behavior was used. At low angles of attack, the lift degradation in wet conditions varied significantly between the airfoils. The Wortmann section had the greatest overall lift degradation and the NACA 64-210 airfoil had the smallest. At high angles of attack, the NACA 64-210 and 0012 airfoils had improved aerodynamic performance in rain conditions due to an apparent reduction of the boundry layer separation. Performance degradation in heavy rain for all three airfoils at low angles of attack could be emulated by forced boundary layer transition near the leading edge. The secondary effect occurs at time scales consistent with top surface water runback times. The runback layer is thought to effectively alter the airfoil geometry. The severity of the performance degradation for the airfoils varied. The relative differences appeared to be related to the susceptibility of each airfoil to premature boundary layer transition.

  13. Design of a shape adaptive airfoil actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy strip for airplane tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzadeh, R.; Raissi Charmacani, K.; Tabesh, M.

    2011-04-01

    Of the factors that mainly affect the efficiency of the wing during a special flow regime, the shape of its airfoil cross section is the most significant. Airfoils are generally designed for a specific flight condition and, therefore, are not fully optimized in all flight conditions. It is very desirable to have an airfoil with the ability to change its shape based on the current regime. Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators activate in response to changes in the temperature and can recover their original configuration after being deformed. This study presents the development of a method to control the shape of an airfoil using SMA actuators. To predict the thermomechanical behaviors of an SMA thin strip, 3D incremental formulation of the SMA constitutive model is implemented in FEA software package ABAQUS. The interactions between the airfoil structure and SMA thin strip actuator are investigated. Also, the aerodynamic performance of a standard airfoil with a plain flap is compared with an adaptive airfoil.

  14. Characterization of the Effect of Wing Surface Instrumentation on UAV Airfoil Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently proposed flight research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has prompted study into the aerodynamic effects of modifications made to the surfaces of laminar airfoils. The research is focused on the high-aspect ratio, laminar-flow type wings commonly found on UAVs and other aircraft with a high endurance requirement. A broad range of instrumentation possibilities, such as structural, pressure, and temperature sensing devices may require the alteration of the airfoil outer mold line as part of the installation process. This study attempts to characterize the effect of installing this additiona1 instrumentation on key airfoil performance factors, such as transition location, lift and drag curves, and stall point. In particular, the general case of an airfoil that is channeled in the spanwise direction is considered, and the impact on key performance characteristics is assessed. Particular attention is focused on exploring the limits of channel depth and low-Reynolds number on performance and stall characteristics. To quantify the effect of increased skin friction due to premature transition caused by protruding or recessed instrumentation, two simplified, conservative scenarios are used to consider two potential sources of diaturbance: A) that leading edge alterations would cause linearly expanding areas (triangles) of turbulent flow on both surfaces of the wing upstream of the natural transition point, and B) that a channel or bump on the upper surface would trip turbulent flow across the whole upper surface upstream of the natural transition point. A potentially more important consideration than the skin friction drag increment is the change in overall airfoil performance due to the installation of instrumentation along most of the wingspan. To quantify this effect, 2D CFD simulations of the flow over a representative mid-span airfoil section were conducted in order to assess the change in lift and drag curves for the airfoil in the presence of

  15. Reynolds number, thickness and camber effects on flapping airfoil propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, M. A.; Young, J.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2011-02-01

    The effect of varying airfoil thickness and camber on plunging and combined pitching and plunging airfoil propulsion at Reynolds number Re=200, 2000, 20 000 and 2×106 was studied by numerical simulations for fully laminar and fully turbulent flow regimes. The thickness study was performed on 2-D NACA symmetric airfoils with 6-50% thick sections undergoing pure plunging motion at reduced frequency k=2 and amplitudes h=0.25 and 0.5, and for combined pitching and plunging motion at k=2, h=0.5, phase ϕ=90°, pitch angle θo=15° and 30° and the pitch axis was located at 1/3 of chord from leading edge. At Re=200 for motions where positive thrust is generated, thin airfoils outperform thick airfoils. At higher Re significant gains could be achieved both in thrust generation and propulsive efficiency by using a thicker airfoil section for plunging and combined motion with low pitch amplitude. The camber study was performed on 2-D NACA airfoils with varying camber locations undergoing pure plunging motion at k=2, h=0.5 and Re=20 000. Little variation in thrust performance was found with camber. The underlying physics behind the alteration in propulsive performance between low and high Reynolds numbers has been explored by comparing viscous Navier-Stokes and inviscid panel method results. The role of leading edge vortices was found to be key to the observed performance variation.

  16. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2010-11-09

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of hook shaped struts each mounted within channels extending in a spanwise direction of the spar and the shell to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also fanning a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure. The hook struts have a hooked shaped end and a rounded shaped end in order to insert the struts into the spar.

  17. Turbine airfoil film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hylton, Larry D.

    1986-10-01

    Emphasis is placed on developing more accurate analytical models for predicting turbine airfoil external heat transfer rates. Performance goals of new engines require highly refined, accurate design tools to meet durability requirements. In order to obtain improvements in analytical capabilities, programs are required which focus on enhancing analytical techniques through verification of new models by comparison with relevant experimental data. The objectives of the current program are to develop an analytical approach, based on boundary layer theory, for predicting the effects of airfoil film cooling on downstream heat transfer rates and to verify the resulting analytical method by comparison of predictions with hot cascade data obtained under this program.

  18. Improved design of subcritical and supercritical cascades using complex characteristics and boundary layer correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The method of complex characteristics and hodograph transformation for the design of shockless airfoils was extended to design supercritical cascades with high solidities and large inlet angles. This capability was achieved by introducing a conformal mapping of the hodograph domain onto an ellipse and expanding the solution in terms of Tchebycheff polynomials. A computer code was developd based on this idea. A number of airfoils designed with the code are presented. Various supercritical and subcritical compressor, turbine and propeller sections are shown. The lag-entrainment method for the calculation of a turbulent boundary layer was incorporated to the inviscid design code. The results of this calculation are shown for the airfoils described. The elliptic conformal transformation developed to map the hodograph domain onto an ellipse can be used to generate a conformal grid in the physical domain of a cascade of airfoils with open trailing edges with a single transformation. A grid generated with this transformation is shown for the Korn airfoil.

  19. Turbine airfoil with controlled area cooling arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, George

    2010-04-27

    A gas turbine airfoil (10) includes a serpentine cooling path (32) with a plurality of channels (34,42,44) fluidly interconnected by a plurality of turns (38,40) for cooling the airfoil wall material. A splitter component (50) is positioned within at least one of the channels to bifurcate the channel into a pressure-side channel (46) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the pressure side (24) and a suction-side channel (48) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the suction side (26) longitudinally downstream of an intermediate height (52). The cross-sectional area of the pressure-side channel (46) and suction-side channel (48) are thereby controlled in spite of an increasing cross-sectional area of the airfoil along its longitudinal length, ensuring a sufficiently high mach number to provide a desired degree of cooling throughout the entire length of the airfoil.

  20. Second-order subsonic airfoil theory including edge effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Milton D

    1956-01-01

    Several recent advances in plane subsonic flow theory are combined into a unified second-order theory for airfoil sections of arbitrary shape. The solution is reached in three steps: the incompressible result is found by integration, it is converted into the corresponding subsonic compressible result by means of the second-order compressibility rule, and it is rendered uniformly valid near stagnation points by further rules. Solutions for a number of airfoils are given and are compared with the results of other theories and of experiment. A straight-forward computing scheme is outlined for calculating the surface velocities and pressures on any airfoil at any angle of attack

  1. Airfoil Design and Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between global performance of a typical helicopter and the airfoil environment, as represented by the airfoil angles of attack and Mach number, has been examined using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. A general correspondence is observed between global performance parameters, such as rotor L/D, and airfoil performance parameters, such as airfoil L/D, the drag bucket boundaries, and the divergence Mach number. Effects of design parameters such as blade twist and rotor speed variation have been examined and, in most cases, improvements observed in global performance are also observed in terms of airfoil performance. The relations observed between global Performance and the airfoil environment suggests that the emphasis in airfoil design should be for good L/D, while the maximum lift coefficient performance is less important.

  2. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  3. The Effects of the Critical Ice Accretion on Airfoil and Wing Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, Michael S.; Bragg, Michael B.; Saeed, Farooq

    1998-01-01

    In support of the NASA Lewis Modern Airfoils Ice Accretion Test Program, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provided expertise in airfoil design and aerodynamic analysis to determine the aerodynamic effect of ice accretion on modern airfoil sections. The effort has concentrated on establishing a design/testing methodology for "hybrid airfoils" or "sub-scale airfoils," that is, airfoils having a full-scale leading edge together with a specially designed and foreshortened aft section. The basic approach of using a full-scale leading edge with a foreshortened aft section was considered to a limited extent over 40 years ago. However, it was believed that the range of application of the method had not been fully exploited. Thus a systematic study was being undertaken to investigate and explore the range of application of the method so as to determine its overall potential.

  4. The Role of Separation Bubbles on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils, Including Stall and Post-Stall, at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Hsun H.; Cebeci, Tuncer

    2007-01-01

    Airfoils at high Reynolds numbers, in general, have small separation bubbles that are usually confined to the leading edge. Since the Reynolds number is large, the turbulence model for the transition region between the laminar and turbulent flow is not important. Furthermore, the onset of transition occurs either at separation or prior to separation and can be predicted satisfactorily by empirical correlations when the incident angle is small and can be assumed to correspond to laminar separation when the correlations do not apply, i.e., at high incidence angles.

  5. A finite-difference method for transonic airfoil design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steger, J. L.; Klineberg, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes an inverse method for designing transonic airfoil sections or for modifying existing profiles. Mixed finite-difference procedures are applied to the equations of transonic small disturbance theory to determine the airfoil shape corresponding to a given surface pressure distribution. The equations are solved for the velocity components in the physical domain and flows with embedded shock waves can be calculated. To facilitate airfoil design, the method allows alternating between inverse and direct calculations to obtain a profile shape that satisfies given geometric constraints. Examples are shown of the application of the technique to improve the performance of several lifting airfoil sections. The extension of the method to three dimensions for designing supercritical wings is also indicated.

  6. First-stage high pressure turbine bucket airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Theresa A.; Ahmadi, Majid; Clemens, Eugene; Perry, II, Jacob C.; Holiday, Allyn K.; Delehanty, Richard A.; Jacala, Ariel Caesar

    2004-05-25

    The first-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinates defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  7. Technology for pressure-instrumented thin airfoil models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A novel method of airfoil model construction was developed. This Laminated Sheet technique uses 0.8 mm thick sheets of A286 containing a network of pre-formed channels which are vacuum brazed together to form the airfoil. A 6.25 percent model of the X29A canard, which has a 5 percent thick section, was built using this technique. The model contained a total of 96 pressure orifices, 56 in three chordwise rows on the upper surface and 37 in three similar rows on the lower surface. It was tested in the NASA Langley 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Unique aerodynamic data was obtained over the full range of temperature and pressure. Part of the data was at transonic Mach numbers and flight Reynolds number. A larger two dimensional model of the NACA 64a-105 airfoil section was also fabricated. Scale up presented some problems, but a testable airfoil was fabricated.

  8. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kortovich, C.

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  9. Buffeting of NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong; Dowell, Earl

    2014-11-01

    Buffeting is a fluid instability caused by flow separation or shock wave oscillations in the flow around a bluff body. Typically there is a dominant frequency of these flow oscillations called Strouhal or buffeting frequency. In prior work several researchers at Duke University have noted the analogy between the classic Von Karman Vortex Street behind a bluff body and the flow oscillations that occur for flow around a NACA 0012 airfoil at sufficiently large angle of attack. Lock-in is found for certain combinations of airfoil oscillation (pitching motion) frequencies and amplitudes when the frequency of the airfoil motion is sufficiently close to the buffeting frequency. The goal of this paper is to explore the flow around a static and an oscillating airfoil at high angle of attack by developing a method for computing buffet response. Simulation results are compared with experimental data. Conditions for the onset of buffeting and lock-in of a NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack are determined. Effects of several parameters on lift coefficient and flow response frequency are studied including Reynolds number, angle of attack and blockage ratio of the airfoil size to the wind tunnel dimensions. Also more detailed flow field characteristics are determined. For a static airfoil, a universal Strouhal number scaling has been found for angles of attack from 30° to 90°, where the flow around airfoil is fully separated. For an oscillating airfoil, conditions for lock-in are discussed. Differences between the lock-in case and the unlocked case are also studied. The second affiliation: Duke University.

  10. Peak power and blade loads on stall-regulated rotors as influenced by different airfoil families

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L.; Tu, P.K.C.

    1988-08-01

    At the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), new airfoils have been developed to help improve the performance and economics of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTS). The objective of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of one of these airfoil families to other commonly used airfoil series for a typical three-bladed, stall-regulated HAWT. The traditional airfoil series chosen for comparison with SERI's new thin airfoil family were the NACA 23XXX, NACA 44XX, and NASA LS(1). The Micon 110 wind turbine was chosen because it is a typical three-bladed, stall-regulated rigid rotor system. The performance characteristics of the different airfoil series were derived analytically using the Eppler airfoil design code in the analysis mode. On a relative basis, this approach to comparing airfoils was considered more accurate than using airfoil performance characteristics based on wind-tunnel test data. After generating the performance characteristics for each airfoil series, the subsequent rotor performance and blade loads were calculated using SERI's PROPSH computer code. Resulting annual energy output, which is dependent on the wind-speed distribution, was calculated using SERI's Systems Engineering and Analysis Computer Code (SEACC). The results of the study show that fixed-wing airfoils generally result in excessive peak power for stall regulated, rigid rotors. By operating the wind turbine at a less desirable blade pitch angle, peak power can be reduced at the expense of higher mean blade loads and lower annual energy output. In contrast, the thin airfoil family was designed to reduce peak power at optimum blade pitch to minimize blade loads and maximize annual energy output. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Catalog of low-Reynolds-number airfoil data for wind-turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, S.J.

    1982-02-01

    A literature survey was performed to acquire airfoil data at low Reynolds numbers which would be applicable to small wind energy conversion systems. The data were screened and the most reliable compiled into a catalog. Each entry includes airfoil coordinates, lift, drag and pitching moment characteristics in both graphical and tabular form. A discussion in elementary terms is given concerning airfoil behavior and the effects of Reynolds number, surface roughness and turbulence.

  12. Effects of wing height on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a model having a 42 deg swept wing, a supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and a low tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A low speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal lateral stability characteristics of a general research model with the wing in a high position and a low position on the fuselage. The model had a wing with a quarter chord sweep of 42 deg, an aspect ratio of 6.78, a supercritical airfoil, and a high lift system which consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted flap. Various slat and flap deflections represented clean, take off, and landing configurations. A 45 deg swept horizontal tail located slightly below the fuselage center line was investigated with both the low and high wing configurations.

  13. Status of NASA advanced LFC airfoil high-lift study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a high lift system for the NASA advanced LFC airfoil designed by Pfenninger is described. The high lift system consists of both leading and trailing edge flaps. A 3 meter semispan, 1 meter chord wing model using the above airfoil and high lift system is under construction and will be tested in the NASA Langley 4 by 7 meter tunnel. This model will have two separate full span leading edge flaps (0.10c and 0.12c) and one full span trailing edge flap (0.25c). The performance of this high lift system was predicted by the NASA two dimensional viscous multicomponent airfoil program. This program was also used to predict the characteristics of the LFC airfoils developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company and Lockheed-Georgia Aircraft Company.

  14. Holography and LDV techniques, their status and use in airfoil research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The measurement capabilities of laser velocimetry and holographic interferometry in transonic airfoil testing were demonstrated. Presented are representative results obtained with these two nonintrusive techniques on a 15.24 cm chord airfoil section. These results include the density field about the airfoil, flow angles in the inviscid flow and viscous flow properties including the turbulent Reynolds stresses. The accuracies of the density fields obtained by interferometry were verified from comparisons with surface pressure and laser velocimeter measurements.

  15. An experimental study of a bio-inspired corrugated airfoil for micro air vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeffery T.; Hu, Hui

    2010-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of a bio-inspired corrugated airfoil compared with a smooth-surfaced airfoil and a flat plate at the chord Reynolds number of Re C = 58,000-125,000 to explore the potential applications of such bio-inspired corrugated airfoils for micro air vehicle designs. In addition to measuring the aerodynamic lift and drag forces acting on the tested airfoils, a digital particle image velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flowfield measurements to quantify the transient behavior of vortex and turbulent flow structures around the airfoils. The measurement result revealed clearly that the corrugated airfoil has better performance over the smooth-surfaced airfoil and the flat plate in providing higher lift and preventing large-scale flow separation and airfoil stall at low Reynolds numbers (Re C < 100,000). While aerodynamic performance of the smooth-surfaced airfoil and the flat plate would vary considerably with the changing of the chord Reynolds numbers, the aerodynamic performance of the corrugated airfoil was found to be almost insensitive to the Reynolds numbers. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the aerodynamic force measurement data to elucidate underlying physics to improve our understanding about how and why the corrugation feature found in dragonfly wings holds aerodynamic advantages for low Reynolds number flight applications.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  17. Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel test an orientation parameter for the slat airfoil is initially obtained. Further a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double-element airfoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using ANSYS CFX software. It is observed that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved.

  18. Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamics of Thin Airfoils with Porosity Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajian, Rozhin; Jaworski, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    Porous treatments have been shown in previous studies to reduce turbulence noise generation from the edges of wings and blades. However, this acoustical benefit can come at the cost of aerodynamic performance that is degraded by seepage flow through the wing. To better understand the trade-off between acoustic stealth and the desired airfoil performance, the aerodynamic loads of a thin airfoil in uniform flow with a prescribed porosity distribution are determined analytically in closed form, provided that the distribution is Hölder-continuous. The theoretical model is extended to include unsteady heaving and pitching motions of the airfoil section, which has applications to the performance estimation of biologically-inspired swimmers and fliers and to the future assessment of vortex noise production from porous airfoils.

  19. Cooled highly twisted airfoil for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kildea, R.J.

    1988-04-19

    This patent describes a cooled highly twisted airfoil for use in a gas turbine engine. The airfoil has a first cooling air cavity adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil, and a second cooling air cavity, separated from the first cavity by a wall. The second cavity provides cooling air to the first cavity by means of cooling holes provided in the wall. The improvement is characterized by: the wall comprising an integrally formed, continuous warped wall, defined as a surface of revolution about an axis, the axis determined such that the axis intersects the plane of a section close to a desired centerline of a series of impingement holes aligned in opposition to the leading edge, whereby cooling air is directed relatively precisely to the leading edge of the highly twisted airfoil through the impingement holes.

  20. Study of the TRAC Airfoil Table Computational System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Hong

    1999-01-01

    The report documents the study of the application of the TRAC airfoil table computational package (TRACFOIL) to the prediction of 2D airfoil force and moment data over a wide range of angle of attack and Mach number. The TRACFOIL generates the standard C-81 airfoil table for input into rotorcraft comprehensive codes such as CAM- RAD. The existing TRACFOIL computer package is successfully modified to run on Digital alpha workstations and on Cray-C90 supercomputers. A step-by-step instruction for using the package on both computer platforms is provided. Application of the newer version of TRACFOIL is made for two airfoil sections. The C-81 data obtained using the TRACFOIL method are compared with those of wind-tunnel data and results are presented.

  1. An extended theory of thin airfoils and its application to the biplane problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millikan, Clark B

    1931-01-01

    The report presents a new treatment, due essentially to von Karman, of the problem of the thin airfoil. The standard formulae for the angle of zero lift and zero moment are first developed and the analysis is then extended to give the effect of disturbing or interference velocities, corresponding to an arbitrary potential flow, which are superimposed on a normal rectilinear flow over the airfoil. An approximate method is presented for obtaining the velocities induced by a 2-dimensional airfoil at a point some distance away. In certain cases this method has considerable advantage over the simple "lifting line" procedure usually adopted. The interference effects for a 2-dimensional biplane are considered in the light of the previous analysis. The results of the earlier sections are then applied to the general problem of the interference effects for a 3-dimensional biplane, and formulae and charts are given which permit the characteristics of the individual wings of an arbitrary biplane without sweepback or dihedral to be calculated. In the final section the conclusions drawn from the application of the theory to a considerable number of special cases are discussed, and curves are given illustrating certain of these conclusions and serving as examples to indicate the nature of the agreement between the theory and experiment.

  2. An Iterative Decambering Approach for Post-Stall Prediction of Wing Characteristics using known Section Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, Rinku; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2003-01-01

    An iterative decambering approach for the post stall prediction of wings using known section data as inputs is presented. The method can currently be used for incompressible .ow and can be extended to compressible subsonic .ow using Mach number correction schemes. A detailed discussion of past work on this topic is presented first. Next, an overview of the decambering approach is presented and is illustrated by applying the approach to the prediction of the two-dimensional C(sub l) and C(sub m) curves for an airfoil. The implementation of the approach for iterative decambering of wing sections is then discussed. A novel feature of the current e.ort is the use of a multidimensional Newton iteration for taking into consideration the coupling between the di.erent sections of the wing. The approach lends itself to implementation in a variety of finite-wing analysis methods such as lifting-line theory, discrete-vortex Weissinger's method, and vortex lattice codes. Results are presented for a rectangular wing for a from 0 to 25 deg. The results are compared for both increasing and decreasing directions of a, and they show that a hysteresis loop can be predicted for post-stall angles of attack.

  3. Shape Changing Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Scoping of shape changing airfoil concepts including both aerodynamic analysis and materials-related technology assessment effort was performed. Three general categories of potential components were considered-fan blades, booster and compressor blades, and stator airfoils. Based on perceived contributions to improving engine efficiency, the fan blade was chosen as the primary application for a more detailed assessment. A high-level aerodynamic assessment using a GE90-90B Block 4 engine cycle and fan blade geometry indicates that blade camber changes of approximately +/-4deg would be sufficient to result in fan efficiency improvements nearing 1 percent. Constraints related to flight safety and failed mode operation suggest that use of the baseline blade shape with actuation to the optimum cruise condition during a portion of the cycle would be likely required. Application of these conditions to the QAT fan blade and engine cycle was estimated to result in an overall fan efficiency gain of 0.4 percent.

  4. Airfoil with nested cooling channels

    SciTech Connect

    Levengood, J.L.; Auxier, T.A.

    1988-06-28

    A turbine blade is described which consists of a root portion and wall means integral with the root portion defining an airfoil, the wall means including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, joined together to define a forwardly located leading edge and rearwardly located trailing edge of the airfoil and spaced apart to define a spanwise and chordwise extending coolant cavity within the airfoil, and root portion including root passage means therethrough for receiving coolant fluid form outside the blade and for directing the fluid into the airfoil cavity.

  5. Low-speed wind-tunnel results for symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James C.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Barnwell, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test has been conducted in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to evaluate the performance of a symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil which is a 13-percent-thick, low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was obtained from the thickness distribution of a 13-percent-thick, high-performance airfoil developed for general aviation airplanes. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.10 tp 0.37 over a Reynolds number range from about 0.6 to 12.0 X 10 to the 6th power. The angle of attack varied from about -8 to 20 degrees. The results indicate that the aerodynamic characteristics of the present airfoil are similar to, but slightly better than, those of the NACA 0012 airfoil.

  6. Synthesized airfoil data method for prediction of dynamic stall and unsteady airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangwani, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed analysis of dynamic stall experiments has led to a set of relatively compact analytical expressions, called synthesized unsteady airfoil data, which accurately describe in the time-domain the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of stalled airfoils. An analytical research program was conducted to expand and improve this synthesized unsteady airfoil data method using additional available sets of unsteady airfoil data. The primary objectives were to reduce these data to synthesized form for use in rotor airload prediction analyses and to generalize the results. Unsteady drag data were synthesized which provided the basis for successful expansion of the formulation to include computation of the unsteady pressure drag of airfoils and rotor blades. Also, an improved prediction model for airfoil flow reattachment was incorporated in the method. Application of this improved unsteady aerodynamics model has resulted in an improved correlation between analytic predictions and measured full scale helicopter blade loads and stress data.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of bodies with rectangular cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoche, H. G.; Schamel, W.; Esch, H.; Schneider, W.

    Systematic wind tunnel tests for a series of missile bodies were conducted by varying cross section shape and body length in the subsonic Mach number range and up to high angles of attack. Tests with a body-wing and a body-tail configuration were performed in order to investigate the body-wing and body-tail interference for bodies of revolution and bodies with rectangular cross section. At a constant angle of attack, the boxlike body supplies far more normal force than the body of revolution with the same cross section area. The boxlike body shows strong coupling effects between the pitch, yaw and roll. The interference effect of the wing and body can be described well, in the case of boxlike bodies with wings in high or low wing positions, by the known slender body interference factors, assuming the width of the box to be the diameter of an equivalent, axially symetrical body.

  8. Impingement of Water Droplets on NACA 65A004 Airfoil at 8 deg Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, R. J.; Gallagher, H. M.; Vogt, D. E.

    1954-01-01

    The trajectories of droplets in the air flowing past an NACA 65AO04 airfoil at an angle of attack of 8 deg were determined.. The amount of water in droplet form impinging on the airfoil, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement per unit area on the airfoil surface were calculated from the trajectories and presented to cover a large range of flight and atmospheric conditions. These impingement characteristics are compared briefly with those previously reported for the same airfoil at an angle of attack of 4 deg.

  9. Experimental studies of the Eppler 61 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, T. F.; Mueller, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to document the effects of separation and transition on the performance of an airfoil designed for low Reynolds number operation are presented. Lift, drag and flow visualization data were obtained for the Eppler 61 airfoil section for chord Reynolds numbers from about 30,000 to over 200,000. Smoke flow visualization was employed to document the boundary layer behavior and was correlated with the Eppler airfoil design and analysis computer program. Laminar separation, transition and turbulent reattachment had significant effects on the performance of this airfoil.

  10. Inverse airfoil design procedure using a multigrid Navier-Stokes method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Swanson, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Modified Garabedian McFadden (MGM) design procedure was incorporated into an existing 2-D multigrid Navier-Stokes airfoil analysis method. The resulting design method is an iterative procedure based on a residual correction algorithm and permits the automated design of airfoil sections with prescribed surface pressure distributions. The new design method, Multigrid Modified Garabedian McFadden (MG-MGM), is demonstrated for several different transonic pressure distributions obtained from both symmetric and cambered airfoil shapes. The airfoil profiles generated with the MG-MGM code are compared to the original configurations to assess the capabilities of the inverse design method.

  11. NREL airfoil families for HAWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J. L.; Somers, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The development of special-purpose airfoils for horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) began in 1984 as a joint effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), and Airfoils, Incorporated. Since that time seven airfoil families have been designed for various size rotors using the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code. A general performance requirement of the new airfoil families is that they exhibit a maximum lift coefficient (c(sub l,max)) which is relatively insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil families address the needs of stall-regulated, variable-pitch, and variable-rpm wind turbines. For stall-regulated rotors, better peak-power control is achieved through the design of tip airfoils that restrain the maximum lift coefficient. Restrained maximum lift coefficient allows the use of more swept disc area for a given generator size. Also, for stall-regulated rotors, tip airfoils with high thickness are used to accommodate overspeed control devices. For variable-pitch and variable-rpm rotors, tip airfoils having a high maximum lift coefficient lend themselves to lightweight blades with low solidity. Tip airfoils having low thickness result in less drag for blades having full-span pitch control. Annual energy improvements from the NREL airfoil families are projected to be 23% to 35% for stall-regulated turbines, 8% to 20% for variable-pitch turbines, and 8% to 10% for variable-rpm turbines. The improvement for stall-regulated turbines has been verified in field tests.

  12. NREL airfoil families for HAWTs

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The development of special-purpose airfoils for horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) began in 1984 as a joint effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), and Airfoils, Incorporated. Since that time nine airfoil families have been designed for various size rotors using the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code. A general performance requirement of the new airfoil families is that they exhibit a maximum lift coefficient (c{sub 1,max}) which is relatively insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil families address the needs of stall-regulated, variable-pitch, and variable-rpm wind turbines. For stall-regulated rotors, better peak-power control is achieved through the design of tip airfoils that restrain the maximum lift coefficient. Restrained maximum lift coefficient allows the use of more swept disc area for a given generator size. Also, for stall-regulated rotors, tip airfoils with high thickness are used to accommodate overspeed control devices. For variable-pitch and variable-rpm rotors, tip airfoils having a high maximum lift coefficient lend themselves to lightweight blades with low solidity. Tip airfoils having low thickness result in less drag for blades having full-span pitch control. Annual energy improvements from the NREL airfoil families are projected to be 23% to 35% for stall-regulated turbines, 8% to 20% for variable-pitch turbines, and 8% to 10% for variable-rpm turbines. The improvement for stall-regulated turbines has been verified in field tests.

  13. NREL airfoil families for HAWTs

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J L; Somers, D M

    1995-01-01

    The development of special-purpose airfoils for horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) began in 1984 as a joint effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), and Airfoils, Incorporated. Since that time seven airfoil families have been designed for various size rotors using the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code. A general performance requirement of the new airfoil families is that they exhibit a maximum lift coefficient (c{sub l,max}) which is relatively insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil families address the needs of stall-regulated, variable-pitch, and variable-rpm wind turbines. For stall-regulated rotors, better peak-power control is achieved through the design of tip airfoils that restrain the maximum lift coefficient. Restrained maximum lift coefficient allows the use of more swept disc area for a given generator size. Also, for stall-regulated rotors, tip airfoils with high thickness are used to accommodate overspeed control devices. For variable-pitch and variable-rpm rotors, tip airfoils having a high maximum lift coefficient lend themselves to lightweight blades with low solidity. Tip airfoils having low thickness result in less drag for blades having full-span pitch control. Annual energy improvements from the NREL airfoil families are projected to be 23% to 35% for stall-regulated turbines, 8% to 20% for variable-pitch turbines, and 8% to 10% for variable-rpm turbines. The improvement for stall-regulated turbines has been verified in field tests.

  14. Low Reynolds number airfoil survey, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, B. H.

    1981-01-01

    The differences in flow behavior two dimensional airfoils in the critical chordlength Reynolds number compared with lower and higher Reynolds number are discussed. The large laminar separation bubble is discussed in view of its important influence on critical Reynolds number airfoil behavior. The shortcomings of application of theoretical boundary layer computations which are successful at higher Reynolds numbers to the critical regime are discussed. The large variation in experimental aerodynamic characteristic measurement due to small changes in ambient turbulence, vibration, and sound level is illustrated. The difficulties in obtaining accurate detailed measurements in free flight and dramatic performance improvements at critical Reynolds number, achieved with various types of boundary layer tripping devices are discussed.

  15. Development of the highly loaded axial flow turbine airfoils, making use of the improved inverse channel flow design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, K.

    1985-11-01

    To reduce the number of the turbine airfoils or the solidity as far as possible without increasing energy loss, a study of highly loaded turbine airfoils was conducted. These airfoils were designed for the typical velocity diagrams of the first and second stages of a jet engine low pressure turbine. With regard to the design procedures, an improved inverse method, and also a boundary layer analysis technique were employed to optimize the airfoil shapes. These airfoils, and state-of-the-art aft loaded conventional airfoils designed for almost equivalent velocity diagrams were tested in the high speed cascade wind tunnel. The airfoils showed lower kinetic energy loss coefficient characteristics and wider useful incidence ranges over the wider range extended to the high subsonic regime compared with the aft loaded ones, in spite of their higher loading. In addition to some main parts of the design procedures, theoretical and experimental results are discussed.

  16. Lift enhancing tabs for airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tab deployable from the trailing edge of a main airfoil element forces flow onto a following airfoil element, such as a flap, to keep the flow attached and thus enhance lift. For aircraft wings with high lift systems that include leading edge slats, the slats may also be provided with tabs to turn the flow onto the following main element.

  17. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications. PMID:19151103

  18. Turbine airfoil to shround attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X; Morrison, Jay A; James, Allister W; Snider, Raymond G; Eshak, Daniel M; Marra, John J; Wessell, Brian J

    2014-05-06

    A turbine airfoil (31) with an end portion (42) that tapers (44) toward the end (43) of the airfoil. A ridge (46) extends around the end portion. It has proximal (66) and distal (67) sides. A shroud platform (50) is bi-cast onto the end portion around the ridge without bonding. Cooling shrinks the platform into compression (62) on the end portion (42) of the airfoil. Gaps between the airfoil and platform are formed using a fugitive material (56) in the bi-casting stage. These gaps are designed in combination with the taper angle (44) to accommodate differential thermal expansion while maintaining a gas seal along the contact surfaces. The taper angle (44) may vary from lesser on the pressure side (36) to greater on the suction side (38) of the airfoil. A collar portion (52) of the platform provides sufficient contact area for connection stability.

  19. Experimental investigation of a transonic potential flow around a symmetric airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiller, W. J.; Meier, G. E. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental flow investigations on smooth airfoils were done using numerical solutions for transonic airfoil streaming with shockless supersonic range. The experimental flow reproduced essential sections of the theoretically computed frictionless solution. Agreement is better in the expansion part of the of the flow than in the compression part. The flow was nearly stationary in the entire velocity range investigated.

  20. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamics of a NACA 64A010 airfoil-flap combination with and without flap oscillations. Part 1: Steady-state characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, Donald A.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1986-01-01

    A NACA 64A010 airfoil with a sealed-gap 1/4-chord flap was tested between splitter plates in the NASA Ames 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.85, and Reynolds numbers based on chord from 3 to 13 million. Although the main purpose of the test was to obtain unsteady pressure data with the flap oscillating, no unsteady data are presented in this paper. The steady-state data are presented and compared with other test data to provide a basis for evaluating the results. Pressure data at two span stations are used to deduce early boundary-layer transitions at the midspan at higher Mach numbers, angles of attack, and flap angles. The effects of flap angle on pressures, normal force, pitching moment, and hinge moment are also presented in the report. Mach number errors caused by the splitter-plate configuration and the angle of attack are evaluated using pressure measurements near the floor and ceiling of the wind tunnel.

  1. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L J; Dryden, H L

    1927-01-01

    This report deals with the pressure distribution over airfoils at high speeds, and describes an extension of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of certain airfoils which was presented in NACA Technical Report no. 207. The results presented in report no. 207 have been confirmed and extended to higher speeds through a more extensive and systematic series of tests. Observations were also made of the air flow near the surface of the airfoils, and the large changes in lift coefficients were shown to be associated with a sudden breaking away of the flow from the upper surface. The tests were made on models of 1-inch chord and comparison with the earlier measurements on models of 3-inch chord shows that the sudden change in the lift coefficient is due to compressibility and not to a change in the Reynolds number. The Reynolds number still has a large effect, however, on the drag coefficient. The pressure distribution observations furnish the propeller designer with data on the load distribution at high speeds, and also give a better picture of the air-flow changes.

  2. On the general theory of thin airfoils for nonuniform motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reissner, Eric

    1944-01-01

    General thin-airfoil theory for a compressible fluid is formulated as boundary problem for the velocity potential, without recourse to the theory of vortex motion. On the basis of this formulation the integral equation of lifting-surface theory for an incompressible fluid is derived with the chordwise component of the fluid velocity at the airfoil as the function to be determined. It is shown how by integration by parts this integral equation can be transformed into the Biot-Savart theorem. A clarification is gained regarding the use of principal value definitions for the integral which occur. The integral equation of lifting-surface theory is used a s the starting point for the establishment of a theory for the nonstationary airfoil which is a generalization of lifting-line theory for the stationary airfoil and which might be called "lifting-strip" theory. Explicit expressions are given for section lift and section moment in terms of the circulation function, which for any given wing deflection is to be determined from an integral equation which is of the type of the equation of lifting-line theory. The results obtained are for airfoils of uniform chord. They can be extended to tapered airfoils. One of the main uses of the results should be that they furnish a practical means for the analysis of the aerodynamic span effect in the problem of wing flutter. The range of applicability of "lifting-strip" theory is the same as that of lifting-line theory so that its results may be applied to airfoils with aspect ratios as low as three.

  3. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wings with Ordinary Ailerons and Full-Span External-Airfoil Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C; Shortal, Joseph A

    1937-01-01

    Report presents an investigation carried out in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of an NACA 23012 airfoil equipped, first, with a full-span NACA 23012 external-airfoil flap having a chord 0.20 of the main airfoil chord and with a full-span aileron with a chord 0.12 of the main airfoil chord on the trailing edge of the main airfoil and equipped second, with a 0.30-chord full-span NACA 23012 external-airfoil flap and a 0.13-chord full-span aileron. The results are arranged in three groups, the first two of which deal with the airfoil characteristics of the two airfoil-flap combinations and with the internal-control characteristics of the airfoil-flap-aileron combinations. The third group of tests deals with several means for balancing ailerons mounted on a special large-chord NACA 23012 external-airfoil flap. The tests included an ordinary aileron, a curtained-nose balance, a frise balance, and a tab.

  4. Initial Circulation and Peak Vorticity Behavior of Vortices Shed from Airfoil Vortex Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Biesiadny, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An extensive parametric study of vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators has been conducted to determine the dependence of initial vortex circulation and peak vorticity on elements of the airfoil geometry and impinging flow conditions. These elements include the airfoil angle of attack, chord length, span, aspect ratio, local boundary layer thickness, and free stream Mach number. In addition, the influence of airfoil-to-airfoil spacing on the circulation and peak vorticity has been examined for pairs of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The vortex generators were symmetric airfoils having a NACA-0012 cross-sectional profile. These airfoils were mounted either in isolation, or in pairs, on the surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio was about 17 percent. The circulation and peak vorticity data were derived from cross-plane velocity measurements acquired with a seven-hole probe at one chord-length downstream of the airfoil trailing edge location. The circulation is observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. With these parameters held constant, the circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio. The peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the airfoil angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. Unlike circulation, however, the peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at an aspect ratio of about 2.0 before falling off again at higher values of aspect ratio. Co-rotating vortices shed from closely spaced pairs of airfoils have values of circulation and peak vorticity under those values found for vortices shed from isolated airfoils of the same geometry. Conversely, counter-rotating vortices show enhanced values of circulation and peak vorticity when compared to values

  5. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

  6. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1997-06-03

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.

  7. High Reynolds number transonic tests on a NACA 0012 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladson, Charles L.; Hill, S. Acquilla

    1987-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the two-dimensional test section of the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a NACA 0012 airfoil to obtain aerodynamic data as a part of the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test (ATAT) program. The test program covered a Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.82 and a Reynolds number range of 3.0 to 45.0 x 10 to the 6th. The stagnation pressure was varied between 1.2 and 6.0 atmospheres and the stagnation temperature was varied between 300 K and 90 K to obtain these test conditions. Plots of the spanwise variation of drag coefficient as a function of normal force coefficient and the variation of the basic aerodynamic characteristics with angle of attack are shown. The data are presented uncorrected for wall interference effects and without analysis.

  8. Drag reduction of a blunt trailing-edge airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Jonathon Paul

    Wind-tunnel experimentation and Reynolds-averaged Navier--Stokes simulations were used to analyze simple, static trailing-edge devices applied to an FB-3500-1750 airfoil, a 35% thick airfoil with a 17.5% chord blunt trailing edge, in order to mitigate base drag. The drag reduction devices investigated include Gurney-type tabs, splitter plates, base cavities, and offset cavities. The Gurney-type tabs consisted of small tabs, attached at the trailing edge and distributed along the span, extending above the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The Gurney-type devices were determined to have little drag reduction capabilities for the FB-3500-1750 airfoil. Splitter plates, mounted to the center of the trailing edge, with lengths between 50% and 150% of the trailing-edge thickness and various plate angles (0° and +/-10° from perpendicular) were investigated and shown to influence the lift and drag characteristics of the baseline airfoil. Drag reductions of up to 50% were achieved with the addition of a splitter plate. The base cavity was created by adding two plates perpendicular to the trailing edge, extending from the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The base cavity demonstrated possible drag reductions of 25%, but caused significant changes to lift, primarily due to the method of device implementation. The offset cavity, created by adding two splitter plates offset from the upper and lower surfaces by 25% of the trailing-edge thickness, was shown to improve on the drag reductions of the splitter plate, while also eliminating unsteady vortex shedding prior to airfoil stall.

  9. Aerodynamic performance of transonic and subsonic airfoils: Effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang

    The effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape on the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils are investigated in compressible, high speed flows. The University of Utah Transonic Wind Tunnel is employed for the experimental part of the study. Two different test sections are designed to produce Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, passage mass flow rates, and physical dimensions, which match values along turbine blades in operating engines: (i) a nonturning test section with a symmetric airfoil, and (ii) a cascade test section with a cambered turbine vane. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional surface roughness is characterized using the equivalent sand grain roughness size. Changing the airfoil surface roughness condition has a substantial effect on wake profiles of total pressure loss coefficients, normalized Mach number, normalized kinetic energy, and on the normalized and dimensional magnitudes of Integrated Aerodynamic Losses produced by the airfoils. Comparisons with results for a symmetric airfoil and a cambered vane show that roughness has more substantial effects on losses produced by the symmetric airfoil than the cambered vane. Data are also provided that illustrate the larger loss magnitudes are generally present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Wake turbulence structure of symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes are also studied experimentally. The effects of surface roughness and freestream turbulence levels on wake distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and power spectral density profiles and vortex shedding frequencies are quantified one axial chord length downstream of the test airfoils. As the level of surface roughness increases, all wake profile quantities broaden significantly and nondimensional vortex shedding frequencies decrease. Wake profiles produced by the symmetric airfoil are more sensitive to variations of surface

  10. Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressibility Burble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John

    1939-01-01

    Development of airfoil sections suitable for high-speed applications has generally been difficult because little was known of the flow phenomenon that occurs at high speeds. A definite critical speed has been found at which serious detrimental flow changes occur that lead to serious losses in lift and large increases in drag. This flow phenomenon, called the compressibility burble, was originally a propeller problem, but with the development of higher speed aircraft serious consideration must be given to other parts of the airplane. Fundamental investigations of high-speed airflow phenomenon have provided new information. An important conclusion of this work has been the determination of the critical speed, that is, the speed at which the compressibility burble occurs. The critical speed was shown to be the translational velocity at which the sum of the translational velocity and the maximum local induced velocity at the surface of the airfoil or other body equals the local speed of sound. Obviously then higher critical speeds can be attained through the development of airfoils that have minimum induced velocity for any given value of the lift coefficient. Presumably, the highest critical speed will be attained by an airfoil that has uniform chordwise distribution of induced velocity or, in other words, a flat pressure distribution curve. The ideal airfoil for any given high-speed application is, then, that form which at its operating lift coefficient has uniform chordwise distribution of induced velocity. Accordingly, an analytical search for such airfoil forms has been conducted and these forms are now being investigated experimentally in the 23-inch high-speed wind tunnel. The first airfoils investigated showed marked improvement over those forms already available, not only as to critical speed buy also the drag at low speeds is decreased considerably. Because of the immediate marked improvement, it was considered desirable to extend the thickness and lift

  11. Nozzle airfoil having movable nozzle ribs

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane or airfoil structure is provided in which the nozzle ribs are connected to the side walls of the vane or airfoil in such a way that the ribs provide the requisite mechanical support between the concave side and convex side of the airfoil but are not locked in the radial direction of the assembly, longitudinally of the airfoil. The ribs may be bi-cast onto a preformed airfoil side wall structure or fastened to the airfoil by an interlocking slide connection and/or welding. By attaching the nozzle ribs to the nozzle airfoil metal in such a way that allows play longitudinally of the airfoil, the temperature difference induced radial thermal stresses at the nozzle airfoil/rib joint area are reduced while maintaining proper mechanical support of the nozzle side walls.

  12. Langley airfoil-research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of past, present, and future airfoil research activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The immediate past and future occupy most of the discussion; however, past accomplishments and milestones going back to the early NACA years are dealt with in a broad-brush way to give a better perspective of current developments and programs. In addition to the historical perspective, a short description of the facilities which are now being used in the airfoil program is given. This is followed by a discussion of airfoil developments, advances in airfoil design and analysis tools (mostly those that have taken place over the past 5 or 6 years), and tunnel-wall-interference predictive methods and measurements. Future research requirements are treated.

  13. Summary of section data on trailing-edge high-lift devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Jones F

    1949-01-01

    A summary has been made of available data on the characteristics of airfoil sections with trailing-edge high-lift devices. Data for plain, split, and slotted flaps are collected and analyzed. The effects of each of the variables involved in the design of the various types of flap are examined and, in cases where sufficient data are given, optimum configurations are deduced. Wherever possible, the effects of airfoil section, Reynolds number, and leading-edge roughness are shown. For single and double slotted flaps, where a large amount of unrelated data are available, maximum lift coefficients of many configurations are presented in tables.

  14. Summary of Section Data on Trailing-Edge High-Lift Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1948-01-01

    A summary has been made of available data on the characteristics of airfoil sections with trailing-edge high-lift devices. Data for plain, split, and slotted flaps are collected and analyzed. The effects of each of the variables involved in the design of the various types of flap are examined and, in cases where sufficient data are given, optimum configurations are deduced. Wherever possible, the effects of airfoil section, Reynolds number, and leading-edge roughness are shown. For single and double slotted flaps, where a great mass of unrelated date are available, maximum lift coefficients of a large number of configurations are presented in tables.

  15. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a transport model having 42.33 deg swept low wing with supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and T-tail or low tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel over an angle-of-attack range of approximately 4 deg to 24 deg to determine the static longitudinal stability characteristics and high lift performance of a general research model which represented an advanced subsonic transport configuration. The model had a 42.33 deg swept, aspect ratio 7.05 wing with a supercritical airfoil and high lift system consisting of a leading edge device (slat or Kruger flap) and a double-slotted flap. The flaps were deflected for take off and landing configurations and were not deflected for tests of the clean configuration. The model was tested with the horizontal tail in either a T tail or low tail position. The effects of various arrangements of flowthrough nacelles which represent a three engine configuration (two large wing-mounted nacelles and a vertical tail mounted nacelle) and a four engine configuration (four smaller wing-mounted nacelles) were determined.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Stall on an Airfoil with Leading Edge Tubercles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynuk, John; Bohl, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Humpback whales are unique in that their flippers have leading edge ``bumps'' or tubercles. Past work on airfoils modeled after whale flippers has centered on the static aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils. In the current work, NACA 0012 airfoils modified with leading edge tubercles are investigated to determine the effect of the tubercles on the dynamic characteristics, specifically on dynamic stall vortex formation, of the airfoils. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV) is used to measure the flow field around the modified airfoils at nondimensional pitch rates of Ω = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4. The results show that the characteristics of the dynamics stall vortex are dependent on the location relative to the peak or valley of the leading edge bumps. These characteristics are also found to be different than those observed in dynamic stall on a smooth leading edge airfoil. In specific, the location of the dynamic stall vortex appears to form further aft on the airfoil for the tubercle case versus the smooth case. This work supported by NSF Grant # 0845882.

  17. Recent work on airfoil theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1940-01-01

    The basic ideas of a new method for treating the problem of the airfoil are presented, and a review is given of the problems thus far computed for incompressible and supersonic flows. Test results are reported for the airfoil of circular plan form and the results are shown to agree well with the theory. As a supplement, a theory based on the older methods is presented for the rectangular of small aspect ratio.

  18. Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris, Thomas A

    1940-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.

  19. Numerical simulation of the process of airfoil icing in the presence of large supercooled water drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prykhodko, O. A.; Alekseyenko, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a software package and related methodology that can be used to simulate the process of airfoil icing during flight in the presence of large supercooled liquid water drops in the oncoming airflow. The motion of a carrier medium is described using the Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible gas. The motion of water drops is described using an inertial model. The process of water deposition and its subsequent freezing on an airfoil surface are described by the method of control volumes based on the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for each element of the surface. The main results of simulations are presented for the icing of an NACA 0012 airfoil profile with "barrier" ice formation in the absence and presence of heating of the leading edge. The influence of the ice-growth thickness and position on the airfoil chord on the pattern of airflow and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil is analyzed.

  20. Unsteady aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with and without a slat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.

    1993-01-01

    Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.

  1. Synthesized airfoil data method for prediction of dynamic stall and unsteady airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangwani, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The synthesized unsteady airfoil data method, which accurately describes the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of stalled airfoils in the time domain, is expanded and improved. Nine sets of unsteady drag data are synthesized, providing a basis for the successful expansion of the method to include the computation of unsteady pressure drag of airfoils and rotor blades. An improved prediction model for airfoil flow reattachment is incorporated into the method. Application of the model results in a better correlation of analytic predictions with measured full-scale helicopter blade loads and stress data. The results show that it is feasible to generalize the empirical parameters embedded in the method over a range of angles of attack, Mach number, airfoil shape, and sweep angle.

  2. Wake instability issues: From circular cylinders to stalled airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghini, J. R.; Carmo, B. S.; Tsiloufas, S. P.; Gioria, R. S.; Aranha, J. A. P.

    2011-07-01

    Some recent results regarding the global dynamical behaviour of the wake of circular cylinders and airfoils with massive separation are reviewed in this paper. In order to investigate the effect of interference, the three-dimensional instability modes are analysed for the flow around two circular cylinders in tandem. In the same way, the flow around a stalled airfoil is investigated in order to provide a better understanding of the three-dimensional characteristics of wakes forming downstream of a lifting body with massive separation. These results are compared with those found for an isolated cylinder. Some fundamental differences among these flows are discussed.

  3. An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Equipped with Several Different Sets of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Green, M W

    1929-01-01

    This investigation was conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, Va., at the request of the Army Air Corps, for the purpose of comparing the full scale lift and drag characteristics of an airplane equipped with several sets of wings of commonly used airfoil sections. A Sperry Messenger Airplane with wings of R.A.F.-15, U.S.A.-5, U.S.A.-27, and Gottingen 387 airfoil sections was flown and the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane with each set of wings were determined by means of glide tests. The results are presented in tabular and curve form. (author)

  4. Vortex scale of unsteady separation on a pitching airfoil.

    PubMed

    Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2002-10-01

    The streaklines of unsteady separation on two kinds of pitching airfoils, the NACA65-0910 and a blunt trailing edge airfoil, were studied by dye flow visualization and by the Schlieren method. The latter visualized the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The results of these visualization studies allow a comparison between the dynamic behavior of the streakline of unsteady separation and that of the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The influence of the airfoil configuration on the flow characteristics was also examined. Furthermore, the scale of a discrete vortex forming the recirculation region was investigated. The non-dimensional pitching rate was k = 0.377, the angle of attack alpha(m) = 16 degrees and the pitching amplitude was fixed to A = +/-6 degrees for Re = 4.0 x 10(3) in this experiment. PMID:12495998

  5. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, T.; Erbslöh, S.; Carolus, T.

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length.

  6. Pressure distribution over NACA 23012 airfoil with a slotted and a split flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Thomas A; Lowry, John G

    1941-01-01

    A pressure-distribution investigation has been conducted in the NACA 4 by 6-foot vertical wind tunnel to determine the air loads on an NACA 23012 airfoil in combination with a 25.66-percent-chord slotted flap and a 20-percent-chord split flap. Pressures were measured on both the upper and the lower surfaces of the main airfoil and the flaps for several angles of attack and at several flap settings. The data, presented as pressure diagrams and as graphs of the section coefficients for the flap alone and for the airfoil-flap combinations, are applicable to rib and flap design for a combination of a thick airfoil and a slotted or a split flap. The results of previous tests of a NACA 23012 airfoil with a slotted flap are compared with the present results.

  7. The NASA Langley Laminar-Flow-Control (LFC) experiment on a swept, supercritical airfoil: Design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A large-chord, swept, supercritical, laminar-flow-control (LFC) airfoil was designed and constructed and is currently undergoing tests in the Langley 8 ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The experiment was directed toward evaluating the compatibility of LFC and supercritical airfoils, validating prediction techniques, and generating a data base for future transport airfoil design as part of NASA's ongoing research program to significantly reduce drag and increase aircraft efficiency. Unique features of the airfoil included a high design Mach number with shock free flow and boundary layer control by suction. Special requirements for the experiment included modifications to the wind tunnel to achieve the necessary flow quality and contouring of the test section walls to simulate free air flow about a swept model at transonic speeds. Design of the airfoil with a slotted suction surface, the suction system, and modifications to the tunnel to meet test requirements are discussed.

  8. Design and analytical study of a rotor airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L. U.

    1978-01-01

    An airfoil section for use on helicopter rotor blades was defined and analyzed by means of potential flow/boundary layer interaction and viscous transonic flow methods to meet as closely as possible a set of advanced airfoil design objectives. The design efforts showed that the first priority objectives, including selected low speed pitching moment, maximum lift and drag divergence requirements can be met, though marginally. The maximum lift requirement at M = 0.5 and most of the profile drag objectives cannot be met without some compromise of at least one of the higher order priorities.

  9. Post stall airfoil data for wind turbines: wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1984-07-01

    Wind turbine blades operate over a wide angle of attack range. Unlike aircraft, a wind turbine's angle of attack range extends deep into stall where the three dimensional performance characteristics of airfoils are not generally known. Peak power predictions upon which wind turbine components are sized depend on a good understanding of a blade's post stall characteristics. The purpose of this wind tunnel study is to characterize the performance characteristics of a blade in stall as a function of its aspect ratio, airfoil thickness and Reynolds number. This report documents results of the wind tunnel investigation of constant chord blades having four aspect ratios, with NACA 44XX series airfoil sections, at angles of attack ranging from -10 to 110/sup 0/. Tests were conducted at Reynolds number ranging from one-quarter million to one million. The thickness ratios studied were 0.18, 0.15, 0.12 and 0.09. The aspect ratios were 6, 9, 12 and infinity. Results of force and pitching moment measurements, over the angle of attack range, for all combinations of Reynolds numbers, thickness and aspect ratios, and the effects of boundary layer tripping, have been presented. Both initial and secondary stall are presented. The maximum drag coefficient is found to occur at an angle of attack of 90/sup 0/. The pitching moment is unstable beyond stall. The lift and post-stall drag coefficients decrease with decreasing aspect ratio. The lift coefficient decreases with decreasing thickness ratio, while the drag coefficient increases. The boundary layer tripping is observed to decrease the lift curve slope and stalling angle of attack. The drag coefficient (with tripping) is significantly affected only at low aspect ratio.

  10. Experimental Study of Thin and Thick Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgesh, Vibhav; Garcia, Elifalet; Johari, Hamid

    2015-11-01

    A recent surge in applications of unmanned air vehicles in various fields has led to increased interest in understanding the characteristics of airfoils at Reynolds number regime ~104. At these low Re numbers, aerodynamics of an airfoil is influenced by laminar separation and its possible reattachment, which is in contrast to airfoil behavior at high Re numbers. This study focused on comparing the load characteristics of symmetric, thin (NACA-0009) and thick (NACA-0021) airfoils at low Re numbers ~2 - 4 × 104, and angles of attack between 2° to 12°, along with simultaneous flow visualization. The experiments were performed in a low speed flow visualization water tunnel facility, and two-component Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to quantify the inflow conditions and turbulence intensity. A high precision force/torque transducer was used for the load measurements, while hydrogen bubble technique was used for flow visualization on the suction side of the airfoils. The presentation will discuss the correlation between observed flow structures and instantaneous load on the airfoils, as well as the aerodynamic load characteristics of thin and thick airfoils at low Re numbers.

  11. A Numerical Evaluation of Icing Effects on a Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, James J.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    As a part of CFD code validation efforts within the Icing Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center, computations were performed for natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoil, NLF-0414. with 6 and 22.5 minute ice accretions. Both 3-D ice castings and 2-D machine-generated ice shapes were used in wind tunnel tests to study the effects of natural ice is well as simulated ice. They were mounted in the test section of the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) at NASA Langley that the 2-dimensionality of the flow can be maintained. Aerodynamic properties predicted by computations were compared to data obtained through the experiment by the authors at the LTPT. Computations were performed only in 2-D and in the case of 3-D ice, the digitized ice shape obtained at one spanwise location was used. The comparisons were mainly concentrated on the lift characteristics over Reynolds numbers ranging from 3 to 10 million and Mach numbers ranging from 0.12 to 0.29. WIND code computations indicated that the predicted stall angles were in agreement with experiment within one or two degrees. The maximum lift values obtained by computations were in good agreement with those of the experiment for the 6 minute ice shapes and the minute 3-D ice, but were somewhat lower in the case of the 22.5 minute 2-D ice. In general, the Reynolds number variation did not cause much change in the lift values while the variation of Mach number showed more change in the lift. The Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model was the best performing model for the airfoil with the 22.5 minute ice and the Shear Stress Turbulence (SST) turbulence model was the best for the airfoil with the 6 minute ice and also for the clean airfoil. The pressure distribution on the surface of the iced airfoil showed good agreement for the 6 minute ice. However, relatively poor agreement of the pressure distribution on the upper surface aft of the leading edge horn for the 22.5 minute ice suggests that improvements are needed in the grid or

  12. Inverse Design of a Thick Supercritical Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pambagjo, Tjoetjoek Eko; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro; Obayashi, Shigeru

    In this paper, a study on designing a thick supercritical airfoil by utilizing Takanashi’s inverse design method is discussed. One of the problems to design a thick supercritical airfoil by Takanashi’s method is that an oscillation of the geometry may occur during the iteration process. To reduce the oscillation, an airfoil parameterization method is utilized as the smoothing procedure. A guideline to determine the target pressure distribution to realize the thick airfoil is also discussed.

  13. Shape optimization of corrugated airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sambhav; Bhatt, Varun Dhananjay; Mittal, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    The effect of corrugations on the aerodynamic performance of a Mueller C4 airfoil, placed at a 5° angle of attack and Re=10{,}000, is investigated. A stabilized finite element method is employed to solve the incompressible flow equations in two dimensions. A novel parameterization scheme is proposed that enables representation of corrugations on the surface of the airfoil, and their spontaneous appearance in the shape optimization loop, if indeed they improve aerodynamic performance. Computations are carried out for different location and number of corrugations, while holding their height fixed. The first corrugation causes an increase in lift and drag. Each of the later corrugations leads to a reduction in drag. Shape optimization of the Mueller C4 airfoil is carried out using various objective functions and optimization strategies, based on controlling airfoil thickness and camber. One of the optimal shapes leads to 50 % increase in lift coefficient and 23 % increase in aerodynamic efficiency compared to the Mueller C4 airfoil.

  14. Airfoil deposition model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology to predict deposit evolution (deposition rate and subsequent flow of liquid deposits) as a function of fuel and air impurity content and relevant aerodynamic parameters for turbine airfoils is developed in this research. The spectrum of deposition conditions encountered in gas turbine operations includes the mechanisms of vapor deposition, small particle deposition with thermophoresis, and larger particle deposition with inertial effects. The focus is on using a simplified version of the comprehensive multicomponent vapor diffusion formalism to make deposition predictions for: (1) simple geometry collectors; and (2) gas turbine blade shapes, including both developing laminar and turbulent boundary layers. For the gas turbine blade the insights developed in previous programs are being combined with heat and mass transfer coefficient calculations using the STAN 5 boundary layer code to predict vapor deposition rates and corresponding liquid layer thicknesses on turbine blades. A computer program is being written which utilizes the local values of the calculated deposition rate and skin friction to calculate the increment in liquid condensate layer growth along a collector surface.

  15. Airfoil Vibration Dampers program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The Airfoil Vibration Damper program has consisted of an analysis phase and a testing phase. During the analysis phase, a state-of-the-art computer code was developed, which can be used to guide designers in the placement and sizing of friction dampers. The use of this computer code was demonstrated by performing representative analyses on turbine blades from the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) and High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The testing phase of the program consisted of performing friction damping tests on two different cantilever beams. Data from these tests provided an empirical check on the accuracy of the computer code developed in the analysis phase. Results of the analysis and testing showed that the computer code can accurately predict the performance of friction dampers. In addition, a valuable set of friction damping data was generated, which can be used to aid in the design of friction dampers, as well as provide benchmark test cases for future code developers.

  16. Root region airfoil for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1995-01-01

    A thick airfoil for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%-26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4-1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects.

  17. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 2. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of airfoil research is presented. The major thrust of the research is in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  18. An experimental study of transonic flow about a supercritical airfoil. Static pressure and drag data obtained from tests of a supercritical airfoil and an NACA 0012 airfoil at transonic speeds, supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaid, F. W.; Dahlin, J. A.; Roos, F. W.; Stivers, L. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Surface static-pressure and drag data obtained from tests of two slightly modified versions of the original NASA Whitcomb airfoil and a model of the NACA 0012 airfoil section are presented. Data for the supercritical airfoil were obtained for a free-stream Mach number range of 0.5 to 0.9, and a chord Reynolds number range of 2 x 10 to the 6th power to 4 x 10 to the 6th power. The NACA 0012 airfoil was tested at a constant chord Reynolds number of 2 x 10 to the 6th power and a free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.8.

  19. An experimental investigation into cavitation behaviour and pressure characteristics of alternative blade sections for propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkut, Emin; Atlar, Mehmet; Wang, Dazheng

    2013-03-01

    During the final quarter of the last century considerable efforts have been spent to reduce the hull pressure fluctuations caused by unsteady propeller cavitation. This has resulted in further changes in propeller design characteristics including increased skew, tip unloading and introduction of "New Blade Sections" (NBS) designed on the basis of the so-called Eppler code. An experimental study was carried out to investigate flow characteristics of alternative two-dimensional (2-D) blade sections of rectangular planform, one of which was the New Blade Section (NBS) developed in Newcastle University and other was based on the well-known National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) section. The experiments comprised the cavitation observations and the measurements of the local velocity distribution around the blade sections by using a 2-D Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system. Analysis of the cavitation tests demonstrated that the two blade sections presented very similar bucket shapes with virtually no width at the bottom but relatively favourable buckets arms at the suction and pressure sides for the NACA section. Similarly, pressure analysis of the sections displayed a slightly larger value for the NBS pressure peak. The comparative overall pressure distributions around the sections suggested that the NBS might be more susceptible to cavitation than the NACA section. This can be closely related to the fundamental shape of the NBS with very fine leading edge. Therefore a further investigation into the modification of the leading edge should be considered to improve the cavitation behaviour of the NBS.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Certain Laminar-Flow Airfoils for Application at High Speeds and Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, E.N.; Abbott, Ira H.; von Doenhoff, A.E.

    1939-01-01

    In order to extend the useful range of Reynolds numbers of airfoils designed to take advantage of the extensive laminar boundary layers possible in an air stream of low turbulence, tests were made of the NACA 2412-34 and 1412-34 sections in the NACA low-turbulence tunnel. Although the possible extent of the laminar boundary layer on these airfoils is not so great as for specially designed laminar-flow airfoils, it is greater than that for conventional airfoils, and is sufficiently extensive so that at Reynolds numbers above 11,000,000 the laminar region is expected to be limited by the permissible 'Reynolds number run' and not by laminar separation as is the case with conventional airfoils. Drag measurements by the wake-survey method and pressure-distribution measurements were made at several lift coefficients through a range of Reynolds numbers up to 11,400,000. The drag scale-effect curve for the NACA 1412-34 is extrapolated to a Reynolds number of 30,000,000 on the basis of theoretical calculations of the skin friction. Comparable skin-friction calculations were made for the NACA 23012. The results indicate that, for certain applications at moderate values of the Reynolds number, the NACA 1412-34 and 2412-34 airfoils offer some advantages over such conventional airfoils as the NACA 23012. The possibility of maintaining a more extensive laminar boundary layer on these airfoils should result in a small drag reduction, and the absence of pressure peaks allows higher speeds to be reached before the compressibility burble is encountered. At lower Reynold numbers, below about 10,000,000, these airfoils have higher drags than airfoils designed to operate with very extensive laminar boundary layers.

  1. Advanced Airfoils Boost Helicopter Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell

  2. Dynamic stall modeling and correlation with experimental data on airfoils and rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. G.; Blackwell, R. H.; Commerford, G. L.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods for modeling dynamic stall have been developed. The alpha, A, B method generates lift and pitching moments as functions of angle of attack and its first two time derivatives. The coefficients are derived from experimental data for oscillating airfoils. The Time Delay Method generates the coefficients from steady state airfoil characteristics and an associated time delay in stall beyond the steady state stall angle. Correlation with three types of test data shows that the alpha, A, B method is somewhat better for use in predicting helicopter rotor response in forward flight. Correlation with lift and moment hysteresis loops generated for oscillating airfoils was good for both models.

  3. Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-02-20

    A gas turbine engine`s nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic. 8 figs.

  4. Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A gas turbine engine's nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic.

  5. Airfoil shape for a turbine nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Patik, Joseph Francis; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2002-01-01

    A first-stage nozzle vane includes an airfoil having a profile according to Table I. The annulus profile of the hot gas path is defined in conjunction with the airfoil profile and the profile of the inner and outer walls by the Cartesian coordinate values given in Tables I and II, respectively. The airfoil is a three-dimensional bowed design, both in the airfoil body and in the trailing edge. The airfoil is steam and air-cooled by flowing cooling mediums through cavities extending in the vane between inner and outer walls.

  6. Design of a two-element airfoil in a range of angles of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abzalilov, D. F.

    2008-11-01

    A numerical-analytical solution of an inverse boundary-value problem of aerohydrodynamics is obtained for a two-element airfoil in the full formulation, based on the velocity distribution defined on the sought airfoil contours in a range of angles of attack. It is demonstrated that flow separation does not occur in the entire range considered for a specified non-separated velocity distribution on the upper surfaces at the maximum angle of attack and on the lower surface at the minimum angle of attack. An example of constructing a sectional airfoil is given; verification of the results obtained is performed with the use of the Fluent software package.

  7. Numerical study of the Interaction between Nonsteady Transition and Separation on Oscillating Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Tarak; Jayaraman, Balaji; Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Paterson, Eric; Brasseur, James

    2013-11-01

    Strong correlation between vertical and horizontal turbulent motions in a daytime atmospheric boundary layer can produce > 50 % variability in local angle of attack (AoA) on commercial wind turbine blade sections. Lee and Gerontakos (JFM 2004) reported an unique experiment where nonsteady transition and boundary layer (BL) separation were estimated on an oscillating airfoil at Re ~105 and reduced frequencies upto 0.2. We use the k - ω SST URANS model and the γ - Reθ transition model to explore the predictive capability of these models,and to study the dynamic interactions between transition and separation on an oscillating airfoil with focus on the 3D time-dependent BL characteristics. The calculations are done in OpenFOAM on a wing section of aspect ratio 1 and periodic spanwise boundary conditions. Grid resolution analysis shows that 6M cells are required to resolve the viscous sublayer and capture separation. Fixed AoA cases show good lift comparison but the transition model performs better at higher AoA's when separation-induced transition occurs;fully turbulent URANS mispredicts separation and lift. Prediction of the oscillating cases show differences with experiment in hysteresis loops of the force coefficients. These and related issues will be discussed. This work is being supported by the DOE.

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of a monoplanar missile concept with bodies of circular and elliptical cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a low-drag missile concept with a body of circular cross section were compared to one with a body of 3:1 elliptical cross section, the bodies having identical cross section area distributions. The concepts were of monowing design with constant wing span. Tail surfaces were located flush at the body base with plus or minus 30 deg dihedral. Wind tunnel tests were performed at Mach numbers from 0.5 to 4.63 and at angles of attack from about -5 deg to 28 deg.

  9. The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, B. A.; Wendt, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M. The vortex generators are mounted either in isolation or in a symmetric counter-rotating array configuration on the inside surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio is delta/R = 0. 17. Circulation and peak vorticity data are derived from crossplane velocity measurements conducted at or about 1 chord downstream of the vortex generator trailing edge. Shed vortex circulation is observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. With these parameters held constant, circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio AR. Shed vortex peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. Unlike circulation, however, peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at AR approx. 2.0 before falling off.

  10. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  11. A two element laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Gregory Glen

    1994-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.

  12. Some observations of surface pressures and the near wake of a blunt trailing edge airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digumarthi, R. V.; Koutsoyannis, S. P.; Karamcheti, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments with a truncated and untruncated airfoils of profiles NACA 640A10, were carried out in subsonic wind tunnels in a velocity range of 19m/s to 54m/s corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 200,000 to 468,000 based on the chord. Airfoil spanned the test section to achieve two dimensionality of the model. Velocity measurements, pressure measurements, and vortex shedding in the wake were measured using a hotwire and pressure transducers. The measured chordwise static pressure distribution on the smooth trailing edge airfoil along the midspan plane, agreed with the theoretical results calculated on the basis of the potential flow for that airfoil. Boundary layer profiles measured in the midspan plane, behind the maximum thickness of the airfoil show no separation of the flow. Spanwise distribution of the measured static pressure on the upper surface of the airfoil shows uniformity for both configurations with and without the boundary layer trip. This uniformity of pressure distribution and separation indicates that the flow on the airfoil was uniform and two dimensional in character.

  13. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  14. Theory and Simulation for Traffic Characteristics on the Highway with a Slowdown Section.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dejie; Mao, Baohua; Rong, Yaping; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We study the traffic characteristics on a single-lane highway with a slowdown section using the deterministic cellular automaton (CA) model. Based on the theoretical analysis, the relationships among local mean densities, velocities, traffic fluxes, and global densities are derived. The results show that two critical densities exist in the evolutionary process of traffic state, and they are significant demarcation points for traffic phase transition. Furthermore, the changing laws of the two critical densities with different length of limit section are also investigated. It is shown that only one critical density appears if a highway is not slowdown section; nevertheless, with the growing length of slowdown section, one critical density separates into two critical densities; if the entire highway is slowdown section, they finally merge into one. The contrastive analysis proves that the analytical results are consistent with the numerical ones. PMID:26089864

  15. Experimental Investigation on Airfoil Shock Control by Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Quan; Cheng, Bangqin; Li, Yinghong; Cui, Wei; Jin, Di; Li, Jun

    2013-11-01

    An experimental investigation on airfoil (NACA64—215) shock control is performed by plasma aerodynamic actuation in a supersonic tunnel (Ma = 2). The results of schlieren and pressure measurement show that when plasma aerodynamic actuation is applied, the position moves forward and the intensity of shock at the head of the airfoil weakens. With the increase in actuating voltage, the total pressure measured at the head of the airfoil increases, which means that the shock intensity decreases and the control effect increases. The best actuation effect is caused by upwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, and then downwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, while the control effect of aerodynamic actuation without a magnetic field is the most inconspicuous. The mean intensity of the normal shock at the head of the airfoil is relatively decreased by 16.33%, and the normal shock intensity is relatively reduced by 27.5% when 1000 V actuating voltage and upwind-direction actuation are applied with a magnetic field. This paper theoretically analyzes the Joule heating effect generated by DC discharge and the Lorentz force effect caused by the magnetic field. The discharge characteristics are compared for all kinds of actuation conditions to reveal the mechanism of shock control by plasma aerodynamic actuation.

  16. Flexural fatigue life prediction of closed hat-section using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaq, Zia

    1989-01-01

    Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.

  17. Self-sustained shock oscillations on airfoils at transonic speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H. K.

    2001-02-01

    Self-sustained shock wave oscillations on airfoils at transonic flow conditions are associated with the phenomenon of buffeting. The physical mechanisms of the periodic shock motion are not yet fully understood even though experiments performed over fifty years ago have demonstrated the presence of oscillatory shock waves on the airfoil surfaces at high subsonic speeds. The unsteady pressure fluctuations generated by the low-frequency large-amplitude shock motions are highly undesirable from the structural integrity and aircraft maneuverability point of view. For modern supercritical wing design with thick profiles, the shock-induced fluctuations are particularly severe and methods to reduce the shock wave amplitudes to lower values or even to delay the oscillations to higher Mach numbers or incidence angles will result in expanding the buffet boundary of the airfoil. This review begins with a recapitulation of the classical work on shock-induced bubble separation and trailing edge separation of a turbulent boundary layer. The characteristics of the unsteady pressure fluctuations are used to classify the types of shock-boundary layer interaction. The various modes of shock wave motion for different flow conditions and airfoil configurations are described. The buffet boundaries obtained using the standard trailing edge pressure divergence technique and an alternative approach of measuring the divergence of normal fluctuating forces are compared to show the equivalence. The mechanisms of self-sustained shock oscillations are discussed for symmetrical circular-arc airfoils at zero incidence and for supercritical airfoils at high incidence angles with fully separated flows. The properties of disturbances in the wake are examined from linear stability analysis of two-dimensional compressible flows. The advances in high-speed computing make predictions of buffeting flows possible. Navier-Stokes solvers and approximate boundary layer-inviscid flow interaction methods are

  18. Family of airfoil shapes for rotating blades. [for increased power efficiency and blade stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, K. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An airfoil which has particular application to the blade or blades of rotor aircraft such as helicopters and aircraft propellers is described. The airfoil thickness distribution and camber are shaped to maintain a near zero pitching moment coefficient over a wide range of lift coefficients and provide a zero pitching moment coefficient at section Mach numbers near 0.80 and to increase the drag divergence Mach number resulting in superior aircraft performance.

  19. Force and pressure tests of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 20% aileron and pressure tests with a 30% Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Seetharam, H. C.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel force and pressure tests were conducted for the GA(W)-1 airfoil equipped with a 20% aileron, and pressure tests were conducted with a 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 and a Mach number of 0.13. The aileron provides control effectiveness similar to ailerons applied to more conventional airfoils. Effects of aileron gaps from 0% to 2% chord were evaluated, as well as hinge moment characteristics. The aft camber of the GA(W)-1 section results in a substantial up-aileron moment, but the hinge moments associated with aileron deflection are similar to other configurations. Fowler flap pressure distributions indicate that unseparated flow is achieved for flap settings up to 40 deg., over a limited angle of attack range. Theoretical pressure distributions compare favorably with experiments for low flap deflections, but show substantial errors at large deflections.

  20. Wind-tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.; Tangler, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient (c{sub 1,max} designed to be largely insensitive to leading edge roughness effects. The 24-percent-thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur it a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind-tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfog was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory. Data were obtained for transition-free and transition-fixed conditions at Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds numbers of 1.5 {times} l0{sup 6}, the transition-free c{sub 1,max} is 1.3 which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted c{sub 1,max} of almost l.6. With transition-fixed at the is 1.2. The difference in c{sub 1,max} between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low c{sub 1,max} tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

  1. A comparison of calculated and experimental lift and pressure distributions for several helicopter rotor sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of computational techniques in predicting lift coefficients and pressure distributions of two dimenstional airfoil sections was studied. The computer code FL06/IBL was used to solve the compressible, two dimensional flow about four different airfoil sections. The lift coefficients of the airfoils were calculated at various angles of attack at subsonic Mach numbers and compared with experimental data.

  2. Numerical analysis of combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengen; Cai, Guobiao; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    This paper is aimed to analyse the combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection by simulating the combustion flow field. Numerical combustion flow field and combustion performance parameters are obtained through three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a steady numerical model proposed in this paper. The hybrid rocket motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide and polyethylene as the propellants. Multiple injection sections are set along the axis of the solid fuel grain, and the oxidizer enters the combustion chamber by means of tangential injection via the injector ports in the injection sections. Simulation results indicate that the combustion flow field structure of the hybrid rocket motor could be improved by multi-section swirl injection method. The transformation of the combustion flow field can greatly increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency. The average fuel regression rate of the motor with multi-section swirl injection is improved by 8.37 times compared with that of the motor with conventional head-end irrotational injection. The combustion efficiency is increased to 95.73%. Besides, the simulation results also indicate that (1) the additional injection sections can increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency; (2) the upstream offset of the injection sections reduces the combustion efficiency; and (3) the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency decrease with the reduction of the number of injector ports in each injection section.

  3. OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.; Green, B.

    2000-08-01

    New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs.

  4. Experimental Droplet Impingement on Several Two-Dimensional Airfoils with Thickness Ratios of 6 to 16 Percent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, Thomas F.; Smyers, William H., Jr.; VonGlahn, Uwe

    1956-01-01

    The rate and area of cloud droplet impingement on several two-dimensional swept and unswept airfoils were obtained experimentally in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel with a dye-tracer technique. Airfoil thickness ratios of 6 to 16 percent; angles of attack from 0 deg to 12 deg, and chord sizes from 13 to 96 inches were included in the study. The data were obtained at 152 knots and are extended to other conditions by dimensionless impingement parameters. In general, the data show that the total and local collection efficiencies and impingement limits are primary functions of the modified inertia parameter (in which airspeed, droplet size, and body size are the most significant variables) and the airfoil thickness ratio. Local collection efficiencies and impingement limits also depend on angle of attack. Secondary factors affecting impingement characteristics are airfoil shape, camber, and sweep angle. The impingement characteristics obtained experimentally for the airfoils were within +/-10 percent on the average of the characteristics calculated from theoretical trajectories. Over the range of conditions studied, the experimental data demonstrate that a specific method can be used to predict the impingement characteristics of swept airfoils with large aspect ratios from the data for unswept airfoils of the same series.

  5. Turbulent separated flow over and downstream of a two-element airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, D.; Horne, W. C.

    1989-01-01

    Flow characteristics in the vicinity of the flap of a single-slotted airfoil are presented and analyzed. The flow remained attached over the model surfaces, except in the vicinity of the flap trailing edge where a small region of boundary-layer separation extended over the aft 7 percent of flap chord. The airfoil configuration was tested at a Mach number of 0.09 and a chord Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10 to the 6th in the NASA Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The flow was complicated by the presence of a strong, initially inviscid, jet, emanating from the slot between airfoil and flap, and a gradual merging of the main airfoil wake and flap suction-side boundary layer.

  6. Turbulent separated flow over and downstream of a two-element airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, D.; Horne, W. C.

    1993-07-01

    Flow characteristics in the vicinity of the flap of a single-slotted airfoil are presented and analysed. The flow remained attached over the model surfaces except in the vicinity of the flap trailing edge where a small region of boundary-layer separation extended over the aft 7% of flap chord. The airfoil configuration was tested at a Mach number of 0.09 and a chord Reynolds number of 1.8 × 106 in the NASA Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The flow was complicated by the presence of a strong, initially inviscid, jet, emanating from the slot between airfoil and flap, and a gradual merging of the main airfoil wake and flap suction-side boundary layer.

  7. Turbulent separated flow over and downstream of a two-element airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, D.; Horne, W. C.

    1989-09-01

    Flow characteristics in the vicinity of the flap of a single-slotted airfoil are presented and analysed. The flow remained attached over the model surfaces except in the vicinity of the flap trailing edge where a small region of boundary-layer separation extended over the aft 7% of flap chord. The airfoil configuration was tested at a Mach number of 0.09 and a chord Reynolds number of 1.8 × 106 in the NASA Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The flow was complicated by the presence of a strong, initially inviscid, jet, emanating from the slot between airfoil and flap, and a gradual merging of the main airfoil wake and flap suction-side boundary layer.

  8. Analysis of the development of dynamic stall based on oscillating airfoil experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, L. W.; Mcalister, K. W.; Mccroskey, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of dynamic stall on airfoils oscillating in pitch were investigated by experimentally determining the viscous and inviscid characteristics of the airflow on the NACA 0012 airfoil and on several leading-edge modifications. The test parameters included a wide range of frequencies, Reynolds numbers, and amplitudes-of-oscillation. Three distinct types of separation development were observed within the boundary layer, each leading to classical dynamic stall. The NACA 0012 airfoil is shown to stall by the mechanism of abrupt turbulent leading-edge separation. A detailed step-by-step analysis of the events leading to dynamic stall, and of the results of the stall process, is presented for each of these three types of stall. Techniques for flow analysis in the dynamic stall environment are discussed. A method is presented that reduces most of the oscillating airfoil normal force and pitching-moment data to a single curve, independent of frequency or Reynolds number.

  9. Sound and vibration produced by an airfoil tip in a turbulent boundary layer flow with an elastic end wall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaboch, Paul

    2005-11-01

    Predicting the far field acoustics of an airfoil tip immersed in a turbulent boundary layer over an elastic end plate is a complicated problem. The unsteady lift of the airfoil and the local end wall vibration pattern form a coupled system of hydrodynamic and acoustic pressures. An experiment has been performed, incorporating as much of the flow physics as possible while maintaining the simplest possible boundary conditions. Specifically, a stationary airfoil tip in a turbulent boundary layer over an elastic end wall was used in an anechoic wind tunnel to relate the unsteady lift of the airfoil to the vibration patterns of the end wall. The vibration patterns were acquired using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. This talk will present results of experiments completed with both a rigid and elastic end wall. Preliminary data suggest that the unsteady lift of the airfoil is dependent upon the vibrational characteristics of the end wall.

  10. Design of a family of new advanced airfoils for low wind class turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    In order to maximize the ratio of energy capture and reduce the cost of energy, the selection of the airfoils to be used along the blade plays a crucial role. Despite the general usage of existing airfoils, more and more, families of airfoils specially tailored for specific applications are developed. The present research is focused on the design of a new family of airfoils to be used for the blade of one megawatt wind turbine working in low wind conditions. A hybrid optimization scheme has been implemented, combining together genetic and gradient based algorithms. Large part of the work is dedicated to present and discuss the requirements that needed to be satisfied in order to have a consistent family of geometries with high efficiency, high lift and good structural characteristics. For each airfoil, these characteristics are presented and compared to the ones of existing airfoils. Finally, the aerodynamic design of a new blade for low wind class turbine is illustrated and compared to a reference shape developed by using existing geometries. Due to higher lift performance, the results show a sensitive saving in chords, wetted area and so in loads in idling position.

  11. Design of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with thin airfoil blades

    SciTech Connect

    Ameku, Kazumasa; Nagai, Baku M.; Roy, Jitendro Nath

    2008-09-15

    Three blades of a 3 kW prototype wind turbine generator were designed with thin airfoil and a tip speed ratio of 3. The wind turbine has been controlled via two control methods: the variable pitch angle and by regulation of the field current of the generator and examined under real wind conditions. The characteristics of the thin airfoil, called ''Seven arcs thin airfoil'' named so because the airfoil is composed of seven circular arcs, are analyzed with the airfoil design and analysis program XFOIL. The thin airfoil blade is designed and calculated by blade element and momentum theory. The performance characteristics of the machine such as rotational speed, generator output as well as stability for wind speed changes are described. In the case of average wind speeds of 10 m/s and a maximum of 19 m/s, the automatically controlled wind turbine ran safely through rough wind conditions and showed an average generator output of 1105 W and a power coefficient 0.14. (author)

  12. Adjoint-based airfoil shape optimization in transonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramanzini, Joe-Ray

    The primary focus of this work is efficient aerodynamic shape optimization in transonic flow. Adjoint-based optimization techniques are employed on airfoil sections and evaluated in terms of computational accuracy as well as efficiency. This study examines two test cases proposed by the AIAA Aerodynamic Design Optimization Discussion Group. The first is a two-dimensional, transonic, inviscid, non-lifting optimization of a Modified-NACA 0012 airfoil. The second is a two-dimensional, transonic, viscous optimization problem using a RAE 2822 airfoil. The FUN3D CFD code of NASA Langley Research Center is used as the ow solver for the gradient-based optimization cases. Two shape parameterization techniques are employed to study their effect and the number of design variables on the final optimized shape: Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic-Structural Shape Optimization Using Deformation (MASSOUD) and the BandAids free-form deformation technique. For the two airfoil cases, angle of attack is treated as a global design variable. The thickness and camber distributions are the local design variables for MASSOUD, and selected airfoil surface grid points are the local design variables for BandAids. Using the MASSOUD technique, a drag reduction of 72.14% is achieved for the NACA 0012 case, reducing the total number of drag counts from 473.91 to 130.59. Employing the BandAids technique yields a 78.67% drag reduction, from 473.91 to 99.98. The RAE 2822 case exhibited a drag reduction from 217.79 to 132.79 counts, a 39.05% decrease using BandAids.

  13. High-Lift Separated Flow About Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    TRANSEP Calculates flow field about low-speed single-element airfoil at high-angle-of-attack and high-lift conditions with massive boundary-layer separation. TRANSEP includes effects of weak viscous interactions and can be used for subsonic/transonic airfoil design and analysis. The approach used in TRANSEP is based on direct-inverse method and its ability to use either displacement surface or pressure as airfoil boundary condition.

  14. Boundary-layer stability and airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.

    1986-01-01

    Several different natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils have been analyzed for stability of the laminar boundary layer using linear stability codes. The NLF airfoils analyzed come from three different design conditions: incompressible; compressible with no sweep; and compressible with sweep. Some of the design problems are discussed, concentrating on those problems associated with keeping the boundary layer laminar. Also, there is a discussion on how a linear stability analysis was effectively used to improve the design for some of the airfoils.

  15. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  16. Root region airfoil for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1995-05-23

    A thick airfoil is described for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%--26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4--1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects. 3 Figs.

  17. Prediction of the Effect of Vortex Generators on Airfoil Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, F.; Bak, C.; Vronsky, T.

    2014-06-01

    Vortex Generators (VGs) are widely used by the wind turbine industry, to control the flow over blade sections. The present work describes a computational fluid dynamic procedure that can handle a geometrical resolved VG on an airfoil section. After describing the method, it is applied to two different airfoils at a Reynolds number of 3 million, the FFA- W3-301 and FFA-W3-360, respectively. The computations are compared with wind tunnel measurements from the Stuttgart Laminar Wind Tunnel with respect to lift and drag variation as function of angle of attack. Even though the method does not exactly capture the measured performance, it can be used to compare different VG setups qualitatively with respect to chord- wise position, inter and intra-spacing and inclination of the VGs already in the design phase.

  18. The construction of airfoil pressure models by the plate method: Achievements, current research, technology development and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    A method of constructing airfoils by inscribing pressure channels on the face of opposing plates, bonding them together to form one plate with integral channels, and contour machining this plate to form an airfoil model is described. The research and development program to develop the bonding technology is described as well as the construction and testing of an airfoil model. Sample aerodynamic data sets are presented and discussed. Also, work currently under way to produce thin airfoils with camber is presented. Samples of the aft section of a 6 percent airfoil with complete pressure instrumentation including the trailing edge are pictured and described. This technique is particularly useful in fabricating models for transonic cryogenic testing, but it should find application in a wide ange of model construction projects, as well as the fabrication of fuel injectors, space hardware, and other applications requiring advanced bonding technology and intricate fluid passages.

  19. Tissue culture characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) haploid coleoptile sections.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Jing, G X; Li, X Y; Wang, X Q; Xing, Z; Deng, P K; Zhao, R G

    2015-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) technology, which is used for rapidly purifying genetic resources, is a key technology in modern maize breeding. The present study evaluated the tissue culture characteristics of maize haploid coleoptile sections, in order to provide a new way of haploid doubling. With 20 combinations of haploid coleoptile sections, obtained by hybridization within Reid, Tangsipingtou, and Term-tropical groups, as explants, we analyzed the induction and differentiation rate of callus, observed the number of root tip chromosomes in regenerated plants, and analyzed the pollen fertility. In addition, we used 47 SSR markers to analyze the genotypes of regenerated plants. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had significantly higher induction rates of haploid coleoptile callus compared to the Term-tropical group. Fifteen haploid plants were obtained which had 10 chromosomes in the root tips as assessed by I-KI staining. It was also noticed that the pollen of pollinated anthers were partially fertile. The haploid plants had genetic stability and showed no variation. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had good culture characteristics of haploid coleoptile sections, while the Term-tropical group had poor culture characteristics. Genotypes of haploid plants generated by tissue culture were evidenced to come from recombinant types of parents. Thus, this study established a tissue culture system of maize haploid coleoptile. PMID:26662420

  20. Unsteady aerodynamics of conventional and supercritical airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. S.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1980-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamics of a conventional and a supercritical airfoil are compared by examining measured chordwise unsteady pressure time-histories from four selected flow conditions. Although an oscillating supercritical airfoil excites more harmonics, the strength of the airfoil's shock wave is the more important parameter governing the complexity of the unsteady flow. Whether they are conventional or supercritical, airfoils that support weak shock waves induce unsteady loads that are qualitatively predictable with classical theories; flows with strong shock waves are sensitive to details of the shock-wave and boundary-layer interaction and cannot be adequately predicted.

  1. Inverse transonic airfoil design including viscous interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical technique was developed for the analysis of specified transonic airfoils or for the design of airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution, including the effect of weak viscous interaction. The method uses the full potential equation, a stretched Cartesian coordinate system, and the Nash-MacDonald turbulent boundary layer method. Comparisons with experimental data for typical transonic airfoils show excellent agreement. An example shows the application of the method to design a thick aft-cambered airfoil, and the effects of viscous interaction on its performance are discussed.

  2. Wavy flow cooling concept for turbine airfoils

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-08-31

    An airfoil including an outer wall and a cooling cavity formed therein. The cooling cavity includes a leading edge flow channel located adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil and a trailing edge flow channel located adjacent a trailing edge of the airfoil. Each of the leading edge and trailing edge flow channels define respective first and second flow axes located between pressure and suction sides of the airfoil. A plurality of rib members are located within each of the flow channels, spaced along the flow axes, and alternately extending from opposing sides of the flow channels to define undulating flow paths through the flow channels.

  3. Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoils/Blades and Wind Farm Layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaomin

    Shape optimization is widely used in the design of wind turbine blades. In this dissertation, a numerical optimization method called Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to address the shape optimization of wind turbine airfoils and blades. In recent years, the airfoil sections with blunt trailing edge (called flatback airfoils) have been proposed for the inboard regions of large wind-turbine blades because they provide several structural and aerodynamic performance advantages. The FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils are thick airfoils widely used for wind turbine blade application. They have several advantages in meeting the intrinsic requirements for wind turbines in terms of design point, off-design capabilities and structural properties. This research employ both single- and multi-objective genetic algorithms (SOGA and MOGA) for shape optimization of Flatback, FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils to achieve maximum lift and/or maximum lift to drag ratio. The commercially available software FLUENT is employed for calculation of the flow field using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model and a three equation k-kl-o turbulence model. The optimization methodology is validated by an optimization study of subsonic and transonic airfoils (NACA0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils). In this dissertation, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given B and lambda and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated

  4. Development of two supercritical airfoils with a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two supercritical airfoils were developed specifically for application to span distributed loading cargo aircraft. These airfoils have a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4, and were derived by modifying a recently developed supercritical airfoil having a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.18 and a design lift coefficient of 0.5. The aerodynamic characteristics were calculated using a theoretical method which computes the flow field about an airfoil having supercritical surface velocities.

  5. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of the Pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in the Eastern Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galović, Lidija

    2016-03-01

    In the Eastern Croatia impressive loess-paleosol successions up to 30 m thick are exposed. In the Zmajevac I section three paleosols are intercalated in loess while in the Zmajevac, Erdut and Šarengrad sections there are four paleosols are intercalated in loess. IRSL age estimates of 17.8 ± 1.9 and 217 ± 22 ka. In all investigated sections, alluvial sediments are intercalated in the loess deposits, indicating periods of fluvial activity. Strongly abraded typical aeolian spherical grains characterized by pitted well-rounded surface that was developed during transportation have original crystal surface almost destroyed. Surface of quartz grains preserves micro textures characteristic for all transport medias that it has been exposed to. However, muscovite grain surface enable successful distinguishing if the last transport was by wind or by aquatic media. Characteristic of all horizons with muscovite as a dominant mineral is recent settling of organisms. Beside the Danube, Drava and Sava River flood plains, part of the analyzed sediments also originates from regional Tertiary sediments which are rich in granite (as a muscovite-bearing rock), indicating the local influence. Enrichment of pyroxenes in the Šarengrad section points to the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone as its source of origin eroded by the Sava River southern tributaries. Šarengrad section is the southernmost among the analyzed sections and the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin. Thus, beside the Alpine region, the mineral composition is influenced by minerals from the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone in Bosnia. Warming periods are not represented just by paleosols, but also with laminated alluvial sediments.

  6. Ice-induced unsteady flowfield effects on airfoil performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbacki, Holly Marie

    Numerical prediction of iced-airfoil performance prior to and at maximum lift is often inaccurate due to large-scale flow unsteadiness. New computational models are being developed to improve predictions of complex separated flowfields; however, experimental data are required to improve and validate these algorithms. The objective of this investigation was to examine the unsteady flow behavior and the time-dependent performance of an iced airfoil to determine the flowfield characteristics with the most influence on airfoil performance, especially near stall. A NACA 0012 airfoil with two-dimensional and three-dimensional leading-edge simulated glaze ice shapes was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers 1.8 x 106 and 1.0 x 106. Time-dependent surface pressure measurements were used to calculate root-mean-square lift and quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients. Surface and flowfield visualization and wake hot-wire data were acquired. Spectral, correlation and phase-angle analyses were performed. The most significant unsteady flowfield effect on the iced-airfoil performance was a low-frequency flow phenomenon on the order of 10 Hz that resulted in Strouhal numbers of 0.0048--0.0101. The low-frequency oscillation produced large-scale pressure fluctuations nears eparation at high angles of attack and elevated lift and moment fluctuations as low as alpha = 4°. The low-frequency motion of surface pressure coefficients convected downstream at velocities 4%--34% of the freestream value and in one case, upstream at 0.18Uinfinity. The iced-airfoil flowfield exhibited a separation bubble of varying thickness and fluctuating reattachment, characteristics similar to those associated with the low-frequency shear-layer flapping and bubble growth and decay of other separated and reattached flows. Vortex structures observed in the shear layer were presumed to be the cause of large-scale pressure fluctuations upstream of reattachment at small angles of attack. Pressure

  7. An evaluation of three helicopter rotor sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.; Collins, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Three helicopter rotor sections were tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2- by 2-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel over a Mach range from 0.2 to 0.88. The sections tested had maximum thickness/chord ratios of 0.078, 0.09, and 0.10. The thickest section was of early technology and had been tested previously in other wind tunnels. This section was included in the investigation to establish a basis for comparing the two thinner sections, which were of recent design. The results of the investigation showed that the pitching-moment characteristics for the three airfoil sections were acceptable. The drag divergence Mach numbers for the three sections were 0.80, 0.825, and 0.845 in order of decreasing thickness.

  8. Determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Kent T.

    1995-08-01

    A semi-automated procedure is described for the accurate determination of geometrical characteristics using a scanned image of the tire cross-section. The procedure can be useful for cases when CAD drawings are not available or when a description of the actual cured tire is desired. Curves representing the perimeter of the tire cross-section are determined by an edge tracing scheme, and the plyline and cord-end positions are determined by locations of color intensities. The procedure provides an accurate description of the perimeter of the tire cross-section and the locations of plylines and cord-ends. The position, normals, and curvatures of the cross-sectional surface are included in this description. The locations of the plylines provide the necessary information for determining the ply thicknesses and relative position to a reference surface. Finally, the locations of the cord-ends provide a means to calculate the cord-ends per inch (epi). Menu driven software has been developed to facilitate the procedure using the commercial code, PV-Wave by Visual Numerics, Inc., to display the images. From a single user interface, separate modules are executed for image enhancement, curve fitting the edge trace of the cross-sectional perimeter, and determining the plyline and cord-end locations. The code can run on SUN or SGI workstations and requires the use of a mouse to specify options or identify items on the scanned image.

  9. Determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Kent T.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-automated procedure is described for the accurate determination of geometrical characteristics using a scanned image of the tire cross-section. The procedure can be useful for cases when CAD drawings are not available or when a description of the actual cured tire is desired. Curves representing the perimeter of the tire cross-section are determined by an edge tracing scheme, and the plyline and cord-end positions are determined by locations of color intensities. The procedure provides an accurate description of the perimeter of the tire cross-section and the locations of plylines and cord-ends. The position, normals, and curvatures of the cross-sectional surface are included in this description. The locations of the plylines provide the necessary information for determining the ply thicknesses and relative position to a reference surface. Finally, the locations of the cord-ends provide a means to calculate the cord-ends per inch (epi). Menu driven software has been developed to facilitate the procedure using the commercial code, PV-Wave by Visual Numerics, Inc., to display the images. From a single user interface, separate modules are executed for image enhancement, curve fitting the edge trace of the cross-sectional perimeter, and determining the plyline and cord-end locations. The code can run on SUN or SGI workstations and requires the use of a mouse to specify options or identify items on the scanned image.

  10. The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a river.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heqing; Chen, Guang; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2010-05-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavier or lighter pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a wide river is investigated with a well-tested three-dimensional numerical model of gravity flows based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence k-epsilon model. By focusing on investigating the influences of flow and buoyancy on pollutants, it is found that while carrying by the river flow downstream: i) a heavier pollutant released from the cross-sectional side position, forms transverse oscillation between two banks with decreased amplitude, i.e. forms kind of helical flow pattern along the straight part of channel bed; ii) a heavier pollutant released from the cross-sectional middle position, forms collapse oscillation in the middle of the straight channel part with reduced amplitude; iii) in the downstream sinuous channel, heavier pollutant is of higher concentration on the outer side of channel bends; iv) a light pollutant released from the cross-sectional side position, slips partly to the other side of the river, resulting in higher concentrations on two sides of the channel top; v) a light pollutant released from the cross-sectional middle position, splits into two parts symmetrically along two sides of the channel top; vi) in the downstream sinuous channel, light pollutant presents higher concentration on the inner side of channel bends. These findings may assist in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken for accidental or planned pollutant releases into a river. PMID:20170996

  11. Airfoil modification effects on subsonic and transonic pressure distributions and performance for the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Sewall, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinal characteristics and wing-section pressure distributions are compared for the EA-6B airplane with and without airfoil modifications. The airfoil modifications were designed to increase low-speed maximum lift for maneuvering, while having a minimal effect on transonic performance. Section contour changes were confined to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap regions of the wing. Experimental data are analyzed from tests in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on the baseline and two modified wing-fuselage configurations with the slats and flaps in their retracted positions. Wing modification effects on subsonic and transonic performance are seen in wing-section pressure distributions of the various configurations at similar lift coefficients. The modified-wing configurations produced maximum lift coefficients which exceeded those of the baseline configuration at low-speed Mach numbers (0.300 and 0.400). This benefit was related to the behavior of the wing upper surface leading-edge suction peak and the behavior of the trailing-edge pressure. At transonic Mach numbers (0.725 to 0.900), the wing modifications produced a somewhat stronger nose-down pitching moment, a slightly higher drag at low-lift levels, and a lower drag at higher lift levels.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, Myra L.; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  13. Prediction of Film Cooling on Gas Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis tool has been developed in order to study the effect of film cooling on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of actual turbine airfoils. An existing code (Arnone et al., 1991) has been modified for the purpose. The code is an explicit, multigrid, cell-centered, finite volume code with an algebraic turbulence model. Eigenvalue scaled artificial dissipation and variable-coefficient implicit residual smoothing are used with a full-multigrid technique. Moreover, Mayle's transition criterion (Mayle, 1991) is used. The effects of film cooling have been incorporated into the code in the form of appropriate boundary conditions at the hole locations on the airfoil surface. Each hole exit is represented by several control volumes, thus providing an ability to study the effect of hole shape on the film-cooling characteristics. Comparison is fair with near mid-span experimental data for four and nine rows of cooling holes, five on the shower head, and two rows each on the pressure and suction surfaces. The computations, however, show a strong spanwise variation of the heat transfer coefficient on the airfoil surface, specially with shower-head cooling.

  14. Performance measurements of an airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, Robert J.; Walker, Betty S.

    1989-01-01

    Performance characteristics of an Eppler 387 airfoil using both direct (force) and indirect (pressure) measurement techniques have been obtained at Reynolds numbers from 60,000 to 460,000 in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment data were obtained from two internally-mounted strain-gage balances specifically designed for small aerodynamic loads. Comparisons of these results with data from a pressure model of an Eppler 387 airfoil are included. Drag data for both models using the wake traverse method are compared with the balance data. Oil flow visualization and surface mounted hot-film sensors were used to determine laminar-separation and turbulent-reattachment locations. Problems associated with obtaining accurate wind-tunnel data at low Reynolds numbers are discussed.

  15. An airfoil pitch apparatus-modeling and control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The study of dynamic stall of rapidly pitching airfoils is being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center. Understanding this physical phenomenon will aid in improving the maneuverability of fighter aircraft as well as civilian aircraft. A wind tunnel device which can linearly pitch and control an airfoil with rapid dynamic response is needed for such tests. To develop a mechanism capable of high accelerations, an accurate model and control system is created. The model contains mathematical representations of the mechanical system, including mass, spring, and damping characteristics for each structural element, as well as coulomb friction and servovalve saturation. Electrical components, both digital and analog, linear and nonlinear, are simulated. The implementation of such a high-performance system requires detailed control design as well as state-of-the-art components. This paper describes the system model, states the system requirements, and presents results of its theoretical performance which maximizes the structural and hydraulic aspects of this system.

  16. An airfoil pitch apparatus-modeling and control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The study of dynamic stall of rapidly pitching airfoils is being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center. Understanding this physical phenomenon will aid in improving the maneuverability of fighter aircraft as well as civilian aircraft. A wind tunnel device which can linearly pitch and control an airfoil with rapid dynamic reponse is needed for such tests. To develop a mechanism capable of high accelerations, an accurate model and control system is created. The model contains mathematical representations of the mechanical system, including mass, spring, and damping characteristics for each structural element, as well as coulomb friction and servovalve saturation. Electrical components, both digital and analog, linear and nonlinear, are simulated. The implementation of such a high-performance system requires detailed control design as well as state-of-the-art components. This paper describes the system model, states the system requirements, and presents results of its theoretical performance which maximizes the structural and hydraulic aspects of this system.

  17. An airfoil pitch apparatus-modeling and control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    1989-03-01

    The study of dynamic stall of rapidly pitching airfoils is being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center. Understanding this physical phenomenon will aid in improving the maneuverability of fighter aircraft as well as civilian aircraft. A wind tunnel device which can linearly pitch and control an airfoil with rapid dynamic response is needed for such tests. To develop a mechanism capable of high accelerations, an accurate model and control system is created. The model contains mathematical representations of the mechanical system, including mass, spring, and damping characteristics for each structural element, as well as coulomb friction and servovalve saturation. Electrical components, both digital and analog, linear and nonlinear, are simulated. The implementation of such a high-performance system requires detailed control design as well as state-of-the-art components. This paper describes the system model, states the system requirements, and presents results of its theoretical performance which maximizes the structural and hydraulic aspects of this system.

  18. Nonlinear effects of flow unsteadiness on the acoustic radiation of a heaving airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manela, Avshalom

    2013-12-01

    The study considers the combined effects of boundary animation (small-amplitude heaving) and incoming flow unsteadiness (incident vorticity) on the vibroacoustic signature of a thin rigid airfoil in low-Mach number flow. The potential-flow problem is analysed using the Brown and Michael equation, yielding the incident vortex trajectory and time evolution of trailing edge wake. The dynamical description serves as an effective source term to evaluate the far-field sound using Powell-Howe analogy. The results identify the fluid-airfoil system as a dipole-type source, and demonstrate the significance of nonlinear eddy-airfoil interactions on the acoustic radiation. Based on the value of scaled heaving frequency ωa/U (with ω the dimensional heaving frequency, a the airfoil half-chord, and U the mean flow speed), the system behaviour can be divided into two characteristic regimes: (i) for ωa/U≪1, the effect of heaving is minor, and the acoustic response is well approximated by considering the interaction of a line vortex with a stationary airfoil; (ii) for ωa/U≫1, the impact of heaving is dominant, radiating sound through an “airfoil motion” dipole oriented along the direction of heaving. In between (for ωa/U~O(1)), an intermediate regime takes place. The results indicate that trailing edge vorticity has a two-fold impact on the acoustic far field: while reducing pressure fluctuations generated by incident vortex interaction with the airfoil, trailing edge vortices transmit sound along the mean-flow direction, characterized by airfoil heaving frequency. The “silencing” effect of trailing edge vorticity is particularly efficient when the incident vortex passes close to the airfoil trailing edge: at that time, application of the Kutta condition implies the release of a trailing edge vortex in the opposite direction to the incident vortex; the released vortex then detaches from the airfoil and follows the incident vortex, forming a “silent” vortex pair

  19. A critical assessment of UH-60 main rotor blade airfoil data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Many current comprehensive rotorcraft analyses employ lifting-line methods that require main rotor blade airfoil data, typically obtained from wind tunnel tests. In order to effectively evaluate these lifting-line methods, it is of the utmost importance to ensure that the airfoil section data are free of inaccuracies. A critical assessment of the SC1095 and SC1094R8 airfoil data used on the UH-60 main rotor blade was performed for that reason. Nine sources of wind tunnel data were examined, all of which contain SC1095 data and four of which also contain SC1094R8 data. Findings indicate that the most accurate data were generated in 1982 at the 11-Foot Wind Tunnel Facility at NASA Ames Research Center and in 1985 at the 6-inch by 22-inch transonic wind tunnel facility at Ohio State University. It has not been determined if data from these two sources are sufficiently accurate for their use in comprehensive rotorcraft analytical models of the UH-60. It is recommended that new airfoil tables be created for both airfoils using the existing data. Additional wind tunnel experimentation is also recommended to provide high quality data for correlation with these new airfoil tables.

  20. A critical assessment of UH-60 main rotor blade airfoil data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Many current comprehensive rotorcraft analyses employ lifting-line methods that require main rotor blade airfoil data, typically obtained from wind tunnel tests. In order to effectively evaluate these lifting-line methods, it is of the utmost importance to ensure that the airfoil section data are free of inaccuracies. A critical assessment of the SC1095 and SC1094R8 airfoil data used on the UH-60 main rotor blade was performed for that reason. Nine sources of wind tunnel data were examined, all of which contain SC1095 data and four of which also contain SC1094R8 data. Findings indicate that the most accurate data were generated in 1982 at the 11-Foot Wind Tunnel Facility at NASA Ames Research Center and in 1985 at the 6-inch-by-22-inch transonic wind tunnel facility at Ohio State University. It has not been determined if data from these two sources are sufficiently accurate for their use in comprehensive rotorcraft analytical models of the UH-60. It is recommended that new airfoil tables be created for both airfoils using the existing data. Additional wind tunnel experimentation is also recommended to provide high quality data for correlation with these new airfoil tables.

  1. On the acoustic signature of tandem airfoils: The sound of an elastic airfoil in the wake of a vortex generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manela, A.

    2016-07-01

    The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.

  2. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  3. Subsonic flow over thin oblique airfoils at zero lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The pressure distribution over thin oblique airfoils at subsonic speeds is studied. It is found that the flows again can be obtained by the superposition of elementary conical flow fields. In the case of the sweptback wing the pressure distributions remain qualitatively similar at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Thus a distribution similar to the Ackeret type of distribution appears on the root sections of the sweptback wing at M = 0. The resulting positive pressure drag on the root section is balanced by negative drags on outboard sections.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation of airfoils in unsteady low Reynolds number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiralaei, Mohammadreza

    The inherent complexity of low Reynolds number (LRN) flows and their respective viscous vortical patterns demand an accurate solution method to achieve the desired accuracy. This complicated flow field needs even more robust methods when the flow is unsteady. The flow field of unsteady airfoils and wings in LRN regime is challenging to solve and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations stand out as solid solution techniques in this area. This thesis is motivated by an existing rotating-flapping mechanism, whose kinematics components can be broken into pitching, plunging and a novel figure-of-eight-like flapping motion of its blades and each blade's cross section. The focus is on two-dimensional low Reynolds number (LRN) flows using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a Finite Volume Method (FVM). As one of the targets is to simulate a pair of blades, and consequently a pair of airfoils, a mesh motion library is developed to perform rotational and translational motions of multi-body configurations. The library and its sub-routines are tested on pairs of pitching, plunging and flapping airfoils, where the moving mesh problem is performed with a significant gain in the computational time compared to other moving mesh techniques such as Laplacian smoothing algorithm. The simulations of a single airfoil under harmonic and the novel figure-of-eight-like flapping motions, respectively, are conducted within 67% and 80% time it took to obtain a steady solution using the Laplace smoothing mesh motion algorithm, while the calculated force coefficients were in reasonably close agreement. Flow fields of single unsteady airfoils under pitching, plunging and figure-of-eight flapping motions are also simulated in this thesis accompanied with extensive parametric studies. The simulations of the considered figure-of-eight flapping pattern shows that its highly inclined asymmetrical kinematics results in higher vertical lift coefficients than the existing flapping patterns

  5. Control of laminar separation over airfoils by acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Mckinzie, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acoustic excitation in reducing laminar separation over two-dimensional airfoils at low angles of attack is investigated experimentally. Airfoils of two different cross sections, each with two different chord lengths, are studied in the chord Reynolds number range of 25,000 is less than R sub c is less than 100,000. While keeping the amplitude of the excitation induced velocity perturbation a constant, it is found that the most effective frequency scales as U (sup 3/2)(sub infinity). The parameter St/R (sup 1/2)(sub c), corresponding to the most effective f sub p for all the cases studied, falls in the range of 0.02 to 0.03, St being the Strouhal number based on the chord.

  6. A Computational Modeling Mystery Involving Airfoil Trailing Edge Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Yeunun; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    In a curious result, Fairman (2002) observed that steady RANS calculations predicted larger lift than the experimentally-measured data for six different airfoils with non-traditional trailing edge treatments, whereas the time average of unsteady RANS calculations matched the experiments almost exactly. Are these results reproducible? If so, is the difference between steady and unsteady RANS calculations a numerical artifact, or is there a physical explanation? The goals of this project are to solve this thirteen year old mystery and further to model viscous/load coupling for airfoils with non-traditional trailing edges. These include cupped, beveled, and blunt trailing edges, which are common anti-singing treatments for marine propeller sections. In this talk, we present steady and unsteady RANS calculations (ANSYS Fluent) with careful attention paid to the possible effects of asymmetric unsteady vortex shedding and the modeling of turbulence anisotropy. The effects of non-traditional trailing edge treatments are visualized and explained.

  7. CAST-10-2/DOA 2 Airfoil Studies Workshop Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Edward J. (Compiler); Hill, Acquilla S. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    During the period of September 23 through 27, 1988, the Transonic Aerodynamics Division at the Langely Research Center hosted an International Workshop on CAST-10-2/DOA 2 Airfoil Studies. The CAST-10 studies were the outgrowth of several cooperative study agreements among the NASA, the NAE of Canada, the DLR of West Germany, and the ONERA of France. Both theoretical and experimental CAST-10 airfoil results that were obtained form an extensive series of tests and studies, were reviewed. These results provided an opportunity to make direct comparisons of adaptive wall test section (AWTS) results from the NASA 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel and ONERA T-2 AWTS facilities with conventional ventilated wall wind tunnel results from the Canadian high Reynolds number two-dimensional test facility. Individual papers presented during the workshop are included.

  8. Kasprzyk airfoil. The first wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wusatowski, T.

    1984-01-01

    The Kasprzyk slotted flap glider airfoil (the Kasper wing) enabling glider flight at 32 km/h and 0.5 m/sec descent speed was wind tunnel tested in the U.S. The test layout is described and reasons offered for discrepancies between wind tunnel results and Polish in flight data: high induced drag caused by relative size of model wing span and tunnel, by vortex attenuators on the model and their proximity to the tunnel wall, nonsimilarity between flow over a smooth wing and flow over the Kasprzyk wing with bound vortices, obstruction of the tunnel test chamber cross section by the model wing, discrepant Reynolds numbers, and model airfoil aspect ratio much smaller than the prototype. The overall results offer partial confirmation of the Kasprzyk theory, but further in tunnel and in flight studies are recommended.

  9. An experimental study of transonic flow about a supercritical airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaid, F. W.; Dahlin, J. A.; Bachalo, W. D.; Stivers, L. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on flow fields about two airfoil models whose sections are slight modifications of the original Whitcomb supercritical airfoil section. Data obtained include surface static-pressure distributions, far-wake surveys, oil-flow photographs, pitot-pressure surveys in the viscous regions, and holographic interferograms. These data were obtained for different combinations of lift coefficient and free-stream Mach number, which included both subcritical cases and flows with upper-surface shock waves. The availability of both pitot-pressure data and density data from interferograms allowed determination of flow-field properties in the vicinity of the trailing edge and in the wake without recourse to any assumptions about the local static pressure. The data show that significant static-pressure gradients normal to viscous layers exist in this region, and that they persist to approximately 10% chord downstream of the trailing edge. Comparisons are made between measured boundary-layer properties and results from boundary-layer computations that employed measured static-pressure distributions, as well as comparisons between data and results of airfoil flow-field computations.

  10. Wind powered generator with cyclic airfoil latching

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, P.

    1981-12-01

    A wind powered generator rotatable about a vertical axis is described. A plurality of vertically disposed airfoils are provided, the airfoils being rotatable about a vertical axis parallel to the axis of the generator. The airfoils are selectively latched to be disposed perpendicularly of the wind direction during one phase of their revolution about the generator axis and are selectively unlatched to be permitted to rotate into a position generally parallel to the wind direction during other phases of their revolution. The latching and unlatching of the airfoils is determined by the wind direction and is effected by electronic means which determine the point of latching and unlatching as a function of the wind direction measured by a wind vane. The airfoils may comprise sails composed of a flexible material stretched into a predetermined shape on a frame.

  11. Transonic flow past an airfoil with condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, B.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with investigations conducted to determine the influence of water vapor on experiments in wind tunnels, the question arose as to what changes due to vapor condensation might be expected in airfoil measurements. Density measurements on circular-arc airfoils aided by an interferometer in choked tunnels with parallel walls show that increasing humidity produces increasing changes in the flow field. The flow becomes nonstationary at high humidity. At the airfoil, however, the influence of the condensation is only felt, inasmuch as the shock bounding the local supersonic region moves upstream with increasing humidity while its intensity decreases. The density distribution upstream of the shock remains unchanged. Even if the flow becomes nonstationary in the vicinity of the airfoil, no changes occur at the airfoil.

  12. Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop compendium of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    1987-01-01

    Results from the Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop held at the AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting at Reno, NV in January 1987, are compared with each other and with experimental data. Test cases used in this workshop include attached and separated transonic flows for three different airfoils: the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Jones airfoil. A total of 23 sets of numerical results from 15 different author groups are included. The numerical methods used vary widely and include: 16 Navier-Stokes methods, 2 Euler/boundary-layer methods, and 5 full-potential/boundary-layer methods. The results indicate a high degree of sophistication among the numerical methods with generally good agreement between the various computed and experimental results for attached or moderately-separated cases. The agreement for cases with larger separation is only fair and suggests additional work is required in this area.

  13. Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Meng

    1995-01-01

    The long term objective of this project is to develop a computational method for predicting the noise of turbulence-airfoil interactions, particularly at the trailing edge. We seek to obtain the energy-containing features of the turbulent boundary layers and the near-wake using Navier-Stokes Simulation (LES or DNS), and then to calculate the far-field acoustic characteristics by means of acoustic analogy theories, using the simulation data as acoustic source functions. Two distinct types of noise can be emitted from airfoil trailing edges. The first, a tonal or narrowband sound caused by vortex shedding, is normally associated with blunt trailing edges, high angles of attack, or laminar flow airfoils. The second source is of broadband nature arising from the aeroacoustic scattering of turbulent eddies by the trailing edge. Due to its importance to airframe noise, rotor and propeller noise, etc., trailing edge noise has been the subject of extensive theoretical (e.g. Crighton & Leppington 1971; Howe 1978) as well as experimental investigations (e.g. Brooks & Hodgson 1981; Blake & Gershfeld 1988). A number of challenges exist concerning acoustic analogy based noise computations. These include the elimination of spurious sound caused by vortices crossing permeable computational boundaries in the wake, the treatment of noncompact source regions, and the accurate description of wave reflection by the solid surface and scattering near the edge. In addition, accurate turbulence statistics in the flow field are required for the evaluation of acoustic source functions. Major efforts to date have been focused on the first two challenges. To this end, a paradigm problem of laminar vortex shedding, generated by a two dimensional, uniform stream past a NACA0012 airfoil, is used to address the relevant numerical issues. Under the low Mach number approximation, the near-field flow quantities are obtained by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically at chord

  14. Design optimization of transonic airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joh, C.-Y.; Grossman, B.; Haftka, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical optimization procedures were considered for the design of airfoils in transonic flow based on the transonic small disturbance (TSD) and Euler equations. A sequential approximation optimization technique was implemented with an accurate approximation of the wave drag based on the Nixon's coordinate straining approach. A modification of the Euler surface boundary conditions was implemented in order to efficiently compute design sensitivities without remeshing the grid. Two effective design procedures producing converged designs in approximately 10 global iterations were developed: interchanging the role of the objective function and constraint and the direct lift maximization with move limits which were fixed absolute values of the design variables.

  15. High fidelity numerical simulation of airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on flapping airfoil propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meilin; Wang, Z. J.; Hu, Hui

    2013-10-01

    High-fidelity numerical simulations with the spectral difference (SD) method are carried out to investigate the unsteady flow over a series of oscillating NACA 4-digit airfoils. Airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the flapping airfoil propulsion are highlighted. It is confirmed that the aerodynamic performance of airfoils with different thickness can be very different under the same kinematics. Distinct evolutionary patterns of vortical structures are analyzed to unveil the underlying flow physics behind the diverse flow phenomena associated with different airfoil thickness and kinematics and reveal the synthetic effects of airfoil thickness and kinematics on the propulsive performance. Thickness effects at various reduced frequencies and Strouhal numbers for the same chord length based Reynolds number (=1200) are then discussed in detail. It is found that at relatively small Strouhal number (=0.3), for all types of airfoils with the combined pitching and plunging motion (pitch angle 20°, the pitch axis located at one third of chord length from the leading edge, pitch leading plunge by 75°), low reduced frequency (=1) is conducive for both the thrust production and propulsive efficiency. Moreover, relatively thin airfoils (e.g. NACA0006) can generate larger thrust and maintain higher propulsive efficiency than thick airfoils (e.g. NACA0030). However, with the same kinematics but at relatively large Strouhal number (=0.45), it is found that airfoils with different thickness exhibit diverse trend on thrust production and propulsive efficiency, especially at large reduced frequency (=3.5). Results on effects of airfoil thickness based Reynolds numbers indicate that relative thin airfoils show superior propulsion performance in the tested Reynolds number range. The evolution of leading edge vortices and the interaction between the leading and trailing edge vortices play key roles in flapping airfoil propulsive performance.

  16. Aerodynamics Investigation of Faceted Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolillo, Zachary G.

    The desire and demand to fly farther and faster has progressively integrated the concept of optimization with airfoil design, resulting in increasingly complex numerical tools pursuing efficiency often at diminishing returns; while the costs and difficulty associated with fabrication increases with design complexity. Such efficiencies may often be necessary due to the power density limitations of certain aircraft such as small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs). This research, however, focuses on reducing the complexity of airfoils for applications where aerodynamic performance is less important than the efficiency of manufacturing; in this case a Hybrid Projectile. By employing faceted sections to approximate traditional contoured wing sections it may be possible to expedite manufacturing and reduce costs. We applied this method to the development of a low Reynolds number, disposable Hybrid Projectile requiring a 4.5:1 glide ratio, resulting in a series of airfoils which are geometric approximations to highly contoured cross-sections called ShopFoils. This series of airfoils both numerically and experimentally perform within a 10% margin of the SD6060 airfoil at low Re. Additionally, flow visualization has been conducted to qualitatively determine what mechanisms, if any, are responsible for the similarity in performance between the faceted ShopFoil sections and the SD6060. The data obtained by these experiments did not conclusively reveal how the faceted surfaces may influence low Re flow but did indicate that the ShopFoil s did not maintain flow attachment at higher angles of attack than the SD6060. Two reasons are provided for the unexpected performance of the ShopFoil: one is related to downwash effects, which are suspected of placing the outer portion of the span at an effective angle of attack where the ShopFoils outperform the SD6060; the other is the influence of the tip vortex on separation near the wing tips, which possibly

  17. Semi-empirical model for prediction of unsteady forces on an airfoil with application to flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical model is described for predicting unsteady aerodynamic forces on arbitrary airfoils under mildly stalled and unstalled conditions. Aerodynamic forces are modeled using second order ordinary differential equations for lift and moment with airfoil motion as the input. This model is simultaneously integrated with structural dynamics equations to determine flutter characteristics for a two degrees-of-freedom system. Results for a number of cases are presented to demonstrate the suitability of this model to predict flutter. Comparison is made to the flutter characteristics determined by a Navier-Stokes solver and also the classical incompressible potential flow theory.

  18. Semi-empirical model for prediction of unsteady forces on an airfoil with application to flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, A. J.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Dowell, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    A semi-empirical model is described for predicting unsteady aerodynamic forces on arbitrary airfoils under mildly stalled and unstalled conditions. Aerodynamic forces are modeled using second order ordinary differential equations for lift and moment with airfoil motion as the input. This model is simultaneously integrated with structural dynamics equations to determine flutter characteristics for a two degrees-of-freedom system. Results for a number of cases are presented to demonstrate the suitability of this model to predict flutter. Comparison is made to the flutter characteristics determined by a Navier-Stokes solver and also the classical incompressible potential flow theory.

  19. Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik; Vronsky, Tomas

    2014-06-01

    When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization setup, airfoils were designed with relative thicknesses between 18% and 36%, a structural box height of 85% of the relative thickness, and varying box widths in chordwise direction between 20% and 40% of the chord length. The results from these airfoil designs showed that for a given flapwise stiffness, the design lift coefficient increases if the box length reduces and at the same time the relative thickness increases. Even though the conclusions are specific to the airfoil design approach used, the study indicated that an increased design lift required slightly higher relative thickness compared to airfoils with lower design lift to maintain the flapwise stiffness. Also, the study indicated that the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was relatively independent of the airfoil design with a tendency that the lift-drag ratio decreased for large box lengths. The above conclusions were supported by an analysis of the three airfoil families Riso-C2, DU and FFA, where the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was decreasing, but relatively independent of the airfoil design, and the design lift coefficient was varying depending on the design philosophy. To make the analysis complete also design lift and lift- drag ratio as a function of edgewise and torsional stiffness were shown.

  20. Spline-Based Smoothing of Airfoil Curvatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Krist, S.

    2008-01-01

    Constrained fitting for airfoil curvature smoothing (CFACS) is a splinebased method of interpolating airfoil surface coordinates (and, concomitantly, airfoil thicknesses) between specified discrete design points so as to obtain smoothing of surface-curvature profiles in addition to basic smoothing of surfaces. CFACS was developed in recognition of the fact that the performance of a transonic airfoil is directly related to both the curvature profile and the smoothness of the airfoil surface. Older methods of interpolation of airfoil surfaces involve various compromises between smoothing of surfaces and exact fitting of surfaces to specified discrete design points. While some of the older methods take curvature profiles into account, they nevertheless sometimes yield unfavorable results, including curvature oscillations near end points and substantial deviations from desired leading-edge shapes. In CFACS as in most of the older methods, one seeks a compromise between smoothing and exact fitting. Unlike in the older methods, the airfoil surface is modified as little as possible from its original specified form and, instead, is smoothed in such a way that the curvature profile becomes a smooth fit of the curvature profile of the original airfoil specification. CFACS involves a combination of rigorous mathematical modeling and knowledge-based heuristics. Rigorous mathematical formulation provides assurance of removal of undesirable curvature oscillations with minimum modification of the airfoil geometry. Knowledge-based heuristics bridge the gap between theory and designers best practices. In CFACS, one of the measures of the deviation of an airfoil surface from smoothness is the sum of squares of the jumps in the third derivatives of a cubicspline interpolation of the airfoil data. This measure is incorporated into a formulation for minimizing an overall deviation- from-smoothness measure of the airfoil data within a specified fitting error tolerance. CFACS has been

  1. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Perforated Split Flaps for Use as Dive Brakes on a Tapered NACA 23012 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E.; Turner, Thomas R.

    1941-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a tapered NACA 23012 airfoil with single and double perforated split flaps have been determined in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. Dynamic pressure surveys were made behind the airfoil at the approximate location of the tail in order to determine the extent and location of the wake for several of the flap arrangements. In addition, computations have been made of an application of perforated double split flaps for use as fighter brakes. The results indicated that single or double perforated split flaps may be used to obtain satisfactory dive control without undue buffeting effects and that single or double perforated split flaps may also be used as fighter brakes. The perforated split flaps had approximately the same effects on the aerodynamic and wake characteristics of the tapered airfoil as on a comparable rectangular airfoil.

  2. Influence of cross-sectional discontinuity on the damping characteristics of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeongwon; Ahn, Sangkeun; Yoo, Ji Woo; Park, Junhong

    2016-09-01

    The geometry of a rectangular plate used in a structural application is an important design parameter that influences the vibrational response of the plate when it is subjected to an impact. In this study, the influence of a cross-sectional discontinuity on the vibration characteristics of viscoelastically supported plates was investigated. The discontinuity was induced at a specific location in the length-wise span. Experimental studies were performed to identify the effect of the discontinuity on the plate vibration response. The mode shapes and damping ratios of the plates with and without discontinuities in the cross-section were measured and compared. Forced vibration responses and modal properties were predicted using a numerical model. The variation in cross-sectional geometry was modeled to determine the changes in bending stiffness. The translational and rotational viscoelastic stiffnesses at the plate edges were used for modeling the vibration damping at the boundaries. This damping occurred at the contact surface between the plate and the fixtures. To investigate the effect of support stiffness on the vibration damping, flexural wave propagation analysis was performed with different boundary conditions. The ratio between the incident and reflected waves from the boundaries was predicted for flexural waves of different wavelengths. The predicted reflection ratios of the plate with and without the discontinuities were compared to the predicted loss factors using numerical analysis. The vibration energy dissipation at the viscoelastic supports was proportional to the measured modal damping.

  3. Aerodynamic Control of a Pitching Airfoil by Distributed Bleed Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

    2013-11-01

    The aerodynamic forces and moments on a dynamically pitching 2-D airfoil model are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using distributed active bleed. Bleed flow on the suction surface downstream of the leading edge is driven by pressure differences across the airfoil and is regulated by low-power louver actuators. The bleed interacts with cross flows to effect time-dependent variations of the vorticity flux and thereby alters the local flow attachment, resulting in significant changes in pre- and post-stall lift and pitching moment (over 50% increase in baseline post-stall lift). The flow field over the airfoil is measured using high-speed (2000 fps) PIV, resolving the dynamics and characteristic time-scales of production and advection of vorticity concentrations that are associated with transient variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments. In particular, it is shown that the actuation improves the lift hysteresis and pitch stability during the oscillatory pitching by altering the evolution of the dynamic stall vortex and the ensuing flow attachment during the downstroke. Supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.

  4. Flow control at low Reynolds numbers using periodic airfoil morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gareth; Santer, Matthew; Papadakis, George; Bouremel, Yann; Debiasi, Marco; Imperial-NUS Joint PhD Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The performance of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers is known to suffer from flow separation even at low angles of attack as a result of their boundary layers remaining laminar. The lack of mixing---a characteristic of turbulent boundary layers---leaves laminar boundary layers with insufficient energy to overcome the adverse pressure gradient that occurs in the pressure recovery region. This study looks at periodic surface morphing as an active flow control technique for airfoils in such a flight regime. It was discovered that at sufficiently high frequencies an oscillating surface is capable of not only reducing the size of the separated region---and consequently significantly reducing drag whilst simultaneously increasing lift---but it is also capable of delaying stall and as a result increasing CLmax. Furthermore, by bonding Macro Fiber Composite actuators (MFCs) to the underside of an airfoil skin and driving them with a sinusoidal frequency, it is shown that this control technique can be practically implemented in a lightweight, energy efficient way. Imperial-NUS Joint Ph.D. Programme.

  5. High Reynolds number tests of a Boeing BAC I airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Hill, A. S.; Ray, E. J.; Rozendaal, R. A.; Butler, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of an advanced-technology airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). This investigation represents the first in a series of NASA/U.X. industry two dimensional airfoil studies to be completed in the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test program. Test temperature was varied from ambient to about 100 K at pressures ranging from about 1.2 to 6.0 atm. Mach number was varied from about 0.40 to 0.80. These variables provided a Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) range from about .0000044 to .00005. This investigation was specifically designed to: (1) test a Boeing advanced airfoil from low to flight-equivalent Reynolds numbers; (2) provide the industry participant (Boeing) with experience in cryogenic wind-tunnel model design and testing techniques; and (3) demonstrate the suitability of the 0.3-m TCT as an airfoil test facility. All the objectives of the cooperative test were met. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixed transition, Mach number, and Reynolds number on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Also included are remarks on the model design, the model structural integrity, and the overall test experience.

  6. Modeling and computation of flow in a passage with 360 deg turning and multiple airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyy, W.; Vu, T. C.

    1991-06-01

    Numerical modeling of the three-dimensional flows in a spiral casing of a hydraulic turbine, containing a passage of 360-deg turning and multiple elements of airfoils (the so-called distributor), is made. The physical model is based on a novel two-level approach, comprising of (1) a global model that adequately accounts for the geometry of the spiral casing but smears out the details of the distributor and represents the multiple airfoils by a porous medium treatment; and (2) a local model that performs detailed analysis of flow in the distributor region. The global analysis supplies the inlet flow condition for the individual cascade of distributor airfoils, while the distributor analysis yields the information needed for modeling the characteristics of the porous medium. Comparisons of pressure and velocity profiles between measurement and prediction have been made to assess the validity of the present approach. Flow characteristics in the spiral casing are also discussed.

  7. Wavelet diagnostics of the flow control of unsteady separation on a 2D Wind Turbine Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhe; Lewalle, Jacques; Wang, Guannan; Glauser, Mark

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic characteristics of a 2D wind turbine airfoil. Unsteadiness was associated with the wake of a cylinder upstream of the airfoil. The experiments were conducted in both the baseline case, and with active closed-loop control on the suction surface of the airfoil. The data consisted of surface pressure time series. Continuous wavelet analysis gave the phase, band-pass filtered signals and envelope of harmonics of the fundamental shedding frequency. Coherence of pairs of signals was also used to map the flow characteristics. For the baseline and controlled case, we will report on the relation between phase of the leading edge fluctuations, unsteady flow separation and lift and drag coefficients. Our goal is to develop a more effective controller. The experiment was funded by DoE through University of Minnesota Wind Energy Consortium. Thanks for the support from the MAE department of Syracuse University.

  8. Navier-Stokes simulations of WECS airfoil flowfields

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, G.F.

    1994-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated an effort to apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the study of WECS aerodynamics. Preliminary calculations are presented for the flow past a SAND 0018/50 airfoil. The flow solver used is F3D, an implicitly, finite-difference code which solves the Thin-Layer Navier-airfoil. The flow solver used is F3D, an implicit, finite-difference code which solves the Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equations. 2D steady-state calculations are presented at various angles of attack, {alpha}. Sectional lift and drag coefficient, as well as surface pressure distributions, are compared with wind tunnel data, and exhibit reasonable agreement at low to moderate angles of attack. At high {alpha}, where the airfoil is stalled, a converged solution to the steady-state equations could not be obtained. The flowfield continued to change with successive iterations, which is consistent with the fact that the actual flow is inherently transient, and requires the solution of the full unsteady form of the equations.

  9. Airfoil profile drag increase due to acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearin, John G.; Jones, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional airfoil (NACA-0009) is subjected to high intensity pure-tone sound over a 1-5 kHz frequency range while immersed in a flow with 240 ft/sec velocity in a quiet flow facility with a Reynolds number of 3 million. Wake dynamic pressures are determined, and the momentum deficit is used to calculate a two-dimensional drag coefficient. Significant increases in drag are observed when the airfoil is subjected to high-intensity sound at critical frequencies. The increased drag is accompanied by movement of the natural transition location. When the transition is fixed by roughness at 10 percent chord, no further transition movement is observed in response to an acoustic Tollmien-Schlichting disturbance. However, a 4 percent increase in the sectional drag coefficient is noted. It is believed to be due to the sound exciting the flow near the airfoil surface (shear layer), thus causing the existing turbulence to become more intense, possess a higher mixing rate (momentum), and increase the skin friction.

  10. Airfoil profile drag increase due to acoustic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearin, John G.; Jones, Michael G.

    1989-04-01

    A two-dimensional airfoil (NACA-0009) is subjected to high intensity pure-tone sound over a 1-5 kHz frequency range while immersed in a flow with 240 ft/sec velocity in a quiet flow facility with a Reynolds number of 3 million. Wake dynamic pressures are determined, and the momentum deficit is used to calculate a two-dimensional drag coefficient. Significant increases in drag are observed when the airfoil is subjected to high-intensity sound at critical frequencies. The increased drag is accompanied by movement of the natural transition location. When the transition is fixed by roughness at 10 percent chord, no further transition movement is observed in response to an acoustic Tollmien-Schlichting disturbance. However, a 4 percent increase in the sectional drag coefficient is noted. It is believed to be due to the sound exciting the flow near the airfoil surface (shear layer), thus causing the existing turbulence to become more intense, possess a higher mixing rate (momentum), and increase the skin friction.

  11. Aerodynamic Control of a Dynamically Pitching Airfoil using Transitory Pulsed Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yuehan; Crittenden, Thomas; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Transitory control and regulation of trapped vorticity concentrations are exploited for control of the aerodynamic loads on an airfoil that is dynamically pitching beyond the dynamic stall margin in wind tunnel experiments. Actuation is effected using a spanwise array of integrated miniature chemical (combustion based) high impulse actuators that are triggered intermittently relative to the airfoil's motion on characteristic time scales that are an order of magnitude shorter than the airfoil's convective time scale. The effects of the actuation on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil are assessed using time-dependent measurements of the lift force and pitching moment coupled with time-resolved particle image velocimetry that is acquired phased-locked to the motion of the airfoil. The aerodynamic loading can be significantly altered by a number of actuation programs using multiple actuation bursts during the pitch cycle. While actuation during the upstroke primarily affects the formation, evolution, and advection of the dynamic stall vortex, actuation during the downstroke accelerates flow attachment. Superposition of such actuation programs leads to enhancement of cycle lift and pitch stability, and reduced cycle hysteresis.

  12. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J.; Shamseer, Larissa; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Li, Lun; Reid, Emma K.; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%). Few SRs (7%) searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary

  13. Full-scale semispan tests of a business-jet wing with a natural laminar flow airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale semispan model was investigated to evaluate and document the low-speed, high-lift characteristics of a business-jet class wing that utilized the HSNLF(1)-0213 airfoil section and a single-slotted flap system. Also, boundary-layer transition effects were examined, a segmented leading-edge droop for improved stall/spin resistance was studied, and two roll-controlled devices were evaluated. The wind-tunnel investigation showed that deployment of single-slotted, trailing-edge flap was effective in providing substantial increments in lift required for takeoff and landing performance. Fixed-transition studies to investigate premature tripping of the boundary layer indicated no adverse effects in lift and pitching-moment characteristics for either the cruise or landing configuration. The full-scale results also suggested the need to further optimize the leading-edge droop design that was developed in the subscale tests.

  14. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of an Airfoil with Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Jinwei; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Kreshock, Andrew R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Liu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design and evaluation of an airfoil with active continuous trailing-edge flap (CTEF) as a potential rotorcraft active control device. The development of structural cross-section models of a continuous trailing-edge flap airfoil is described. The CTEF deformations with MFC actuation are predicted by NASTRAN and UM/VABS analyses. Good agreement is shown between the predictions from the two analyses. Approximately two degrees of CTEF deflection, defined as the rotation angle of the trailing edge, is achieved with the baseline MFC-PZT bender. The 2D aerodynamic characteristics of the continuous trailing-edge flap are evaluated using a CFD analysis. The aerodynamic efficiency of a continuous trailing-edge flap is compared to that of a conventional discrete trailing-edge flap (DTEF). It is found that the aerodynamic characteristics of a CTEF are equivalent to those of a conventional DTEF with the same deflection angle but with a smaller flap chord. A fluid structure interaction procedure is implemented to predict the deflection of the continuous trailingedge flap under aerodynamic pressure. The reductions in CTEF deflection are overall small when aerodynamic pressure is applied: 2.7% reduction is shown with a CTEF deflection angle of two degrees and at angle of attack of six degrees. In addition, newly developed MFC-PMN actuator is found to be a good supplement to MFC-PZT when applied as the bender outside layers. A mixed MFC-PZT and MFC-PMN bender generates 3% more CTEF deformation than an MFC-PZT only bender and 5% more than an MFC-PMN only bender under aerodynamic loads.

  15. Airfoil Lift with Changing Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1927-01-01

    Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.

  16. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  17. Space Debris Size Estimation Based on New Statistical Characteristics of Radar Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Zhuang; Hu, Weidong

    2009-03-01

    Radar Cross Section (RCS) of space debris is generally related to space debris geometrical structure. The estimation of space debris size from RCS is investigated in this paper. We first establish an ellipsoid model. Then, by researching the RCS series of ellipsoid, it is denoted that the ratio of the number of the bigger than the mean value of RCS series to the number of the smaller is equal to the ellipsoid's curvature. And this statistical characteristics is demonstrated in the paper. Based on it, we estimate the long and short axial size of space debris. A number of practical data is processed using this method, and the estimated values are compared with the result of MIT Lincoln Laboratory's method. The result suggests that the method has a high precision, and the estimated size can provide much information to space debris surveillance.

  18. Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of a Linear Cascade of Airfoils in Separated Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capece, Vincent R.; Ford, Christopher; Bone, Christopher; Li, Rui

    2004-01-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to investigate methods to modify the leading edge separation region, which could lead to an improvement in aeroelastic stability of advanced airfoil designs. The airfoil section used is representative of current low aspect ratio fan blade tip sections. The experimental potion of this study investigated separated zone boundary layer from removal through suction slots. Suction applied to a cavity in the vicinity of the separation onset point was found to be the most effective location. The computational study looked into the influence of front camber on flutter stability. To assess the influence of the change in airfoil shape on stability the work-per-cycle was evaluated for torsion mode oscillations. It was shown that the front camberline shape can be an important factor for stabilizing the predicted work-per-cycle and reducing the predicted extent of the separation zone. In addition, data analysis procedures are discussed for reducing data acquired in experiments that involve periodic unsteady data. This work was conducted in support of experiments being conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Flutter Cascade. The spectral block averaging method is presented. This method is shown to be able to account for variations in airfoil oscillation frequency that can occur in experiments that force oscillate the airfoils to simulate flutter.

  19. Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Kiran

    Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It

  20. Wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with 30 percent-chord venetian-blind flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, F M; Spano, Bartholomew S

    1942-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a NACA 23012 airfoil with 30-percent-chord venetian-blind flaps having one, two, three, and four slats of Clark y section. The three-slat arrangements was aerodynamically the best of those tested but showed practically no improvement over the comparable arrangement used in the preliminary tests published in NACA Technical Report No. 689. The multiple-slat flaps gave slightly higher lift coefficients than the one-slat (Fowler) flap but gave considerably greater pitching-moment coefficients. An analysis of test data indicates that substitution of a thicker and more cambered section for the Clark y slats should improve the aerodynamic and the structural characteristics of the venetian-blind flap.

  1. Community characteristics associated with where urgent care centers are located: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Sidney T; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the community characteristics associated with non-hospital-based urgent care centres wherever they are located. Design National cross-sectional study evaluating the association between non-hospital-based urgent care centers, and their demographic characteristics in a community, using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions. Setting Communities in the USA with non-hospital-based urgent care centers, as identified using a 2014 national database from the Urgent Care Association of America. Participants 31 022 communities encompassing 6898 urgent care centers across the USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures Presence of a non-hospital-based urgent care center within a community. Results Communities with non-hospital-based urgent care centers are urban (75.7% with vs 22.2% without; p<0.001 across rural urban commuting area levels), and are located in areas with higher income levels (38.6% in highest quartile with vs 22.3% without; p<0.001 across quartiles) and higher levels of private insurance (29.6% in highest quartile with vs 23.9% without; p<0.001 across quartiles). Conclusions While the growth of the urgent care industry may have other promising implications, policymakers should recognise that it may exacerbate disparities in access to acute care faced by poorer, uninsured patients, and may also have financial implications for providers that are providing overlapping services, such as emergency departments and primary care practices. PMID:27056591

  2. Aerodynamic, aeroacoustic, and aeroelastic investigations of airfoil-vortex interaction using large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Marcel

    In helicopters, vortices (generated at the tip of the rotor blades) interact with the next advancing blades during certain flight and manoeuvring conditions, generating undesirable levels of acoustic noise and vibration. These Blade-Vortex Interactions (BVIs), which may cause the most disturbing acoustic noise, normally occur in descent or high-speed forward flight. Acoustic noise characterization (and potential reduction) is one the areas generating intensive research interest to the rotorcraft industry. Since experimental investigations of BVI are extremely costly, some insights into the BVI or AVI (2-D Airfoil-Vortex Interaction) can be gained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations. Numerical simulation of BVI or AVI has been of interest to CFD for many years. There are still difficulties concerning an accurate numerical prediction of BVI. One of the main issues is the inherent dissipation of CFD turbulence models, which severely affects the preservation of the vortex characteristics. Moreover this is not an issue only for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analysis but also for aeroelastic investigations as well, especially when the strong (two-way) aeroelastic coupling is of interest. The present investigation concentrates mainly on AVI simulations. The simulations are performed for Mach number, Ma = 0.3, resulting in a Reynolds number, Re = 1.3 x 106, which is based on the chord, c, of the airfoil (NACA0012). Extensive literature search has indicated that the present work represents the first comprehensive investigation of AVI using the LES numerical approach, in the rotorcraft research community. The major factor affecting the aerodynamic coefficients and aeroacoustic field as a result of airfoil-vortex interaction is observed to be the unsteady pressure generated at the location of the interaction. The present numerical results show that the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, moment, and drag) and aeroacoustic field are strongly dependent on

  3. The calculation of flow over iced airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1988-01-01

    Progress toward the development of a method for predicting the flowfield of an iced airfoil is described and shown to offer the prospect of a priori calculations of the effects of ice accretion and roughness on airfoil performance. The approach is based on interaction of inviscid flow solutions obtained by a panel method and improved upon by a finite-difference boundary-layer method which, operating in an inverse mode, incorporates viscous effects including those associated with separated flows. Results are presented for smooth, rough and iced airfoils as a function of angle of attack. Those for smooth and rough airfoils confirm the accuracy of the method and its applicability to surfaces with roughness similar to that associated with insect deposition and some forms of ice. Two procedures have been developed to deal with large ice accretion and their performance is examined and shown to be appropriate to the engineering requirements.

  4. Low speed airfoil design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Somers, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A low speed airfoil design and analysis program was developed which contains several unique features. In the design mode, the velocity distribution is not specified for one but many different angles of attack. Several iteration options are included which allow the trailing edge angle to be specified while other parameters are iterated. For airfoil analysis, a panel method is available which uses third-order panels having parabolic vorticity distributions. The flow condition is satisfied at the end points of the panels. Both sharp and blunt trailing edges can be analyzed. The integral boundary layer method with its laminar separation bubble analog, empirical transition criterion, and precise turbulent boundary layer equations compares very favorably with other methods, both integral and finite difference. Comparisons with experiment for several airfoils over a very wide Reynolds number range are discussed. Applications to high lift airfoil design are also demonstrated.

  5. Turbine airfoil to shroud attachment method

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Kulkarni, Anand A; James, Allister W; Wessell, Brian J; Gear, Paul J

    2014-12-23

    Bi-casting a platform (50) onto an end portion (42) of a turbine airfoil (31) after forming a coating of a fugitive material (56) on the end portion. After bi-casting the platform, the coating is dissolved and removed to relieve differential thermal shrinkage stress between the airfoil and platform. The thickness of the coating is varied around the end portion in proportion to varying amounts of local differential process shrinkage. The coating may be sprayed (76A, 76B) onto the end portion in opposite directions parallel to a chord line (41) of the airfoil or parallel to a mid-platform length (80) of the platform to form respective layers tapering in thickness from the leading (32) and trailing (34) edges along the suction side (36) of the airfoil.

  6. Airfoil for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-01-18

    An airfoil is provided for a gas turbine comprising an outer structure comprising a first wall, an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced relative to the first wall such that a cooling gap is defined between at least portions of the first and second walls, and seal structure provided within the cooling gap between the first and second walls for separating the cooling gap into first and second cooling fluid impingement gaps. An inner surface of the second wall may define an inner cavity. The inner structure may further comprise a separating member for separating the inner cavity of the inner structure into a cooling fluid supply cavity and a cooling fluid collector cavity. The second wall may comprise at least one first impingement passage, at least one second impingement passage, and at least one bleed passage.

  7. Modeling and Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Pennline, James A.; Schilling, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    SmaggIce Version 2.0 is a software toolkit for geometric modeling and grid generation for two-dimensional, singleand multi-element, clean and iced airfoils. A previous version of SmaggIce was described in Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 8 (August 2004), page 32. To recapitulate: Ice shapes make it difficult to generate quality grids around airfoils, yet these grids are essential for predicting ice-induced complex flow. This software efficiently creates high-quality structured grids with tools that are uniquely tailored for various ice shapes. SmaggIce Version 2.0 significantly enhances the previous version primarily by adding the capability to generate grids for multi-element airfoils. This version of the software is an important step in streamlining the aeronautical analysis of ice airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The user may prepare the ice shape, define the flow domain, decompose it into blocks, generate grids, modify/divide/merge blocks, and control grid density and smoothness. All these steps may be performed efficiently even for the difficult glaze and rime ice shapes. Providing the means to generate highly controlled grids near rough ice, the software includes the creation of a wrap-around block (called the "viscous sublayer block"), which is a thin, C-type block around the wake line and iced airfoil. For multi-element airfoils, the software makes use of grids that wrap around and fill in the areas between the viscous sub-layer blocks for all elements that make up the airfoil. A scripting feature records the history of interactive steps, which can be edited and replayed later to produce other grids. Using this version of SmaggIce, ice shape handling and grid generation can become a practical engineering process, rather than a laborious research effort.

  8. Transonic airfoil design using Cartesian coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical technique for designing transonic airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution (the inverse problem) is presented. The method employs the basic features of Jameson's iterative solution for the full potential equation, except that inverse boundary conditions and Cartesian coordinates are used. The method is a direct-inverse approach that controls trailing-edge closure. Examples show the application of the method to design aft-cambered and other airfoils specifically for transonic flight.

  9. TAIR: A transonic airfoil analysis computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, F. C.; Holst, T. L.; Grundy, K. L.; Thomas, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    The operation of the TAIR (Transonic AIRfoil) computer code, which uses a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for transonic flow fields about arbitrary airfoils, is described on two levels of sophistication: simplified operation and detailed operation. The program organization and theory are elaborated to simplify modification of TAIR for new applications. Examples with input and output are given for a wide range of cases, including incompressible, subcritical compressible, and transonic calculations.

  10. Effect of pre-strain and excess length on unsteady fluid-structure interactions of membrane airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojratsirikul, P.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2010-04-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional membrane airfoils were experimentally investigated in a wind tunnel. The effects of the membrane pre-strain and excess length on the unsteady aspects of the fluid-structure interaction were studied. The deformation of the membrane as a function of angle of attack and free-stream velocity was measured using a high-speed camera. These measurements were complemented by the measurements of unsteady velocity field with a high frame-rate Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system as well as smoke visualization. Membrane airfoils with excess length exhibit higher vibration modes, earlier roll-up of vortices, and smaller separated flow regions, whereas the membranes with pre-strain generally behave more similarly to a rigid airfoil. Measured frequencies of the membrane vibrations suggest a possible coupling with the wake instabilities at high incidences for all airfoils.

  11. An experimental study of the aerodynamics of a NACA 0012 airfoil with a simulated glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Ohio State University subsonic wind tunnel to measure the detailed aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a simulated glaze ice accretion. A NACA 0012 model with interchangeable leading edges and pressure taps every one percent chord was used. Surface pressure and wake data were taken on the airfoil clean, with forced transition and with a simulated glaze ice shape. Lift and drag penalties due to the ice shape were found and the surface pressure clearly showed that large separation bubbles were present. Both total pressure and split-film probes were used to measure velocity profiles, both for the clean model and for the model with a simulated ice accretion. A large region of flow separation was seen in the velocity profiles and was correlated to the pressure measurements. Clean airfoil data were found to compare well to existing airfoil analysis methods.

  12. Propulsion by active and passive airfoil oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowski, A. W.; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2013-11-01

    Oscillating airfoils have been the subject of much research both as a mechanism of propulsion in engineering devices as well as a model of understanding how fish, birds, and insects produce thrust and maneuvering forces. Additionally, the jet or wake generated by an oscillating airfoil exhibits a multitude of vortex patterns, which are an interesting study in their own right. We present PIV measurements of the vortex flow behind an airfoil undergoing controlled pitching oscillations at moderate Reynolds number. As a method of propulsion, oscillating foils have been found to be capable performers when undergoing both pitching and heaving motions [Anderson et al. 1998]. While an airfoil undergoing only pitching motion is a relatively inefficient propulsor, we examine the effect of adding passive dynamics to the system: for example, actuated pitching with a passive spring in the heave direction. Practically speaking, a mechanical system with such an arrangement has the potential to reduce the cost and complexity of an oscillating airfoil propulsor. To study an airfoil undergoing both active and passive motion, we employ our ``cyber-physical fluid dynamics'' technique [Mackowski & Williamson, 2011] to simulate the effects of passive dynamics in a physical experiment.

  13. 2D CFD Analysis of an Airfoil with Active Continuous Trailing Edge Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksich, Dylan; Shen, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Efficient and quieter helicopter rotors can be achieved through on-blade control devices, such as active Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps driven by embedded piezoelectric material. This project aims to develop a CFD simulation tool to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with CTEF using open source code: OpenFOAM. Airfoil meshes used by OpenFOAM are obtained with MATLAB scripts. Once created it is possible to rotate the airfoil to various angles of attack. When the airfoil is properly set up various OpenFOAM properties, such as kinematic viscosity and flow velocity, are altered to achieve the desired testing conditions. Upon completion of a simulation, the program gives the lift, drag, and moment coefficients as well as the pressure and velocity around the airfoil. The simulation is then repeated across multiple angles of attack to give full lift and drag curves. The results are then compared to previous test data and other CFD predictions. This research will lead to further work involving quasi-steady 2D simulations incorporating NASTRAN to model aeroelastic deformation and eventually to 3D aeroelastic simulations. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  14. Simulation of flow around a thick airfoil with a vortex trapping cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, F.; Basha, M.; Al-Garni, A. Z.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of a low Reynolds number flow around a thick airfoil (Eppler's E863 airfoil) with and without an upper-surface vortex-trapping cavity. The numerical model of flow is constructed using an O-grid computational domain around the airfoil and analyzed using four different turbulence models: namely standard k-ɛ, RNG k-ɛ, SST k-ω and the one-equation Spallart-Almaras (SA). Enhance wall treatment is employed for the two-equation turbulence models with the non-dimensional first cell height y+ at the wall region kept close to 1. The Reynolds number is kept constant at 354000. Results of lift & drag coefficient as well as velocity profiles are presented for four different angles of attack from 0 to 15 deg. The RNG k-ɛ model is found to better predict the flow field and airfoil lift and drag characteristics as compared to the other turbulence models taken into consideration in this paper. The presence of the vortex-trapping cavity midway on the upper-surface of the airfoil is found to yield higher lift coefficients as well as prevent flow separation but at the cost of increase the drag coefficient.

  15. Experimental Study of the Power Profile Airfoil Equipped with Plasma Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Libin; Jacob, Jamey

    2013-11-01

    This presentation discusses results from an experimental study of the power profile airfoil at low Reynolds number. The power profile airfoil was developed by AMO Smith and consists of a blunt trailing edge shape with two wall jets near the trailing edge. The replacement of streamlining with properly designed blowing is used to prevent flow separation and additionally offers potential applications as a powered high-lift system, propulsive system, or low inertia control device. The 2D wind-tunnel model consists of the 22.5% thick power profile airfoil equipped with a movable trailing edge plug to direct flow along the trailing edge streamline. Compressed air was passed into the model via a plenum with flow conditioning devices to create pressure backdrop to allow uniform blowing at the trailing edge. The effects of varying jet momentum coefficient and trailing edge positioning on the aerodynamic characteristics are observed with both wake surveys and PIV. The impact of plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJA) placed along the trailing edge of the power profile airfoil is also discussed. PSJA operation is compared to the baseline power profile airfoil both alone and working with the blowing to provide additional control authority.

  16. Leading-edge singularities in thin-airfoil theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    If the thin airfoil theory is applied to an airfoil having a rounded leading edge, a certain error will arise in the determination of the pressure distribution around the nose. It is shown that the evaluation of the drag of such a blunt nosed airfoil by the thin airfoil theory requires the addition of a leading edge force, analogous to the leading edge thrust of the lifting airfoil. The method of calculation is illustrated by application to: (1) The Joukowski airfoil in subsonic flow; and (2) the thin elliptic cone in supersonic flow. A general formula for the edge force is provided which is applicable to a variety of wing forms.

  17. Evaluation of a research circulation control airfoil using Navier-Stokes methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrewsbury, George D.

    1987-01-01

    The compressible Reynolds time averaged Navier-Stokes equations were used to obtain solutions for flows about a two dimensional circulation control airfoil. The governing equations were written in conservation form for a body-fitted coordinate system and solved using an Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) procedure. A modified algebraic eddy viscosity model was used to define the turbulent characteristics of the flow, including the wall jet flow over the Coanda surface at the trailing edge. Numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained for a research circulation control airfoil geometry. Excellent agreement with the experimental results was obtained.

  18. Impingement cooling with film coolant extraction in the airfoil leading edge regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liguo; Li, Zhaohui

    An extensive experimental study is conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of arrays of air jets impinging on perforated target surfaces in turbine blade leading edge regions by six large-scale models. The relations of pressure loss and Nusselt number to jet Reynolds number are obtained in a wide range of parameter combinations of interest in cooled airfoil practice for various models, respectively. These parameter combinations are covered in a test matrix, including combinations of variations in jet Reynolds number, airfoil leading edge curvature radius-to-diameter ratio, jet pitch-to-diameter ratio, and jet impingement gap-to-diameter ratio.

  19. Computer investigations of the turbulent flow around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driss, Zied; Chelbi, Tarek; Abid, Mohamed Salah

    2015-12-01

    In this work, computer investigations are carried out to study the flow field developing around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine. The Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model are considered. These equations are solved numerically to determine the local characteristics of the flow. The models tested are implemented in the software "SolidWorks Flow Simulation" which uses a finite volume scheme. The numerical results are compared with experiments conducted on an open wind tunnel to validate the numerical results. This will help improving the aerodynamic efficiency in the design of packaged installations of the NACA2415 airfoil type wind turbine.

  20. Effects of laminar separation bubbles and turbulent separation on airfoil stall

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, P.; Coiro, D.P.

    1997-12-31

    An existing two-dimensional, interactive, stall prediction program is extended by improving its laminar separation bubble model. The program now accounts correctly for the effects of the bubble on airfoil performance characteristics when it forms at the mid-chord and on the leading edge. Furthermore, the model can now predict bubble bursting on very sharp leading edges at high angles of attack. The details of the model are discussed in depth. Comparisons of the predicted stall and post-stall pressure distributions show excellent agreement with experimental measurements for several different airfoils at different Reynolds numbers.

  1. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Fall Injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran; A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari-Fam, Saber; Sarbazi, Ehsan; Daemi, Amin; Sarbazi, Mohamadreza; Riyazi, Lachin; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Allahyari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fall injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on Hospital Information System (HIS) data for patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital between 2008 and 2013. We recorded the demographic characteristics and epidemiological patterns of patients who were admitted to our center due to fall injuries. To standardize the reports the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), the International Classification of Diseases 9 Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was used. Equally, the hospitalization period and number, admission ward, and the final status of victims after discharge from the hospital were extracted from the HIS. Results: Overall we included a total number of 3397 patients with mean age of 39.2±22.7 years. There were 2501 (73.6%) men among the patients. Long bone fracture (48.1%) and intracranial injury (24.2%) were the most frequent injuries among fall injury victims. Operations on spinal cord and spinal canal structures (12.0%), Operations on nose (11.6%) were the most common operations being performed in these patients. The survival was significantly lower in patients with age more than 60 years when compared to other age groups (p=0.001). The survival rate was significantly lower in age group of >60 years, compared to other age groups (p=0.001). Conclusion: Given the high rate of fall injuries and death among the elderly that increases with age, appropriate measures must be taken to control and prevent injuries while prioritizing the elderly. PMID:27162912

  2. An empirically derived basis for calculating the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergrun, Norman R

    1952-01-01

    An empirically derived basis for predicting the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils of arbitrary section is presented. The concepts involved represent an initial step toward the development of a calculation technique which is generally applicable to the design of thermal ice-prevention equipment for airplane wing and tail surfaces. It is shown that sufficiently accurate estimates, for the purpose of heated-wing design, can be obtained by a few numerical computations once the velocity distribution over the airfoil has been determined. The calculation technique presented is based on results of extensive water-drop trajectory computations for five airfoil cases which consisted of 15-percent-thick airfoils encompassing a moderate lift-coefficient range. The differential equations pertaining to the paths of the drops were solved by a differential analyzer.

  3. Discussion of test results in the design of laminar airfoils for competition gliders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrowski, J.; Skrzynski, S.; Litwinczyk, M.

    1980-01-01

    The deformation of flow in the boundary layer and the local separation of a laminar layer (laminar bubbles) from various airfoils were investigated. These phenomena were classified and their influence is discussed. Various aerodynamic characteristics are discussed and the principles for prescribing pressure distribution to attain a high value of c sub z max with a possibly low drag coefficient are described.

  4. Effects of turbulence on laminar separation on aerodynamic surfaces such as airfoils and compressor blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, W. Z.

    1979-01-01

    Activities report include (1) completion of measurements of turbulence amplification in flow about a circular cylinder; (2) initiation of the measurements of turbulence characteristics in flow about a single symmetric airfoil; and, (3) further examination of various matching numerical methods. Emphasis is placed on the experimental program conducted to obtain data on the amplification of the oncoming turbulence and its management.

  5. An airfoil flutter model suspension system to accommodate large static transonic airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1985-01-01

    A pitch/plunge flutter model suspension system and associated two-dimensional MBB-A3 airfoil models is described. The system is designed for installation in the Langley 6-by-19-inch and 6-by-18-inch transonic blowdown wind tunnels to enable systematic study of the transonic flutter characteristics and static pressure distributions of supercritical airfoils at transonic Mach numbers. A compound spring suspension concept is introduced which simultaneously meets requirements for low plunge-mode stiffness, lightweight suspended model, and large steady lift due to angle of attack without the need for excessive static deflections of the plunge spring. The system features variable pitch and plunge frequencies, changeable airfoil rotation axes, and a self aligning control system to maintain a constant mean position of the model with changing airload.

  6. Effects of icing on the aerodynamic performance of high lift airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, L. N.; Phaengsook, N.; Bangalore, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D compressible Navier-Stokes solver capable of analyzing multi-element airfoils is described. The flow field is divided into multiple zones. In each zone, the governing equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme. The flow solver is validated through a study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a GA(W)-1 configuration, for which good quality measured surface pressure data and load data are available. The solver is next applied to a study of the effects of icing on an iced 5-element airfoil configuration, experimentally studied at NASA Lewis Research Center. It is demonstrated that the formation of ice over the leading edge slat and the main airfoil can lead to significant flow separation, and a significant loss in lift, compared to clean configurations.

  7. Icing Test Results on an Advanced Two-Dimensional High-Lift Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Wilcox, Peter; Chin, Vincent; Sheldon, David

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to investigate ice accretions on a high-lift, multi-element airfoil in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The airfoil is representative of an advanced transport wing design. The experimental work was conducted as part of a cooperative program between McDonnell Douglas Aerospace and the NASA Lewis Research Center to improve current understanding of ice accretion characteristics on the multi-element airfoil. The experimental effort also provided ice shapes for future aerodynamic tests at flight Reynolds numbers to ascertain high-lift performance effects. Ice shapes documented for a landing configuration over a variety of icing conditions are presented along with analyses.

  8. Atmospheric performance of the special-purpose Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thin-airfoil family

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J; Smith, B; Jager, D; Olsen, T

    1990-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), in cooperation with SeaWest Energy Group, has completed extensive atmospheric testing of the special-purpose SERI thin-airfoil family during the 1990 wind season. The purpose of this test program was to experimentally verify the predicted performance characteristics of the thin-airfoil family on a geometrically optimized blade, and to compare it to original-equipment blades under atmospheric wind conditions. The tests were run on two identical Micon 65/13 horizontal-axis wind turbines installed side-by-side in a wind farm. The thin-airfoil family 7.96 m blades were installed on one turbine, and AeroStar 7.41 m blades were installed on the other. This paper presents final performance results of the side-by-side comparative field test for both clean and dirty blade conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Wave propagation in beams with periodic arrays of airfoil-shaped resonating units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, Filippo; Bertoldi, Katia

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical and numerical study on the dispersion properties of an Euler-Bernoulli beam immersed in a steady fluid flow with periodic arrays of airfoil-shaped vibration absorbers attached to it. The resonance characteristics of the airfoils generate strong attenuation of flexural waves in the beam occurring at frequencies defined by the properties of the airfoils and the speed of the incident fluid. Analytical and numerical tools are developed to investigate the effects of the incident flow on the dispersion properties and the bandgaps of the system. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic models are used to model the lift force and the pitching moment acting on the resonators and their effect on the dispersion relations of the system is evaluated. Finally, an effective medium description of the beam is developed to capture its behavior at long-wavelengths. In this regime, the system can be effectively considered as an acoustic metamaterial with adaptive dispersion properties.

  10. Effect of viscosity on wind-tunnel wall interference for airfoils at high lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. E.; Stridsberg, S.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the walls of a wind tunnel on the subsonic, two-dimensional flow past airfoils at high angles of attack is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis, which is based on iteratively coupled potential-flow, boundary-layer, and separated-flow analyses, includes determining the effect of viscosity and flow separation on the airfoil/wall interaction. Predictions of the effects of wind-tunnel wall on the lift of airfoils are compared with wall corrections based on inviscid image analyses, and with experimental data. These comparisons are made for airfoils that are large relative to the size of the test section of the wind tunnel. It is shown that the inviscid image modeling of the wind-tunnel interaction becomes inaccurate at lift coefficients near maximum lift or when the airfoil/wall interaction is particularly strong. It is also shown that the present method of analysis (which includes boundary-layer and flow-separation effects) will provide accurate wind-tunnel wall corrections for lift coefficients up to maximum lift.

  11. Flow past a self-oscillating airfoil with two degrees of freedom: measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šidlof, Petr; Štěpán, Martin; Vlček, Václav; Řidký, Václav; Šimurda, David; Horáček, Jaromír

    2014-03-01

    The paper focuses on investigation of the unsteady subsonic airflow past an elastically supported airfoil for subcritical flow velocities and during the onset of the flutter instability. A physical model of the NACA0015 airfoil has been designed and manufactured, allowing motion with two degrees of freedom: pitching (rotation about the elastic axis) and plunging (vertical motion). The structural mass and stiffness matrix can be tuned to certain extent, so that the natural frequencies of the two modes approach as needed. The model was placed in the measuring section of the wind tunnel in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Institute of Thermomechanics in Nový Knín, and subjected to low Mach number airflow up to the flow velocities when self-oscillation reach amplitudes dangerous for the structural integrity of the model. The motion of the airfoil was registered by a high-speed camera, with synchronous measurement of the mechanic vibration and discrete pressure sensors on the surface of the airfoil. The results of the measurements are presented together with numerical simulation results, based on a finite volume CFD model of airflow past a vibrating airfoil.

  12. Investigation to optimize the passive shock wave/boundary layer control for supercritical airfoil drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Dyer, R.

    1984-01-01

    The passive shock wave/boundary layer control for reducing the drag of 14%-thick supercritical airfoil was investigated in the 3 in. x 15.4 in. RPI Transonic Wind Tunnel with and without the top wall insert at transonic Mach numbers. Top wall insert was installed to increase the flow Mach number to 0.90 with the model mounted on the test section bottom wall. Various porous surfaces with a cavity underneath were positioned on the area of the airfoil where the shock wave occurs. The higher pressure behind the shock wave circulates flow through the cavity to the lower pressure ahead of the shock wave. The effects from this circulation prevent boundary layer separation and enthropy increase hrough the shock wave. The static pressure distributions over the airfoil, the wake impact pressure survey for determining the profile drag and the Schlieren photographs for porous surfaces are presented and compared with the results for solid surface airfoil. With a 2.8% uniform porosity the normal shock wave for the solid surface was changed to a lambda shock wave, and the wake impact pressure data indicate a drag coefficient reduction as much as 45% lower than for the solid surface airfoil at high transonic Mach numbers.

  13. Increased cesarean section rate in Central Saudi Arabia: a change in practice or different maternal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Al-Anazi, Sultana A; Tamim, Hani M

    2015-01-01

    Background Cesarean section (CS) rate has shown an alarming increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to the increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. Two groups of women were included (G1 and G2). G1 had delivered by CS during the year 2002 (CS rate 12%), and G2 had delivered by CS during the year 2009 (CS rate 20%). We compared the included women’s characteristics, neonates, CS indications, and complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 program. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated to report precision of categorical data results. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 198 women were included in G1 and 200 in G2. Both groups had comparable maternal and fetal characteristics; however, absence of antenatal care has resulted in 70% increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.008, OR =0.30, CI 0.12–0.76. Previous vaginal surgeries have contributed to tenfold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.006, OR =10.37, CI 1.32–81.78. G2 had eight times increased CS deliveries than G1 due to intrauterine growth restriction, P=0.02, OR =8.21, CI 1.02–66.25, and 80% increased risk of CS was based on maternal demand, P=0.02, OR =0.20, CI 0.02–1.71. Decision taken by less-experienced staff was associated with 2.5-fold increase in CS deliveries for G2, P=0.002, OR =2.62, CI 1.39–4.93. There was a significant increase in CS deliveries under regional analgesia and shorter duration of hospital stay for G2, P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. G2 women had 2.75-fold increase in neonatal intensive care unit admission, P=0.03, OR =2.75, CI 1.06–7.15. Conclusion CS delivery rate significantly increased within the studied population. The increased rate of CS may be related to a change in physician’s practice rather than a change in maternal characteristics, and it appears to be reducible. PMID:26203285

  14. Cyclists' helmet usage and characteristics in central and southern Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, John D; Honermann, Brian J; Roffenbender, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, bicycle helmet usage in southern and central Malawi. This study was across-sectional observation of public behaviour. The urban and rural roadways in southern and central Malawi were studied during the dry season. In total, 1900 bicyclists were observed along the roadways of southern and central Malawi over a four-day period. Observer ascertainment of cyclists' helmet status, approximate age, sex and bicycle operator or passenger status were measured. Of the 1900 cyclists observed, no cyclist was identified as wearing a helmet (exact 95% CI: 0.0-0.2%). There was no variation by age, sex or operator/passenger status. Nearly, 91.5% of observed cyclists were males and 87.7% were operating the bicycle. The sizeable majority of male cyclists were classified as young adults from adolescence to 25 years old (47.2%) or adults over age 25 (44.9%); 7.9% of male cyclists were pre-adolescent. Passengers were more likely to be female than operators (39.1% versus 4.2%), though, even for passengers, a higher proportion were males than females (p < 0.001). In Malawi, helmet usage is so rare as to be non-existent. This suggests an opportunity for significant improvement. Based on the observed cyclists' characteristics, interventions should be targeted to adult and young adult males. PMID:22394127

  15. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of several current helicopter tail boom cross sections including the effect of spoilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Kelley, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics were determined of three cylindrical shapes representative of tail boom cross sections of the U.S. Army AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1H helicopters. Forces and pressures were measured in a wind-tunnel investigation at the Langley Research Center. Data were obtained for a flow incidence range from -45 to 90 deg and a dynamic pressure range from 1.5 to 50 psf. These ranges provided data representative of full-scale Reynolds numbers and the full range of flow incidence to which these helicopter tail boom shapes would be subjected at low flight speeds. The effects of protuberances such as tail rotor drive-shaft covers and spoilers were evaluated. The data indicate that significant side loads on tail booms of helicopters can be generated and that the addition of spoilers can beneficially alter the side loads. Although an increase in vertical drag occurs, the net effect through reduction of tail rotor thrust required can be an improvement in helicopter performance.

  17. Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.

    1985-10-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.

  18. Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.

  19. Adjoint Airfoil Optimization of Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Roman; Nordborg, Henrik

    2012-11-01

    We present the feasibility of using an adjoint solver to optimize the torque of a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). We start with a 2D cross section of a symmetrical airfoil and restrict us to low solidity ratios to minimize blade vortex interactions. The adjoint solver of the ANSYS FLUENT software package computes the sensitivities of airfoil surface forces based on a steady flow field. Hence, we find the torque of a full revolution using a weighted average of the sensitivities at different wind speeds and angles of attack. The weights are computed analytically, and the range of angles of attack is given by the tip speed ratio. Then the airfoil geometry is evolved, and the proposed methodology is evaluated by transient simulations.

  20. On the validation of a code and a turbulence model appropriate to circulation control airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viegas, J. R.; Rubesin, M. W.; Maccormack, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    A computer code for calculating flow about a circulation control airfoil within a wind tunnel test section has been developed. This code is being validated for eventual use as an aid to design such airfoils. The concept of code validation being used is explained. The initial stages of the process have been accomplished. The present code has been applied to a low-subsonic, 2-D flow about a circulation control airfoil for which extensive data exist. Two basic turbulence models and variants thereof have been successfully introduced into the algorithm, the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and the Jones-Launder two-equation models of turbulence. The variants include adding a history of the jet development for the algebraic model and adding streamwise curvature effects for both models. Numerical difficulties and difficulties in the validation process are discussed. Turbulence model and code improvements to proceed with the validation process are also discussed.

  1. An experimental study of airfoil-spoiler aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Karamcheti, K.

    1985-01-01

    The steady/unsteady flow field generated by a typical two dimensional airfoil with a statically deflected flap type spoiler was investigated. Subsonic wind tunnel tests were made over a range of parameters: spoiler deflection, angle of attack, and two Reynolds numbers; and comprehensive measurements of the mean and fluctuating surface pressures, velocities in the boundary layer, and velocities in the wake. Schlieren flow visualization of the near wake structure was performed. The mean lift, moment, and surface pressure characteristics are in agreement with previous investigations of spoiler aerodynamics. At large spoiler deflections, boundary layer character affects the static pressure distribution in the spoiler hingeline region; and, the wake mean velocity fields reveals a closed region of reversed flow aft of the spoiler. It is shown that the unsteady flow field characteristics are as follows: (1) the unsteady nature of the wake is characterized by vortex shedding; (2) the character of the vortex shedding changes with spoiler deflection; (3) the vortex shedding characteristics are in agreement with other bluff body investigations; and (4) the vortex shedding frequency component of the fluctuating surface pressure field is of appreciable magnitude at large spoiler deflections. The flow past an airfoil with deflected spoiler is a particular problem in bluff body aerodynamics is considered.

  2. Experimental Results with Airfoils Tested in the High-speed Tunnel at Guidonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1940-01-01

    The results are presented of a triple series of tests using force measurements, pressure-distribution measurements, and air flow photographs on airfoil sections suitably selected so that comparison could be made between the experimental and theoretical results. The comparison with existing theory is followed by a discussion of the divergences found, and an attempt is made to find their explanation.

  3. Experimental Investigation of a 2D Supercritical Circulation-Control Airfoil Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Allan, Brian G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent efforts in extreme short takeoff and landing aircraft configurations have renewed the interest in circulation control wing design and optimization. The key to accurately designing and optimizing these configurations rests in the modeling of the complex physics of these flows. This paper will highlight the physics of the stagnation and separation regions on two typical circulation control airfoil sections.

  4. Program manual for the Eppler airfoil inversion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program is described for calculating the profile of an airfoil as well as the boundary layer momentum thickness and energy form parameter. The theory underlying the airfoil inversion technique developed by Eppler is discussed.

  5. High-Lift, Low-Pitching-Moment Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W.

    1987-01-01

    Two families of airfoil shapes improve rotor performance. Improvements enhance performances of helicopters and other rotorcraft but also applicable to aircraft propellers. Airfoil shapes best suited for inboard segment of rotor blade.

  6. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. II - Low solidity airfoil row response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady period flow field is generated by rotating flows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chordwise pressure response of a downstream low solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristics of a linear-theory gust, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. When the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory gust characteristics, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic response of the downstream stators was much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. It is shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.

  7. A sampling scheme to assess persistence and transport characteristics of xenobiotics within an urban river section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwientek, Marc; Guillet, Gaelle; Kuch, Bertram; Rügner, Hermann; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Xenobiotic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals or personal care products typically are continuously introduced into the receiving water bodies via wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls and, episodically, via combined sewer overflows in the case of precipitation events. Little is known about how these chemicals behave in the environment and how they affect ecosystems and human health. Examples of traditional persistent organic pollutants reveal, that they may still be present in the environment even decades after they have been released. In this study a sampling strategy was developed which gives valuable insights into the environmental behaviour of xenobiotic chemicals. The method is based on the Lagrangian sampling scheme by which a parcel of water is sampled repeatedly as it moves downstream while chemical, physical, and hydrologic processes altering the characteristics of the water mass can be investigated. The Steinlach is a tributary of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany with a catchment area of 140 km². It receives the effluents of a WWTP with 99,000 inhabitant equivalents 4 km upstream of its mouth. The varying flow rate of effluents induces temporal patterns of electrical conductivity in the river water which enable to track parcels of water along the subsequent urban river section. These parcels of water were sampled a) close to the outlet of the WWTP and b) 4 km downstream at the confluence with the Neckar. Sampling was repeated at a 15 min interval over a complete diurnal cycle and 2 h composite samples were prepared. A model-based analysis demonstrated, on the one hand, that substances behaved reactively to a varying extend along the studied river section. On the other hand, it revealed that the observed degradation rates are likely dependent on the time of day. Some chemicals were degraded mainly during daytime (e.g. the disinfectant Triclosan or the phosphorous flame retardant TDCP), others as well during nighttime (e.g. the musk fragrance

  8. [Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Flux in Liuzhou Section of Liujiang Basin].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-qiong; He, Shi-yi; Yu, Shi; Sun, Ping-an; Wang, Yan-xue; Wu, Zhao-yun; Li, Xin-gui; Xie, Ming-xian; Liu, Wen; Li, Rui; Zhang, Hua-sheng

    2015-07-01

    An important aspect of the current global change research is using river chemical composition to reveal the chemical weathering process and its effect of carbon sink. In this study, water samples were collected and analyzed 2 ~3 times per month from January to December in 2013. The hydrochemistry belonged to HCO3-Ca type. Ca+ and HCO3- were the main cation and anion, which reflected that the hydrochemical characteristics of river were mainly affected by the dissolution of carbonate rock. The concentration of main ions varied with the seasons, which reflected that the crest value occurred in winter, followed by those in autumn and spring, and the lowest value was observed in summer. Due to the interaction of effect of dilution and effect of C2, the seasonal variation of Ca2+ and HCO3- showed that the highest value was in autumn and the lowest value was in summer. The seasonal variation law of other ions should be attributed to the effect of dilution or agricultural activities or combined action of them. Both carbonic acid and sulfuric acid took part in the chemical weathering of carbonate rocks as evidenced by stoichiometric analysis. Besides, the δ34S of sulfate ion of the river waters (δ34S: from 7. 65 per thousand to 8. 55 per thousand) showed that SO2- was originated mainly from oxidation of sulfide minerals in ore deposits and acid rain. Chemical mass balance method was applied to estimate the proportion of HCO- coming from carbonate weathering by sulfuric acid. The result was 28. 26% . On this basis, the total carbon flux of carbon ( by CO2 calculation) in Liuzhou section calculated month by month was about 8. 95 x 10(5) t . a-1. What's more, the carbon flux showed a positive correlation with flow, which implied that the discharge of catchment was the main influencing factor of carbon flux rather than the HCO3- concentration. PMID:26489309

  9. Estimating HIV-1 Fitness Characteristics from Cross-Sectional Genotype Data

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Sathej; Montazeri, Hesam; Menz, Stephan; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Despite the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, virological failure due to drug resistance development remains a major challenge. Resistant mutants display reduced drug susceptibilities, but in the absence of drug, they generally have a lower fitness than the wild type, owing to a mutation-incurred cost. The interaction between these fitness costs and drug resistance dictates the appearance of mutants and influences viral suppression and therapeutic success. Assessing in vivo viral fitness is a challenging task and yet one that has significant clinical relevance. Here, we present a new computational modelling approach for estimating viral fitness that relies on common sparse cross-sectional clinical data by combining statistical approaches to learn drug-specific mutational pathways and resistance factors with viral dynamics models to represent the host-virus interaction and actions of drug mechanistically. We estimate in vivo fitness characteristics of mutant genotypes for two antiretroviral drugs, the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine (ZDV) and the protease inhibitor indinavir (IDV). Well-known features of HIV-1 fitness landscapes are recovered, both in the absence and presence of drugs. We quantify the complex interplay between fitness costs and resistance by computing selective advantages for different mutants. Our approach extends naturally to multiple drugs and we illustrate this by simulating a dual therapy with ZDV and IDV to assess therapy failure. The combined statistical and dynamical modelling approach may help in dissecting the effects of fitness costs and resistance with the ultimate aim of assisting the choice of salvage therapies after treatment failure. PMID:25375675

  10. Exercise training characteristics in cardiac rehabilitation programmes: a cross-sectional survey of Australian practice

    PubMed Central

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Briffa, Tom; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exercise training is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), however, little information exists regarding the specific exercise interventions currently provided for coronary heart disease in Australian practice. We aimed to analyse the current status of exercise-based CR services across Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey. Methods Australian sites offering exercise-based CR were identified from publically available directories. All sites were invited by email to participate in an online Survey Monkey questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015, with reminders via email and phone follow-up. Questions investigated the demographics and format of individual programmes, as well as specific exercise training characteristics. Results 297 eligible programmes were identified, with an 82% response rate. Most sites (82%) were based at hospital or outpatient centres, with home (15%), community (18%) or gym-based options (5%) less common. While CR was most often offered in a comprehensive format (72% of sites), the level of exercise intervention varied greatly among programmes. Most frequently, exercise was prescribed 1–2 times per week for 60 min over 7 weeks. Almost one-quarter (24%) had a sole practitioner supervising exercise, although the majority used a nurse/physiotherapist combination. Low to moderate exercise intensities were used in 60% of programmes, however, higher intensity prescriptions were not uncommon. Few sites (<6%) made use of technology, such as mobile phones or the internet, to deliver or support exercise training. Conclusions While advances have been made towards providing flexible and accessible exercise-based CR, much of Australia's service remains within traditional models of care. A continuing focus on service improvement and evidence-based care should, therefore, be considered a core aim of those providing exercise for CR in order to improve health service delivery and optimise outcomes for patients. PMID

  11. Design of a subsonic airfoil with upstream blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'Inskii, N. B.; Mardanov, R. F.

    2007-10-01

    The problem is solved of designing a symmetric airfoil with upstream blowing opposite to subsonic irrotational steady flow of an inviscid incompressible fluid. The solution relies on Sedov’s idea of a stagnation region developing in the neighborhood of the stagnation point. An iterative solution process is developed, and examples of airfoils are constructed. The numerical results are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn about the effect of blowing parameters on the airfoil geometry and the resultant force acting on the airfoil.

  12. AirfoilPrep.py Documentation: Release 0.1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    AirfoilPrep.py provides functionality to preprocess aerodynamic airfoil data. Essentially, the module is an object oriented version of the AirfoilPrep spreadsheet with additional functionality and is written in the Python language. It allows the user to read in two-dimensional aerodynamic airfoil data, apply three-dimensional rotation corrections for wind turbine applications, and extend the datato very large angles of attack. This document discusses installation, usage, and documentation of the module.

  13. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  14. S814 and S815 Airfoils: October 1991--July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Two thick laminar-flow airfoils for the root portion of a horizontal-axis wind turbine blade, the S814 and S815, have been designed and analyzed theoretically. For both airfoils, the primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on pitching moment and airfoil thicknesses have been satisfied.

  15. Modifying Airfoils for Low Reynolds Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Christopher; Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel

    2015-11-01

    There has been increased interest in Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) by both the private and government sectors. MAVs are miniature classed-UAVs that can operate in tighter spaces in urban or wooded regions. Sizes vary - from that of an insect to that of small bird - depending on intended functionality and usually operate at much lower speeds. Studies have shown that the aerodynamic performance of well-known airfoils can change significantly at low Reynolds numbers. In this work, we examine via parametric CFD analysis tools the behavior of airfoils at low Reynolds values. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of adding bio-inspired features to the airfoils such as humps or dimples. Results will be presented in comparison to established values.

  16. Comparative Study of Airfoil Flow Separation Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Nick; Kahouli, Waad; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow separation impacts a multitude of applications including turbomachinery, wind turbines, and bio-inspired micro-aerial vehicles. In order to achieve maximum performance, some devices operate near the edge of flow separation, and others use dynamic flow separation advantageously. Numerous criteria exist for predicting the onset of airfoil flow separation. This talk presents a comparative study of a number of such criteria, with emphasis paid to speed and accuracy of the calculations. We evaluate the criteria using a two-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method, which allows for rapid analysis (on the order of seconds instead of days for a full Navier-Stokes solution) and design of optimal airfoil geometry and kinematics. Furthermore, dynamic analyses permit evaluation of dynamic stall conditions for enhanced lift via leading edge vortex shedding, commonly present in small flapping-wing flyers such as the bumblebee and hummingbird.

  17. Options for Robust Airfoil Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2002-01-01

    A robust optimization method is developed to overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points. This method combines the best features from several preliminary methods proposed by the authors and their colleagues. The robust airfoil shape optimization is a direct method for drag reduction over a given range of operating conditions and has three advantages: (1) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (2) it uses a large number of spline control points as design variables yet the resulting airfoil shape does not need to be smoothed, and (3) it allows the user to make a tradeoff between the level of optimization and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, the robust optimization method is used to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for a two-dimensional (2-D) airfoil in Euler flow with 20 geometric design variables.

  18. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  19. Turbine airfoil fabricated from tapered extrusions

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2013-07-16

    An airfoil (30) and fabrication process for turbine blades with cooling channels (26). Tapered tubes (32A-32D) are bonded together in a parallel sequence, forming a leading edge (21), a trailing edge (22), and pressure and suction side walls (23, 24) connected by internal ribs (25). The tapered tubes may be extruded without camber to simplify the extrusion process, then bonded along matching surfaces (34), forming a non-cambered airfoil (28), which may be cambered in a hot forming process and cut (48) to length. The tubes may have tapered walls that are thinner at the blade tip (T1) than at the base (T2), reducing mass. A cap (50) may be attached to the blade tip. A mounting lug (58) may be forged (60) on the airfoil base and then machined, completing the blade for mounting in a turbine rotor disk.

  20. An experimental study of airfoil instability tonal noise with trailing edge serrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Tze Pei; Joseph, Phillip F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the effect of trailing edge serrations on airfoil instability noise. Detailed aeroacoustic measurements are presented of the noise radiated by an NACA-0012 airfoil with trailing edge serrations in a low to moderate speed flow under acoustical free field conditions. The existence of a separated boundary layer near the trailing edge of the airfoil at an angle of attack of 4.2 degree has been experimentally identified by a surface mounted hot-film arrays technique. Hot-wire results have shown that the saw-tooth surface can trigger a bypass transition and prevent the boundary layer from becoming separated. Without the separated boundary layer to act as an amplifier for the incoming Tollmien-Schlichting waves, the intensity and spectral characteristic of the radiated tonal noise can be affected depending upon the serration geometry. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the airfoil wakes for a straight and serrated trailing edge are also reported in this paper. These measurements show that localized normal-component velocity fluctuations that are present in a small region of the wake from the laminar airfoil become weakened once serrations are introduced. Owing to the above unique characteristics of the serrated trailing edges, we are able to further investigate the mechanisms of airfoil instability tonal noise with special emphasis on the assessment of the wake and non-wake based aeroacoustic feedback models. It has been shown that the instability tonal noise generated at an angle of attack below approximately one degree could involve several complex mechanisms. On the other hand, the non-wake based aeroacoustic feedback mechanism alone is sufficient to predict all discrete tone frequencies accurately when the airfoil is at a moderate angle of attack. Larger Δf, which is defined as (fn+1-fn). In other words, a larger margin of velocity increase is required in order to "shift" the fn and fn+1 across fs

  1. Nonlinear transonic Wall-Interference Assessment/Correction (WIAC) procedures and application to cast-10 airfoil results from the NASA 0.3-m TCT 8- by 24-inch Slotted Wall Test Section (SWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.

    1989-01-01

    From the time that wind tunnel wall interference was recognized to be significant, researchers have been developing methods to alleviate or account for it. Despite the best effort so far, it appears that no method is available which completely eliminates the effects due to the wind tunnel walls. This report discusses procedures developed for slotted wall and adaptive wall test sections of the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) to assess and correct for the residual interference by methods consistent with the transonic nature of the tests.

  2. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This compilation contains papers presented at the NASA Conference on Advanced Technology Airfoil Research held at Langley Research Center on March 7-9, 1978, which have unlimited distribution. This conference provided a comprehensive review of all NASA airfoil research, conducted in-house and under grant and contract. A broad spectrum of airfoil research outside of NASA was also reviewed. The major thrust of the technical sessions were in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  3. Automated CAD design for sculptured airfoil surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. D.; Yeagley, S. R.

    1990-11-01

    The design of tightly tolerated sculptured surfaces such as those for airfoils requires a significant design effort in order to machine the tools to create these surfaces. Because of the quantity of numerical data required to describe the airfoil surfaces, a CAD approach is required. Although this approach will result in productivity gains, much larger gains can be achieved by automating the design process. This paper discusses an application which resulted in an eightfold improvement in productivity by automating the design process on the CAD system.

  4. Blowing Circulation Control on a Seaplane Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B. D.; Liu, P. Q.; Qu, Q. L.

    2011-09-01

    RANS simulations are presented for blowing circulation control on a seaplane airfoil. Realizable k-epsilon turbulent model and pressure-based coupled algorithm with second-order discretization were adopted to simulate the compressible flow. Both clear and simple flap configuration were simulated with blowing momentum coefficient Cμ = 0, 0.15 and 0.30. The results show that blowing near the airfoil trailing edge could enhance the Coanda effect, delay the flow separation, and increase the lift coefficient dramatically. The blowing circulation control is promising to apply to taking off and landing of an amphibious aircraft or seaplane.

  5. Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-06-28

    An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

  6. TAIR- TRANSONIC AIRFOIL ANALYSIS COMPUTER CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Transonic Airfoil analysis computer code, TAIR, was developed to employ a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for the steady transonic flow field about an arbitrary airfoil immersed in a subsonic free stream. The full-potential formulation is considered exact under the assumptions of irrotational, isentropic, and inviscid flow. These assumptions are valid for a wide range of practical transonic flows typical of modern aircraft cruise conditions. The primary features of TAIR include: a new fully implicit iteration scheme which is typically many times faster than classical successive line overrelaxation algorithms; a new, reliable artifical density spatial differencing scheme treating the conservative form of the full-potential equation; and a numerical mapping procedure capable of generating curvilinear, body-fitted finite-difference grids about arbitrary airfoil geometries. Three aspects emphasized during the development of the TAIR code were reliability, simplicity, and speed. The reliability of TAIR comes from two sources: the new algorithm employed and the implementation of effective convergence monitoring logic. TAIR achieves ease of use by employing a "default mode" that greatly simplifies code operation, especially by inexperienced users, and many useful options including: several airfoil-geometry input options, flexible user controls over program output, and a multiple solution capability. The speed of the TAIR code is attributed to the new algorithm and the manner in which it has been implemented. Input to the TAIR program consists of airfoil coordinates, aerodynamic and flow-field convergence parameters, and geometric and grid convergence parameters. The airfoil coordinates for many airfoil shapes can be generated in TAIR from just a few input parameters. Most of the other input parameters have default values which allow the user to run an analysis in the default mode by specifing only a few input parameters

  7. Experimental Study of the Effects of Finite Surface Disturbances and Angle of Attack on the Laminar Boundary Layer of an NACA 64A010 Airfoil with Area Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, Milton A; Braslow, Albert L

    1952-01-01

    A Langley low-turbulence wind-tunnel investigation of a porous NACA 64A010 airfoil section has been made to determine the effectiveness of area suction in maintaining full-chord laminar flow behind finite disturbances and at angles of attacks other than 0 degrees. Aero suction resulted in only a small increase in the size of a finite disturbance required to cause premature boundary-layer transition as compared with that for the airfoil without suction. Combined wake and suction drags lower than the drag of the plain airfoil were obtained through a range of low lift coefficient by the use of area suction.

  8. Trailing edge flow conditions as a factor in airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Maughmer, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Some new developments relevant to the design of single-element airfoils using potential flow methods are presented. In particular, the role played by the non-dimensional trailing edge velocity in design is considered and the relationship between the specified value and the resulting airfoil geometry is explored. In addition, the ramifications of the unbounded trailing edge pressure gradients generally present in the potential flow solution of the flow over an airfoil are examined, and the conditions necessary to obtain a class of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients developed. The incorporation of these conditions into the inverse method of Eppler is presented and the modified scheme employed to generate a number of airfoils for consideration. The detailed viscous analysis of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients demonstrates a reduction in the strong inviscid-viscid interactions generally present near the trailing edge of an airfoil.

  9. User's manual for ADAM (Advanced Dynamic Airfoil Model)

    SciTech Connect

    Oler, J.W.; Strickland, J.H.; Im, B.J.

    1987-06-01

    The computer code for an advanced dynamic airfoil model (ADAM) is described. The code is capable of calculating steady or unsteady flow over two-dimensional airfoils with allowances for boundary layer separation. Specific types of airfoil motions currently installed are steady rectilinear motion, impulsively started rectilinear motion, constant rate pitching, sinusoidal pitch oscillations, sinusoidal lateral plunging, and simulated Darrieus turbine motion. Other types of airfoil motion may be analyzed through simple modifications of a single subroutine. The code has a built-in capability to generate the geometric parameters for a cylinder, the NACA four-digit series of airfoils, and a NASA NLF-0416 laminar airfoil. Other types of airfoils are easily incorporated. The code ADAM is currently in a state of development. It is theoretically consistent and complete. However, further work is needed on the numerical implementation of the method.

  10. Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the NACA 4415 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M.

    1995-12-01

    Wind turbines in the field can be subjected to many and varying wind conditions, including high winds with rotor locked or with yaw excursions. In some cases the rotor blades may be subjected to unusually large angles of attack that possibly result in unexpected loads and deflections. To better understand loadings at unusual angles of attack, a wind tunnel test was performed. An 18-inch constant chord model of the NACA 4415 airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 7 x 10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel (7 x 10). The objective of these tests was to document section lift and moment characteristics under various model and air flow conditions. These included a normal angle of attack range of {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}, an extended angle of attack range of {minus}60{degree} to +230{degree}, applications of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR), and use of vortex generators (VGs), all at chord Reynolds numbers as high as possible for the particular model configuration. To realistically satisfy these conditions the 7 x 10 offered a tunnel-height-to-model-chord ratio of 6.7, suggesting low interference effects even at the relatively high lift and drag conditions expected during the test. Significantly, it also provided chord Reynolds numbers up to 2.0 million. 167 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Numerical and Experimental Studies on Crash Characteristics of Closed Form Thin—Walled Steel Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerasamy, M.; Srinivasan, K.; Prakash, Raghu V.

    2010-10-01

    The crash behavior of Cold Rolled Mild Steel (CRMS) closed form thin section was studied by conducting compressive tests at loading velocities of 5 mm/min and 1000 mm/min. The numerical simulations were conducted for the same experimental conditions to understand the deformation shape, peak forces and energy absorption capacity of sections at different impact velocities. The simulation results correlated well with the experimental results.

  12. Performance of advanced wind turbine airfoils with vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, K.K.; Farokhi, S.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of the NREL S807 airfoil is experimentally determined via wind tunnel testing. The tests are conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5{sm_bullet}10{sup 6}, with a clean surface, with two levels of leading edge surface roughness, and with surface roughness and large wishbone vortex generators. The results show that the S807 maximum lift coefficient drops with the application of leading edge surface roughness. The wishbone vortex generators are successful in restoring most of the loss in maximum lift coefficient at the cost of significant increase in profile drag at pre-stall angles of attack. The aerodynamic characteristics of the S807 with and without vortex generators are used as the input to the PROP93 and SEACC computer models to simulate the performance of an advanced wind turbine employing vortex generators. The results demonstrate that vortex generators could improve the performance of advanced wind turbines using the NREL airfoils by up to 4%.

  13. High Reynolds number tests of a Douglas DLBA 032 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles B.; Dress, David A.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Wilcox, Peter A.; Bui, Minh H.

    1986-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a Douglas advanced-technology airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). The temperature was varied from 227 K (409 R) to 100 K (180 R) at pressures ranging from about 159 kPa (1.57 atm) to about 514 kPa (5.07 atm). Mach number was varied from 0.50 to 0.78. These variables provided a Reynolds number range (based on airfoil chord) from 6.0 to 30.0 x 10 to the 6th power. This investigation was specifically designed to: (1) test a Douglas airfoil from moderately low to flight-equivalent Reynolds numbers, and (2) evaluate sidewall-boundary-layer effects on transonic airfoil performance characteristics by a systematic variation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and sidewall-boundary-layer removal. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixing transition, Mach number, Reynolds number, and sidewall-boundary-layer removal on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Also included are remarks on model design and model structural integrity.

  14. Performance and test section flow characteristics of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the performance and test section flow calibration of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. Measurements indicating the 80- by 120-ft test section flow quality were obtained throughout the tunnel operational envelope and for atmospheric wind speeds up to approximately 20 knots. Tunnel performance characteristics and a dynamic pressure system calibration were also documented during the process of mapping the test section flow field. Experimental results indicate that the test section flow quality is relatively insensitive to dynamic pressure and the level of atmospheric winds experienced during the calibration. The dynamic pressure variation in the test section is within +/-75 percent of the average. The axial turbulence intensity is less than 0.5 percent up to the maximum test section speed of 100 knots, and the vertical and lateral flow angle variations are within +/-5 deg and +/-7 deg, respectively. Atmospheric winds were found to affect the pressure distribution in the test section only at high ratios of wind speed to test section speed.

  15. Causal mechanisms in airfoil-circulation formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Y.; Liu, T. S.; Liu, L. Q.; Zou, S. F.; Wu, J. Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we trace the dynamic origin, rather than any kinematic interpretations, of lift in two-dimensional flow to the physical root of airfoil circulation. We show that the key causal process is the vorticity creation by tangent pressure gradient at the airfoil surface via no-slip condition, of which the theoretical basis has been given by Lighthill ["Introduction: Boundary layer theory," in Laminar Boundary Layers, edited by L. Rosenhead (Clarendon Press, 1963), pp. 46-113], which we further elaborate. This mechanism can be clearly revealed in terms of vorticity formulation but is hidden in conventional momentum formulation, and hence has long been missing in the history of one's efforts to understand lift. By a careful numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA-0012 airfoil, and using both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions, we illustrate the detailed transient process by which the airfoil gains its circulation and demonstrate the dominating role of relevant dynamical causal mechanisms at the boundary. In so doing, we find that the various statements for the establishment of Kutta condition in steady inviscid flow actually correspond to a sequence of events in unsteady viscous flow.

  16. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  17. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  18. An airfoil for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.; Somers, Dan M.

    1990-01-01

    A new airfoil, the NLF(1)-0115, has been recently designed at the NASA Langley Research Center for use in general-aviation applications. During the development of this airfoil, special emphasis was placed on experiences and observations gleaned from other successful general-aviation airfoils. For example, the flight lift-coefficient range is the same as that of the turbulent-flow NACA 23015 airfoil. Also, although beneficial for reducing drag and having large amounts of lift, the NLF(1)-0115 avoids the use of aft loading which can lead to large stick forces if utilized on portions of the wing having ailerons. Furthermore, not using aft loading eliminates the concern that the high pitching-moment coefficient generated by such airfoils can result in large trim drags if cruise flaps are not employed. The NASA NLF(1)-0115 has a thickness of 15 percent. It is designed primarily for general-aviation aircraft with wing loadings of 718 to 958 N/sq m (15 to 20 lb/sq ft). Low profile drag as a result of laminar flow is obtained over the range from c sub l = 0.1 and R = 9x10(exp 6) (the cruise condition) to c sub l = 0.6 and R = 4 x 10(exp 6) (the climb condition). While this airfoil can be used with flaps, it is designed to achieve c(sub l, max) = 1.5 at R = 2.6 x 10(exp 6) without flaps. The zero-lift pitching moment is held at c sub m sub o = 0.055. The hinge moment for a .20c aileron is fixed at a value equal to that of the NACA 63 sub 2-215 airfoil, c sub h = 0.00216. The loss in c (sub l, max) due to leading edge roughness, rain, or insects at R = 2.6 x 10 (exp 6) is 11 percent as compared with 14 percent for the NACA 23015.

  19. Wall-Modeled Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    We present wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) for turbulent flows incompressible past an airfoil. The virtual wall model, originally developed by Chung & Pullin (J. of Fluid Mech., 2009), is extended to generalized curvilinear coordinates and implemented using a body-fitted structured C-grid for airfoils. This model dynamically couples the outer resolved region with the wall region, and imposes a slip velocity boundary condition for the filtered velocity field on the ``virtual'' wall. The virtual wall model is combined with the stretched spiral vortex sub-grid scale model in a self-consistent framework, which is tested in WMLES of flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at different Reynolds number (Re) and angle of attack. The numerical results show that the wall model is able to accurately predict mean flow characteristics, including the formation of the separation bubble. Some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the direct numerical simulation results (Re =104) of flow past the same airfoil. We will present verification test cases to quantify the effectiveness of the wall model in both attached and separated flow regimes. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The IBM Blue Gene/P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.

  20. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…