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Sample records for airglow imaging observations

  1. Airglow-imaging observation of plasma bubble disappearance at geomagnetically conjugate points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Lynn, Kenneth JW; Wilkinson, Philip; Tsugawa, Takuya

    2015-03-01

    We report the first observation of the disappearance of a plasma bubble over geomagnetically conjugate points. It was observed by airglow imagers at Darwin, Australia (magnetic latitude: -22°N) and Sata, Japan (21°N) on 8 August 2002. The plasma bubble was observed in 630-nm airglow images from 1530 (0030 LT) to 1800 UT (0300 LT) and disappeared equatorward at 1800 to 1900 UT (0300 to 0400 LT) in the field of view. The ionograms at Darwin and Yamagawa (20 km north of Sata) show strong spread-F signatures at approximately 16 to 21 UT. At Darwin, the F-layer virtual height suddenly increased from approximately 200 to approximately 260 km at the time of bubble disappearance. However, a similar F-layer height increase was not observed over the conjugate point at Yamagawa, indicating that this F-layer rise was caused not by an eastward electric field but by enhancement of the equatorward thermospheric wind over Darwin. We think that this enhancement of the equatorward neutral wind was caused by an equatorward-propagating large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance, which was identified in the north-south keogram of 630-nm airglow images. We speculate that polarization electric field associated with this equatorward neutral wind drive plasma drift across the magnetic field line to cause the observed bubble disappearance.

  2. Airglow-imaging observation of plasma bubble disappearance at geomagnetically conjugate points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Lynn, K. J. W.; Wilkinson, P. W.; Tsugawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first observation of the disappearance of plasma bubbles overgeomagnetically conjugate points. It was observed by airglow imagers at Darwin,Australia (magnetic latitude: -22N) and Sata, Japan (21N) on 8 August 2002. Theplasma bubble was observed in 630-nm airglow images from 1530 UT (0030 LT) to1800 UT (0300 LT) and disappeared equatorward at 1800-1900 UT (0300-0400 LT) inthe field of view. The ionograms at Darwin and Yamagawa (20 km north of Sata)show strong spread-F signatures at ~16-21 UT. At Darwin, the F-layer virtualheight suddenly increased from ~200 km to ~260 km at the time of bubbledisappearance. However a similar F-layer height increase was not observed overthe conjugate point at Yamagawa, indicating that this F-layer rise was causednot by an eastward electric field but by enhancement of the equatorwardthermospheric wind over Darwin. We think that this enhancement of theequatorward neutral wind was caused by an equatorward-propagating large-scaletraveling ionospheric disturbance, which was identified in the north-southkeogram of 630-nm airglow images. We suggest that either F-region dynamoor polarization electric field associated with this equatorward neutral winddrive plasma drift across the magnetic field line to cause the observed bubbledisappearance.

  3. Wave breaking signatures in OH airglow and sodium densities and temperatures 1. Airglow imaging, Na lidar, and MF radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Isler, J. R.; Senft, D. C.; Gardner, C. S.; Franke, S. J.

    The Collaborative Observations Regarding the Nightglow (CORN) campaign took place at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory during September 1992. The instrumentation included, among others, the Aerospace Corporation narrowband nightglow CCD camera, which observes the OH Meinel (6-2) band (hereafter designated OH) and the O2 atmospheric (0-1) band (hereafter designated O2) nightglow emissions; the University of Illinois Na density/temperature lidar; and the University of Illinois MF radar. Here we report on observations of small-scale (below 10-km horizontal wavelength) structures in the OH airglow images obtained with the CCD camera. These small-scale structures were aligned perpendicular to the motion of 30- to 50-km horizontal wavelength waves, which had observed periods of about 10-20 min. The small-scale structures were present for about 20 min and appear to be associated with an overturned or breaking atmospheric gravity wave as observed by the lidar. The breaking wave had a horizontal wavelength of between 500 and 1500 km, a vertical wavelength of about 6 km, and an observed period of between 4 and 6 hours. The motion of this larger-scale wave was in the same direction as the ~30- to 50-km waves. While such small-scale structures have been observed before, and have been previously described as ripple-type wave structures [Taylor and Hapgood, 1990], these observations are the first which can associate their occurrence with independent evidence of wave breaking. The characteristics of the observed small-scale structures are similar to the vortices generated during wave breakdown in three dimensions in simulations described in Part 2 of this study [Fritts et al., this issue]. The results of this study support the idea that ripple type wave structures we observe are these vortices generated by convective instabilities rather than structures generated by dynamical instabilities.

  4. Concentric gravity waves over northern China observed by an airglow imager network and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Li, Qinzeng; Yue, Jia; Hoffmann, Lars; Straka, William C.; Wang, Cuimei; Liu, Mohan; Yuan, Wei; Han, Sai; Miller, Steven D.; Sun, Longchang; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Weijun; Yang, Jing; Ning, Baiqi

    2015-11-01

    The first no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of six all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. An unusual outbreak of Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were coincidentally observed by satellite sensors from Fengyun-2 (FY-2), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Aqua, and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)/Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP). Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multilevel observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this paper, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail: first is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths follow freely propagating waves based on a GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. In contrast, the more distant observed gravity wave field exhibits a smaller horizontal wavelength of ~20 km, and our analysis strongly suggest this wave field represents a ducted wave. A second event, exhibiting multiple CGWs, was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 9 August 2013. Multiscale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed.

  5. AIRGLOW OBSERVATIONS AND RESEARCH.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Huancayo , Peru, and San Juan, Argentina for the years 1957-63. Studies were made of the seasonal diurnal variations for these and other worldwide...stations. Some special analyses were made of the 1965 solar eclipse airglow data from Huancayo , and the variations in airglow intensities during

  6. Case study of convective instability observed in airglow images over the Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. J. A.; Paulino, I.; Medeiros, A. F.; Lima, L. M.; Buriti, R. A.; Paulino, A. R.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.

    2017-02-01

    An intense activity of ripples during the nighttime was observed in airglow images over São João do Cariri (36.5° W, 7.4° S) on 10 October 2004 which lasted for two hours. Those ripples appeared simultaneously with the crossing of a mesospheric front and medium scale gravity waves. The ripples occurred ahead of the mesospheric front and their phase front were almost parallel to the phase of the mesospheric front and were almost perpendicular to the phase front of the gravity wave. Using wind measurements from a meteor radar located at São João do Cariri and simultaneous vertical temperature profiles from the TIMED/SABER satellite, on the night of the events and within the imager field of view, the atmospheric background environment in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) was investigated in order to understand the instability process that caused the appearance of the ripples. Dynamic and convective instabilities have been pointed out as responsible for creation of ripples in the MLT. The observed ripples were advected by the neutral wind, they occurred into a region with negative lapse rate of the potential temperature and the Richardson number was negative as well. According to these characteristics, the ripple structures could be generated in the MLT region due to the predominance of convective instability.

  7. Periodic waves in the lower thermosphere observed by OI630 nm airglow images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, I.; Medeiros, A. F.; Vadas, S. L.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.; Buriti, R. A.; Leite, D.; Filgueira, S.; Bageston, J. V.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Gobbi, D.

    2016-02-01

    Periodic wave structures in the thermosphere have been observed at São João do Cariri (geographic coordinates: 36.5° W, 7.4° S; geomagnetic coordinates based on IGRF model to 2015: 35.8° E, 0.48° N) from September 2000 to November 2010 using OI630.0 nm airglow images. During this period, which corresponds to almost one solar cycle, characteristics of 98 waves were studied. Similarities between the characteristics of these events and observations at other places around the world were noted, primarily the spectral parameters. The observed periods were mostly found between 10 and 35 min; horizontal wavelengths ranged from 100 to 200 km, and phase speed from 30 to 180 m s-1. These parameters indicated that some of the waves, presented here, are slightly faster than those observed previously at low and middle latitudes (Indonesia, Carib and Japan), indicating that the characteristics of these waves may change at different places. Most of observed waves have appeared during magnetically quiet nights, and the occurrence of those waves followed the solar activity. Another important characteristic is the quasi-monochromatic periodicity that distinguish them from the single-front medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) that have been observed previously over the Brazilian region. Moreover, most of the observed waves did not present a phase front parallel to the northeast-southwest direction, which is predicted by the Perkins instability process. It strongly suggests that most of these waves must have had different generation mechanisms from the Perkins instability, which have been pointed out as being a very important mechanism for the generation of MSTIDs in the lower thermosphere.

  8. Telescopic Imaging of Heater-Induced Airglow at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    03-01-2007 Final1 10-09-2003 - 10-09-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ba. CONTRACT NUMBER Telescopic Imaging of Heater-Induced Airglow at HAARP N00014-03-1... HAARP to optically measure fine structure in the ionosphere and to study airglow sources. In the presence of aurora and a strong blanketing E layer... HAARP was modulated at intervals of several seconds. For several cycles, small bright airglow spots were observed whenever HAARP was on. These spots

  9. WINDII atmospheric wave airglow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.T.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Solheim, B.H.; Shepherd, G.G.

    1996-12-31

    Preliminary WINDII nighttime airglow wave-imaging data in the UARS rolldown attitude has been analyzed with the goal to survey gravity waves near the upper boundary of the middle atmosphere. Wave analysis is performed on O[sub 2](0,0) emissions from a selected 1[sup 0] x 1[sup 0] oblique view of the airglow layer at approximately 95 km altitude, which has no direct earth background and only an atmospheric background which is optically thick for the 0[sub 2](0,0) emission. From a small data set, orbital imaging of atmospheric wave structures is demonstrated, with indication of large variations in wave activity across land and sea. Comparison ground-based imagery is discussed with respect to similarity of wave variations across land/sea boundaries and future orbital mosaic image construction.

  10. WINDII atmospheric wave airglow imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, W. T.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Solheim, B. H.; Shepherd, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary WINDII nighttime airglow wave-imaging data in the UARS rolldown attitude has been analyzed with the goal to survey gravity waves near the upper boundary of the middle atmosphere. Wave analysis is performed on O[sub 2](0,0) emissions from a selected 1[sup 0] x 1[sup 0] oblique view of the airglow layer at approximately 95 km altitude, which has no direct earth background and only an atmospheric background which is optically thick for the 0[sub 2](0,0) emission. From a small data set, orbital imaging of atmospheric wave structures is demonstrated, with indication of large variations in wave activity across land and sea. Comparison ground-based imagery is discussed with respect to similarity of wave variations across land/sea boundaries and future orbital mosaic image construction.

  11. Concentric Gravity Waves over Northern China Observed by a No-Gap OH Airglow Imager Network and Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Li, Q.; Yue, J.; Hoffmann, L.; Straka, W. C.; Miller, S. D.; Yuan, W.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The first no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network in the world was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of 6 all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. A comparison of the observations in 2012, 2013, and 2014 are made, which shows that there were more strong thunderstorms take place in 2013 in the northern China and produce more Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events. Especially, a series of CGW events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were also observed by satellite sensors from FY-2, AIRS/Aqua, and VIIRS/Suomi NPP. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multi-level observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this talk, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail and movies of the two events are displayed. One is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths agree with the GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. A gravity wave with horizontal wavelength of about 20 km propagates horizontally to more than 800 km in the mesopause region, probably due to a ducting layer. Another CGW event was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 09 August 2013. Multi-scale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed. Many ripples were found, probably due to the breaking of strong gravity waves with large relative OH intensity perturbations of 10%.

  12. Passive SWIR airglow illuminated imaging compared with NIR-visible for low-light nighttime observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Allen, Jeffery; Gonglewski, John D.; Nolasco, Rudolph; Myers, Michael; Burns, Dennis; Mons, Ishan; Maia, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    It is well known that luminance from photo-chemical reactions of hydroxyl ions in the upper atmosphere (~85 km altitude) produces a significant amount of night time radiation in the short wave infra-red (SWIR) band with wavelength between 0.9 and 1.7 μm. By examining images in an urban and a rural setting, we investigate the correlation between the appearances of passive dark of night images in the SWIR with NIR- visible. The experimental setup consists of two sensors, a NIR-visible CCD and an InGaAs array sensitive in the SWIR, both colocated on an AZ-EL mount, and both co-boresighted so that different viewing angles of the sky and terrestrial scenes are possible. By making corrections for focal length and pixel size, the visible and SWIR data can be compared. After taking several nights of data in the urban environment of Albuquerque, NM, the entire system was then re-located to a rural location on the island of Kauai in a rural setting with very low ambient light. It is shown that under most conditions the SWIR sensor produces significantly better imagery using the airglow illumination source.

  13. Gravity wave characteristics in the mesopause region revealed from OH airglow imager observations over Northern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yihuan; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Tao; Nakamura, Takuji; Xue, Xianghui; Huang, Can; Manson, Alan; Meek, Chris; Thorsen, Denise; Avery, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using 5 years of all-sky OH airglow imager data over Yucca Ridge Field Station, CO (40.7°N, 104.9°W), from September 2003 to September 2008, we extract and deduce quasi-monochromatic gravity wave (GW) characteristics in the mesopause region. The intrinsic periods are clustered between approximately 4 and 10 min, and many of them are unstable and evanescent. GW occurrence frequency exhibits a clear semiannual variation with equinoctial minima, which is likely related to the seasonal variation of background wind. The anomalous propagation direction in January 2006, with strong southward before major warming starting in 21 January and weak southward propagation afterward, was most likely affected by stratospheric sudden warming. The momentum fluxes show strongly anticorrelated with the tides, with ~180° out of phase in the zonal component. While in the meridional component, the easterly maximum occurred approximately 2-6 h after maximum easterly tidal wind. However, the anticorrelations are both weakest during the summer. The dissipating and breaking of small-scale and high-frequency GW's components could have a potential impact on the general circulation in the mesopause region.

  14. Statistical analysis of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using airglow images and GPS observations over central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fuqing; Dou, Xiankang; Lei, Jiuhou; Lin, Jian; Ding, Feng; Zhong, Jiahao

    2016-09-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) for the first time by using airglow images and Global Positioning System (GPS) data over central China during 2013-2015. Our results show that the phase fronts of perturbations are aligned from northwest to southeast direction and propagate toward the southwest direction. The characteristics of the nighttime MSTIDs observed by OI 630.0 nm images are consistent with those of the nighttime MSTIDs obtained from the GPS data. The phase velocity, period, wavelength, and amplitude of nighttime MSTIDs are 50-150 m/s, 0.5-1.5 h, 150-400 km, and 2%-15%, respectively, as measured from 630.0 nm images and GPS data. In addition, we utilized the simultaneous observations from OI 630.0 nm and OI 557.7 nm images to explore the relationship between nighttime MSTIDs and gravity waves (<100 km) in the mesopause. It is found that the nighttime MSTIDs frequently occurred in the summer solstice, which was not consistent with the occurrence of gravity wave observed in the mesopause. Our results indicate that the nighttime MSTIDs may be generated by the coupling of electrodynamic processes rather than be trigged by gravity waves from the lower atmosphere.

  15. Images and Spectra of Artificial Aurora and TMA Releases: Low-Light Level Airglow Observations During the TOMEX Rocket Experiment*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Larsen, M. F.; Makela, J. J.; Kelley, M. C.; Hecht, J. H.

    2001-05-01

    We present the first dedicated measurements of Artificial Aurora (AA), a phenomena often observed during rocket-borne TMA releases [cf., Gelinas, et al., 2001]. Previously, only a few images of the Artificial Aurora have been documented and these were obtained using instruments designed and dedicated to tracking TMA trails and their motion. Our observations were made in conjunction with a nighttime E-region study known as the Turbulent Oxygen Mixing EXperiment (TOMEX) that was flown from White Sands Missile Range on Oct. 26, 2000. NRL provided three cameras and a spectrograph solely for observing the AA. The instruments were located at a site almost directly under apogee and all operated successfully during the mission. We will primarily present results from two of these instruments. First, a LLLTV (Low-Light Level Television) camera captured extremely detailed video-rate images of the Artificial Aurora. These video images show significantly more of the structure, dynamics and phenomenology of the Artificial Aurora than previous 'still' images. The aurora appears near 115 km altitude, projected down along the magnetic field line that the rocket is crossing. The LLLTV images show that the aurora becomes visible as the rocket passes through 135 km altitude on the upleg of the trajectory. Second, a compact-grating spectrograph was mated with another LLLTV to attempt to measure the optical spectrum of the AA emissions. The spectrograph was capable of monitoring airglow from about 330nm (limited by atmospheric Blue/NUV scattering and absorption) up to 760 nm. Clear spectra were obtained for the TMA trails, the 're-entry bag' (a bright TMA related emission that occurs as the rocket nears 100 km) and a portion of the AA after the re-entry bag and the AA merged-and-brightened. Preliminary processing of spectra when pointed only at the Artificial Aurora show an increase in the detected emission, but with a low S/N level. Further processing is necessary to extract useful

  16. Coordinated airglow observations between IMAP/VISI and a ground-based all-sky imager on concentric gravity wave in the mesopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perwitasari, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Hozumi, Y.; Akiya, Y.; Saito, A.; Shiokawa, K.; Kawamura, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present a study of concentric gravity waves (CGWs) event from the coordinated observation between Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere, and Plasmasphere mapping (IMAP)/Visible and near-Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI), all-sky camera at Rikubetsu, Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, and MF radar at Wakkanai combined with Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application data. IMAP/VISI is the first space-based imager that capable of imaging the airglow in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region in the nadir-looking direction. Therefore, it has a unique ability to observe a great extend of CGWs propagation. Arc-like shaped, part of CGWs pattern was observed around the mesopause (~95 km) in the O2 762 nm airglow emission obtained by IMAP/VISI at 1204 UT on 18 October 2012. Similar patterns were also observed by the all-sky imager at Rikubetsu (43.5°N, 143.8°E) in OI 557.7 nm and OH band airglow emissions from ~1100 to 1200 UT. Horizontal wavelengths of the observed small-scale gravity waves are ~50 km (OH band and OI 557.7 nm) and ~67 km (O2 762 nm). The source is suggested to be a deep convective activity over Honshu Island which likely was an enhanced convective activity related to a typhoon in the south of Japan. The data showed that the CGWs could propagate up to ~1400-1500 km horizontally from the source to the mesopause but not farther away. Using atmospheric temperature profiles obtained by Thermospheric Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, we conclude that this long-distance propagation of the waves could be caused by thermal duct in the middle atmosphere. The arc-like shaped instead of full circle pattern points out that the wind filtering effect is significant for the particular direction of wave propagation.

  17. Gravity waves in mesopause region induced by thunderstorms over Northern China observed by a no-gap OH airglow imager network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao

    2016-07-01

    A no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of 6 all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. A large number of gravity wave events in the mesopause region induced by thunderstorms were observed by the network during the past 4 years. A comparison of the observations in 2012, 2013, and 2014 are made, which shows that there were more strong thunderstorms take place in 2013 in the northern China and produce more Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events. Especially, a series of CGW events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were also observed by satellite sensors from FY-2, AIRS/Aqua, and VIIRS/Suomi NPP. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multi-level observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this talk, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail and movies of the two events are displayed. One is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths agree with the GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. A gravity wave with horizontal wavelength of about 20 km propagates horizontally to more than 800 km in the mesopause region, probably due to a ducting layer. Another CGW event was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 09 August 2013. Multi-scale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed. Many ripples were found, probably due to the breaking of strong gravity waves with large relative OH intensity perturbations of 10%.

  18. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  19. Simulations of DE 1 UV airglow images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    1994-06-01

    In this paper we present simulations of the UV airglow observed in selected images obtained by the spinscan auroral imager experiment on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite. In particular, we present one example each of observed and modeled images for the dayglow and for the nightglow. The model dayglow emissions include the OI 130.4 nm triplet (excited by both photoelectron impact excitation of O atoms and resonant scattering of the solar OI 130.4 nm triplet), the OI 135.6 nm doublet (excited by photoelectron impact excitation of O atoms), and the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) molecular bands (excited by photoelectron impact excitation of N2 molecules). The model neglects minor contributions from HI 121.6 nm and NI 149.3 nm dayglow emissions. The model nightglow emissions are comprised of the same OI 130.4 and 135.6 nm features, but on the nightside they are produced through recombination of O+ ions. The model neglects a contribution to the nightglow OI 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm emissions due to recombination of O+ and O- ions. The results presented here demonstrate that the dayglow emissions are well understood and can be simulated with high accuracy. This allows us to determine relative contributions of the various dayglow emission sources over the disk of the Earth. For example, while the OI 130.4 nm emission is very bright and fairly uniform at about 15-20 kR over much of the disk, the optically thin LBH emissions become much larger than the OI 130.4 nm emission at the limb, with a band-integrated maximum brightness of about 35 kR. Although the image simulation code used is fairly CPU intensive, it should prove useful in studying variations in the abundances of O and N2 following geomagnetic storms or in extracting the dayglow contribution from images of the sunlit auroral oval, for instance. The nightglow emissions are not as well fit by the model, indicating that the O+-O- mutual neutralization source is significant and should be included in future simulations

  20. Heater-induced artificial airglow observations at the HAARP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, E.

    Since 2002, dedicated artificial airglow campaigns have been conducted each winter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Program (HAARP) in Gakona AK (62.39N, 145.15W). Experiments performed during these optical campaigns have focused on exploring the so-called ``magnetic zenith effect.'' A dramatic enhancement in airglow brightness is observed when the HAARP heater beam is aimed along the geomagnetic field lines (15 degrees from vertical). The artificial airglow campaigns are a collaborative effort with participants from a number of institutions. Cameras with fields of view ranging from ˜1 degree to all-sky are located at HAARP, Poker Flat Research Range, the HIPAS antenna facility, and other Alaskan locations. An array of SEE receivers is set up during the campaigns and the Kodiak SuperDARN radar is run in a dedicated mode. In addition, data is gathered throughout the campaigns by the HAARP diagnostic instruments including a riometer, magnetometer, digisonde, ELF receiver, and TEC tomographic system. Data from all three campaigns will be presented and future plans will be discussed. A very successful artificial airglow campaign was conducted from January 31 to February 19, 2002. 630 nm and/or 557.7 nm artificial airglow was observed on thirteen nights during the campaign. Bright 630 nm (several hundred Rayleighs) and 557.7 nm (over 50 R) airglow was observed simultaneously during F-layer heating. Both structured and non-structured airglow was observed at 630 nm and 557.7 nm. Patchy 557.7 nm airglow was observed to drift through the heated region. Altitude calculations were performed from sideview triangulations at HIPAS and Poker Flat.

  1. Mystery of Polar Inertia-gravity Waves: An Observational Study Combining Lidar, Radar and Airglow Imager at McMurdo/Scott Base (77.8°S, 166.7°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Chu, X.; Fong, W.; McDonald, A.; Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the start of the McMurdo Fe lidar campaign, large-amplitude (~±30 K), long-period (4 to 9 h) perturbations with upward propagating Inertia Gravity Wave (IGW) signatures are frequently observed in the MLT temperature data. Despite its frequent appearance, such type of wave was neither widely observed, nor well understood in the past, primarily due to a paucity of measurements in Polar Regions. At McMurdo, the simultaneous observations of such waves using lidar, radar and airglow imager can provide their unique 3-D intrinsic wave-propagation properties, which are greatly needed for understanding their sources and potential impacts. This study presents the first coincident observation of IGWs by lidar, radar and airglow imager in the Antarctic mesopause region. On 11 June 2013, coherent wave structures with observed period of ~ 5 h and vertical wavelength of ~20 km were observed in both the Fe lidar temperature and MF radar winds. Derived from hodograph analysis, the wave has a horizontal wavelength of ~1200 km and propagates southward at ~60 m/s. The phase relationship between the temperature and winds is in good agreement with the gravity wave polarization relationship. Similar wave structures were also observed in the airglow keograms. The results of the horizontal propagation information obtained from appropriate filtering and applying a non-linear least-square fit of the keograms are similar to those estimated from the combined lidar-radar hodograph analysis. A Monte Carlo sampling method is used to perform all the non-linear fits of the observations to the linear gravity wave models.

  2. Imaging mesospheric winds using the Michelson interferometer for airglow dynamics imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langille, Jeffery; Ward, William E.

    2016-07-01

    The first ground based images of mesospheric winds in airglow are presented and discussed in this paper. These were obtained with the Michelson Interferometer for Airglow Dynamics Imaging (MIADI)a ground based field widened Michelsoin interferometer designed to obtain two dimensional images of the line of sight Doppler wind and irradiance field in the mesosphere. The purpose of this instrument is to measure perturbations in line-of-sight wind and airglow irradiance associated with gravity waves. In its current configuration, the instrument observes an ~80 km x ~80 km region of the night sky in ~33 minutes using the O(1S) emission at 557.73 nm and the OH (6, 2) P1 (2) emission at 839.918 nm. The instrument was installed and tested at a field site outside Fredericton, NB (45.96 N, 66.65 W) during the summer of 2014. Successful measurements over a six hour period were obtained on July 31, 2014. Variations in the meridional and zonal wind were observed that are consistent with a semi-diurnal tide with an amplitude of ˜ 35 m/s. Small scale variations (< 10 m/s) were also observed that indicate the presence of gravity waves. In this paper, the instrument concept will be presented and the field measurements and their precision and accuracy discussed.

  3. First mesospheric wind images using the Michelson interferometer for airglow dynamics imaging.

    PubMed

    Langille, J A; Ward, W E; Nakamura, T

    2016-12-10

    The Michelson interferometer for airglow dynamics imaging (MIADI) is a ground-based instrument that combines an imaging capability with the Doppler Michelson interferometry in order to remotely detect motions in the mesopause region using spectrally isolated airglow emissions: the O(S1) emission at 557.73 nm and the OH (6, 2) P1 (2) at 839.918 nm. A measurement and analysis approach has been developed that allows simultaneous images of the line-of-sight Doppler wind field and irradiance field to be obtained. A working field instrument was installed and tested at a field site outside Fredericton, NB (45.96 N, 66.65 W) during the summer of 2014. Successful measurements over a 6 h period were obtained on 31 July 2014. This paper describes the MIADI measurement and analysis approach and presents the work that has been done to extract images of the line-of-sight Doppler wind field and irradiances from these observations. The imaging capability is validated by identifying the presence of large-scale and small-scale geophysical perturbations in the images.

  4. Airglow Observation with IMAP/ VISI on the International Space Station: Current status and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perwitasari, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Akiya, Y.; Saito, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Visible and near-Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) of the IMAP mission was launched successfully by H-IIB/HTV3 on July 21 2012. At this moment HTV3 is docked onto the International Space Station (ISS), and VISI is scheduled to be installed on the exposed facility within a week. VISI will be operated in the nightside hemisphere in the range of +/- 51 deg. GLAT, and measure the airglow emissions of OI at 630 nm, the OH Meinel band at 730 nm and the O2 atmospheric band (0-0) at 762 nm at an altitude of ~400 km with typical spatial resolution of 16 - 50 km. Since the influence of cloud reflections of moonlight is overlapped with the airglow pattern in the visible wavelength range, the precise subtraction of the cloud influence is a key issue of this mission. Therefore, a simulation work to study on how much the surface albedo on the cloud top will affect the data is critically important. The height profiles of volume emission rates were estimated for O2 and OH airglows with the MSIS models, and then the airglow intensities were integrated along the line-of-sight direction. The cloud pattern was estimated based on the realistic data measured with a geostationary climate satellite. The simulation result shows that for OH Meinel at 730 nm, the moonlight reflection during the first/last quarter will increase the brightness of the airglow by factor of 1.5-2 and ~5 for full moon phase. Meanwhile, for O2 atmospheric band (0-0) at 762 nm, the simulation result shows that there's no significant (structured) background, even during the full moon phase. We will report the quantitative effect of cloud albedo on the airglow pattern, and discuss the physical parameters those expected to be derived from the VISI data. Concerning on the operation of VISI, we will carry out the initial function check by the middle of August, and start nominal observation within a few months. Thus, we will also report the current status and initial result of VISI.

  5. Propagation of plasma bubbles observed in Brazil from GPS and airglow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Dautermann, T.; Taylor, Michael J.; Chapagain, N.; Calais, E.; Pautet, D.

    2011-05-01

    Equatorial spread-F is a common occurrence in the equatorial ionosphere that is associated with large variations in plasma density that often cause scintillation and interference in communication signals. These events are known to result from Rayleigh-Taylor instability, but the day-to-day variability of their occurrence is not well understood. The triggering mechanism of plasma depletions is still a matter of debate, but may be linked to gravity waves that under favorable conditions propagate to the middle atmosphere. Understanding the triggering of ESF was the focus of the SpreadFEx campaign near Brasilia, Brazil in 2005. The campaign provided co-located airglow and GPS observations to study the onset of plasma depletions and their evolution as they traversed the region. Comparisons between the 630.0 nm airglow data and GPS data demonstrate the ability of the compact dual frequency GPS array to detect the plasma bubbles and retrieve reliable propagation characteristics of the depletions. In this case study, a plasma depletion was detected and moved over the array at velocities of 85-110 m/s, slowing as it moved towards the east. Correlation of consecutive airglow images gives consistent estimates of the eastward drift over the same time period. Mapping the airglow data to the GPS line-of-sight geometry allows direct comparison and reveals a resolvable westward tilt of the plasma depletion that may be due to vertical shear. The uniqueness of this study is the ability to resolve locally the characteristics of the plasma depletion without relying on assumptions about the mapping of the depletion along magnetic field lines to large latitudinal distances. It presents new information for understanding ESF development and the development of depletions strong enough to produce scintillation.

  6. Calibration of imaging parameters for space-borne airglow photography using city light positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozumi, Yuta; Saito, Akinori; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.

    2016-09-01

    A new method for calibrating imaging parameters of photographs taken from the International Space Station (ISS) is presented in this report. Airglow in the mesosphere and the F-region ionosphere was captured on the limb of the Earth with a digital single-lens reflex camera from the ISS by astronauts. To utilize the photographs as scientific data, imaging parameters, such as the angle of view, exact position, and orientation of the camera, should be determined because they are not measured at the time of imaging. A new calibration method using city light positions shown in the photographs was developed to determine these imaging parameters with high accuracy suitable for airglow study. Applying the pinhole camera model, the apparent city light positions on the photograph are matched with the actual city light locations on Earth, which are derived from the global nighttime stable light map data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite. The correct imaging parameters are determined in an iterative process by matching the apparent positions on the image with the actual city light locations. We applied this calibration method to photographs taken on August 26, 2014, and confirmed that the result is correct. The precision of the calibration was evaluated by comparing the results from six different photographs with the same imaging parameters. The precisions in determining the camera position and orientation are estimated to be ±2.2 km and ±0.08°, respectively. The 0.08° difference in the orientation yields a 2.9-km difference at a tangential point of 90 km in altitude. The airglow structures in the photographs were mapped to geographical points using the calibrated imaging parameters and compared with a simultaneous observation by the Visible and near-Infrared Spectral Imager of the Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Upper Atmosphere, and Plasmasphere mapping mission installed on the ISS. The comparison shows good agreements and supports the validity

  7. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan ultraviolet airglow intensity dependence with solar zenith angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, E. M.; Ajello, J. M.; Holsclaw, G. M.; West, R. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Bradley, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) observed the airglow (dayglow and nightglow) of Titan over a range of solar zenith angles (SZA) from 14 to 150° on five separate observations obtained between 2008 and 2012. The modeling of the solar cycle normalized UVIS observations indicates that a Chapman layer function provides a satisfactory fit to the intensity of the EUV and FUV airglow molecular emissions of the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band system (LBH a1Πg→X1>∑g+), the Carroll-Yoshino band system (c4'1>∑u+→X1>∑g+), and of several atomic multiplets of nitrogen (NI, II) as a function of SZA. This result shows that the strongest contribution to the Titan dayglow occurs by processes (photoelectrons and photodissociation) involving the solar EUV flux rather than magnetospheric particle precipitation that dominates emission excitation in the nightglow.

  8. Hemispheric asymmetry in transition from equatorial plasma bubble to blob as deduced from 630.0 nm airglow observations at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeheung; Martinis, Carlos R.; Lühr, Hermann; Pfaff, Robert F.; Kwak, Young-Sil

    2016-01-01

    Transitions from depletions to enhancements of 630.0 nm nighttime airglow have been observed at Arecibo. Numerical simulations by Krall et al. (2009) predicted that they should occur only in one hemisphere, which has not yet been confirmed observationally. In this study we investigate the hemispheric conjugacy of the depletion-to-enhancement transition using multiple instruments. We focus on one event observed in the American longitude sector on 22 December 2014: 630.0 nm airglow depletions evolved into enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere while the evolution did not occur in the conjugate location in the Southern Hemisphere. Concurrent plasma density measured by low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and 777.4 nm airglow images support that the depletions and enhancements of 630.0 nm nighttime airglow reflect plasma density decreases and increases (blobs), respectively. Characteristics of the airglow depletions, in the context of the LEO satellite data, further suggest that the plasma density depletion deduced from the airglow data represents equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) rather than medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances from midlatitudes. Hence, the event in this study can be interpreted as EPB-to-blob transition.

  9. Variations in mesospheric gravity waves observed in multiple airglow layers, and filtered temporal spectra studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangognia, T.; Swenson, G. R.; Vargas, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Cerro Pachon, Chile (Lat= 30.25 S, Long = 70.74 W) is equipped with an all-sky OH and O(1S) airglow imager, OH temperature mapper, OH IR imager, multichannel photometer, meteor radar, and a Na wind/temperature lidar. Spectral analysis of airglow photometry data of OH Meinel (5-1),(6-2); O2 (b) (0,1); and O(1S) emissions reveals varying gravity wave periods over time. Variations in period of high frequency waves are often observed. Studies of frequency variability with the background atmospheric temperature and the effect on the Brunt-Vaisala frequency will be described. Additionally, the vertical separation of the respective layers of a few km offers information regarding wave damping and reflection as the amplitude often changes with altitude. The nature of wave damping is primarily noted to be constant with altitude as a saturated wave spectrum indicates. The correlative nature of the data provides verification of optical methods in characterizing wave attributes. These studies will be described in this presentation.

  10. Thermospheric aurora and airglow

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, R.R.

    1987-04-01

    New information added in the years between 1983 and 1986 to the understanding of the physics and chemistry responsible for the production of aurora and airglow emissions is presented. On auroras, the bulk of new information comes from the information obtained from satellite-based imaging (by DE1) and spectroscopy, rocket-based observations of bremsstrahlung from electrons precipitating in the auroral zone, and measurements of metastable ion species. On airglow, the DE1 photometric experiment has provided the opportunity of studying the geocorona on a global scale. A geotail was detected in the antisolar direction, confirming earlier observations. 123 references.

  11. Gravity wave amplitudes changes observed in different airglow emissions: influence of wave breaking and observational selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Hannawald, Patrick; Bittner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The upper mesosphere lower thermosphere region is well known for enhanced gravity wave breaking. Airglow emissions originating in this height region provide a good possibility for detailed studies of gravity wave behavior in this altitude. Therefore, rotational temperatures and intensities of the OH(3-1), OH(4-2), OH(6-2) and O2b(0-1)-transitions recorded at the NDMC (Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change) site Oberpfaffenhofen (48.1°N, 10.3°E), Germany are examined. First results indicate, that both significant amplitude growth from the lower (~87km) OH airglow emissions to the higher (~95km) O2 airglow emissions of more than 100% as well as strong damping can be observed. On several occasions OH- and O2-emissions show completely independent behavior - probably related to the complete breakup of a gravity wave. These amplitude changes are set into relation to emission layer height, vertical wavelength, absolute temperature and potential seasonal dependence. Observations from further NDMC sites in France, Germany and Austria are used to discuss the evolution of these waves on horizontal scales from 100km to 1000km.

  12. Space-based imaging of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL 630.0 nm airglow observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P. K.; Liu, J. Y.; Lin, C. H.; Chen, A. B.; Hsu, R. R.; Chen, C. H.; Huba, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of space-based imaging of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) in 630.0 nm emission by Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings (ISUAL), on board FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The limb integrated measurements, after removing background, reveal multiple bands of intensity perturbation when projected to a horizontal plane corresponding to the altitude of peak emission, with distinct southwest to northeast orientation in the Southern Hemisphere. Simulations are carried out by artificially introducing MSTID fluctuations in model electron density to confirm if the MSTID could be identified in the ISUAL-viewing geometry. The ISUAL observations in year 2007 are further used to investigate the MSTID features as well as occurrence characteristics in the Southern Hemisphere, most of which are over the ocean where no ground-based observations are available. The preliminary statistics shows more MSTID occurrence in solstices with peak in June-July months. Majority of the MSTID perturbations have wavelength in the range 150-300 km, and the wavefronts are aligned at about 30°-50° from the east-west plane. The statistic results of the orientation of wavefronts indicate that Es layer instability might be important in the MSTID generation.

  13. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, A. W.; Whalen, B. A.; Harris, F. R.; Gattinger, R. L.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of plasma depletion, ion composition modification, and airglow emissions in the Waterhole experiments are presented. The detailed ion chemistry and airglow emission processes related to the ionospheric hole formation in the experiment are examined, and observations are compared with computer simulation results. The latter indicate that the overall depletion rates in different parts of the depletion region are governed by different parameters.

  14. Satellite-based observations of tsunami-induced mesosphere airglow perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Ming; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Meng, Xing; Langley, Richard B.; Hunt, Linda A.

    2017-01-01

    Tsunami-induced airglow emission perturbations were retrieved by using space-based measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broad-band Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics spacecraft. At and after the time of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake on 11 March 2011, and the Chile earthquake on 16 September 2015, the spacecraft was performing scans over the Pacific Ocean. Significant ( 10% relative to the ambient emission profiles) and coherent nighttime airglow perturbations were observed in the mesosphere following Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broad-band Emission Radiometry limb scans intercepting tsunami-induced atmospheric gravity waves. Simulations of emission variations are consistent with the physical characteristics of the disturbances at the locations of the corresponding SABER scans. Airglow observations and model simulations suggest that atmospheric neutral density and temperature perturbations can lead to the observed amplitude variations and multipeak structures in the emission profiles. This is the first time that airglow emission rate perturbations associated with tsunamis have been detected with space-based measurements.

  15. Observations of thunderstorm-related 630 nm airglow depletions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, E. A.; Bhatt, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Midlatitude All-sky imaging Network for Geophysical Observations (MANGO) is an NSF-funded network of 630 nm all-sky imagers in the continental United States. MANGO will be used to observe the generation, propagation, and dissipation of medium and large-scale wave activity in the subauroral, mid and low-latitude thermosphere. This network is actively being deployed and will ultimately consist of nine all-sky imagers. These imagers form a network providing continuous coverage over the western United States, including California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, Arizona and Texas extending south into Mexico. This network sees high levels of both medium and large scale wave activity. Apart from the widely reported northeast to southwest propagating wave fronts resulting from the so called Perkins mechanism, this network observes wave fronts propagating to the west, north and northeast. At least three of these anomalous events have been associated with thunderstorm activity. Imager data has been correlated with both GPS data and data from the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instrument on board NASA's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite. We will present a comprehensive analysis of these events and discuss the potential thunderstorm source mechanism.

  16. Global variability of the oxygen airglow as observed by WINDII and predicted with the TIME-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiping

    This dissertation reports on the global temporal variations of the oxygen airglow emissions from the analysis of seven years of WINDII (Wind Imaging Interferometer) satellite data. To interpret the emission signatures, the observations are compared with the simulations of NCAR's TIME-GCM general circulation model that includes atmospheric photochemistry and dynamics. The nighttime O(1S), O2( b1S+g ), and OH airglow emissions originate from the recombination of atomic oxygen, which acts as a tracer of atmospheric motions. Variations of these emissions thus provide information on wave activity and on the large-scale circulation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The study focuses on the seasonal climatology of the emission rate for various latitude regions. In the tropics, a dramatic semi-annual variation exists but only for limited local times. The onset of the variation is consistent with the propagating tidal wave. At mid-latitudes, both semi-annual and annual variations occur. They are subject to local time variations, which again manifest the tidal influence. At higher latitudes, an annual behaviour becomes dominant. It may also result from upward and downward motions associated with the large-scale general circulation. However, a mid-summer peak is superimposed, indicating other influences. Further, the long-term trend variation is examined. The emissions at all latitudes follow the variation of F10.7 flux and are in phase with the solar cycle. They also have a two-year period variation that may be caused by the quasi-biennial oscillation. All these emission variations could be ultimately explained in terms of vertical motion. Vertical motion is observed directly as a universal inverse relationship of the airglow emission rate and emission altitude. Finally, the anomalous WINDII airglow profiles with multiple peaks are investigated. Their occurrences coincide with steep emission rate gradients associated with the diurnal tide. Moreover, the

  17. Ground-based observation of the Venus 1.27-um O2 airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, S.; Iwagami, N.; Sagawa, H.; Kasaba, Y.; Ueno, M.; Imamura, T.

    We conducted near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the nightside of Venus at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Japan on December 11, 2002. The 1.3-um spectra show 1.27-um O_2 IRA (0,0) airglow feature and thermal emission from the lower atmosphere. The brightest airglow feature of 5MR is found at the anti-solar point, which agrees with the previous studies. The hemispheric distribution of 1.3-um thermal emission shows equatorial depression similar to that of the 2-um region in previous studies. The hemispheric distribution of the rotational temperature shows a hot region at around the anti-solar point overlapping the bright region, and which suggests adiabatic heating due to the downward flow.

  18. Preliminary Validation of Atmospheric Neutral Density Derived From Ultraviolet Airglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, A. C.; Thonnard, S. E.; Picone, J. M.; Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Knowles, S.; Bennert, E.; McCoy, R.

    2003-12-01

    In the past, orbit determination and prediction for resident space objects relied on climatological models to estimate atmospheric drag. Characteristic of climatology, atmospheric density models have errors that range from 10% to 15%. For Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites, the error due to an imprecise density specification is the most significant contribution to the error ellipse associated with the position of the object. Several techniques to obtain corrections for the atmospheric density models and improve orbit determination are in various stages of research and development. This paper presents ultraviolet airglow derived atmospheric density corrections for the NRLMSISE-00 model during January and February 2001. Observations of the naturally occurring airglow on the Earth's limb were obtained from the Low-Resolution Airglow and Auroral Spectrograph (LORAAS) on the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). Inversion algorithms developed at the Naval Research Laboratory were used to retrieve neutral density profiles from the observations. The result of the inversion process produces four correction coefficients for the NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric model; one for the F10.7 cm solar flux model input parameter, and three scalars for the O, O2 and N2 model output. The proper application of these correction coefficients with NRLMSISE-00 allows for the calculation of a global total density specification. Ultraviolet airglow derived density for January and February of 2001 were first compared to climatology using the Jacchia J70 and NRLMSISE-00 models. Additionally the ultraviolet derived density was compared to global density specification from the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) developed for the Air Force Battlelab. HASDM determines global atmospheric density by simultaneously evaluating the drag on a reference set of resident space objects. From the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) observations of the HASDM reference objects, in

  19. Atmospheric Gravity Wave Properties for TOMEX as Observed With Na wind/temperature Lidar and Airglow Instrumentation From Albuquerque, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Tang, J.; Liu, A.; Swenson, G.; Gardner, C.

    2002-12-01

    On the night of October 26, 2000, the TOMEX sounding rocket was launched from White Sands rocket range ~5 hours after sunset. Na lidar, airglow imagers, and a Michelson interferometer observed the perturbations in the mesosphere. In addition, the Na lidar measured the winds which were applied to the observed motion field from which intrinsic wave speeds were resolved. The extracted wave field from combined lidar and airglow observations included waves with periods of 5 hours, 1.5 hours, and 13 minutes present for the period leading to, and during the rocket launch. The vertical structures of the 13-minute and 1.5-hour period waves were determined primarily by the thermal structure, which was characterized by a small Brunt-Vaisala frequency between 90 km and 92 km with a strong gradient above and below. The 5-hour period waves exhibited a standing wave pattern, indicative of strong wave reflection in the mesopause region. In addition to the intrinsic wave parameters, the vertical flux of horizontal momentum and acceleration rate as a function of altitude was calculated for each of the waves. Momentum fluxes and accelerations were dominated by contributions from the 13-minute period waves.

  20. Tidal influence on O(1S) airglow emission rate distributions at the geographic equator as observed by WINDII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephere, G. G.; Mclandress, C.; Solheim, B. H.

    1995-01-01

    WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, observes winds, temperatures and emission rates in the upper mesosphere and thermosphere. In this paper we report on nighttime observations of the vertical distribution of the O(1S) 557.7 nm emission near the geographic equator for March/April, 1993. The airglow volume emission rate distribution is found to be strongly dependent on local time. Beginning at dusk, an intense airglow emission layer descends from a mean altitude of 95 km, reaching 89 km by midnight after which the emission rapidly decays. Shortly after midnight it reappears weakly at a higher altitude and remains at this level as the emission rate gradually increases towards dawn. This strong local time dependence leads us to conclude that the effect is tidally driven. Comparison with the Forbes (1982a,b) model suggest that total density perturbations and changes in the atomic oxygen mixing ratio may the cause of the changes in emission rate distribution between dusk and midnight. The reappearance of the emission after midnight may be caused by downward winds bringing oxygen-rich air from above.

  1. Thin film interference optics for imaging the O II 834-A airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seely, John F.; Hunter, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Normal incidence thin film interference mirrors and filters have been designed to image the O II 834-A airglow. It is shown that MgF2 is a useful spacer material for this wavelength region. The mirrors consist of thin layers of MgF2 in combination with other materials that are chosen to reflect efficiently in a narrow band centered at 834 A. Peak reflectance of 60 percent can be obtained with a passband 200 A wide. Al/MgF2/Si and Al/MgF2/SiC interference coatings have been designed to reflect 834 A and to absorb the intense H I 1216 A airglow. An In/MgF2/In interference filter is designed to transmit 834 A and attenuate 1216 A radiation. Interference photocathode coatings for rejecting 1216 A radiation are also discussed.

  2. Internal Gravity Wave Induced by the Queen Charlotte Event (27 October 2012, Mw 7.8): Airglow Observation and Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, G.; Bablet, A.; Makela, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The detection of the tsunami related internal gravity waves (IGWtsuna) by airglow camera has been recently validated by observation (Makela et al., 2011) and modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2011) in the case of the Tohoku event (11 March 2011, Mw 9.0). The airglow is measuring the photon emission at 630 nm, indirectly linked to the plasma density of O2+ (Link & Cogger, 1988) and it is commonly used to detect transient event in the ionosphere (Kelley et al., 2002, Makela et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009). The modeling of the IGWtsuna clearly reproduced the pattern of the airglow measurement observed over Hawaii and the comparison between the observation and the modeling allows to recognize the wave form and allow to explain the IGWtsuna arriving before the tsunami wavefront at the sea level (Occhipinti et al., 2011). Approaching the Hawaiian archipelagos the tsunami propagation is slowed down (reduction of the sea depth), instead, the IGWtsuna, propagating in the atmosphere/ionosphere, conserves its speed. In this work, we present the modeling of the new airglow observation following the Queen Charlotte event (27 October 2012, Mw 7.8) that has been recently detected, proving that the technique can be generalized for smaller events. Additionally, the effect of the wind on the IGWtsuna, already evocated in the past, is included in the modeling to better reproduce the airglow observations. All ref. here @ www.ipgp.fr/~ninto

  3. Characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves measured by an OH airglow imager at Qujing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinzeng; Chen, Jinsong; Yuan, Wei; Yue, Jia; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Jiyao; Liu, Mohan

    An all-sky imager was installed at Qujing (25.6ºN, 103.7ºE) to investigate the characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves over the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Using OH airglow images from November 2011 to October 2013, we detected 332 events of gravity waves. Along with the collocated meteor radar wind measurements and mean temperature data from SABER instrument onboard the TIMED satellite, the propagation condition (freely propagating, ducted, or evanescent) of these gravity waves was estimated. Most gravity waves exhibited ducted and evanescent behavior. About 20% of the events are freely propagating waves. We analyzed the sources in the lower atmosphere for these freely propagating gravity waves using ray tracing analysis. Statistical analysis shows a clear relation between mesospheric gravity wave activity and jet streams around Yunnan-Guizhou-Tibet Plateau. We also investigate the statistical features of all observed gravity waves. The propagation directions of the gravity waves show a strong northeastward preference in summer, while almost all gravity waves propagate southeastward in winter. The gravity waves propagation directions in winter are significantly different from other observations at northern middle latitudes, such as Xinglong(40.2ºN,117.4ºE), Shigaraki(34.9ºN,136.1 ºE), Urbana IL(40ºN, 80ºW). They all found the gravity waves presented southwestward propagation directions in winter. The horizontal wavelengths of observed gravity waves are typically from 10 to 35 km, the vertical wavelengths from 10 to 30 km, the observed periods from 4 to 8 min and the observed horizontal phase speeds of 30 to 90 m/s. The intrinsic periods are mainly in the range of 4-8 min. The intrinsic phase speeds are mainly in the range of 40-100 m/s. The wind filtering in the middle atmosphere plays a role in controlling the propagation directions of the gravity waves.

  4. Observations of Atmospheric Gravity Wave damping in the Mesosphere with lidar and airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Li, F.; Liu, A.; Thakker, P.

    2002-12-01

    Correlative measurements of temperature and winds by Na lidar and brightness in OH and O2 Atmospheric band airglow have been made at Albuquerque, NM and Maui, HI for a study of high frequency (Period less than 30 minutes) Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs). Waves studies from four nights have been made and the correlative information describes the intrinsic wave properties with altitude, their damping characteristics, and resulting accelerations to the large scale dynamics in the 85-100 km altidude region. Generally, saturated to super-saturated conditions were observed below 95 km. Above this altitude, they became freely propagating.

  5. An atlas of low latitude 6300A (01) night airglow from OGO-4 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I.; Fowler, W. B.; Blamont, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The atomic oxygen emission line at 6300 A, measured in the nadir direction by a photometer on the polar orbiting satellite OGO-4, was plotted between 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitude on a series of maps for the moon-free periods between 30 August 1967 and 10 January 1968 The longitudinal and local time variations which occur during the northern fall-winter season are indicated. The northern tropical arc is more widespread while the southern arc is not present at all longitudes. The conditions under which the observations were made are described, and four airglow maps were selected to show the local time variations.

  6. High-resolution observations of small-scale gravity waves and turbulence features in the OH airglow layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlak, René; Hannawald, Patrick; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2016-12-01

    A new version of the Fast Airglow Imager (FAIM) for the detection of atmospheric waves in the OH airglow layer has been set up at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at Oberpfaffenhofen (48.09° N, 11.28° E), Germany. The spatial resolution of the instrument is 17 m pixel-1 in zenith direction with a field of view (FOV) of 11.1 km × 9.0 km at the OH layer height of ca. 87 km. Since November 2015, the system has been in operation in two different setups (zenith angles 46 and 0°) with a temporal resolution of 2.5 to 2.8 s. In a first case study we present observations of two small wave-like features that might be attributed to gravity wave instabilities. In order to spectrally analyse harmonic structures even on small spatial scales down to 550 m horizontal wavelength, we made use of the maximum entropy method (MEM) since this method exhibits an excellent wavelength resolution. MEM further allows analysing relatively short data series, which considerably helps to reduce problems such as stationarity of the underlying data series from a statistical point of view. We present an observation of the subsequent decay of well-organized wave fronts into eddies, which we tentatively interpret in terms of an indication for the onset of turbulence. Another remarkable event which demonstrates the technical capabilities of the instrument was observed during the night of 4-5 April 2016. It reveals the disintegration of a rather homogenous brightness variation into several filaments moving in different directions and with different speeds. It resembles the formation of a vortex with a horizontal axis of rotation likely related to a vertical wind shear. This case shows a notable similarity to what is expected from theoretical modelling of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs). The comparatively high spatial resolution of the presented new version of the FAIM provides new insights into the structure of atmospheric wave instability and

  7. Preliminary observations and simulation of nocturnal variations of airglow temperature and emission rates at Pune (18.5°N), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, S.; Feng, W.; Shepherd, Gordon G.; Plane, J. M. C.; Sonbawne, S.; Roy, Chaitri; Dhomse, S.; Ghude, S. D.

    2016-11-01

    Preliminary observations of the nocturnal variations of the OH(6-2) and O2b(0-1) nighttime airglow in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are investigated in the context of tidal influence for the tropical latitude station Pune (18.5°N, 73.85°E). This is the only tropical Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI) station where the tidal variations of mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) temperature have been determined from ground based SATI observations. The SATI observations obtained since October 2012 reveal the influence of the migrating semidiurnal tides during solstice at this tropical station. There is variability in amplitude and phase obtained from SATI observations. In this paper, SATI observations on 10 Dec 2012 and 3 March 2013 are compared with Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) simulations. The amplitude of semidiurnal tides is 25 K/30 K on 10 Dec 2012 during solstice for OH/O2 temperature. During equinox SATI data indicates existence of semidiurnal tide also. The airglow observations are compared with simulations from the WACCM. The model underestimates the amplitude of the semi diurnal tide during equinox (1.6 K/2.7 K at 87 km/96 km) and solstice ( 3.8 K/4.8 K at 87 km/96 km) for these days. The reason may be related to dampening of tides in the model due to the effect of strong latitudinal shear in zonal wind. The diurnal variation of airglow emission - which the model simulates well - is related to the vertical advection associated with the tides and downward mixing of atomic oxygen.

  8. Partially light-controlled imager based on liquid crystal plate and image intensifier for aurora and airglow measurement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanhe; Cao, Xiangang; Liu, Hanchen; Shepherd, G G; Liu, Shulin; Gao, Haiyang; Yang, Xusan; Wu, Yong; Wang, Shuiwei

    2012-04-20

    In order to obtain information both of aurora and airglow in one image by the same detector, a PLCI based on liquid crystal plate LCP and super second-generation image intensifier SSGII is proposed in this research. The detection thresholds of the CCD for aurora and airglow are calculated. For the detectable illumination range of 10(4)-10(-2) lx, the corresponding electron count is 1.57×10(5) - 0.2 for every pixel of CCD. The structure and work principle of the PLCI are described. An LC is introduced in the front of CCD to decrease the intensities of aurora in overexposure areas by means of controlling transmittances pixel by pixel, while an image intensifier is set between the LC and CCD to increase the intensity of the weak airglow. The modulation transfer function MTF of this system is calculated as 0.391 at a Nyquist frequency of 15 lp/mm. The curve of transmittance with regard to gray level for the LC is obtained by calibration experiment. Based on the design principle, the prototype is made and used to take photos of objects under strong light greater than 2×10(5) lx. The clear details of [symbols: see text] presented in the image indicate that the PLCI can greatly improve the imaging quality. The theoretical calculations and experiment results prove that this device can extend the dynamic range and it provides a more effective method for upper atmospheric wind measurement.

  9. An assessment of twilight airglow inversion procedures using atmosphere explorer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdade, I. C.; Sharp, W. E.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to test and truth some recently developed methods for recovering thermospheric oxygen atom densities and thermospheric temperatures from ground-based observations of the 7320 A O(+)((sup 2)D - (sup 2)P) twilight air glow emission. The research plan was to use twilight observations made by the Visible Airglow Experiment (VAE) on the Atmosphere Explorer 'E' satellite as proxy ground based twilight observations. These observations were to be processed using the twilight inversion procedures, and the recovered oxygen atom densities and thermospheric temperatures were then to be examined to see how they compared with the densities and temperatures that were measured by the Open Source Mass Spectrometer and the Neutral Atmosphere Temperature Experiment on the satellite.

  10. Observations of airglow during injections of exhaust streams of ``Progress'' orbital maneuvering subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beletsky, Alexandr; Mikhalev, Alexander; Khakhinov, Vitaly; Lebedev, Valentin

    Observations of airglow during injections of exhaust streams of “Progress” orbital maneuvering subsystem A. Mikhalev, V. Khakhinov, A. Beletsky, V. Lebedev Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS) 664033, Lermontov str. 126a, p/o Box 291, Irkutsk, Russia ABSTRACT The effect of increasing the intensity of airglow emissions associated with spacecraft engines exhaust to the atmosphere is well-known. We carried out the "Radar-Progress" active space experiment for studying the ionosphere on April 17 2013. The exhaust products of orbital maneuvering subsystem engines of transport spacecraft “Progress” were used as a source of ionosphere disturbances. The engines run from 13:24:37 to 13:24:46 UT. The "Progress" orbit altitude was 412 km. We carried out observations of nightglow in the several spectral lines. The all-sky camera was used for obtaining spatial distribution of the 630 nm emission intensity. An increase in the emission intensity in the area of "Progress" track was observed after starting the engines. According to preliminary estimates, the rate of the glow expansion at the orbit altitude during first 60 seconds after the start was ~ 7 km/c along the orbit and ~ 3.5 km/s across the orbit. The observed glow area reached the largest size of ~ 350 km along the orbit and ~ 250 km across the orbit 120-150 s after start. The study has been supported by the grant 13-05-00456-a and 13-02-00957-a of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and RF President Grant of Public Support for RF Leading Scientific Schools (NSh-2942.2014.5).

  11. Comparison of Airglow from excited O2- and OH-molecules in the global model EMAC compared to SCIAMACHY observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versick, Stefan; Bender, Stefan; von Savigny, Christian; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Teiser, Georg; Vlasov, Alexey; Zarboo, Amirmahdi

    2016-04-01

    Airglow is a luminous effect mainly in the upper atmosphere (mesosphere and thermosphere). It is caused by various processes. Airglow can be used to derive minor species abundances, to diagnose dynamical phenomena or to derive chemical heating rates (Mlynzcak 1999). Here we concentrate on Airglow from excited O2- and OH-molecules. For the presented study we use the newly developed extended EMAC (3d-CTM) version which includes the thermosphere and reaches upto about 170 km. We extended the chemistry by the relevant processes for airglow. The online-coupled chemistry module MECCA is calculating the different transitions of the excited OH-molecules. In this presentation we weill concentrate on the OH(3-1) transition at a wavelength of 1540 nm. We compare the model results to SCIAMACHY observations during the sudden stratospheric warming in the northern hemisphere winter 2008/09. The model results are qualitatively in good agreement with the observations. EMAC chemistry has also been extended by two excited states of molcular oxygen: O2(1Δ) at 1270 nm and O2(1Σ) at 762 nm. We show first results of the newly developed retrieval for the 762 nm band from SCIAMACHY-observations and compare it to EMAC results.

  12. Mesopause region wind, temperature and airglow irradiance above Eureka, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoffersen, Samuel; Ward, William E.; Vail, Christopher; Shepherd, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    The PEARL All Sky Imager (PASI, airglow images), the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI, airglow irradiance and temperature) and the E-Region Wind Interferometer II (ERWIN2, wind, airglow irradiance and temperature) are co-located at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL)in Eureka, Nunavut (80 N, 86 W). These instruments view the wind, temperature and airglow irradiance of hydroxyl (all three) O2 (ERWIN2 and SATI), sodium (PASI), and oxygen green line (PASI and ERWIN2). The viewing locations and specific emissions of the various instruments differ. Nevertheless, the co-location of these instruments provides an excellent opportunity for case studies of specific events and for intercomparison between the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach we are using to combine observations from the different instruments. Case studies show that at times the various instruments are in good agreement but at other times they differ. Of particular interest are situations where gravity wave signatures are evident for an extended period of time and one such situation is presented. The discussion includes consideration of the filtering effect of viewing through airglow layers and the extent to which wind, airglow and temperature variations can be associated with the same gravity wave.

  13. F region airglow - Are ground-based observations consistent with recent satellite results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogger, L. L.; Walker, J. C. G.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.; Burnside, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer photochemistry is used to interpret simultaneous observations made at the Arecibo Observatory of the OI (6300 A) and NI (5200 A) airglow surface brightness and electron density and temperature profiles measured by incoherent scatter radar. It was found that the theory and the experiment agree for the 5200-A emission; however, it was not possible to obtain to a complete agreement for the 6300-A nightglow. It is suggested that the source of the discrepancy results from one of the parameters used to calculate the production rate of O(lD); the data show evidence of an asymmetrical behavior of the ionosphere between times when the F layer is descending and when it is ascending, with asymmetry probably reflecting the effects of transport on molecular ion densities in the bottom side of the F region.

  14. Unambiguous evidence of HF pump-enhanced airglow at auroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brändström, B. U. E.; Leyser, T. B.; Steen, Å.; Rietveld, M. T.; Gustavsson, B.; Aso, T.; Ejiri, M.

    1999-12-01

    Simultaneous observations by up to three low-light imaging stations belonging to the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) have provided the first strong evidence of high-frequency (HF) pump-enhanced airglow at auroral latitudes. The airglow was enhanced by an ordinary mode 4.04 MHz electromagnetic wave with an effective radiated power (ERP) of about 210 MW that was transmitted from the EISCAT-Heating facility near Tromsø, Norway. While often observed at low or mid-latitudes, and despite numerous earlier experiments, no unambiguous observations of pump-enhanced airglow have been reported at auroral latitudes. On February 16, 1999, the first successful results were obtained, and this paper concentrates on discussing optical data from this event. Triangulated estimations of the altitude and position of the enhanced airglow are also presented. Auroral-latitude observations of HF pump-enhanced airglow are important in order to better understand the underlying excitation mechanisms.

  15. Helium 584 Å and H Lyman-α Airglow in Giant Planetary Atmospheres: Modeling, Observations, and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Christopher; Esposito, Larry W.

    2016-07-01

    The atmosphere of the outer planets is mainly composed of H2 and neutral atomic helium. The study of He 584 Å and H Lyman-α brightnesses is interesting as the EUV and FUV (Extreme and Far Ultraviolet) planetary airglow have the potential to yield useful information about mixing and other important parameters in their thermospheres. Time variation, asymmetries, and polar enhancement of the airglow are also possible and analysis of the public archived NASA mission data sets (i.e. Voyager and Cassini) can help solve some of the outstanding problems associated with these phenomena. The comparison of observations with results from sophisticated photochemical and radiative transfer models can also help ameliorate unexplained differences in the dynamical processes operating within planetary upper atmospheres. Powerful analysis techniques allow us to extract information on atmospheric mixing, temperatures, and temporal changes due to the solar and seasonal cycles from the variations in distribution and intensity of airglow emissions that result. The presentation will discuss the implications of interpretations from comparison of modeling and observations in giant planetary atmospheres.

  16. Airglow on Titan During Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. A.; Ajello, J. M.; Stevens, M. H.; Strobel, D. F.; Gladstone, R.; Evans, J. S.; Bradley, E. T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetospheric or cosmic ray charged particle precipitation into Titan's atmosphere is a potential energy source for driving chemistry and may contribute to airglow and energy balance. Estimates of the significance of these processes vary widely and thus far have been only poorly constrained because of the dominance of XUV radiation in stimulating UV airglow. To address these issues we observed Titan when it was deeply embedded in Saturn's shadow in 2009. We obtained EUV and FUV spectra with the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and images with the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) at visible wavelengths. For the first time, nitrogen emissions were seen in the spectra in the absence of XUV stimulation, although with insufficient spatial resolution to do limb profiling. The emissions are about a factor of ten smaller than peak dayside emissions observed with UVIS at closer range (from Stevens et al., , J. Geophys. Res., 116, A05304, doi10.1029/2010ja016284). Hydrogen emissions are also observed, consistent with the idea that precipitating protons and oxygen ions are responsible for part of the emission. The visible images from ISS contribute because they resolve the disk well. No auroral structures are seen. Rather, there is a very faint airglow seen on the limb between about 300 and 1000 km and a stronger intensity coming from the region of the haze at 300 km altitude. Although the limb glow is near the noise limit, the radial profile appears to be inconsistent with ionization profiles expected for precipitating electrons, protons, or oxygen ions which are expected to produce strong limb brightening. The stronger glow from the haze region was unexpected. Its origin is not understood but deeply-penetrating cosmic ray ionization and chemiluminescence are candidates that deserve additional scrutiny. . Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Lab, Cal. Inst. of Tech. under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Apollo 16 far ultraviolet imagery of the polar auroras, tropical airglow belts, and general airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Page, T.

    1976-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet imagery of the earth in the wavelength ranges from 1050 to 1600 A and from 1250 to 1600 A was obtained from the lunar surface during the Apollo 16 mission on Apr. 21, 1972. The images have an angular resolution of about 2 arcmin (230-km linear resolution) and have been quantitatively analyzed to obtain absolute intensities and spatial distributions of the polar auroras (both wavelength ranges), the day and night airglow, and tropical airglow belts (1250-A to 1600-A wavelength range). The observations are consistent with previous results obtained from the OGO-4 spacecraft, but they have also provided details on the spatial distributions of the various emissions over an entire hemisphere at a single time. A general night airglow, at least in the Northern Hemisphere, is indicated.

  18. OI 630.0 nm Night Airglow Observations during the Geomagnetic Storm on November 20, 2003 at Kolhapur (P43)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; et al.

    2006-11-01

    sharma_ashokkumar@yahoo.com The ground based photometric observations of OI 630 nm emission line have been carried out from Kolhapur station (Geog. Lat.16.8˚N, Geo. Long 74.2˚E), India during the period of the largest geomagnetic storm of the solar cycle 23 which occurred on 20 November 2003, with minimum Dst index 472 nT occurring around mid-night hours. We observed that on 19 November 2003 which was geomagnetically quiet day, the airglow activity of OI 630 nm emission was subdued and it was decreasing monotonically. However, on the night of November 20, 2003 the enhancement is observed during geomagnetic storm due to the increased electron density at the altitude of the F region which is related to the downward transport of electron from the plasmasphere to the F-region. Airglow intensity at OI 630.0 nm showed increase around midnight on November 21, 2003 but comparatively on a smaller scale. On this night the DST index was about 100 nT. This implies that the effect of the geomagnetic storm persisted on that night also. These observations have been explained by the penetration magnetospheric electric field to the low latitude region and the subsequent modulation of meridional wind during the magnetic disturbance at night.

  19. An observation of polar auroral and airglow from the ISIS-II spacecraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, G. G.; Anger, C. D.; Brace, L. H.; Maier, E. J.; Burrows, J. R.; Heikkila, W. J.; Hoffman, J.; Whitteker, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    This is a preliminary but comprehensive report on coordinated data obtained with the ISIS-II spacecraft, fourth in the ISIS series, launched 1 April 1971, into a near circular 1400 km orbit. The capabilities of the ISIS-I spacecraft have been extended in a number of ways, including the global mapping of the 3914, 5577 and 6300 A emissions. Data obtained during a 30-min pass over the south pole depict the nightside oval and polar cap, as well as mid-latitude airglow effects; these data are described and discussed.

  20. Understanding airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Jonathan; Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton, William R., Jr.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    Airglow imaging is a primary tool in the study of gravity waves at mesospheric and lower-thermospheric (MLT) altitudes, clearly revealing signatures of small-scale (<100 km) and short-period (<30 min) waves. Short-period waves are in particular able to carry significant momentum into the MLT [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, 2003, Rev. Geophys., 41(1)]. However, quantification of short-period wave fluxes and propagation characteristics is complicated by their susceptibility to refraction by ambient wind and thermal structure at airglow altitudes. These effects lead to vertical wavelengths that vary dramatically with altitude throughout the airglow layers, and reflection and ducting, which can prevent the accurate assessment of ampli-tude and vertical direction of propagation [e.g., Fritts, 2000, JGR, 105(D17), 22,355-22,360]. To investigate airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves, we utilize a two-dimensional nonlinear dynamics model coupled with OH Meinel band and OI 557.7 nm airglow photochem-istry models. Case studies where the ambient atmospheric structure significantly influences wave propagation are presented, for both ducted and reflected waves, and also for waves ap-proaching critical levels. Arising from Doppler shifts to higher and lower intrinsic frequencies, respectively, these effects contribute to significant variation of vertical wavelength throughout the airglow region, and may limit the altitude of propagation. Cancellation effects of vertically-integrated airglow volume emission rate perturbations are discussed, along with observable nonlinear features due to large amplitude [e.g., Huang et al., 2003, JGR, 108(A5), 1173], and effects of partial perturbations to airglow layers by vertically-confined waves [e.g., Snively et al., JGR, In Review, 2010]. In particular, it is demonstrated that high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of airglow intensity and brightness-weighted temperature, combined with detailed descriptions of ambient

  1. OH(v=1 to 9) Relative Population Levels Inferred from VIRTIS/Rosetta Airglow Observations in the Earth's Atmosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Gerard, J. C.; Soret, L.; Piccioni, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Snels, M.

    2015-08-01

    On its way to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Rosetta spacecraft performed three flybys with the Earth, in March 2005, November 2007 and November 2009. The last one was quite suitable to observe the nightside of our planet. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on board Rosetta was especially adapted to study the hydroxyl nightglow emissions in the infrared spectral range. The OH v=1,2 sequences were measured simultaneously. We thus investigate the relative population levels of the v=1 to 9 vibrational levels at the same time. Results, obtained using our simple 1-dimension model, are presented for the relative population levels; in particular, the value of level v=1 is derived for the first time, relative to levels up to 9. The vibrational population decreases with increasing vibrational quantum number. Our results are in satisfactorily agreement with previous observations and models developed for mid-latitudes conditions. They favor the models where sudden death deactivation by atomic oxygen is the major process controlling the vibrational population. The observed behavior results to be distinctly different than the OH airglow observations made in the Venus atmosphere with the VIRTIS instrument on board Venus Express, where quenching by CO2 seems to occur with collisional cascades. The authors thank ESA, ASI and all the national space agencies, which support the Rosetta mission (Grants: ASI-INAF I/062/08/0 and ASI-INAF I/050/10/0).

  2. Cassini UVIS Observations of Titan Ultraviolet Airglow Spectra with Laboratory Modeling from Electron- and Proton-Excited N2 Emission Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajello, J. M.; West, R. A.; Malone, C. P.; Gustin, J.; Esposito, L. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Stevens, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Joseph M. Ajello, Robert A. West, Rao S. Mangina Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 Charles P. Malone Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 & Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92834 Michael H. Stevens Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 Jacques Gustin Laboratoire de Physique Atmosphérique et Planétaire, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium A. Ian F. Stewart, Larry W. Esposito, William E. McClintock, Gregory M. Holsclaw Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 E. Todd Bradley Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's day and night limb-airglow and disk-airglow on multiple occasions, including three eclipse observations from 2009 through 2010. The 77 airglow observations analyzed in this paper show EUV (600-1150 Å) and FUV (1150-1900 Å) atomic multiplet lines and band emissions (lifetimes less than ~100 μs), including the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band system, arising from photoelectron induced fluorescence and solar photo-fragmentation of molecular nitrogen (N2). The altitude of peak UV emission on the limb of Titan during daylight occurred inside the thermosphere/ionosphere (near 1000 km altitude). However, at night on the limb, the same emission features, but much weaker in intensity, arise in the lower atmosphere below 1000 km (lower thermosphere, mesosphere, haze layer) extending downwards to near the surface at ~300 km, possibly resulting from proton- and/or heavier ion-induced emissions as well as secondary-electron-induced emissions. The eclipse observations are unique. UV emissions were observed during only one of the three eclipse events, and no Vegard-Kaplan (VK) or LBH emissions were seen. Through regression analysis using

  3. Lightning induced brightening in the airglow layer

    SciTech Connect

    Boeck, W.L. ); Vaughan, O.H. Jr.; Blakeslee, R. ); Vonnegut, B. ); Brook, M. )

    1992-01-24

    This report describes a transient luminosity observed at the altitude of the airglow layer (about 95 km) in coincidence with a lightning flash in a tropical oceanic thunderstorm directly beneath it. This event provides new evidence of direct coupling between lightning and ionospheric events. This luminous event in the ionosphere was the only one of its kind observed during an examination of several thousand images of lightning recorded under suitable viewing conditions with Space Shuttle cameras. Several possible mechanisms and interpretations are discussed briefly.

  4. The N_2 c_4'-X (0,v") Airglow on Titan: What is Required to fit the UVS Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, M. H.

    1999-09-01

    The N_2 Carroll-Yoshino (CY) c_4'(1Sigma_u ^+-X^1Sigma_g ^+) (0,0) and (0,1) Rydberg bands between 95 and 99 nm were observed to be the most prominent N_2 emission features in Voyager 1 Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) airglow spectra of Titan. In order to study both the observed bright limb peak and the observed variation of CY(0,v") over the sunlit disk, a radiative transfer model is employed which considers both photoelectron excitation and magnetospheric particle precipitation. The resonant (0,0) band is known to be optically thick so multiple scattering and all known loss processes to the CY(0,v") system are included. Results show that only 23-33% of c_4'(0) source excitation appears in (0,0)+(0,1), primarily due to the effects of predissociation compounded over multiple scatterings. Such loss rules out photoelectrons as the only source and requires a flux of 1 keV magnetospheric electrons that is between 0.02-0.04 erg/cm(2) s to fit the disk observations. The relative variation of (0,0)+(0,1) over the sunlit disk can be explained by the variation of solar zenith angle (SZA) specific to each observation. Lower SZAs place photoelectron excitation at lower altitudes where (0,1) optical depths are greater, yielding less emission. The magnitude of the UVS bright limb peak can be accounted for with the same input fluxes, after taking into account the lower incidence angle of precipitating electrons.

  5. Gravity Wave Energetics Determined From Coincident Space-Based and Ground-Based Observations of Airglow Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the goals of this proposal in a number of areas during the covered period. Section 5.1 contains a copy of the originally proposed schedule. The tasks listed below have been accomplished: (1) Construction of space-based observing geometry gravity wave model. This model has been described in detail in the paper accompanying this report (Section 5.2). It can simulate the observing geometry of both ground-based, and orbital instruments allowing comparisons to be made between them. (2) Comparisons of relative emission intensity, temperatures, and Krassovsky's ratio for space- and ground-based observing geometries. These quantities are used in gravity wave literature to describe the effects of the waves on the airglow. (3) Rejection of Bates [1992], and Copeland [1994] chemistries for gravity wave modeling purposes. Excessive 02(A(sup 13)(Delta)) production led to overproduction of O2(b(sup 1)(Sigma)), the state responsible for the emission of O2. Atmospheric band. Attempts were made to correct for this behavior, but could not adequately compensate for this. (4) Rejection of MSX dataset due to lack of coincident data, and resolution necessary to characterize the waves. A careful search to identify coincident data revealed only four instances, with only one of those providing usable data. Two high latitude overpasses and were contaminated by auroral emissions. Of the remaining two mid-latitude coincidences, one overflight was obscured by cloud, leaving only one ten minute segment of usable data. Aside from the statistical difficulties involved in comparing measurements taken in this short period, the instrument lacks the necessary resolution to determine the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave. This means that the wave cannot be uniquely characterized from space with this dataset. Since no observed wave can be uniquely identified, model comparisons are not possible.

  6. A study of the airglow and the sporadic E layers during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Alexander; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Medvedev, Andrey; Medvedeva, Irina; Kurkin, Vladimir; Chernigovskaya, Marina; Kostyleva, Nadegda

    In the present work the events of disturbances of the 557.7 nm and 630 nm airglow and occurrence of sporadic E layer in middle latitudes of Asian region during sudden stratospheric warmings in December 2006 and January-February 2008 are analyzed. Ionosphere data were obtained with the DPS-4 ionosonde located in Irkutsk (52.3N, 104.3E). Airglow measurements were made by the 4-channel zenith photometer and colour CCD imager at ISTP Geophysical observatory located 130 km southwest of Irkutsk. To identify the stratospheric warming events the Berlin Meteorological University data (http://strat-www.met.fu-berlin.de) on stratospheric warming at standard isobaric levels and the atmospheric temperature height profiles measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the EOS Aura spacecraft were used. In some cases we observed correlated diurnal variations of 557.7 nm airglow intensity and Es characteristics. The fact that the correlation between 557.7 nm and Es layer characteristics did not always happen probably can be explained by the different spatial localization of Es layer and emitting layer as well as by the features of their dynamics. During a maximal rise of 557.7 nm airglow its spatial inhomogeneity registered by CCD imager in a continuum was observed. The possible mechanisms of the airglow disturbances and occurrence of sporadic E layers during sudden stratospheric warming are discussed. The work was supported by RAS Presidium Program 16 (Part 3).

  7. A statistical analysis of equatorial plasma bubble structures based on an all-sky airglow imager network in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Longchang; Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Wenbin; Yuan, Wei; Li, Qinzeng; Jiang, Chaowei

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the statistical features of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) using airglow images from 2012 to 2014 from a ground-based network of four imagers in the equatorial region of China. It is found that (1) EPBs mainly occur during 21:00-00:00 local time (LT) in equinoxes. There is an asymmetry in occurrence rates between March (June) and September equinoxes (December solstices). (2) Most EPBs occur in groups of two to six depletions. The distance between adjacent EPB depletions is 100-700 km, and the average is 200-300 km. The zonal extension of an EPB group is usually less than 1500 km but can reach 3000 km. (3) EPBs usually have a maximum drift velocity near 100 m/s at 21:00-22:00 LT in 9.5° ± 1.5° geomagnetic latitude and then decrease to 50-70 m/s toward sunrise. (4) The averaged westward tilt angle of most EPBs (with respect to the geographic north-south) increased from 5°-10° to 23°-30° with LT between 20:00 and 03:00 LT, then decreasing to 10°-20° toward sunrise. (5) When 90 < F10.7 < 140, the maximum magnetic latitudinal extension (PMLE) is usually lower than 15.0° (apex height 725 km), but it can reach 23.0° (apex height 1330 km) when F10.7 > 140. The maximum PMLE increases by 3.4°-5.5° when F10.7 changes from 90 to 190. (6) The EPB occurrence patterns and zonal drift velocities are significantly different from those at Kolhapur, India, which locates west to our stations by 20.0°-32.0° in longitude.

  8. A rocket-borne airglow photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paarmann, L. D.; Smith, L. G.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a rocket-borne photometer to measure the airglow emission of ionized molecular nitrogen in the 391.4 nm band is presented. This airglow is a well known and often observed phenomenon of auroras, where the principal source of ionization is energetic electrons. It is believed that at some midlatitude locations energetic electrons are also a source of nighttime ionization in the E region of the ionosphere. If this is so, then significant levels of 391.4 nm airglow should be present. The intensity of this airglow will be measured in a rocket payload which also contains instrumentation to measured in a rocket payload which also contains instrumentation to measure energetic electron differential flux and the ambient electron density. An intercomparison of the 3 experiments in a nightime launch will allow a test of the importance of energetic electrons as a nighttime source of ionization in the upper E region.

  9. SABER Observations of the OH Meinel Airglow Variability Near the Mesopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Smith, Anne K.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2005-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, one of four on board the TIMED satellite, observes the OH Meinel emission at 2.0 m that peaks near the mesopause. The emission results from reactions between members of the oxygen and hydrogen chemical families that can be significantly affected by mesopause dynamics. In this study we compare SABER measurements of OH Meinel emission rates and temperatures with predictions from a 3-dimensional chemical dynamical model. In general, the model is capable of reproducing both the observed diurnal and seasonal OH Meinel emission variability. The results indicate that the diurnal tide has a large effect on the overall magnitude and temporal variation of the emission in low latitudes. This tidal variability is so dominant that the seasonal cycle in the nighttime emission depends very strongly on the local time of the analysis. At higher latitudes, the emission has an annual cycle that is due mainly to transport of oxygen by the seasonally reversing mean circulation.

  10. Measurements of airglow on Maunakea at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Smith, Adam; Stephens, Andrew; Smirnova, Olesja

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory on Maunakea has been collecting optical and infrared science data for almost 15 years. We have begun a program to analyze imaging data from two of the original facility instruments, GMOS and NIRI, in order to measure sky brightness levels in multiple infrared and optical broad-band filters. The present work includes data from mid-2016 back through late-2008. We present measured background levels as a function of several operational quantities (e.g. moon phase, hours from twilight, season). We find that airglow is a significant contributor to background levels in several filters. Gemini is primarily a queue scheduled telescope, with observations being optimally executed in order to provide the most efficient use of telescope time. We find that while most parameters are well-understood, the atmospheric airglow remains challenging to predict. This makes it difficult to schedule observations which require dark skies in these filters, and we suggest improvements to ensure data quality.

  11. Heater-induced ionization inferred from spectrometric airglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Miceli, R. J.; Varney, R. H.; Schlatter, N.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Spectrographic airglow measurements were made during an ionospheric modification experiment at HAARP on March 12, 2013. Artificial airglow enhancements at 427.8, 557.7, 630.0, 777.4, and 844.6 nm were observed. On the basis of these emissions and using a methodology based on the method of Backus and Gilbert [1968, 1970], we estimate the suprathermal electron population and the subsequent equilibrium electron density profile, including contributions from electron impact ionization. We find that the airglow is consistent with significant induced ionization in view of the spatial intermittency of the airglow.

  12. Night airglow in RGB mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Podlesny, Stepan; Stoeva, Penka

    2016-09-01

    To study dynamics of the upper atmosphere, we consider results of the night sky photometry, using a color CCD camera and taking into account the night airglow and features of its spectral composition. We use night airglow observations for 2010-2015, which have been obtained at the ISTP SB RAS Geophysical Observatory (52° N, 103° E) by the camera with KODAK KAI-11002 CCD sensor. We estimate the average brightness of the night sky in R, G, B channels of the color camera for eastern Siberia with typical values ranging from ~0.008 to 0.01 erg*cm-2*s-1. Besides, we determine seasonal variations in the night sky luminosities in R, G, B channels of the color camera. In these channels, luminosities decrease in spring, increase in autumn, and have a pronounced summer maximum, which can be explained by scattered light and is associated with the location of the Geophysical Observatory. We consider geophysical phenomena with their optical effects in R, G, B channels of the color camera. For some geophysical phenomena (geomagnetic storms, sudden stratospheric warmings), we demonstrate the possibility of the quantitative relationship between enhanced signals in R and G channels and increases in intensities of discrete 557.7 and 630 nm emissions, which are predominant in the airglow spectrum.

  13. HF-induced airglow structure as a proxy for ionospheric irregularity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility allows scientists to test current theories of plasma physics to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms at work in the lower ionosphere. One powerful technique for diagnosing radio frequency interactions in the ionosphere is to use ground-based optical instrumentation. High-frequency (HF), heater-induced artificial airglow observations can be used to diagnose electron energies and distributions in the heated region, illuminate natural and/or artificially induced ionospheric irregularities, determine ExB plasma drifts, and measure quenching rates by neutral species. Artificial airglow is caused by HF-accelerated electrons colliding with various atmospheric constituents, which in turn emit a photon. The most common emissions are 630.0 nm O(1D), 557.7 nm O(1S), and 427.8 nm N2+(1NG). Because more photons will be emitted in regions of higher electron energization, it may be possible to use airglow imaging to map artificial field-aligned irregularities at a particular altitude range in the ionosphere. Since fairly wide field-of-view imagers are typically deployed in airglow campaigns, it is not well-known what meter-scale features exist in the artificial airglow emissions. Rocket data show that heater-induced electron density variations, or irregularities, consist of bundles of ~10-m-wide magnetic field-aligned filaments with a mean depletion depth of 6% [Kelley et al., 1995]. These bundles themselves constitute small-scale structures with widths of 1.5 to 6 km. Telescopic imaging provides high resolution spatial coverage of ionospheric irregularities and goes hand in hand with other observing techniques such as GPS scintillation, radar, and ionosonde. Since airglow observations can presumably image ionospheric irregularities (electron density variations), they can be used to determine the spatial scale variation, the fill factor, and the lifetime characteristics of

  14. Gravity wave observations using an all-sky imager network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Almeida, Lazaro M.; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria; Alves Bolzan, Maurício José; Guarnieri, Fernando; Messias Almeida, Lazaro

    Gravity waves in the mesosphere were observed by airglow all-sky imager network of the UNI- VAP at São José dos Campos (23o S, 45o W), Braśpolis (22o S, 45o W) and Palmas (10o S, 48o W), a e o Brazil. Gravity wave characteristics like morphology, horizontal wavelength, period, phase speed and propagation direction will be analysed and discussed. The results will be compared with other observation sites in Brazil. Wave directionality will also be discussed in terms of wave sources and wind filtering.

  15. On the Onset of HF-Induced Airglow at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    revised 2 December 2003; accepted 19 December 2003; published 13 February 2004. [i] Observations of airglow at 630 nm (red line) and 557.7 nm ( green ...during injections toward magnetic zenith (MZ) the green and red lines gain -5 R within ,-1 s and -20 R within ,-,10 s, respectively. We term this period...observations show that the airglow maximizes Gustavsson et al., 2001, 2002; Kosch et al., 2000, 2002]. during HF injections toward magnetic zenith

  16. Spatial and temporal evolution of 630. 0 nm airglow enhancement during ionospheric heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, P.A.; Duncan, L.M.; Tepley, C.A.; Behnke, R.A.; Sheerin, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Images of 630.00 nm enhancements have been recorded during the January, 1986 ionospheric heating campaign at Arecibo. The artificial airglow clouds convected eastward, vanished, and then reappeared at the zenith of the HF heater. Occasionally, the airglow patches are bifurcated. The structure and motion of the airglow clouds is an indication of the dynamic behavior of the modified ionosphere. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  17. The global characteristics of atmosphere emissions in the lower thermosphere and their aeronomic implications. [OGO-4 airglow photometric observations of oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I.; Chandra, S.

    1974-01-01

    The green line of atomic oxygen and the Herzberg bands of molecular oxygen as observed from the OGO-4 airglow photometer are discussed in terms of their spatial and temporal distributions and their relation to the atomic oxygen content in the lower thermosphere. Daily maps of the distribution of emissions show considerable structure (cells, patches, and bands) with appreciable daily changes. When data are averaged over periods of several days in length, the resulting patterns have occasional tendencies to follow geomagnetic parallels. The Seasonal variations are characterized by maxima in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres in October, with the Northern Hemisphere having substantially higher emission rates. Formulae are derived relating the vertical column emission rates of the green line and the Herzberg bands to the atomic oxygen peak density. Global averages for the time period for these data (August 1967 to January 1968), when converted to maximum atomic oxygen densities near 95 km, have a range of 2.0 x 10 to the 11th power/cu cm 2.7 x 10 to the 11th power/cu cm.

  18. Magnetic Zenith Enhancement of HF Radio-Induced Airglow Production at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-22

    frequencies and ionospheric conditions. The spot at HAARP appears on average just equatorward of the nominal magnetic field direction, deflects somewhat...earlier airglow observations at HAARP [Pedersen and Carlson, 2001]. Airglow observations over a wide range of transmitter and ionospheric frequencies...P. A., C. A. Tepley, and L. M. Duncan, Airglow enhancements associated with plasma cavities formed during ionospheric heating ex- periments, J

  19. Analysis of excitation of the 630.0 nm airglow during a heating experiment in Tromsø on February 16, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, T.; Gustavsson, B.; Steen, Å.; Brändström, U.; Rietveld, M.; Leyser, T. B.; Honary, F.

    During an ionospheric heating experiment in Tromsø during February 1999, artificial 630.0 nm airglow enhancements have been observed by the auroral large imaging system (ALIS). The airglow enhancements took place in the F region of the ionosphere near the heating wave reflection point. Two possible mechanisms are proposed for the explanation of this phenomenon. The first is the excitation of the O(1D) state by the energetic electrons from the tail of the artificially heated thermal electron gas, and the second is the excitation of this state by the plasma instability accelerated electrons. The detailed spatial and temporal characteristics of the red line airglow are obtained from the ALIS measurements. An analysis of these characteristics based on the models of thermal response of the ionosphere and the atmospheric optical emissions allows us to draw conclusions about the mechanism of the interaction between the heating radio wave and the ionospheric plasma.

  20. Nitrogen airglow sources - Comparison of Triton, Titan, and earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Meier, R. R.; Summers, Michael E.; Strickland, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    The individual contributions of direct solar excitation, photoelectron excitation, and magnetospheric electron excitation of Triton and Titan airglow observed by the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) are quantified. The principal spectral features of Triton's airglow are shown to be consistent with precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with power dissipation about 500 million W. Solar excitation rates of the dominant N2 and N(+) emission features are factors of 2-7 weaker than magnetospheric electron excitation. On Titan, the calculated disk center and bright limb N(+) 1085 A intensities due to solar excitation agree with observed values, while the 970 A feature is mostly N21 c5 band emission. The calculated LBH intensity by photoelectrons suggests that magnetospheric electrons play a minor role in Titan's UV airglow. On earth, solar/photoelectron excitation explains the observed N(+) 1085 A and LBH intensites and accounts for only 40 percent of the N(+) 916 A intensity.

  1. ALIS (Auroral Large Imaging System) used for optical observations of the meteor impact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brändström, U.; Gustavsson, B.; Steen, A.; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta

    2001-11-01

    This paper outlines a possibly new use of the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) for studies of differential ablation phenomena in meteor trails. By simultaneous imaging from up to six stations, the altitude distribution of the meteor trails could be triangulated, while some stations simultaneously image the trails in for example the sodium (5893 Å) and calcium (4227 Å) lines. ALIS was primarily designed for auroral studies, but has also been used for studies of heater-induced airglow, polar stratospheric clouds as well as other phenomena. The system consits of six unmanned remote-controlled observation stations located in northern Sweden.

  2. Pluto's Far Ultraviolet Spectrum and Airglow Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, A.; Schindhelm, E.; Kammer, J.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Parker, J. W.; Strobel, D. F.; Summers, M. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Ennico Smith, K.; Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Olkin, C.; Parker, A. H.; Retherford, K. D.; Singer, K. N.; Tsang, C.; Tyler, G. L.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Woods, W. W.; Young, L. A.; Stern, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Alice far ultraviolet spectrograph on the New Horizons spacecraft is the second in a family of six instruments in flight on, or under development for, NASA and ESA missions. Here, we present initial results from the Alice observations of Pluto during the historic flyby. Pluto's far ultraviolet spectrum is dominated by sunlight reflected from the surface with absorption by atmospehric constituents. We tentatively identify C2H2 and C2H4 in Pluto's atmosphere. We also present evidence for weak airglow emissions.

  3. Recent observations of dynamic variations of the thermosphere and ionosphere by the Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers (OMTIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Lakshmi Narayanan, Viswanathan; Ceren Moral, Aysegul

    2016-07-01

    The Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers (OMTIs) consist of fourteen all-sky cooled-CCD imagers, five Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs), three meridian scanning photometers, and four airglow temperature photometers. They measure two-dimensional pattern, Doppler wind, and temperature through airglow emissions from oxygen (wavelength: 557.7 nm) and OH (near infrared band) in the mesopause region (80-100 km) and from oxygen (630.0 nm) in the thermosphere/ionosphere (200-300 km). They are in automatic operation at 14 stations at Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, far-east Russia, Japan, Canada, Hawaii, Norway, and Nigeria. Station information and quick look plots are available at http://stdb2.stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp/omti/. In this presentation we show recent observations of the dynamical variations of the thermosphere and ionosphere observed by OMTIs at various latitudes from the equator to the auroral zone.

  4. First tomographic estimate of volume distribution of HF-pump enhanced airglow emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, B.; Sergienko, T.; Rietveld, M. T.; Honary, F.; Steen, Å.; Brändström, B. U. E.; Leyser, T. B.; Aruliah, A. L.; Aso, T.; Ejiri, M.; Marple, S.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the first estimates of the three-dimensional volume emission rate of enhanced O(1D) 6300 Å airglow caused by HF radio wave pumping in the ionosphere. Images of the excitation show how the initially speckled spatial structure of excitation changes to a simpler shape with a smaller region that contains most of the excitation. A region of enhanced airglow was imaged by three stations in the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) in northern Scandinavia. These images allowed for a tomography-like inversion of the volume emission of the airglow. The altitude of maximum emission was found to be around 235+/-5km with typical horizontal and vertical scale sizes of 20 km. The shape of the O(1D) excitation rate varied from flatish to elongated along the magnetic field. The altitude of maximum emission is found to be approximately 10 km below the altitude of the enhanced ion line and 15 km above the altitude of maximum electron temperature. Comparisons of the measured altitude and temporal variations of the 6300 Å emission with modelled emission caused by O(1D) excitation from the high energy tail of a Maxwellian electron distribution show significant deviations. The 6300 Å emission from excitation of the high energy tail is about a factor of 4 too large compared with what is observed. This shows that the source of O(1D) excitation is electrons from a ``sub-thermal'' distribution function, i.e. the electron distribution is Maxwellian at low energies and at energies above 1.96 eV there is a depletion.

  5. Mesoscale field-aligned irregularity structures (FAIs) of airglow associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Longchang; Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Wenbin; Yue, Xinan; Yuan, Wei; Ning, Baiqi; Zhang, Donghe; Meneses, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report the evolution (generation, amplification, and dissipation) of optically observed mesoscale field-aligned irregularity structures (FAIs) (~150 km) associated with a medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) event. There have not been observations of mesoscale FAIs of airglow before. The mesoscale FAIs were generated in an airglow-depleted front of southwestward propagating MSTIDs that were simultaneously observed by an all-sky imager, a GPS monitor, and a digisonde around Xinglong (40.4°N, 30.5° magnetic latitude), China, on 17/18 February 2012. A normalized cross-correlation method has been used to obtain the velocities of mesoscale FAIs and MSTIDs. The mesoscale FAIs had an obvious northwestward relative velocity to main-body MSTIDs (about 87.0 m/s on average). The direction of this relative velocity was roughly parallel to the depleted fronts. Furthermore, the evolution of the mesoscale FAIs was mostly controlled by the intensity of the depleted fronts. Occurred in a highly elevated ionosphere that had a total electron content depletion associated with large negative airglow perturbations (-25%), the mesoscale FAIs grew rapidly when they experienced southeastward wind, which had a speed of about 100 m/s and were measured by a Fabry-Perot interferometer. A northeastward polarization electric field within a depleted airglow front can play a controlling role in the development of the mesoscale FAIs. The electric field can significantly elevate the ionosphere and move the mesoscale FAIs northwestward by the E × B drift. The processes for the generation and development of the polarization electric field and the mesoscale FAIs, however, need further study.

  6. Mesospheric airglow and ionospheric responses to upward-propagating acoustic and gravity waves above tropospheric sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    The existence of acoustic waves (periods ~1-5 minutes) and gravity waves (periods >4 minutes) in the ionosphere above active tropospheric convection has been appreciated for more than forty years [e.g., Georges, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 11(3), 1973]. Likewise, gravity waves exhibiting cylindrical symmetry and curvature of phase fronts have been observed via imaging of the mesospheric airglow layers [e.g., Yue et al., JGR, 118(8), 2013], clearly associated with tropospheric convection; gravity wave signatures have also recently been detected above convection in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements [Lay et al., GRL, 40, 2013]. We here investigate the observable features of acoustic waves, and their relationship to upward-propagating gravity waves generated by the same sources, as they arrive in the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI). Numerical simulations using a nonlinear, cylindrically-axisymmetric, compressible atmospheric dynamics model confirm that acoustic waves generated by transient tropospheric sources may produce "concentric ring" signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer that precede the arrival of gravity waves. As amplitudes increase with altitude and decreasing neutral density, the modeled acoustic waves achieve temperature and vertical wind perturbations on the order of ~10s of Kelvin and m/s throughout the E- and F-region. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for low-latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system, we investigate acoustic wave perturbations to the ionosphere in the meridional direction. Resulting perturbations are predicted to be detectable by ground-based radar and GPS TEC measurements, or via in situ instrumentation. Although transient and short-lived, the acoustic waves' airglow and ionospheric signatures are likely to in some cases be observable, and may provide important insight into the regional

  7. Wave-coupling from the troposphere to the mesosphere and thermosphere observed by the Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers (OMTIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Takeo, Daiki; Fujinami, Hatsuki

    2016-07-01

    The airglow emissions from the mesopause region and the thermosphere are very useful to monitor dynamical variations of the neutral and plasma atmosphere in the upper atmosphere. The Optical Mesosphere Thermosphere Imagers (OMTIs) measure two-dimensional pattern, Doppler wind, and temperature through airglow emissions from oxygen (wavelength: 557.7 nm) and OH (near infrared band) in the mesopause region (80-100 km) and from oxygen (630.0 nm) in the thermosphere/ionosphere (200-300 km) at various locations in the world. Station information and quick look plots are available at http://stdb2.stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp/omti/. In this presentation we show recent observations by OMTIs for the vertical coupling of atmospheric gravity waves from the troposphere to the mesopause region and to the thermosphere/ionosphere.

  8. Enhanced Airglow by High Frequency Electromagnetic Pumping of the Ionosphere at Auroral Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyser, T. B.; Gustavsson, B.; Brändström, B. U. E.; Steen, E.; Honary, F.; Rietveld, M. T.; Aso, T.; Ejiri, M.

    2000-10-01

    A powerful high frequency electromagnetic pump wave transmitted into the ionosphere from the ground may enhance the background airglow. The airglow enhancement is due to an increase in the number of electrons having energies which are an order of magnitude higher than the thermal energy in the ionospheric plasma. The energetic electrons collisionally excite, for example, the meta-stable O(1D) state in atomic oxygen, which radiates at 630 nm as the excited oxygen atom relaxes to its ground state. Airglow enhancement is used to study, for example, the dissipation of the pump-driven plasma turbulence by electron energization. We present experimental results of pumping the ionospheric F region with the EISCAT-Heating facility at auroral latitudes in Norway and detection of the airglow with the multi-station Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) in northern Sweden. The experimental results also include simultaneous measurements of background plasma parameter values with the EISCAT-UHF incoherent scatter radar. The multi-station imaging technique enables for the first time tomography-like inversion to estimate the spatial extent of the pumped airglow cloud. Further, the airglow enhancement is correlated with large pump-induced electron temperature enhancements of up to 250

  9. Correlated measurements of mesospheric density and near infrared airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreels, G.; Pautet, D.; Faivre, M.; Keckhut, P.; Hauchecorne, A.

    A program aimed at simultaneously measuring the mesospheric density and the evolution with time of the near IR emission at the mesopause level was initiated in July 2000 and July 2001. The atmospheric density is measured along a vertical line using the Rayleigh scattering lidar located at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP). The near IR emission, mainly due to OH, is measured along a slant path from the Pic de Château-Renard (Hautes-Alpes, altitude 2989 m). The field of view of the CCD camera encompasses an area located vertically above OHP. Rayleigh scattering by air molecules is much less efficient than fluorescence by alkaline atoms. Therefore, the lidar data could only be retrieved with a one-hour time resolution at altitudes of 65, 70, 72.5 and 75 km. The time resolution for the airglow intensity measurement was equal to three minutes. The temporal evolution over the 5-hour duration of the night appears as opposite in the density up to 75 km and in the near IR airglow. The airglow shows around 23h30 a minimum intensity about 28% lower than its maximum value. During the first part of the night the intensity decreases. During the second part, it increases. The increase during the second part cannot be explained by the evolution of the atmospheric chemical system. Given the variation in opposite phases of the air density and of the emission, it is suggested that the near IR airglow is a semi-direct tracer of the density variations at the mesopause level, the air molecules being effective quenchers of the excited OH radicals. The excitation and quenching rates will therefore be discussed. Two short movie films showing the airglow waves coming across the observation field of view will be presented.

  10. Horizontal structure and propagation characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves observed by Antarctic Gravity Wave Imaging/Instrument Network (ANGWIN), using a 3-D spectral analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Takashi S.; Nakamura, Takuji; Murphy, Damian; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy; Zhao, Yucheng; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Imaging/Instrument Network) is an international airglow imager/instrument network in the Antarctic, which commenced observations in 2011. It seeks to reveal characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves, and to study sources, propagation, breaking of the gravity waves over the Antarctic and the effects on general circulation and upper atmosphere. In this study, we compared distributions of horizontal phase velocity of the gravity waves at around 90 km altitude observed in the mesospheric airglow imaging over different locations using our new statistical analysis method of 3-D Fourier transform, developed by Matsuda et al. (2014). Results from the airglow imagers at four stations at Syowa (69S, 40E), Halley (76S, 27W), Davis (69S, 78E) and McMurdo (78S, 156E) out of the ANGWIN imagers have been compared, for the observation period between April 6 and May 21 in 2013. In addition to the horizontal distribution of propagation and phase speed, gravity wave energies have been quantitatively compared, indicating a smaller GW activity in higher latitude stations. We further investigated frequency dependence of gravity wave propagation direction, as well as nightly variation of the gravity wave direction and correlation with the background wind variations. We found that variation of propagation direction is partly due to the effect of background wind in the middle atmosphere, but variation of wave sources could play important role as well. Secondary wave generation is also needed to explain the observed results.

  11. Short period airglow temperature and emission rate oscillations in the high Arctic MLT region during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The airglow is a photochemical glow in the upper atmosphere that occurs in thin layers corresponding to different chemical processes. The O2 Atmospheric airglow layer exists at about 94 km altitude and the hydroxyl layer at about 87 km. The intensity of the light gives information about the concentration of atomic oxygen there, while the shape of the spectrum gives accurate values of the temperature. In this investigation, these are measured above Eureka in the Canadian Arctic (80N, 86W) using an instrument called SATI (Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager). The optical data are employed to characterize short period oscillations in rotational temperatures and integral emission rates of OH (6,2) Meinel and O2 (0,1) Atm. bands during a stratospheric warming event from January 2015. In this presentation, SATI observations coupled with wind radiosonde data at Eureka and the ECMWF model are used to compare the January 2015 warming with the major stratospheric warming event of January 2009, thereby providing a window into high frequency atmospheric wave dynamics at play between altitudes of 20 km - 100 km.

  12. Equatorial Spread F Found in AN Old Airglow Scan Atlas of Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Hong, S.; Weinberg, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    We have searched for F-region ionospheric disturbances in the airglow scan atlas of Dudley observatory. The airglow scan observations were made with narrow band filters of OI 5577 A and OI 6300 A for 164 nights at Haleakala, Maui in the period of April 1965 through October 1968. The OI 6300 emissions are produced mostly via recombination of O2+ in the F-region, whereas the OI 5577 emissions are generated both in the E- and F-regions. The Dudley atlas of the airglow scan has unique significance, since it covers more than three years of observations in 1960's when there was no other program to monitor ionospheric airglows. We find disturbances in the OI airglow brightness, from which we constructed projected maps of airglow distributions at the F-region altitude. The projected maps clearly show wavelike disturbances whose crests are mostly aligned along north-south direction. The disturbances were found exclusively in the southern azimuth (toward the equator), implying that they are one of the equatorial ionospheric irregularities, known as equatorial spread F (ESF). The ESF disturbances occurred 19 nights out of total 164 nights of observations with a maximum in September. The disturbances seem to arise regardless of geomagnetic activities. The seasonal variation of the occurrence is consistent with recent analyses of satellite data in which ESF is suggested to be caused by gravity waves from the troposphere where they are generated by strong convection in inter-tropical convergence zone.

  13. Airglow events visible to the naked eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    During IR photographic airglow observations covering several years, three naked-eye events have been recorded. Two of these are moving luminous acoustic-gravity-wave groups of some 10-15-km wavelength, which occur near high lunar tide in the atmosphere. The events appear quickly, endure 0.5-1 h, then fade. Visible photos of two events appear enhanced, while little enhancement is present in the IR photos, although the structures are well correlated. If these events are due to OH, it is suggested that some unrecognized mechanism, perhaps a gravity wave interaction, enhances the visible transitions of the OH over the IR transitions. If the events are due to an unrecognized continuum emitter, perhaps NO, its emission must occur at the same height as the OH. Spectra seem to be the only reasonable approach to solving this problem.

  14. Implementation of a High-Altitude Balloon Payload to Study Thermospheric Wind Speeds through Redline Airglow Emissions of Atomic Oxygen at 630 nm via a Split-field Etalon Doppler Imager Utilizing a Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, L. B.; Fullmer, R.; Swenson, C.; Marchant, A.; Hooser, P.; Victors, J.; Muchmore, K.; Yin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Little data exists on the wind velocity characteristics of the upper atmosphere. The Red Line Air Glow Experiment is designed to measure the relative density and velocity of the thermosphere at altitudes approximately ranging between 250 and 350 km. To accomplish this, a Split-Field Etalon Imager will make doppler shift interferometry measurements of the oxygen redline at 630 nm wavelength airglow a using a high altitude balloon platform floating at 36 km. The imager collects up to 10 images per hour. Velocity resolution is within a 5 m/s. The Etalon is thermally controlled to within 1 deg C to achieve this goal. The pointing direction of the sensor is determined post-filght using GPS, IMU and three sun imaging sensors. An experimental star camera is included with a potential pointing accuracy of under 5 arc-min. The instrument first flew from Fort Sumner N,M., on August 26, 2014. Due to the short duration (3.5 hours) of the data collection period on this flight, a second flight was requested and awarded, to take place around September 10, 2015. This flight will allow for data collection over a 24 hour period. Both flight results will be included in the final presentation. This project was designed and built by an undergraduate team including students from physics, aerospace, electrical and mechanical engineering and management at both Utah State University and the University of Maryland Eastern Shores as a NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP).

  15. Implementation of a High-Altitude Balloon Payload to Study Thermospheric Wind Speeds through Redline Airglow Emissions of Atomic Oxygen at 630 nm via a Split-field Etalon Doppler Imager Utilizing a Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, L. B.; Hooser, P.; Victors, J.; Muchmore, K.; Yin, L.; Fullmer, R.; Marchant, A.; Mogavero, M.; Dingwell, B.; Tuttle, J.; Swenson, C.; Polidan, J.; English, M.

    2014-12-01

    Little data exists on the wind velocity characteristics of the upper atmosphere. The Red Line Air Glow Experiment is designed to measure the relative density and velocity of the thermosphere at altitudes approximately ranging between 250 and 350 km. To accomplish this, a Split-Field Etalon Imager will make doppler shift interferometry measurements of the oxygen redline at 630 nm wavelength airglow a using a high altitude balloon platform floating at 36 km. The imager collects up to 10 images per hour. Velocity resolution is within a 5 m/s. The Etalon is thermally controlled to within 1 deg C to achieve this goal. The pointing direction of the sensor is determined post-filght using GPS, IMU and three sun imaging sensors. An experimental star camera is included with a potential pointing accuracy of under 5 arc-min. The instrument is currently scheduled for flight from Fort Sumner N,M., on August 15, 2014. Flight results will be included in the final presentation. This project was designed and built by an undergraduate team including students from physics, aerospace, electrical and mechanical engineering and management at both Utah State University and the University of Maryland Eastern Shores as a NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP). .

  16. Vacuum-ultraviolet instrumentation for solar irradiance and thermospheric airglow

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, T.N.; Rottman, G.J. . High Altitude Observatory); Bailey, S.M.; Solomon, S.C. . Lab. for Atmospheric and Space Physics)

    1994-02-01

    A NASA sounding rocket experiment was developed to study the solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiance and its effect on the upper atmosphere. Both the solar flux and the terrestrial molecular nitrogen via the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) region were measured remotely from a sounding rocket on October 27, 1992. The rocket experiments also includes EUV instruments from Boston University, but only the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR)/University of Colorado's (CU) four solar instruments and one airglow instrument are discussed. The primary solar EUV instrument is a 0.25-m Rowland circle EUV spectrograph that has flown on three rockets since 1988 measuring the solar spectral irradiance from 30 to 110 nm with 0.2-nm resolution. Another solar irradiance instrument is an array of six silicon soft x-ray (XUV) photodiodes, each having different metallic filters coated directly on the photodiodes. The other solar irradiance instrument is a silicon avalanche photodiode coupled with pulse height analyzer electronics. The fourth solar instrument is a XUV imager that images the sun at 17.5 nm with a spatial resolution of 20 arc sec. The airglow spectrograph measures the terrestrial FUV airglow emissions along the horizon from 125 to 160 nm with 0.2-nm spectral resolution.

  17. A case study on the possible altitude-dependent effects of collisions on sodium airglow emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkhel, S.; Sekar, R.; Chakrabarty, D.; Sridharan, S.

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous observations of a narrowband sodium (Na) airglow photometer corresponding to the D2 line in conjunction with a Na lidar from Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), India, reveal episodic enhancements in Na airglow intensity during 1930-0142 Indian standard time (IST; IST = UT + 5.5 h) on 18-19 March 2007. This variation is drastically different from the average Na airglow intensity variation for that duration during that month. Interestingly, the Na airglow intensity variation is found to be well correlated with the Na atom concentration variation only at 93.6 km during the period 2312-0142 IST, a period closer to the measurement of mesospheric ozone by the Sounding of Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. Moreover, the correlation coefficient is not significant at 88.5 km, where the Na concentration is maximum. Estimations of the altitude profiles of the volume emission rate of Na airglow corresponding to the D2 line using measured parameters during local postmidnight hours reveal that the peak of volume emission rate is different from 93.6 km. It is suggested that the altitude variation in collisional quenching is needed to match the peak altitude of emission to the altitude where correlation between the Na atom concentration and Na airglow intensity is maximum. The fact that the measured atmospheric pressure reduces by a factor of ˜2.5 as altitude changes from 88.5 to 93.6 km supports this proposition. The case study brings out the sensitivity of Na airglow intensity to the altitude dependence of the collisional quenching that eventually affects Na airglow emission.

  18. The EUV Airglow of Titan: Production and Loss of N2 c'4(0) - X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Michael H.

    2001-01-01

    The N(2) Carroll-Yoshino (CY) c'(4) X (0,0) and (0,1) Rydberg bands between 95 and 99 nm were reported to be the most prominent EUV emission features in Voyager 1 ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) airglow spectra from Titan's atmosphere. Although c'(4) is strongly excited by photoelectron impact, the (0,0) band is optically thick near peak production, so a multiple-scattering model is employed to calculate (0,v) nadir-viewing intensities. The model accounts for all known loss processes and quantifies the redistribution of photons to (0,v is greater than 0). Results show 7.6 R of (0,1) intensity, in agreement with reported observations (5-10 R), and 0.2 R of (0,0), in spectacular disagreement with reported observations (6-10 R). Nadir-viewing intensities of all other expected NI multiplets and N2 bands in the brightest portion of the EUV airglow spectrum (92.0-101.5 nm) are also calculated using photodissociative ionization of N(2) and photoelectron impact on N(2). It is found that NI multiplets and N(2) bands near (0,0) and unresolved by the UVS combine to produce 8.3 R, consistent with that reported for (0,0) and indicating that it was misidentified in previous analyses. The Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on Cassini should unambiguously distinguish any (0,0) intensity from the brightest features nearby.

  19. Moon based global field airglow: For Artemis or any common Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Sprague, A. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.

    1994-06-01

    An inexpensive, small mass, airglow experiment consisting of a suite of airglow detectors is planned for one or more lunar landers. Solid state detectors measuring light through narrow band filters or concave gratings can integrate emissions from lunar atmospheric constituents and store the information for relay to earth when convenient. The proposed instrument is a simplified version of the Shuttle-borne Arizona Imager-Spectrograph. These zenith and near horizon viewing detectors may allow us to monitor fluctuations in atomic species of oxygen, calcium, sodium, potassium, argon, and neon and OH, if present. This choice of observations would monitor outgassing from the interior (Ar), meteoritic dust flux (Na, K) solar wind sputtering (O, Ca), and outgassing from the surface (implanted Ne, Na, K). A global network could be inexpensively deployed aboard landers carrying a variety of other selenographic instrumentation. Powered by solar cells such a field network will return data applicable to a wide variety of interplanetary medium and solar-lunar interaction problems.

  20. Extensive MRO CRISM Observations of 1.27 micron O2 Airglow in Mars Polar Night and Their Comparison to MRO MCS Temperature Profiles and LMD GCM Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Wolff, Michael J.; Smith, Michael Doyle; Lefevre, Franck; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Forget, Francois; Murchie, Scott L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kim D.; Nair, Hari A.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Humm, David; Kass, David M.; Kleinbahl, Armin; Heavens, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The Martian polar night distribution of 1.27 micron (0-0) band emission from O2 singlet delta [O2(1Delta(sub g))] is determined from an extensive set of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectral Mapping (CRISM) limb scans observed over a wide range of Mars seasons, high latitudes, local times, and longitudes between 2009 and 2011. This polar nightglow reflects meridional transport and winter polar descent of atomic oxygen produced from CO2 photodissociation. A distinct peak in 1.27 micron nightglow appears prominently over 70-90NS latitudes at 40-60 km altitudes, as retrieved for over 100 vertical profiles of O2(1Delta(sub g)) 1.27 micron volume emission rates (VER). We also present the first detection of much (x80+/-20) weaker 1.58 micron (0-1) band emission from Mars O2(1Delta(sub g)). Co-located polar night CRISM O2(1Delta(sub g)) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) (McCleese et al., 2008) temperature profiles are compared to the same profiles as simulated by the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) general circulation/photochemical model (e.g., Lefèvre et al., 2004). Both standard and interactive aerosol LMD simulations (Madeleine et al., 2011a) underproduce CRISM O2(1Delta(sub g)) total emission rates by 40%, due to inadequate transport of atomic oxygen to the winter polar emission regions. Incorporation of interactive cloud radiative forcing on the global circulation leads to distinct but insufficient improvements in modeled polar O2(1Delta(sub g)) and temperatures. The observed and modeled anti-correlations between temperatures and 1.27 mm band VER reflect the temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for O2(1Delta(sub g)) formation, as provided in Roble (1995).

  1. Ground-satellite conjugate observations of low-latitude travelling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceren Moral, Aysegul; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Suzuki, Shin; Liu, Huixin; Yatini, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Equatorial travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are studied by using three CHAMP satellite overpasses on ground-based 630-nm airglow images. The airglow images are obtained from Kototabang (KTB), Indonesia (geographic coordinates: 0.2S, 100.3E, geomagnetic latitude: 10.6S). From 7-year data from October 2002 to October 2009, April 30, 2006 (event 1), September 28, 2006 (event 2) and April 12, 2004 (event 3) are the only TID events found in both ground and satellite measurements. They show southward-moving structures in 630-nm airglow images. The events 1 and 2 are single pulse with horizontal scales of ~500-1000 km and event 3 show three wave fronts with horizontal scale sizes of 500-700 km. For events 1 and 3, the neutral density in CHAMP shows out-of-phase variations with the airglow intensity, while event 2 is in-phase. For event 1, the relation between electron density and airglow intensity is out of phase, while relationships of event 2 and 3 are unclear. These unclear relationships suggest that ionospheric plasma variation is not the cause of the TIDs. In the case if gravity waves in the thermosphere is the source of the observed TIDs, in-phase and out-of-phase relationships of neutral density and airglow intensity can be explained by different vertical wavelengths of the gravity wave. We estimate possible vertical wavelengths for those events using observed wave parameters and modeled neutral winds.

  2. Localized polar cap precipitation in association with nonstorm time airglow patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Lyons, Larry R.; Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Although airglow patches are traditionally regarded as high-density ionospheric plasma unrelated to local precipitation, past observations were limited to disturbed conditions. Recent nonstorm time observations show patches to be associated with ionospheric flow channels and localized field-aligned currents. We examine whether nonstorm time patches are related also to polar cap precipitation using Fast Auroral Snapshot-imager conjunctions. We have identified localized precipitation that is enhanced within patches in comparison to the weak polar rain outside patches. The precipitation consists of structured or diffuse soft electron fluxes. While the latter resembles polar rain only with higher fluxes, the former consists of discrete fluxes enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude from several to several hundred eV. Therefore, patches should be regarded as part of a localized magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system along open magnetic field lines and their transpolar evolution as a reflection of mesoscale magnetotail lobe processes. The precipitation a minor contributor to patch ionization.

  3. Infrared imaging-spectroscopic observations of Venus atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Shoko; Sagawa, Hideo; Ueno, Munetaka

    2005-01-01

    We present a report on our recent observations of Venus atmosphere which we have performed in infrared wavelength at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. The data show important results on the CO distribution and on O2 IRA (0,0) 1.27μm airglow in the atmosphere. The infrared windows of the Venusian atmosphere are rather developing areas and will give us important information on the dynamics of Venus atmosphere.

  4. Mesospheric imaging Michelson interferometer instrument development and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, David D.

    This dissertation demonstrated the capability of the Mesospheric Imaging Michelson Interferometer (MIMI) instrument to passively measure wind velocities from Doppler-shifted atmospheric airglow emissions. The work consisted of two parts, (i) laboratory work focused on the measurement of simulated atmospheric winds with both Doppler-shifted visible and near-IR wavelengths and (ii) the development of a field instrument based on a lab prototype to investigate the potential of measuring Mesospheric winds from the ground. The primary component of the MIMI instrument was a custom built Michelson interferometer which was field widened, chromatically compensated, thermally compensated, and monolithic with no moving parts. The Michelson interferometer, used together with a novel four-point wind retrieval algorithm, provides simultaneous emission rate and wind velocity data over a single integration time. Simultaneously measuring the emission rate over the FOV and measuring wind velocity relative to the observer, of an air parcel containing an emitting chemical species, is a unique feature of the MIMI instrument. Eliminating sequential scanning of the Michelson to measure wind velocities (or being able to take a 'snapshot' of the atmosphere) and provide data on the emission rates and wind velocities, renders the instrument insensitive to scene changes over the integration time, which is an advantage over traditional scanning Michelson interferometers. Spectral lines from visible and near-IR sources were Doppler shifted in a controllable procedure to provide known velocities which were compared to the velocities measured by the interferometer. Wind simulations completed in the visible wavelength region retrieved velocities to within a standard deviation of +/-1ms-1. Wind simulations in the near-IR retrieved wind velocities to within a standard deviation of +/-2ms -1. These standard deviations are acceptable when compared to typical Mesospheric winds of 10 to 100ms-1 and when

  5. A Climatology of Ripple Instabilities in the OH Airglow at Cerro Pachon, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Rudy, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Airglow imaging provides a unique means by which to study many wave-related phenomena in the 80 to 100 km altitude regime. Observations reveal quasi-monochromatic disturbances associated with atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) as well as small-scale instabilities often called ripples. Ripples are wavelike features that resemble AGWs in appearance, but have short horizontal wavelengths (<15 km) and short lifetimes (a few tens of minutes). The end product of the breakdown of ripples is turbulence, leading to increased eddy diffusion. Thus, ripple observations may help refine our understanding of the occurrence of turbulence in the upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere. The Aerospace Corporation's Nightglow Imager (ANI) is located at the Andes Lidar Observatory near the crest of Cerro Pachon, Chile. ANI observes nighttime OH emission (near 1.6 microns) every 2 seconds over an approximate 73 degree field of view, which allows the study of AGW and ripple features over very short temporal and spatial scales. An automated wave detection algorithm is used to identify ripple and quasi monochromatic wave features in the ANI data. Ripples are characterized by their wavelength, orientation, drift speed and location in the image. Quasi-monochromatic waves are quantified by wavelength, wave period and propagation direction. We present a climatology of ripple instabilities at Chile, including comparisons to the background quasi-monochromatic wave field. Lidar and radar data are used to determine the background wind and temperatures, which allows comparisons between ripple observations and evanescent regions and potentially unstable regions identified by Richardson number.

  6. Mesospheric sodium airglow emission: Modeling and first results over a mid-latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, Tikemani; Krishna, M. V. Sunil; Singh, Vir

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric sodium plays a very important role in the mesospheric chemistry and dynamics. We have developed a comprehensive model for mesospheric/thermospheric sodium airglow emission by incorporating all the known reaction mechanisms. The latest reaction rate coefficients and the related cross sections are obtained from the theoretical studies and experimental observations. The continuity equations are explicitly solved for the major species. Similarly, the steady-state approximation has been used for the intermediate and short lived minor species. The number densities from in-situ observations, NRLMSISE-00, and IRI-2012 have been successfully implemented to calculate the vertical volume emission rate. The modeled results compared to a good agreement with the measured profiles of Na airglow emission. The mesospheric sodium density shows a large day-to-day variability. The observed variations in the mesospheric sodium layer have been incorporated to obtain the variations in the sodium airglow intensities. The nocturnal variation of sodium airglow emissions are presented over a mid latitude location using this model.

  7. Aurora Australis, Spiked, Sinuous Green Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This distant view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked and sinuous band of green airglow above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  8. Comparison of winds measured by MU radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer and effect of OI5577 airglow height variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Junsuke; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2004-04-01

    We have compared wind velocities around mesopause height measured by the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (meteor mode) and OI (5577) airglow observation by an Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI), at Shigaraki (34.8°N,136.1°E), Japan, on November 13/14, 1999. When we assume the airglow height is constant throughout the night, it was difficult to find a single height exhibiting small r.m.s. differences between the two methods for both eastward and northward wind velocities. However, in the case we introduce a time variation of the airglow height due to a large-scale gravity wave activity, we have found very small r.m.s. wind difference: The assumptions are of the airglow height variation with an amplitude of 1.5km, a period of 5.7h and a linear trend of -0.19km/h having the average height of 92.8km. Further analysis of time and height variations of the winds and diffusion coefficients measured by the MU radar indicated that a gravity wave with a very similar structure predicted in the above comparison between the FPI and meteor winds has been detected as a dominant wave component. Thus, we conclude that the existence of a gravity wave which can change the airglow height will lead to differences in wind velocities observed with FPI and radar techniques.

  9. Berkeley extreme-ultraviolet airglow rocket spectrometer - BEARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, D. M.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV airglow rocket spectrometer (BEARS) instrument is described. The instrument was designed in particular to measure the dominant lines of atomic oxygen in the FUV and EUV dayglow at 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 A, which is the ultimate source of airglow emissions. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument, the detector, electronics, calibration, flight operations, and results are examined.

  10. Functional characteristics of the OGO main body airglow photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I.; Fowler, W. B.; Blamont, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The OGO-4 main body airglow photometer used a trialkali cathode photomultiplier to sense light at selected wavelengths between 2500 and 6300A corresponding to important emissions in the aurora and night airglow at emission rates ranging from a few rayleighs to about 200 kilorayleighs. The optical, electronic, and mechanical systems are described in terms of their functional characteristics.

  11. Twilight Intensity Variation of the Infrared Hydroxyl Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, R. P.; Gilbert, K. L.; Niciejewski, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The vibration rotation bands of the hydroxyl radical are the strongest features in the night airglow and are exceeded in intensity in the dayglow only by the infrared atmospheric bands of oxygen. The variation of intensity during evening twilight is discussed. Using a ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), hydroxyl intensity measurements as early as 3 deg solar depression were made. Models of the twilight behavior show that this should be sufficient to provide measurement of the main portion of the twilight intensity change. The instrument was equipped with a liquid nitrogen-cooled germanium detector whose high sensitivity combined with the efficiency of the FTS technique permits spectra of the region 1.1 to 1.6 microns at high signal-to-noise to be obtained in two minutes. The use of a polarizer at the entrance aperture of the instrument reduces the intensity of scattered sunlight by a factor of at least ten for zenith observations.

  12. Observations of the breakdown of an atmospheric gravity wave near the cold summer mesopause at 54N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, James H.; Fricke-Begemann, Cord; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Höffner, Josef

    2000-03-01

    Recently, it was shown from a single set of airglow/lidar observations in Urbana, Illinois (40N) that some small-scale wave-like structure seen in OH airglow images can be associated with the breakdown, via a convective instability, of an atmospheric gravity wave. A second set of simultaneous airglow/lidar observations, showing wave breakdown, has been obtained over Kühlungsborn, Germany (54N) during a period when noctilucent clouds (NLCs) were also observed. This showed that the wave breakdown process can occur under the same cold, low altitude summer mesopause conditions that support the occurrence of NLCs. This new set of data shows that the first observations were not a unique event, and give credence to the suggestion that some of the small scale structure seen in NLC displays may be due to wave breakdown.

  13. Mars dayside temperature from airglow limb profiles : comparison with in situ measurements and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Jean-Claude; Bougher, Stephen; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Stiepen, A.

    The thermal structure of the Mars upper atmosphere is the result of the thermal balance between heating by EUV solar radiation, infrared heating and cooling, conduction and dynamic influences such as gravity waves, planetary waves, and tides. It has been derived from observations performed from different spacecraft. These include in situ measurements of orbital drag whose strength depends on the local gas density. Atmospheric temperatures were determined from the altitude variation of the density measured in situ by the Viking landers and orbital drag measurements. Another method is based on remote sensing measurements of ultraviolet airglow limb profiles obtained over 40 years ago with spectrometers during the Mariner 6 and 7 flybys and from the Mariner 9 orbiter. Comparisons with model calculations indicate that they both reflect the CO_2 scale height from which atmospheric temperatures have been deduced. Upper atmospheric temperatures varying over the wide range 270-445 K, with a mean value of 325 K were deduced from the topside scale height of the airglow vertical profile. We present an analysis of limb profiles of the CO Cameron (a(3) Pi-X(1) Sigma(+) ) and CO_2(+) doublet (B(2) Sigma_u(+) - X(2) PiΠ_g) airglows observed with the SPICAM instrument on board Mars Express. We show that the temperature in the Mars thermosphere is very variable with a mean value of 270 K, but values ranging between 150 and 400 K have been observed. These values are compared to earlier determinations and model predictions. No clear dependence on solar zenith angle, latitude or season is apparent. Similarly, exospheric variations with F10.7 in the SPICAM airglow dataset are small over the solar minimum to moderate conditions sampled by Mars Express since 2005. We conclude that an unidentified process is the cause of the large observed temperature variability, which dominates the other sources of temperature variations.

  14. Computing uncertainties in ionosphere-airglow models: II. The Martian airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Simon Wedlund, Cyril; Mertens, Christopher J.; Barthélemy, Mathieu; Lillis, Robert J.; Witasse, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    One of the objectives of spectrometers onboard space missions is to retrieve atmospheric parameters (notably density, composition and temperature). To fulfill this objective, comparisons between observations and model results are necessary. Knowledge of these model uncertainties is therefore necessary, although usually not considered, to estimate the accuracy in planetary upper atmosphere remote sensing of these parameters. In Part I of this study, “Computing uncertainties in ionosphere-airglow models: I. Electron flux and species production uncertainties for Mars” (Gronoff et al., 2012), we presented the uncertainties in the production of excited states and ionized species from photon and electron impacts, computed with a Monte-Carlo approach, and we applied this technique to the Martian upper atmosphere. In the present paper, we present the results of propagation of these production errors to the main UV emissions and the study of other sources of uncertainties. As an example, we studied several aspects of the model uncertainties in the thermosphere of Mars, and especially the O(1S) green line (557.7 nm, with its equivalent, the trans-auroral line at 297.2 nm), the Cameron bands CO(a3Π), and CO2+(B2Σu+) doublet emissions. We first show that the excited species at the origin of these emissions are mainly produced by electron and photon impact. We demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the computation time by decoupling the different sources of uncertainties; moreover, we show that emission uncertainties can be large (>30%) because of the strong sensitivity to the production uncertainties. Our study demonstrates that uncertainty calculations are a crucial step prior to performing remote sensing in the atmosphere of Mars and the other planets and can be used as a guide to subsequent adjustments of cross sections based on aeronomical observations. Finally, we compare the simulations with observations from the SPICAM spectrometer on the Mars Express

  15. Measurement of atomic oxygen and related airglows in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Young, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Instruments on board a sounding rocket were used to make simultaneous observations of atomic oxygen density and airglow emissions between 80 and 120 km. Atomic oxygen was measured with a resonance lamp and was found to have a peak density of 6 x 10 to the 11th at 94 km. Similar structure is seen in the oxygen density profile on both uplegs and downlegs. The following airglow emissions were measured by using vertical-viewing photometers: Herzberg I bands near 300 nm; O(1S) green line at 557.7 nm; background at 566 nm; O2(1 Delta g) bands at 1.27 microns; and OH (X 2 pi) Meinel bands near 1.7 microns.

  16. Localized field-aligned currents in the polar cap associated with airglow patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Burchill, Johnathan K.; Knudsen, David J.; Lyons, Larry R.; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Buchert, Stephan; Chen, Steve; Nicolls, Michael J.; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; McWilliams, Kathryn A.; Nishitani, Nozomu

    2016-10-01

    Airglow patches have been recently associated with channels of enhanced antisunward ionospheric flows propagating across the polar cap from the dayside to nightside auroral ovals. However, how these flows maintain their localized nature without diffusing away remains unsolved. We examine whether patches and collocated flows are associated with localized field-aligned currents (FACs) in the polar cap by using coordinated observations of the Swarm spacecraft, a polar cap all-sky imager, and Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars. We commonly (66% of cases) identify substantial FAC enhancements around patches, particularly near the patches' leading edge and center, in contrast to what is seen in the otherwise quiet polar cap. These FACs have densities of 0.1-0.2 μA/m-2 and have a distribution of width peaking at 75 km. They can be approximated as infinite current sheets that are orientated roughly parallel to patches. They usually exhibit a Region 1 sense, i.e., a downward FAC lying eastward of an upward FAC. With the addition of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter radar data, we find that the FACs can close through Pedersen currents in the ionosphere, consistent with the locally enhanced dawn-dusk electric field across the patch. Our results suggest that ionospheric polar cap flow channels are imposed by structures in the magnetospheric lobe via FACs, and thus manifest mesoscale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling embedded in large-scale convection.

  17. HF-enhanced 4278-Å airglow: evidence of accelerated ionosphere electrons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallen, C. T.; Watkins, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    We report calculations from a one-dimensional physics-based self-consistent ionosphere model (SCIM) demonstrating that HF-heating of F-region electrons can produce 4278-Å airglow enhancements comparable in magnitude to those reported during ionosphere HF modification experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory in Alaska. These artificial 'blue-line' emissions, also observed at the EISCAT ionosphere heating facility in Norway, have been attributed to arise solely from additional production of N2+ ions through impact ionization of N2 molecules by HF-accelerated electrons. Each N2+ ion produced by impact ionization or photoionization has a probability of being created in the N2+(1N) excited state, resulting in a blue-line emission from the allowed transition to its ground state. The ionization potential of N2 exceeds 18 eV, so enhanced impact ionization of N2 implies that significant electron acceleration processes occur in the HF-modified ionosphere. Further, because of the fast N2+ emission time, measurements of 4278-Å intensity during ionosphere HF modification experiments at HAARP have also been used to estimate artificial ionization rates. To the best of our knowledge, all observations of HF-enhanced blue-line emissions have been made during twilight conditions when resonant scattering of sunlight by N2+ ions is a significant source of 4278-Å airglow. Our model calculations show that F-region electron heating by powerful O-mode HF waves transmitted from HAARP is sufficient to increase N2+ ion densities above the shadow height through temperature-enhanced ambipolar diffusion and temperature-suppressed ion recombination. Resonant scattering from the modified sunlit region can cause a 10-20 R increase in 4278-Å airglow intensity, comparable in magnitude to artificial emissions measured during ionosphere HF-modification experiments. This thermally-induced artificial 4278-Å aurora occurs independently of any artificial

  18. Hydroxyl airglow on Venus in comparison with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Piccioni, G.; Cardesín Moinelo, A.; Drossart, P.

    2011-08-01

    Hydroxyl nightglow is intensively studied in the Earth atmosphere, due to its coupling to the ozone cycle. Recently, it was detected for the first time also in the Venus atmosphere, thanks to the VIRTIS-Venus Express observations. The main Δ ν=1, 2 emissions in the infrared spectral range, centred, respectively, at 2.81 and 1.46 μm (which correspond to the (1-0) and (2-0) transitions, respectively), were observed in limb geometry ( Piccioni et al., 2008) with a mean emission rate of 880±90 and 100±40 kR (1R=10 6 photon cm -2 s -1 (4 πster) -1), respectively, integrated along the line of sight. In this investigation, the Bates-Nicolet chemical reaction is reported to be the most probable mechanism for OH production on Venus, as in the case of Earth, but HO 2 and O may still be not negligible as mechanism of production for OH, differently than Earth. The nightglow emission from OH provides a method to quantify O 3, HO 2, H and O, and to infer the mechanism of transport of the key species involved in the production. Very recently, an ozone layer was detected in the upper atmosphere of Venus by the SPICAV (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus) instrument onboard Venus Express ( Montmessin et al., 2009); this discovery enhances the importance of ozone to the OH production in the upper atmosphere of Venus through the Bates-Nicolet mechanism. On Venus, OH airglow is observed only in the night side and no evidence has been found whether a similar emission exists also in the day side. On Mars it is expected to exist both on the day and night sides of the planet, because of the presence of ozone, though OH airglow has not yet been detected. In this paper, we review and compare the OH nightglow on Venus and Earth. The case of Mars is also briefly discussed for the sake of completeness. Similarities from a chemical and a dynamical point of view are listed, though visible OH emissions on Earth and IR OH emissions on Venus are

  19. Model observers in medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-10-04

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of implementing these techniques. Finally, we review a few applications of model observers in medical imaging research.

  20. Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  1. Measurements of the Michigan Airglow Observatory from 1971 to 1973 at Ester Dome Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwatters, K. D.; Meriwether, J. W.; Hays, P. B.; Nagy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    The Michigan Airglow Observatory (MAO) was located at Ester Dome Observatory, College, Alaska (latitude: 64 deg 53'N, longitude: 148 deg 03'W) since October, 1971. The MAO houses a 6-inch Fabry-Perot interferometer, a 2-channel monitoring photometer and a 4-channel tilting filter photometer. The Fabry-Perot interferometer was used extensively during the winter observing seasons of 1971-72 and 1972-73 to measure temperature and mass motions of the neutral atmosphere above approximately 90 kilometers altitude. Neutral wind data from the 1971-72 observing season as measured by observing the Doppler shift of the gamma 6300 A atomic oxygen emission line are presented.

  2. Transfer of diffuse astronomical light and airglow in scattering Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. S.; Kwon, S. M.; Park, Y.-S.; Park, C.

    1998-06-01

    To understand an observed distribution of atmospheric diffuse light (ADL) over an entire meridian, we have solved rigorously, with the quasi-diffusion method, the problem of radiative transfer in an anisotropically scattering spherical atmosphere of the earth. In addition to the integrated starlight and the zodiacal light we placed a narrow layer of airglow emission on top of the scattering earth atmosphere. The calculated distribution of the ADL brightness over zenith distance shows good agreement with the observed one. The agreement can be utilized in deriving the zodiacal light brightness at small solar elongations from the night sky brightness observed at large zenith distances.

  3. Observations of the far ultraviolet airflow by the Ultraviolet Limb Imaging experiment on STS-39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Conway, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Limb Imaging (UVLIM) experiment flew on STS-39 in the spring of 1991 to observe the Earth's thermospheric airglow and included a far ultraviolet (1080-1800 A) spectrometer. We present first results from this spectrometer, including a spectroscopic analysis at 6-A resolution of H, O, N, and N2 dayglow emissions and modeling of the observed limb-scan profiles of dayglow emissions. The observed N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) emission reflects a vibrational population distribution in the a(1 Pi)(sub g) state that differs significantly from those predicted for direct electron excitation and excitation with cascade from the a('1 Sigma)(sub u)(-) and w(1 Delta)(sub u) states. The vibrational population distribution and LBH brightness suggest a total cascade rate 45% that of direct excitation, in contrast to laboratory measurements. For the first time, pronounced limb brightening is observed in both the N I lambda 1200 limb emission profiles, as expected for emissions excited by N2 dissociation which produces kinetically fast N fragments; however, optically thick components of these features are also observed. Preliminary modeling of the OI lambda 1356, HI lambda 1216, and OI lambda 1304 and OI lambda 1641 emissions agrees to within roughly 10% of the observed limb-scan profiles, but the models underestimate the N2 LBH profiles by a factor of 1.4-1.6, consistent with the inferred cascade effect. Other findings include: an OI lambda 1152/lambda 1356 intensity ratio that is inconsistent with the large cascade contribution to OI lambda 1356 from np 5P states required by laboratory and nightglow observations; nightglow observations of the tropical ultraviolet arcs exhibit a wide range of OI lambda 1356/lambda 1304 intensity ratios and illustrate the complicated observing geometry and radiative transfer effects that must be modeled; and we find a 3-sigma upper limit of 8.5 R to the total LBH vehicle glow emission.

  4. Productino of KSR-III Airglow Photometers to Measure MUV Airglows of the Upper Atmosphere Above the Korean Peninsular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, T.-H.; Park, K.-C.; Kim, Y.-H.; Yi, Y.; Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    We have constructed two flight models of airglow photometer system (AGP) to be onboard Korea Sounding Rocket-III (KSR-III) for detection of MUV dayglow above the Korean peninsular. The AGP system is designed to detect dayglow emissions of OI 2972 Å, N_2 VK (0,6) 2780Å, N_2 2PG 3150Å and background 3070Å toward the horizon at altitudes between 100 km and 300 km. The AGP system consists of a photometer body, a baffle, an electronic control unit and a battery unit. The MUV dayglow emissions enter through a narrow band interference filter and focusing lens of the photometer, which contains an ultraviolet sensitive photomultiplier tube. The photometer is equipped with an in-flight calibration light source on a circular plane that will rotate at the rocket's apogee. A baffle tube is installed at the entry of the photometer in order to block strong scattering lights from the lower atmosphere. We have carried out laboratory measurements of sensitivity and in-flight calibration light source for the AGP flight models. Although absolute sensitivities of the AGP flight models could not be determined in the country, relative sensitivities among channels are well measured so that observation data during rocket flight in the future can be analyzed with confidence.

  5. Observations of Dynamics in the High Arctic Mesopause Region and Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, William E.; Meek, Chris; Manson, Alan; Hocking, Wayne; Kristoffersen, Samuel; Wu, Qian; Vail, Christopher; Shepherd, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    The Dynamics of the Neutral Thermosphere project is a three site, multiple instrument observatory. The instruments are located in the Canadian Arctic at Resolute Bay (75 N, 95 W), Eureka (80 N, 85 W at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory) and Yellowknife (62 N, 114 W)and include meteor radars, high resolution interferometers, and all sky imagers. Measurements include wind, temperature and airglow irradiance at both sites. Inter-instrument and inter-site comparisons of time series are being undertaken and provide insights into the dynamical processes in the high Arctic mesopause region and thermosphere, and information on the various observing techniques. Differences between the daily wind variations are seen between the mesopause region and thermosphere. Studies are under way, to determine whether common tidal and gravity wave signatures can be observed at both sites and in the mesopause region and thermosphere. Airglow irradiance, winds and temperatures are observed with several different instruments and comparisons between the associated time series are revealing the consequences of the different observing processes. For example, Doppler shift wind measurements in airglow using interferometers are irradiance weighted averages of the wind in each airglow layer whereas the meteor radar provide wind profiles. Comparisons between the winds measured by these techniques do not always agree to the extent expected and detailed examinations of whether weighted averages of the meteor radar winds improve the comparisons are being undertaken. Irradiance time series taken with the all sky imagers, interferometers and a Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI) are being combined to provide more extensive coverage of the mesopause region. This paper will describe the instrument complement and the initial results of these comparisons.

  6. Spaced sensor measurements of artificial airglow emission at 630 nm of ionosphere caused by ``Sura'' facility radiation in November 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, Igor; Grach, Savely; Gumerov, Rustam; Shindin, Alexey; Kogogin, Denis; Dementiev, Vladislav

    Some first results on simultaneous observation artificial airglow emission at 630 nm during HF pumping of the ionosphere by “Sura” facility from two spatial situated experimental sites are reported. The measurements of artificial airglow are usually conducted in red and green lines of atomic oxygen (the radiation of levels O((1) D) and O((1) S) under their excitation by electronic impact) with wave lengths of 630 and 557.7 nm and excitation energy of 1.96 and 4.17 eV accordingly. An enhancement of airglow intensity in the red line is related at present to the electron heating by powerful radio waves. The idea of the experiment was to estimate the heated volume three-dimensional structure and drift motion one. The experiment was carried out in November 2013 at the “Sura” radio facility, situated near Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (geographical coordinates 56.13(o) N, 46.10(o) E, geomagnetic field declination and inclination are ˜ 10.0(o) east and ˜ 71.5(o) , respectively). Conditions of ionosphere were checked by means of "Cady" ionosonde during “Sura” runs. According to the ionospheric conditions, on the 7(th) of November the “Sura” facility operated at frequency 4.540 MHz. At this frequency the effective radiated power was about 120MW. The HF beam width at the “Sura” facility is ˜ 12(o) . A square wave pump modulation of 5 min on, 5 min off, was used. Measurements were carried out in the period from 14:40 to 17:30 UTC. Optical imaging was performed on two spatial experimental sites: “Vasilsursk” (situated about 500 m from antenna system of “Sura” facility); “Raifa” (situated about 170 km from “Sura” facility at the Magnetic Observatory of Kazan Federal University, geographical coordinates 55.93(o) N, 48.75(o) E). They both were fitted out Peltier-cooled front-illuminated bare CCD cameras with 16-bit slow-scan read-out (S1C3). On “Vasilsursk” site the images were binned down to 256× 256 pixels in addition to cooling, in order

  7. Development of low-cost sky-scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers for airglow and auroral studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Oyama, S.; Nozawa, S.; Satoh, M.; Katoh, Y.; Hamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Meriwether, J.

    2012-11-01

    We have developed new Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) that are designed to measure thermospheric winds and temperatures as well as mesospheric winds through the airglow/aurora emissions at wavelengths of 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm, respectively. One FPI (FP01), possessing a large aperture etalon (diameter: 116 mm), was installed at the EISCAT Tromsø site in 2009. The other FPIs, using 70-mm diameter etalons, were installed in Thailand, Indonesia, and Australia in 2010-2011 (FP02-FP04) by the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, and in Peru (Nazca and Jicamarca) and Alaska (Poker Flat) by Clemson University. The FPIs with 70-mm etalons are low-cost compact instruments, suitable for multipoint network observations. All of these FPIs use low-noise cooled-CCD detectors with 1024 × 1024 pixels combined with a 4-stage thermoelectric cooling system that can cool the CCD temperature down to -80°C. The large incident angle (maximum: 1.3°-1.4°) to the etalon achieved by the use of multiple orders increases the throughput of the FPIs. The airglow and aurora observations at Tromsø by FP01 show wind velocities with typical random errors ranging from 2 to 13 m s-1 and from 4 to 27 m s-1 for mesosphere (557.7 nm) and thermosphere (630.0 nm) measurements, respectively. The 630.0-nm airglow observations at Shigaraki, Japan, by FP02-FP04 and by the American FPI instruments give thermospheric wind velocities with typical random errors that vary from 2 m s-1 to more than 50 m s-1 depending on airglow intensity.

  8. Recent upgrade of the MU radar and optical observation in the MLT region over Shigaraki, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Kawahara, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Shiokawa, K.

    The MU radar meteor echo observation has been used to derive precise horizontal wind velocities in the MLT region 80 - 100 km Relative temperature fluctuation can also be derived using ambipolar diffusion coefficient measured by decay time constants of meteor echoes Coordinated optical observations such as all-sky imagers FPI airglow photometers sodium and rayleigh lidars have been carried out in order to study atmospheric waves and dynamics structures of the MLT region Recently a sodium temperature lidar which was operated in Syowa Antarctica was moved to Uji near Shigaraki about 30 km west and started temperature profiling of the MLT region in 2005 The temperature profiles observed with this lidar provides important information of N 2 Buoyancy frequency squared in discussing vertical wave propagation and instability The coordinated observations with the new sodium lidar the MU radar and the airglow imager of OMTI optical mesosphere thermosphere imagers were conducted in October November 2005 Variations of wind temperature and sodium density showed significant effect of atmospheric tides Characteristics and propagations of the waves observed in the airglow imager are discussed using the temperature and wind data from the lidar and the radar We also present the new MU radar capability of ultra-multi channel digital receivers 25 channels and GPS synchronized radar operation which enables multichannel-multistatic meteor radar observations The plan of new meteor observations to derive high resolution horizontal

  9. Aurora Australis, Spiked and Sinuous Red and Green Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights, in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, (location unknown) shows a spiked and sinuous band of red and green airglow above the Earth Limb and a charged plasma glow around the orbiter. Auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  10. Aurora Australis, Spiked and Sinuous Red and Green Airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In This distant view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown), a spiked and sinuous band of red and green airglow above the Earth Limb is highlighted by moonglow. Auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  11. High Resolution Measurements of OH Infrared Airglow Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    and Space Science 19:561-566. Rayleigh , Lord ( Strutt , R.J.). 1931. On a Night Sky of Exceptional Brightness, and on the Distinction between the Polar...Air Force apeito isexpressed toD.DrnBkrfor his excellent direction and guidance. Also appreciation is extended to Dr. Kay Baker, Dr. William Pendleton...decades +rom 1930 to 1970, however, failed to recognize the nature o+ the airglow structure phenomenon. Rayleigh E19313 was among the first 3 to recoq

  12. Tsunami remote sensing from and with satellites: observations and perspectives after Sumatra 2004 and Tohoku 2011.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Makela, Jonathan J.; Astafyeva, Elvira; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Lucie; McCoy, Bob; Hebert, Helene; Coisson, Pierdavide; De Raucourt, Sebastien; Lamouroux, Julien

    2012-07-01

    With various observations following the Sumatra 2004 and Tohoku 2011 tsunamis, space observations have demonstrated their capability for the monitoring of the tsunami propagation in open ocean. Observations are very diverse and based on spaceborn optical high resolution imaging of the tsunami arrival on the coast, on the monitoring by space altimeters of the sea level displacement, but also on the ionospheric perturbation generated by the tsunami, detected by altimeters and GNSS receivers. New ground airglow observations performed in Hawaii for the Tohoku tsunami have furthermore opened new perspectives for real time observations from space, based on visible or UV airglow monitoring. We review the different observations and show that the most interesting perspectives are associated to the ionospheric observations, able to detect very small tsunamis in amplitudes and even to open perspective in the detection of possible slow slip precursors of the giant quakes. We illustrate these observations with transoceanic tsunamis of the last decade (Sumatra, 2004, Kuril, 2006, Samoa, 2009, Chili, 2010, Tohoku, 2011) and present the coupling mechanisms responsible for these observations. A special focus is given on the observations and modeling performed during the Tohoku 2011 tsunami, with observations from GPS ionospheric sounding over Japan and further in the Pacific ocean, with joint observation from GPS, Jason and airglow. We show that the first ionospheric signals generated by the rupture have been not only observed about 17 minutes before the arrival of the tsunami on the japanese east-coast, but also that a precursor signal has been generated before the earthquake, likely associated with a slow slip event which has triggered the giant earthquake. We also show that the ionospheric monitoring has been able to follow and image the propagation of the tsunami. We finally present the perspectives and focus on two different approaches and associated projects aiming to monitor

  13. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrichs, E. E.; Jaeger, H. M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Knight, James B.; Kuperman, Vadim Yu.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    1995-03-01

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

  14. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrichs, E.E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Knight, J.B.; Nagel, S.R.; Karczmar, G.S.; Kuperman, V.Yu.

    1995-03-17

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  15. First Light from Triple-Etalon Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Atmospheric OI Airglow (6300 A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watchorn, S.; Noto, J.; Pedersen, T.; Betremieux, Y.; Migliozzi, M.; Kerr, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Scientific Solutions, Inc. (SSI) has developed a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) to observe neutral winds in the ionosphere by measuring neutral oxygen (O I) emission at 630.0 nm during the day. This instrument is to be deployed in the SSI airglow building at the Cerro Tololo observatory (30.17S 70.81W) in Chile, in support of the Comm/Nav Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) project. Post-deployment observation will be made in conjunction with two other Clemson University Fabry-Perots in Peru, creating a longitudinal chain of interferometers for thermospheric observations. These instruments will make autonomous day and night observations of thermospheric dynamics. Instruments of this type can be constructed for a global chain of autonomous airglow observatories. The FPI presented in this talk consists of three independently pressure-controlled etalons, fed collimated light by a front optical train headed by an all-sky lens with a 160-degree field of view. It can be controlled remotely via a web-based service which allows any internet-connected computer to mimic the control computer at the instrument site. In fall 2005, the SSI system was first assembled at the Millstone Hill Observatory in Westford, Massachusetts, and made day and evening observations. It was then moved to the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) site in Gakona, Alaska, to participate in joint optical/ionospheric heating campaigns. Additionally, natural airglow observations were made, both locally and remotely via the internet from Massachusetts. The Millstone and HAARP observations with two etalons yielded strong 630-nm atmospheric Fraunhofer absorption lines, with some suggestion of the Ring effect. By modeling the atmospheric absorption line as the constant times the corresponding solar absorption -- itself modeled as a Gaussian plus a polynomial -- the absorption feature is subtracted, leaving only the emission feature. Software ring-summing tools developed at the

  16. Imaging radar observations of Askja Caldera, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.; Evans, D.; Elachi, C.

    1978-01-01

    A 'blind' test involving interpretation of computer-enhanced like- and cross-polarized radar images is used to evaluate the surface roughness of Askja Caldera, a large volcanic complex in central Iceland. The 'blind' test differs from earlier analyses of radar observations in that computer-processes images and both qualitative and quantitative analyses are used. Attention is given to photogeologic examination and subsequent survey-type field observations, along with aerial photography during the field trip. The results indicate that the 'blind' test of radar interpretation of the Askja volcanic area can be considered suitable within the framework of limitations of radar data considered explicitly from the onset. The limitations of the radar techniques can be eliminated by using oblique-viewing conditions to remove geometric distortions and slope effects.

  17. Observing the magnetosphere through global auroral imaging: 2. Observing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Stephen B.

    2016-10-01

    In a companion paper four auroral regions were identified. The source of the first three regions is the plasma sheet, whereas the source of the fourth, the region of Alfvenic auroras, is the ionosphere. It is a primary goal of global auroral imaging to identify these source regions. Space-based imaging can be used to obtain ion and electron, mean energy, and energy flux as a basis for such identification. Measurement of direct emission from precipitating ions or their charge exchange products can be used to determine the ion precipitation characteristics. For electrons, it is necessary to use the atmosphere as a spectrometer. Total precipitated energy can be derived from the luminosity of spectral features where the production cross sections are known. The mean energy of precipitation is inferred from the luminosity height profile deduced from (1) collisional quenching of long lifetime emitters, (2) atmospheric composition, (3) degree of O2 absorption in the UV, or (4) the local atmospheric neutral temperature. There are fundamental advantages in viewing the aurora from space; for example, auroras can be observed in the far ultraviolet range where daylight contamination is much less severe. The various approaches to spaceborne auroral imaging depend on the wavelength selection requirements. UV interferometers show promise of improved light collection efficiency and higher spectral resolution.

  18. Investigation of the night sky airglow near the epicenter of the earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didebulidze, G. G.; Fishkova, L. M.; Pataraya, A. D.; Toroshelidze, T. I.

    1990-08-01

    Some peculiarities of the upper atmosphere airglow variations according to Abastumani (USSR) observations before and after earthquakes (EQs) near the region of a major shock are given. It is shown that peculiarities of the night intensity variation of atomic oxygen OI 557.7 nm and OI 630 nm lines depend both on the EQ amplitude and region of observations. It is assumed that the reason for such variations is dissipation and dissociation of acoustic-gravitational waves in the middle and upper atmosphere, that in its turn is caused by soil shifting and lava like growth of fractures and spalling of rocks. Or the reason may consist in the periodic amplitude modulation of the high frequency seismic noise on a vast area around the center of a next arterial fracture due to an increasing tension. Based on the example of observations after the Spitak (USSR) EQ, the possibility of wind generation after the major shock is indicated.

  19. Large storms: Airglow and related measurements. VLF observations, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The data presented show the typical values and range of ionospheric and magnetospheric characteristics, as viewed from 1400 km with the ISIS 2 instruments. The definition of each data set depends partly on geophysical parameters and partly on satellite operating mode. Preceding the data set is a description of the organizational parameters and a review of the objectives and general characteristics of the data set. The data are shown as a selection from 12 different data formats. Each data set has a different selection of formats, but uniformity of a given format selection is preserved throughout each data set. Each data set consists of a selected number of passes, each comprising a format combination that is most appropriae for the particular data set. Description of ISIS 2 instruments are provided.

  20. Seasonal variations of the nighttime O(1S) and OH (8-3) airglow intensity at Adelaide, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Iain M.; Spargo, Andrew J.; Woithe, Jonathan M.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze 15 years of atomic oxygen (OI) 558 nm and hydroxyl (OH) (8-3) 730 nm nightglow emission intensities from heights near 96 and 87 km, respectively, measured using filter photometers at the Buckland Park Field Station (34.6°S, 138.6°E) near Adelaide, Australia. The intensity of both emissions exhibits clear seasonal and interannual periodicities, with annual, semiannual, and quasi-biennial oscillations, as well as a solar cycle influence. In addition, there is a terannual and 4.1 year component in the OI airglow intensity and both a quasi-biennial and quasi-triennial oscillation in the OH intensity. The results are in very good agreement with simultaneous collocated measurements made with an imager, and with global satellite climatologies of OI and OH intensities reported for the Wind Imaging Interferometer instrument. The mean value of the OI annual oscillation intensity is the same as that of the semiannual oscillation at this location to within the experimental uncertainty. The OI annual oscillation maximizes in summer, and the semiannual oscillation maximizes in autumn and spring, with the largest maximum in autumn. The terannual component in the OI nightglow maximizes in early summer, autumn, and spring. The quasi-biennial oscillation in the OI nightglow takes its first maximum value in autumn 1996, and the 4.1 year period in this emission first maximizes in summer 1998. The OH annual and semiannual oscillation intensities also agree to within the experimental uncertainties and are observed to peak in early winter. The quasi-biennial and quasi-triennial oscillations in this emission take their first maximum value in summer 1996.

  1. Observing the magnetosphere through global auroral imaging: 1. Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Stephen B.

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, it has become clear that there are fundamental limitations in observing magnetospheric processes through their auroral footprints. Most electron auroras are formed in the auroral acceleration region relatively close to the Earth at altitudes (<2 RE). There are four distinct auroral types: (1) downward field-aligned current (FAC) regions where ion precipitation is dominant, (2) pitch angle diffusion aurora (or briefly "diffusion aurora") region without significant FAC, (3) upward FAC regions of precipitating electrons and monoenergetic auroral arc formations, and (4) Alfvénic auroral regions, where low-energy electrons from the ionosphere are accelerated by incoming Alfvén waves. Alfvénic auroras are the footprints of magnetospheric regions where waves are produced by dynamic events such as reconnection, substorm onset initiation, and magnetic field dipolarization. Based on the mean energy and density of the precipitating electrons, ground-based and spacecraft-based optical observations can be used to distinguish between auroras where the source is the plasma sheet (types 1, 2, and 3) and Alfvénic auroras, where the source is the ionosphere (type 4). Imaging of the Alfvénic auroral region could be used to map the dynamically active regions of the magnetosphere. The energy distribution of the most significant precipitating ions, protons, can be measured from the Doppler profile of the hydrogen emission lines. Mapping of the time dependent global energy distribution of proton precipitation would allow the observation of the associated magnetospheric boundaries.

  2. Post sunset behavior of the 6300 A atomic oxygen airglow emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical model of the 6300 A OI airglow emission was developed based on the assumptions that both the charged and neutral portions of the Earth's upper atmosphere are in steady state conditions of diffusive equilibrium. Intensities of 6300 A OI emission line were calculated using electron density true height profiles from a standard C-4 ionosonde and exospheric temperatures derived from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the Doppler broadened 6300 A emission line shape as inputs to the model. Reaction rate coefficient values, production mechanism efficiencies, solar radiation fluxes, absorption cross sections, and models of the neutral atmosphere were varied parametrically to establish a set of acceptable inputs which will consistently predict 6300 A emission intensities that closely agree with intensities observed during the post-sunset twilight period by an airglow observatory consisting of a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a turret photometer. Emission intensities that can only result from the dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions were observed during the latter portion of the observational period. Theoretical calculations indicate that contamination of the 6300 A OI emission should be on the order of or less than 3 percent; however, these results are very sensitive to the wavelengths of the individual lines and their intensities relative to the 6300 A OI intensity. This combination of a model atmosphere, production mechanism efficiencies, and quenching coefficient values was used when the dissociative photoexcitation and direct impact excitation processes were contributing to the intensity to establish best estimates of solar radiation fluxes in the Schumann--Runge continuum and associated absorption cross sections. Results show that the Jacchia 1971 model of the upper atmosphere combined with the Ackerman recommended solar radiation fluxes and associated absorption cross sections produces theoretically calculated intensities that more

  3. An image stabilization system for solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, R.; Raja Bayanna, A.; Louis, Rohan Eugene; Kumar, Brajesh; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2007-09-01

    An image stabilization system has been developed and demonstrated for solar observations in the visible wave-length at Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) with a 15 cm Coudé-refractor. The softwa4re and hardware components of the system are similar to that of the low cost solar adaptive optics system developed for the 1.5 m McMath-Pierce solar telescope at Kitt Peak observatory for solar observations in the infrared. The first results presented. The system has a closed loop correction bandwidth in the range of 70 to 100 Hz. The root mean by a factor of 10 to 20. The software developes and key issues concerning optimum system performance have been addressed.

  4. Global temperature distributions from OGO-6 6300 A airglow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamont, J. E.; Luton, J. M.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The OGO-6 6300 A airglow temperature measurements have been used to develop models of the global temperature distributions under solstice and equinox conditions for the altitude region from 240 to 300 km and for times ranging from dawn in this altitude region to shortly after sunset. The distributions are compared with models derived from satellite orbital decay and incoherent scatter sounding. The seasonal variation of the temperature as a function of latitude is shown to be very different from that derived from static diffusion models with constant boundary conditions.

  5. HF-Induced Airglow at Magnetic Zenith: Theoretical Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    7.8 MHz. Significantly, green -to-red ratios fgr >0.3 are often ob- For a heater ERP Po= 150 MW and distance R=250 kin, served. Gustavsson et al...and 145.15’W) show that the HF-induced airglow maximizes 557.7nm ( green line) during HF modification experiments during injections toward magnetic...1989; Pedersen and injected frequency f0. Here, Oc=arcsin( fsinx), f, is Carlson, 2001; Gustavsson et al., 2001, 2002; Kosch et al., the electron

  6. Computing uncertainties in ionosphere-airglow models: I. Electron flux and species production uncertainties for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Simon Wedlund, Cyril; Mertens, Christopher J.; Lillis, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    The ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules in the upper atmospheres of the Earth and planets are computed by a number of physical models. From these calculations, quantities measurable by dedicated satellite experiments such as airglow and electron fluxes can be derived. It is then possible to compare model and observation to derive more fundamental physical properties of the upper atmospheres, for example, the density as a function of altitude. To ensure the accuracy of these retrieval techniques, it is important to have an estimation of the uncertainty of these models and to have ways to account for these uncertainties. The complexity of kinetic models for computing the secondary production of excited state species (including ions) makes it a difficult evaluation, and studies usually neglect or underestimate it. We present here a Monte-Carlo approach to the computation of model uncertainties. As an example, we studied several aspects of the model uncertainties in the upper atmosphere of Mars, including the computed secondary electron flux and the production of the main ion species. Our simulations show the importance of improving solar flux models, especially on the energy binning and on the photon impact cross sections, which are the main sources of uncertainties on the dayside. The risk of modifying cross sections on the basis of aeronomical observations is highlighted for the case of Mars, while accurate uncertainties are shown to be crucial for the interpretation of data from the particle detectors onboard Mars Global Surveyor. Finally, it shows the importance of AtMoCiad, a public database dedicated to the evaluation of aeronomy cross section uncertainties. A detailed study of the resulting emissions cross sections uncertainties is the focus of a forthcoming paper (Gronoff et al., 2012) in which the outputs discussed in the present paper are used to compute airglow uncertainty, and the overall result is compared with the data from the SPICAM UV

  7. Bayesian Analysis Of HMI Solar Image Observables And Comparison To TSI Variations And MWO Image Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have previously applied the Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass to solar magnetogram and intensity images from the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to identify classes of solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, modeled TSI time series with improved accuracy (r > 0.96). (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass identifies classes by a two-step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images capture four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two observables-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI observables for images from May, 2010 to June, 2014 to identify solar surface feature classes. We use contemporaneous TSI measurements to determine whether and how variations in the HMI classes are related to TSI variations and compare the characteristic statistics of the HMI classes to those found from MWO images. We also attempt to derive scale factors between the HMI and MWO magnetic and intensity observables. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and

  8. Observing the magnetosphere through auroral imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Although the terrestrial aurora is often regarded as 2 dimensional projection of the 3 dimensional magnetosphere there are fundamental limitations in observing magnetospheric processes through their auroral footprints. It has been shown that most electron auroras are produced in the auroral acceleration region at lower altitudes (<2Re) in the last steps of processing the auroral particles. From FAST, IMAGE , Cluster and THEMIS data we can distinguish between four fundamentally different types of auroral acceleration regions. A primary task is to distinguish (1) the upward current, (2) downward current, (3) diffuse aurora and (4) Alfven wave accelerated types of auroral acceleration regions. Type (1) contains the "inverted V" type electron precipitation distinguishable by several keV mono-energetic electron spectra, and low number flux consistent with the source population in the plasma sheet. Our understanding of how these auroras relate to magnetospheric processes is still vague, probably associated with convection sheer. Alfven wave electron auroras (4) are of low average energy (<2 keV) high electron flux consistent with ionospheric electron source predominantly occurring during substorms, and they are generated by wave energy carried from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere, where it is converted into electron energy. These are most promising candidates for observing the footprints of source regions associated with reconnection sites or magnetospheric dB/dt events. Optical measuring techniques of electron energy use the atmosphere as a spectrometer, obtaining the penetration altitude as a proxy for energy, that can be obtained from atmospheric composition, quenching lifetime of the emitters, UV absorption pass-length of O2 to the source or the local atmospheric temperature. Precipitating protons are usually an order of magnitude more energetic and less affected by fields in the low altitude auroral acceleration region. Energetic proton precipitation is a more

  9. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  10. Multi-Instrument Observations of an MSTID over Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J. H.; Seker, I.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.; Fung, S. F.; Mathews, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    The Penn State All-Sky Imager (PSASI) at Arecibo Observatory provides planar horizontal context to the vertical ionospheric profiles obtained by the Incoherent Seatter Radar (TSR). Electric field measurements from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite are mapped down geomagnetic field lines to the height of the airglow layer; allowing multi-instrument studies of field-aligned irregularities with radar, imager, and satellite. A Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (MSTID) was observed during such a conjunction near the December solstice of 2009.

  11. Degradation of near infrared and shortwave infrared imager performance due to atmospheric scattering of diffuse night illumination.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Richard

    2013-07-20

    On moonless nights, airglow is the primary source of natural ground illumination in the near infrared and shortwave infrared spectral bands. Therefore, night vision imagers operating in these spectral bands view targets that are diffusely illuminated. Aerosol scattering of diffuse airglow illumination causes atmospheric path radiance and that radiance causes increased imager noise. These phenomena and their quantification are described in this paper.

  12. Calibration of the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Siegmund, Oswald

    1989-01-01

    The Berkeley Extreme-ultraviolet Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS), a multiinstrument sounding rocket payload, made comprehensive measurements of the earth's dayglow. The primary instruments consisted of two near-normal Rowland mount spectrometers: one channel to measure several atomic oxygen features at high spectral resolution (about 1.5 A) in the band passes 980-1040 and 1300-1360 A, and the other to measure EUV dayglow and the solar EUV simultaneously in a much broader bandpass (250-1150 A) at moderate resolution (about 10 A). The payload also included a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and goecoronal emissions. The instrument was calibrated at the EUV calibration facility at the University of California at Berkeley, and was subsequently launched successfully on September 30, 1988 aboard a four-stage experimental sounding rocket, Black Brant XII flight 12.041 WT. The calibration procedure and resulting data are presented.

  13. Initial results of VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-Chain) over Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    Whistler-mode waves in the VLF/ELF frequency range interact with high-energy (~10 keV) electrons to cause diffuse and pulsating auroras, and with MeV electrons in the radiation belts. However, simultaneous high-time resolution measurements of aurora and these waves have previously not been done sufficiently. We made a campaign observation of such high-time resolution measurements at Athabasca (54.72N, 246.69E, MLAT=61.3) and Fort Vermillion (58.38N, 243.99E, MLAT=64.5) using two loop antennas and several auroral cameras for February 16-26, 2012. The loop antennas at both stations measure east-west and north-south magnetic field variations with a sampling rate of 100 kHz. The panchromatic all-sky cameras at both stations measure auroras with a sampling rate of 30 Hz. The sampling timings of both instruments are corrected by GPS receivers. In addition we installed an oblique looking narrow-FoV EMCCD camera at Athabasca with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, to measure height variation of pulsating aurora. At Athabasca, routine measurements by an induction magnetometer, a proton photometer, an all-sky airglow imager, LF standard wave receiver, were also carried out. We also tried to compare these observations with satellite measurements by REIMEI, THEMIS, NOAA, and DMSP. In this presentation we will show initial results obtained from this comprehensive campaign of aurora and radio wave measurements at subauroral latitudes.

  14. Upper atmospheric processes as measured by collocated Lidar, infrasound, radiometer and airglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.; Assink, J. D.; Ceranna, L.; Pilger, C.; Ross, O.; Keckhut, P.; Hauchecorne, A.; Schmidt, C.; Bittner, M.; Wuest, S.; Rüfenacht, R.; Kaempfer, N.; Smets, P.

    2013-12-01

    To better initialize weather forecasting systems, a key challenge is to understand stratosphere-resolving climate models. The ARISE project (http://arise-project.eu/) aims to design a novel infrastructure integrating different atmospheric observation networks to accurately recover the vertical structure of the wind and temperature from the ground to the mesosphere. This network includes Lidar and mesospheric airglow observations, complemented by continuous infrasound measurements. Together with additional ground-based wind radar system, such complementary techniques help to better describe the interaction between atmospheric layers from the ground to the mesosphere and the influence of large scale waves on the atmospheric dynamics. Systematic comparisons between these observations and the ECMWF upper wind and temperature models (http://www.ecmwf.int/) have been performed at the OHP site (Haute-Provence Observatory, France). The main results are outlined below. - Systematic comparisons between Lidar soundings (NDACC, http://ndacc-lidar.org/) and ECMWF highlight differences increasing with altitude. Below 50 km altitude, differences are as large as 20°K. In average, the temperature appears to be overestimated by ~5 m/s in the stratosphere and underestimated by ~10 m/s in the mesopause. - Comparisons with collocated infrasound measurements provide additional useful integrated information about the structure of the stratospheric waveguide. Below 0.5 Hz, most infrasound signals originate from ocean swells in the North Atlantic region. As expected, since most long-range propagating signals travel in the stratospheric waveguide, improved detection capability occurs downwind. Deviations from this trend are either related to short time-scale variability of the atmosphere (e.g., large-scale planetary waves, stratospheric warming effects), or can be explained by changes in the nature of the source. We investigate possible correlation between unexpected propagation paths and

  15. Spatial and Temporal Stability of Airglow Measured in the Meinel Band Window at 1191.3 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hien T.; Zemcov, Michael; Battle, John; Bock, James J.; Hristov, Viktor; Korngut, Phillip; Meek, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    We report on the temporal and spatial fluctuations in the atmospheric brightness in the narrow band between Meinel emission lines at 1191.3 nm using a λ/Δλ = 320 near-infrared instrument. We present the instrument design and implementation, followed by a detailed analysis of data taken over the course of a night from Table Mountain Observatory. At low airmasses, the absolute sky brightness at this wavelength is found to be 5330 ± 30 nW m-2 sr-1, consistent with previous measurements of the inter-band airglow at these wavelengths. This amplitude is larger than simple models of the continuum component of the airglow emission at these wavelengths, confirming that an extra emissive or scattering component is required to explain the observations. We perform a detailed investigation of the noise properties of the data and find no evidence for a noise component associated with temporal instability in the inter-line continuum. This result demonstrates that in several hours of ˜100 s integrations the noise performance of the instrument does not appear to significantly degrade from expectations, giving a proof of concept that near-infrared line intensity mapping may be feasible from ground-based sites.

  16. Sprite Imaging Results from the ROCSAT2 ISUAL Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, S.; Frey, H.; Hsu, R.; Su, H.; Chen, A.; Lee, L.; Fukunishi, H.; Takahashi, Y.

    2004-12-01

    For the systematic observations of Transient Luminous Events (TLE-s, sprites, elve-s, blue jets etc.) and the study of their global distribution, a satellite based camera was launched as part of the "Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning" (ISUAL) instrument on the Taiwanese ROCSAT 2 satellite. In addition to being a high quality imager of TLE-s the camera is suitable for the observation of aurora and airglow. The imager is bore-sighted with two photometers and the combined instrument package images the atmospheric phenomena and measures their spectral and rapid temporal properties. The imager has a field of view of 20 degrees horizontal and 5 degrees vertical covering a region that is approximately 1000 x 250 km at the earth limb. The view direction is perpendicular to the orbital plane. The imager carries a filter wheel and it can be operated in a number of wavelength regions uninhibited by atmospheric absorption. The spectral ranges are: 427.8 nm for the detection of energetic electron induced phenomena in TLE-s (e.g. blue jets) and aurora, 557.7 nm for the observation of aurora and airglow, 630 nm for the observation of ionospheric irregularities and aurora, wide red/IR N2 1st positive band region for the quantitative observation of sprites and elve-s and 762 nm for the observation of the airglow and especially gravity wave modulated intensity fluctuations. This filter is also effective in suppressing the low altitude part of TLE-s because of the atmospheric O2 absorption. Numerous examples of elve-s were observed both in the N2 1st positive and the 762 nm filter bands. The nicest data on fully developed sprites was obtained in the N2 1st positive band. High intensity gravity waves were seen in the 762 nm band. Examples of various kinds of TLE-s, aurora and airglow that were observed by the imager illustrate its wide variety of application in aeronomy research.

  17. The BAA Observers' Workshops: Imaging comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, M. P.

    2003-10-01

    Imaging comets, especially from the UK, used to be nothing less than a battle against the insensitivity of photographic film and the inevitable arrival of cloud on those crucial moon-free nights when a bright comet was close to perihelion. In recent years the situation has changed considerably. On the positive side modern CCDs are twenty times more light-sensitive than the best photographic emulsions, and image processing is far easier than messing around for hours with revolting chemicals in a darkroom. On the negative side the modern lives of working people leave little room for learning new skills and the stress of the modern working day leaves little enthusiasm for a night-time battle with clouds and unfriendly equipment. This author firmly believes that well-thought-out observatories and patient perseverance are the key to achieving success where imaging comets is concerned. Basically, anyone who has learned to use a computer can learn to take good comet images; it is all a question of surmounting the various hurdles in a systematic fashion.

  18. Imaging artificial satellites: An observational challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Hill, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, as of the beginning of 2016 there are 1381 active satellites orbiting the Earth, and the United States' Space Surveillance Network tracks about 8000 manmade orbiting objects of baseball-size and larger. NASA estimates debris larger than 1 cm to number more than half a million. The largest ones can be seen by eye—unresolved dots of light that move across the sky in minutes. For most astrophotographers, satellites are annoying streaks that can ruin hours of work. However, capturing a resolved image of an artificial satellite can pose an interesting challenge for a student, and such a project can provide connections between objects in the sky and commercial and political activities here on Earth.

  19. An Amateur's Guide to Observing and Imaging the Heavens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, Ian

    2014-06-01

    Foreword; Acknowledgments; Prologue: a tale of two scopes; 1. Telescope and observing fundamentals; 2. Refractors; 3. Binoculars and spotting scopes; 4. The Newtonian telescope and its derivatives; 5. The Cassegrain telescope and its derivatives - Schmidt-Cassegrains and Maksutovs; 6. Telescope maintenance, collimation and star testing; 7. Telescope accessories: finders, eyepieces and bino-viewers; 8. Telescope mounts: alt/az and equatorial with their computerised variants; 9. The art of visual observing; 10. Visual observations of the Moon and planets; 11. Imaging the Moon and planets with DSLRs and web-cams; 12. Observing and imaging the Sun in white light and H-alpha; 13. Observing with an astro-video camera to 'see' faint objects; 14. Deep sky imaging with standard and H-alpha modified DSLR cameras; 15. Deep sky imaging with cooled CCD cameras; 16. Auto-guiding techniques and equipment; 17. Spectral studies of the Sun, stars and galaxies; 18. Improving and enhancing images in Photoshop; Index.

  20. A new Speckle Imager and speckle observations at SHAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuanyuan; Li, Kexin; Chen, Zhendong

    2015-08-01

    Speckle interferometry is achieved by the integration of a series of short-exposure images of the object. It has been the method of choice for high-resolution observations of binary stars. It has yielded thousands of excellent angular separations and position angles. This technique can easily be actualized because it doesn’t need exploration and revision system for wavefront. So it is widely used in observational astronomy, especially for observing binary stars. Recently, the research shows that it also can provide high-resolution satellite image.Speckle imaging of binary stars carried out by the research team of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) from 2006, and we have got some valuable results. With the increasing urbanization, the night sky background getting brighter at Sheshan area, the former speckle imager can't meet the needs of the observation experiment. In the years 2013-2014, a new speckle imager was developed at SHAO, we called it as NSIS. It is a speckle imaging system that use Ultra897 EMCCD as the image recording device. Short exposure images are recorded by this device at a 1.56-m telescope. Collimating lens and imaging lens are adopted for magnification, and the space between two lens can be changed which is set for the filter and Risley prisms or other future use. Construction of NSIS has been completed at SHAO, and more than twenty binary stars were observed in 2014. The results shows that the detection capability of the new imager is stronger than the original one. At present, the magnitude of the faintest star we observed is 7.67. In the future, we will observe more binary stars fainter than 8.In this paper, we will give the description of system design and the observations of binary stars. , The image reconstruction and initial results will be presented too.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Images from the Thermospheric Temperature Image on Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Marcello; Jones, Sarah; Mentzell, Eric; Gill, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    The Thermospheric Temperature Imager (TTI) on Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) measures the upper atmospheric atomic oxygen emission at 135.6 nm and the molecular nitrogen LBH emission at 135.4 nm to determine the atmospheric O/N2 density ratio. Observations of variations in this thermospheric ratio correspond to electron density variations in the ionosphere. The TTI design makes use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to measure Doppler widened atmospheric emissions to determine neutral atmospheric temperature from low Earth orbit. FASTSAT launched November 10, 2010 and TTI is currently observing geomagnetic signatures in the aurora and airglow. This work is supported by NASA.

  2. Observational and Modeling Study of Mesopheric Bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughmiller, P.; Kelley, M.; Hickey, M.

    In our studies of the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, some of the most intriguing mesospheric phenomena we observe high over the Hawaiian night skies are internal bores. These events affecting chemiluminescence are documented in monochromatic airglow images taken by high performance all-sky CCD imaging systems operating at the Maui Space Surveillance Site on top of Haleakala Crater. Data is collected as part of the ongoing, collaborative Maui - Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MALT) campaign, jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Bolstered by the Maui-MALT dataset, several theories now exist for mesospheric bores, agreeing in principle that they are likely nonlinear structures spawned by gravity waves and propagating within ducted waveguide regions, such as thermal inversion layers. A new investigation will model optical emissions using a robust, time-dependent, chemical dynamics model to explore the airglow response to ducted gravity waves and, in turn, the geographical and vertical coupling relationships which may exist.

  3. Numerical modeling of a multiscale gravity wave event and its airglow signatures over Mount Cook, New Zealand, during the DEEPWAVE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heale, C. J.; Bossert, K.; Snively, J. B.; Fritts, D. C.; Pautet, P.-D.; Taylor, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    A 2-D nonlinear compressible model is used to simulate a large-amplitude, multiscale mountain wave event over Mount Cook, NZ, observed as part of the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) campaign and to investigate its observable signatures in the hydroxyl (OH) layer. The campaign observed the presence of a λx=200 km mountain wave as part of the 22nd research flight with amplitudes of >20 K in the upper stratosphere that decayed rapidly at airglow heights. Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) showed the presence of small-scale (25-28 km) waves within the warm phase of the large mountain wave. The simulation results show rapid breaking above 70 km altitude, with the preferential formation of almost-stationary vortical instabilities within the warm phase front of the mountain wave. An OH airglow model is used to identify the presence of small-scale wave-like structures generated in situ by the breaking of the mountain wave that are consistent with those seen in the observations. While it is easy to interpret these feature as waves in OH airglow data, a considerable fraction of the features are in fact instabilities and vortex structures. Simulations suggest that a combination of a large westward perturbation velocity and shear, in combination with strong perturbation temperature gradients, causes both dynamic and convective instability conditions to be met particularly where the wave wind is maximized and the temperature gradient is simultaneously minimized. This leads to the inevitable breaking and subsequent generation of smaller-scale waves and instabilities which appear most prominent within the warm phase front of the mountain wave.

  4. Laboratory studies on the excitation and collisional deactivation of metastable atoms and molecules in the aurora and airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    The aeronomy group at the University of Pittsburgh is actively engaged in a series of coordinated satellite, sounding rocket, and laboratory studies designed to expand and clarify knowledge of the physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Three major discoveries have been made that will lead ultimately to a complete and dramatic revision of our ideas on the ionospheres of Mars, Venus, and the Earth and on the origin of their vacuum ultraviolet airglows. The results have already suggested a new generation of ionosphere studies which probably can be carried out best by laser heterodyning techniques. Laboratory studies have also identified, for the first time, the physical mechanism responsible for the remarkable nitric oxide buildup observed in some auroral arcs. This development is an important break-through in auroral physics, and has military ramifications of considerable interest to the Department of Defense. This work may also shed some light on related NO and atomic nitrogen problems in the mesosphere.

  5. Plasmaspheric Structures Observed by the CLUSTER and IMAGE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, S. F.; Adrian, M. L.; Benson, R. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Goldstein, M. L.; Sandel, B.

    2008-01-01

    Global EUV imaging observations by the IMAGE satellite have revealed spectacularly complex changes in plasmaspheric structures as the plasmaspheric plasmas respond to geomagnetic activity while remaining under varying degrees of influence by co-rotation, depending on the radial distance. This complex plasmaspheric plasma dynamics, with its numerous scales of variability, is clearly far from being well understood. There is now renewed interest in studying the plasmasphere due to its apparent connections with the development of the ring current and radiation belt and loss of ionospheric plasmas. Earlier in the mission, the Cluster spacecraft only crossed the plasmapause (L - 4) occasionally and made measurements of the cold plasma in the plasmasphere and plasmaspheric drainage plumes. The study by Darrouzet et al. [2006], for example, provided detailed analyses of in situ Cluster observations and IMAGE EUV imaging observations of three plasmaspheric plumes detected in April-June, 2002. Within the next couple of years, Cluster orbit will change, causing perigee to migrate to lower altitudes, and thus providing excellent opportunities to obtain more detailed measurements of the plasmasphere. In this paper, we report our analyses of the earlier Cluster-IMAGE events by incorporating the different perspectives provided by the IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) observations through the plasmasphere. We will describe our new understanding of the Cluster-IMAGE events and their implications on plasmaspheric dynamics.

  6. Solar Energy Deposition Rates in the Mesosphere Derived from Airglow Measurements: Implications for the Ozone Model Deficit Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-01-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-microns oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat-budget.gats-inc.com.

  7. New Developments in Observer Performance Methodology in Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Dev P.

    2011-01-01

    A common task in medical imaging is assessing whether a new imaging system, or a variant of an existing one, is an improvement over an existing imaging technology. Imaging systems are generally quite complex, consisting of several components – e.g., image acquisition hardware, image processing and display hardware and software, and image interpretation by radiologists– each of which can affect performance. While it may appear odd to include the radiologist as a “component” of the imaging chain, since the radiologist’s decision determines subsequent patient care, the effect of the human interpretation has to be included. Physical measurements like modulation transfer function, signal to noise ratio, etc., are useful for characterizing the non-human parts of the imaging chain under idealized and often unrealistic conditions, such as uniform background phantoms, target objects with sharp edges, etc. Measuring the effect on performance of the entire imaging chain, including the radiologist, and using real clinical images, requires different methods that fall under the rubric of observer performance methods or “ROC analysis”. The purpose of this paper is to review recent developments in this field, particularly with respect to the free-response method. PMID:21978444

  8. Spatial gravity wave characteristics obtained from multiple OH(3-1) airglow temperature time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Paul; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach for the detection of gravity waves in OH-airglow observations at the measurement site Oberpfaffenhofen (11.27°E, 48.08°N), Germany. The measurements were performed at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) during the period from February 4th, 2011 to July 6th, 2011. In this case study the observations were carried out by three identical Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometers (GRIPS). These instruments provide OH(3-1) rotational temperature time series, which enable spatio-temporal investigations of gravity wave characteristics in the mesopause region. The instruments were aligned in such a way that their fields of view (FOV) formed an equilateral triangle in the OH-emission layer at a height of 87 km. The Harmonic Analysis is applied in order to identify joint temperature oscillations in the three individual datasets. Dependent on the specific gravity wave activity in a single night, it is possible to detect up to four different wave patterns with this method. The values obtained for the waves' periods and phases are then used to derive further parameters, such as horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and the direction of propagation. We identify systematic relationships between periods and amplitudes as well as between periods and horizontal wavelengths. A predominant propagation direction towards the East and North-North-East characterizes the waves during the observation period. There are also indications of seasonal effects in the temporal development of the horizontal wavelength and the phase velocity. During late winter and early spring the derived horizontal wavelengths and the phase velocities are smaller than in the subsequent period from early April to July 2011.

  9. Plasmaspheric Plumes Observed by the CLUSTER and IMAGE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Adrian, M. L.; Sandel, B.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    Global IMAGE/EUV observations have revealed complex changes in plasmaspheric structures as the plasmasphere responds to geomagnetic activity while remaining under varying degrees of influence by co-rotation, depending on the radial distance. The complex plasmaspheric dynamics, with different scales of variability, is clearly far from being well understood. There is now renewed interest in the plasmasphere due to its apparent connections with the development of the ring current and radiation belt, and loss of ionospheric plasmas. Early in the mission, the Cluster spacecraft only crossed the plasmapause (L - 4) occasionally and made measurements of the outer plasmasphere and plasmaspheric drainage plumes. The study by Darrouzet et al. [2006] provided detailed analyses of in situ Cluster observations and IMAGE EUV observations of three plasmaspheric plumes detected in April-June, 2002. Within the next couple of years, Cluster orbit will change, causing perigee to migrate to lower altitudes, and thus providing excellent opportunities to obtain more detailed measurements of the plasmasphere. In this paper, we report our analyses of the earlier Cluster-IMAGE events by incorporating the different perspectives provided by the IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) observations. We will discuss our new understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Cluster-IMAGE events.

  10. Allsky Airglow Imagery from Albuquerque, NM; TOMEX 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    Allsky imager of OH Meinel and O2 Atmospheric emission bands were observed for the TOMEX rocket campaign from Albuquerque, NM, along with the Na/wind temperature lidar. Motion analysis of imagery describes a main wave propagating from the NW but other secondary waves appear from the NE to present a quasi chaotic wave field. The main wave had a typical horizontal wavelength of a several 10s of km and a period of less than15 minutes. The instrinsic wave parameters of the high frequency waves will be presented.

  11. Correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging when lesion location is uncertain

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Zhang, Yi; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Carter, Rickey; Toledano, Alicia Y.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging for the task of lesion detection and localization when the lesion location is uncertain.Methods: Two cylindrical rods (3-mm and 5-mm diameters) were placed in a 35 × 26 cm torso-shaped water phantom to simulate lesions with −15 HU contrast at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times on a 128-slice CT scanner at each of four dose levels (CTDIvol = 5.7, 11.4, 17.1, and 22.8 mGy). Regions of interest (ROIs) around each lesion were extracted to generate images with signal-present, with each ROI containing 128 × 128 pixels. Corresponding ROIs of signal-absent images were generated from images without lesion mimicking rods. The location of the lesion (rod) in each ROI was randomly distributed by moving the ROIs around each lesion. Human observer studies were performed by having three trained observers identify the presence or absence of lesions, indicating the lesion location in each image and scoring confidence for the detection task on a 6-point scale. The same image data were analyzed using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) with Gabor channels. Internal noise was added to the decision variables for the model observer study. Area under the curve (AUC) of ROC and localization ROC (LROC) curves were calculated using a nonparametric approach. The Spearman's rank order correlation between the average performance of the human observers and the model observer performance was calculated for the AUC of both ROC and LROC curves for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions.Results: In both ROC and LROC analyses, AUC values for the model observer agreed well with the average values across the three human observers. The Spearman's rank order correlation values for both ROC and LROC analyses for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions were all 1.0, indicating perfect rank ordering agreement of the figures of merit (AUC) between the

  12. Automatic Annotation of Radiological Observations in Liver CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Francisco; Xu, Jiajing; Liu, Yi; Liu, Tiffany; Beaulieu, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel; Napel, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    We aim to predict radiological observations using computationally-derived imaging features extracted from computed tomography (CT) images. We created a dataset of 79 CT images containing liver lesions identified and annotated by a radiologist using a controlled vocabulary of 76 semantic terms. Computationally-derived features were extracted describing intensity, texture, shape, and edge sharpness. Traditional logistic regression was compared to L1-regularized logistic regression (LASSO) in order to predict the radiological observations using computational features. The approach was evaluated by leave one out cross-validation. Informative radiological observations such as lesion enhancement, hypervascular attenuation, and homogeneous retention were predicted well by computational features. By exploiting relationships between computational and semantic features, this approach could lead to more accurate and efficient radiology reporting. PMID:23304295

  13. Application of MCM image construction to IRAS comet observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlapfer, Martin F.; Walker, Russell G.

    1994-01-01

    There is a wealth of IRAS comet data, obtained in both the survey and pointed observations modes. However, these measurements have remained largely untouched due to difficulties in removing instrumental effects from the data. We have developed a version of the Maximum Correlation Method for Image Construction algorithm (MCM) which operates in the moving coordinate system of the comet and properly treats both real cometary motion and apparent motion due to spacecraft parallax. This algorithm has been implemented on a 486/33 PC in FORTRAN and IDL codes. Preprocessing of the IRAS CRDD includes baseline removal, deglitching, and removal of long tails due to dielectric time constants of the detectors. The resulting images are virtually free from instrumental effects and have the highest possible spatial resolution consistent with the data sampling. We present examples of high resolution IRAS images constructed from survey observations of Comets P/Tempel 1 and P/Tempel 2, and pointed observations of IRAS-Araki-Alcock.

  14. Coordinated observations of F region 3 m field-aligned plasma irregularities associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. F.; Wang, C. Y.; Su, C. L.; Shiokawa, K.; Saito, S.; Chu, Y. H.

    2016-04-01

    Three meter field-aligned irregularities (3 m FAIs) associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) that occurred on 5 February 2008 were observed by using the Chung-Li 52 MHz coherent scatter radar. Interferometry measurements show that the plasma structures responsible for the 3 m FAI echoes are in a clumpy shape with a horizontal dimension of about 10-78 km in a height range of 220-300 km. In order to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the plasma irregularities at different scales in the bottomside of F region, the VHF radar echo structures from the 3 m FAIs combined with the 630 nm airglow images provided by the Yonaguni all-sky imager are compared and analyzed. The results show that the radar echoes were located at the west edge of the depletion zones of the 630 nm airglow image of the MSTIDs. The bulk echo structures of the 3 m FAIs drifted eastward at a mean trace velocity of about 30 m/s that is in general agreement with the zonal trace velocity of the MSTIDs shown in the 630 nm airglow images. These results suggest that the observed F region 3 m FAIs for the present case can be regarded as the targets that are frozen in the local region of the MSTIDs. In addition, the radar-observed 3 m FAI echo intensity and spectral width bear high correlations to the percentage variations of the 630 nm emission intensity. These results seem to suggest that through the nonlinear turbulence cascade process, the MSTID-associated 3 m FAIs are very likely generated from the kilometer-scale plasma irregularities with large amplitude excited by the gradient drift instability.

  15. Stellar Source Selections for Image Validation of Earth Observation Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiwoong; Park, Sang-Young; Lim, Dongwook; Lee, Dong-Han; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2011-12-01

    A method of stellar source selection for validating the quality of image is investigated for a low Earth orbit optical remote sensing satellite. Image performance of the optical payload needs to be validated after its launch into orbit. The stellar sources are ideal source points that can be used to validate the quality of optical images. For the image validation, stellar sources should be the brightest as possible in the charge-coupled device dynamic range. The time delayed and integration technique, which is used to observe the ground, is also performed to observe the selected stars. The relations between the incident radiance at aperture and V magnitude of a star are established using Gunn & Stryker's star catalogue of spectrum. Applying this result, an appropriate image performance index is determined, and suitable stars and areas of the sky scene are selected for the optical payload on a remote sensing satellite to observe. The result of this research can be utilized to validate the quality of optical payload of a satellite in orbit.

  16. On VI Imaging Instrumentation and Spectroscopic Observations in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, M. N.

    2003-12-01

    For my thesis, I designed and built a high resolution imaging spectrograph, the Imaging Spectrograph for Interstellar Shocks (ISIS), that flew on a sub-orbital rocket from White Sands Missile Range on November 18th, 2002. This rocket-borne instrument was designed to image hot plasma at O vi λ λ 1032/1038 Å \\space behind a shock front in the Cygnus Loop. The new type of instrument developed for this application is a novel type of spectrograph that relies on a standard telescope for its optical layout. This layout, in conjunction with aberration-corrected holography, is capable of arcsecond quality imaging in diffracted light while maintaining arcsecond imaging at the telescope focus. The follow-up research is based on observations of N132D, a young, oxygen rich supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These new spectroscopic observations from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer of emitting O vi in the shocked stellar ejecta were used to distinguish between different models of the ejecta and demonstrate that there is lack of appropriate observations of this type of remnant. This work was supported by NASA grants NAG5-5096, NAG5-7465, NAG5-8955, and NAG5-10319. M. Beasley was supported by a Graduate Student Research Program fellowship NGT5-50340.

  17. On VI imaging instrumentation and spectroscopic observations in supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Matthew Nelson

    2003-10-01

    For my thesis project, I designed and built a high resolution imaging spectrograph, the Imaging Spectrograph for Interstellar Shocks (ISIS), that flew on a sub-orbital rocket from White Sands Missile Range on November 18th, 2002. This rocket-borne instrument was designed to image hot plasma at O VI lambdalambda1032/1038 A behind a shock front in the Cygnus Loop. The new type of instrument developed for this application is a novel type of spectrograph that relies on a standard telescope for its optical layout. This layout, in conjunction with aberration-corrected holography, is capable of arcsecond quality imaging in diffracted light while maintaining an arcsecond image at the telescope focus. The follow-up research is based on observations of N132D, a young, oxygen rich supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These new spectroscopic observations from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer of emitting O VI in the shocked stellar ejecta were used to distinguish between different models of the ejecta and demonstrate that there is lack of appropriate observations of this type of remnant.

  18. Applying an Automatic Image-Processing Method to Synoptic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, Andrey G.; Vasil'eva, Valeria V.; Makarova, Valentina V.; Otkidychev, Pavel A.

    2014-04-01

    We used an automatic image-processing method to detect solar-activity features observed in white light at the Kislovodsk Solar Station. This technique was applied to automatically or semi-automatically detect sunspots and active regions. The results of this automated recognition were verified with statistical data available from other observatories and revealed a high detection accuracy. We also provide parameters of sunspot areas, of the umbra, and of faculae as observed in Solar Cycle 23 as well as the magnetic flux of these active elements, calculated at the Kislovodsk Solar Station, together with white-light images and magnetograms from the Michaelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO/MDI). The ratio of umbral and total sunspot areas during Solar Cycle 23 is ≈ 0.19. The area of sunspots of the leading polarity was approximately 2.5 times the area of sunspots of the trailing polarity.

  19. Correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging when lesion location is uncertain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Chen, Lingyun; Ramirez Giraldo, Juan C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how well model observer can correlate with human observer in the lesion detection and localization task when the location of lesion is uncertain in CT imaging. A 35 × 26 cm oblong-shaped water phantom was scanned with and without two cylindrical rods (3 mm and 5 mm diameters) to simulate lesions with - 15HU contrast. Scans were repeated 100 times with the rods and 100 times without for each of 4 dose levels. Signal and background images were generated by selecting ROIs with 128x128 pixels, with the location of signal in each ROI randomly distributed. Human observer studies were conducted as three medical physicists identified the presence or absence of lesion, indicated the lesion location in each image and scored confidence level with a 6-point scale. ROC curves were fitted and area under curve (AUC) was calculated. The same data set was also analyzed using a Channelized Hottelling model observer with Gabor channels. Internal noise was added to the test variables for model observer study. AUC of ROC and LROC curves were calculated using non-parametric approach. The performance of human observer and model observer was compared. The Peason's product-moment correlation coefficients were 0.994 and 0.998 for 3mm and 5mm diameter lesions in ROC analysis and 0.987 and 0.999 in LROC analysis, indicating that model observer performance was highly correlated with the human observer performance for different size of lesions and different dose levels when signal location is uncertain. These results provide the potential of using model observer that correlates with human observer to assess CT image quality, optimize scanning protocol and reduce radiation dose.

  20. Imaging protoplanets: observing transition disks with non-redundant masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallum, Steph; Eisner, Josh; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Kratter, Kaitlin; Skemer, Andrew J.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Briguglio, Runa; Defrere, Denis; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Spalding, Eckhart; Tuthill, Peter G.; Vaz, Amali; Weinberger, Alycia; Xomperio, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings, are promising objects in which to directly image forming planets. The high contrast imaging technique of non-redundant masking is well posed to detect planetary mass companions at several to tens of AU in nearby transition disks. We present non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha and LkCa 15 transition disks, both of which host posited sub-stellar mass companions. However, due to a loss of information intrinsic to the technique, observations of extended sources (e.g. scattered light from disks) can be misinterpreted as moving companions. We discuss tests to distinguish between these two scenarios, with applications to the T Cha and LkCa 15 observations. We argue that a static, forward-scattering disk can explain the T Cha data, while LkCa 15 is best explained by multiple orbiting companions.

  1. Field observations using an AOTF polarimetric imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Hamilton, Mike; Mahoney, Colin; Reyes, George

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of recent field observations using a prototype acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) polarimetric imaging spectrometer. The data illustrate application potentials for geoscience. The operation principle of this instrument is different from that of current airborne multispectral imaging instruments, such as AVIRIS. The AOTF instrument takes two orthogonally polarized images at a desired wavelength at one time, whereas AVIRIS takes a spectrum over a predetermined wavelength range at one pixel at a time and the image is constructed later. AVIRIS does not have any polarization measuring capability. The AOTF instrument could be a complement tool to AVIRIS. Polarization measurement is a desired capability for many applications in remote sensing. It is well know that natural light is often polarized due to various scattering phenomena in the atmosphere. Also, scattered light from canopies is reported to have a polarized component. To characterize objects of interest correctly requires a remote sensing imaging spectrometer capable of measuring object signal and background radiation in both intensity and polarization so that the characteristics of the object can be determined. The AORF instrument has the capability to do so. The AOTF instrument has other unique properties. For example, it can provide spectral images immediately after the observation. The instrument can also allow observations to be tailored in real time to perform the desired experiments and to collect only required data. Consequently, the performance in each mission can be increased with minimal resources. The prototype instrument was completed in the beginning of this year. A number of outdoor field experiments were performed with the objective to evaluate the capability of this new technology for remote sensing applications and to determine issues for further improvements.

  2. Simultaneous multi-frequency imaging observations of solar microwave bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; White, S. M.; Schmahl, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of simultaneous two-frequency imaging observations of solar microwave bursts with the Very Large Array are reviewed. Simultaneous 2 and 6 cm observations have been made of bursts which are optically thin at both frequencies, or optically thick at the lower frequency. In the latter case, the source structure may differ at the two frequencies, but the two sources usually seem to be related. However, this is not always true of simultaneous 6 and 20 cm observations. The results have implications for the analysis of nonimaging radio data of solar and stellar flares.

  3. Estimating the electron energy distribution during ionospheric modification from spectrographic airglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Vlasov, M.; Watkins, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The electron energy distribution during an F region ionospheric modification experiment is inferred from spectrographic airglow emission data. Emission lines at 630.0, 557.7, and 844.6 nm are considered along with the absence of detectable emissions at 427.8 nm. Estimating the electron energy distribution function from the airglow data is a problem in classical linear inverse theory. We describe an augmented version of the method of Backus and Gilbert which we use to invert the data. The method optimizes the model resolution, the precision of the mapping between the actual electron energy distribution and its estimate. Here, the method has also been augmented so as to limit the model prediction error. Our methodology predicts a heater-induced electron energy spectrum with a peak near 5 eV that decreases by almost three orders of magnitude between 5--30 eV.

  4. Similarities Between RF- and Lightning-Induced Airglow in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentman, D. D.; Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Moudry, D. R.; Sao Sabbas, F. T.

    2002-12-01

    Recent experiments in Alaska using the HAARP and HIPAS high power RF transmitters have succeeded in artificially generating oxygen neutral and molecular nitrogen ion emissions, or artificial airglow, in the ionosphere. An apparently different type of transient airglow generated by lightning, in the form of sprites and elves in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere, has been extensively studied in recent years. Despite occurring in vastly different atmospheric regimes, these seemingly disparate forms of optical emissions, one derived from artificial modification of the ionosphere and the other from natural thunderstorm processes, share a common underlying microphysical description based on electron heating by RF and quasi-DC electric fields, respectively, accompanied by impact excitation of ambient neutrals and subsequent optical relaxation and quenching of excited species. The theoretical description of these processes has its roots in work described by Zel'dovich and Raizer on the microphysics of shock waves and high temperature gasses. This work was subsequently adapted by Gurevich, Papadopoulis and coworkers to describe high power microwave interactions with the stratosphere. Extended to include nonlinear plasma interactions, it is the basis for understanding the effects of intense RF waves on the ionosphere, including creation of airglow, from high power transmitters currently operating in Alaska, Sweden and Russia. Pasko and coworkers have successfully adapted these theories to conditions appropriate to lightning impulse interactions with the upper atmosphere to describe the basic breakdown and streamer processes associated with sprite production. Thus, sprites and RF-induced airglow theories share a common set of concepts at the microphysical level and a common theoretical language. This talk outlines areas of especially strong overlap, and describes some possible high power RF ionospheric interaction experiments that could be performed to help study

  5. Difference Image Analysis of Defocused Observations With CSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Macri, Lucas M.; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, Jon S.; Qiang, Liu; Luong-Van, Daniel; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Yang, Huigen; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G.; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2015-02-01

    The Chinese Small Telescope ARray carried out high-cadence time-series observations of 27 square degrees centered on the South Celestial Pole during the Antarctic winter seasons of 2008-2010. Aperture photometry of the 2008 and 2010 i-band images resulted in the discovery of over 200 variable stars. Yearly servicing left the array defocused for the 2009 winter season, during which the system also suffered from intermittent frosting and power failures. Despite these technical issues, nearly 800,000 useful images were obtained using g, r, and clear filters. We developed a combination of difference imaging and aperture photometry to compensate for the highly crowded, blended, and defocused frames. We present details of this approach, which may be useful for the analysis of time-series data from other small-aperture telescopes regardless of their image quality. Using this approach, we were able to recover 68 previously known variables and detected variability in 37 additional objects. We also have determined the observing statistics for Dome A during the 2009 winter season; we find the extinction due to clouds to be less than 0.1 and 0.4 mag for 40% and 63% of the dark time, respectively.

  6. Difference image analysis of defocused observations with CSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Macri, Lucas M.; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Cui, Xiangqun; Gong, Xuefei; Qiang, Liu; Yang, Huigen; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhou, Xu; Feng, Long-Long; Zhu, Zhenxi; Pennypacker, Carl R.; York, Donald G.

    2015-02-01

    The Chinese Small Telescope ARray carried out high-cadence time-series observations of 27 square degrees centered on the South Celestial Pole during the Antarctic winter seasons of 2008–2010. Aperture photometry of the 2008 and 2010 i-band images resulted in the discovery of over 200 variable stars. Yearly servicing left the array defocused for the 2009 winter season, during which the system also suffered from intermittent frosting and power failures. Despite these technical issues, nearly 800,000 useful images were obtained using g, r, and clear filters. We developed a combination of difference imaging and aperture photometry to compensate for the highly crowded, blended, and defocused frames. We present details of this approach, which may be useful for the analysis of time-series data from other small-aperture telescopes regardless of their image quality. Using this approach, we were able to recover 68 previously known variables and detected variability in 37 additional objects. We also have determined the observing statistics for Dome A during the 2009 winter season; we find the extinction due to clouds to be less than 0.1 and 0.4 mag for 40% and 63% of the dark time, respectively.

  7. High-speed imaging system for observation of discharge phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, R.; Kusano, H.; Ito, Y.

    2008-11-01

    A thin metal electrode tip instantly changes its shape into a sphere or a needlelike shape in a single electrical discharge of high current. These changes occur within several hundred microseconds. To observe these high-speed phenomena in a single discharge, an imaging system using a high-speed video camera and a high repetition rate pulse laser was constructed. A nanosecond laser, the wavelength of which was 532 nm, was used as the illuminating source of a newly developed high-speed video camera, HPV-1. The time resolution of our system was determined by the laser pulse width and was about 80 nanoseconds. The system can take one hundred pictures at 16- or 64-microsecond intervals in a single discharge event. A band-pass filter at 532 nm was placed in front of the camera to block the emission of the discharge arc at other wavelengths. Therefore, clear images of the electrode were recorded even during the discharge. If the laser was not used, only images of plasma during discharge and thermal radiation from the electrode after discharge were observed. These results demonstrate that the combination of a high repetition rate and a short pulse laser with a high speed video camera provides a unique and powerful method for high speed imaging.

  8. Retinex Image Processing: Improved Fidelity To Direct Visual Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1996-01-01

    Recorded color images differ from direct human viewing by the lack of dynamic range compression and color constancy. Research is summarized which develops the center/surround retinex concept originated by Edwin Land through a single scale design to a multi-scale design with color restoration (MSRCR). The MSRCR synthesizes dynamic range compression, color constancy, and color rendition and, thereby, approaches fidelity to direct observation.

  9. Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst Observed by IMAGE and Geotail Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Hashimoto, Kozo; Boardsen, Scott A.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Green, James L.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2010-01-01

    We report IMAGE and Geotail simultaneous observations of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) detected on August 19, 2001. The TMRB was confined in time (0830-1006 UT) and frequency (12-50 kHz), suggesting a fan beam-like emission pattern from a single discrete source. Analysis and comparisons with existing TMR radiations strongly suggest that the TMRB is a distinct emission perhaps resulting from dayside magnetic reconnection instigated by northward interplanetary field condition.

  10. Direct observation of up-conversion via femtosecond photoelectron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhu; Knopp, Gregor; Gerber, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafast relaxation dynamics in 2-methylfuran has been investigated by time-resolved photoelectron imaging. An "up" internal conversion from a low-lying state into a higher-lying one has been observed experimentally. Temporal photoelectron kinetic-energy distributions and angular distributions of the photoelectrons are analyzed. In the up-conversion process, the vibrational energy in the initial state is converted to the electronic energy of the final state during the energy transfer. And the time scale for the up-conversion process is estimated by the observed onset delay for the corresponding photoelectron bands.

  11. X-ray phase imaging-From static observation to dynamic observation-

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, A.; Yashiro, W.; Olbinado, M. P.; Harasse, S.

    2012-07-31

    We are attempting to expand the technology of X-ray grating phase imaging/tomography to enable dynamic observation. X-ray phase imaging has been performed mainly for static cases, and this challenge is significant since properties of materials (and hopefully their functions) would be understood by observing their dynamics in addition to their structure, which is an inherent advantage of X-ray imaging. Our recent activities in combination with white synchrotron radiation for this purpose are described. Taking advantage of the fact that an X-ray grating interferometer functions with X-rays of a broad energy bandwidth (and therefore high flux), movies of differential phase images and visibility images are obtained with a time resolution of a millisecond. The time resolution of X-ray phase tomography can therefore be a second. This study is performed as a part of a project to explore X-ray grating interferometry, and our other current activities are also briefly outlined.

  12. Imaging Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in a Solar Eruptive Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Sun, X.; Ding, M. D.; Qiu, J.; Priest, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic events in the solar atmosphere. It is widely accepted that flares are powered by magnetic reconnection in the corona. An eruptive flare is usually accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, both of which are probably driven by the eruption of a magnetic flux rope (MFR). Here we report an eruptive flare on 2016 March 23 observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The extreme-ultraviolet imaging observations exhibit the clear rise and eruption of an MFR. In particular, the observations reveal solid evidence of magnetic reconnection from both the corona and chromosphere during the flare. Moreover, weak reconnection is observed before the start of the flare. We find that the preflare weak reconnection is of tether-cutting type and helps the MFR to rise slowly. Induced by a further rise of the MFR, strong reconnection occurs in the rise phases of the flare, which is temporally related to the MFR eruption. We also find that the magnetic reconnection is more of 3D-type in the early phase, as manifested in a strong-to-weak shear transition in flare loops, and becomes more 2D-like in the later phase, as shown by the apparent rising motion of an arcade of flare loops.

  13. Center determination for trailed sources in astronomical observation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun Ju; Hu, Shao Ming; Chen, Xu; Guo, Di Fu

    2014-11-01

    Images with trailed sources can be obtained when observing near-Earth objects, such as small astroids, space debris, major planets and their satellites, no matter the telescopes track on sidereal speed or the speed of target. The low centering accuracy of these trailed sources is one of the most important sources of the astrometric uncertainty, but how to determine the central positions of the trailed sources accurately remains a significant challenge to image processing techniques, especially in the study of faint or fast moving objects. According to the conditions of one-meter telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University, moment and point-spread-function (PSF) fitting were chosen to develop the image processing pipeline for space debris. The principles and the implementations of both two methods are introduced in this paper. And some simulated images containing trailed sources are analyzed with each technique. The results show that two methods are comparable to obtain the accurate central positions of trailed sources when the signal to noise (SNR) is high. But moment tends to fail for the objects with low SNR. Compared with moment, PSF fitting seems to be more robust and versatile. However, PSF fitting is quite time-consuming. Therefore, if there are enough bright stars in the field, or the high astronometric accuracy is not necessary, moment is competent. Otherwise, the combination of moment and PSF fitting is recommended.

  14. Mesospheric gravity waves and ionospheric plasma bubbles observed during the COPEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, I.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Buriti, R. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Gobbi, D.

    2011-07-01

    During the Conjugate Point Experiment (COPEX) campaign performed at Boa Vista (2.80∘N;60.70∘W, dip angle21.7∘N) from October to December 2002, 15 medium-scale gravity waves in the OHNIR airglow images were observed. Using a Keogram image analysis, we estimate their parameters. Most of the waves propagate to Northwest, indicating that their main sources are Southeast of Boa Vista. Quasi-simultaneous plasma bubble activities in the OI 630 nm images were observed in seven cases. The distances between the bubble depletions have a linear relationship with the wavelengths of the gravity waves observed in the mesosphere, which suggests a direct contribution of the mesospheric medium-scale gravity waves in seeding the equatorial plasma bubbles.

  15. A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft observations: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Park, S. H.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2007-12-01

    The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on-board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to observe plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. Observations from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which shows that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this allows the drift velocities of each depletion to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude as well as local time. Previous ground-based airglow observations from a small number of locations have indicated that the drift velocities of depletions may vary rapidly with magnetic latitude. Here we shall present the first results from TOAD of this shear in drift velocities from our global sample of depletion drift velocities.

  16. Analyzing Serendipitous Asteroid Observations in Imaging Data using PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ard, Christopher; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids are nearly ubiquitous in the night sky, making them present in the majority of imaging data taken every night. Serendipitous asteroid observations represent a treasure trove to Solar System researchers: accurate positional measurements of asteroids provide important constraints on their sometimes highly uncertain orbits, whereas calibrated photometric measurements can be used to establish rotational periods, intrinsic colors, or photometric phase curves.We present an add-on to the PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE (PP, github.com/mommermi/photometrypipeline, see Poster presentation 123.42) that identifies asteroids that have been observed serendipitously and extracts astrometry and calibrated photometry for these objects. PP is an open-source Python 2.7 software suite that provides image registration, aperture photometry, photometric calibration, and target identification with only minimal human interaction.Asteroids are identified based on approximate positions that are pre-calculated for a range of dates. Using interpolated coordinates, we identify potential asteroids that might be in the observed field and query their exact positions and positional uncertainties from the JPL Horizons system. The method results in robust astrometry and calibrated photometry for all asteroids in the field as a function of time. Our measurements will supplement existing photometric databases of asteroids and improve their orbits.We present first results using this procedure based on imaging data from the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope.This work was done in the framework of NAU's REU summer program that is supported by NSF grant AST-1461200. PP was developed in the framework of the "Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey" (MANOS) and is supported by NASA SSO grants NNX15AE90G and NNX14AN82G.

  17. Observation and image-making in Gothic art

    PubMed

    Givens

    1999-01-01

    Since the 16th century, art historians have debated the methods of medieval artists. A frequent topic of discussion and one that has been invoked at times to distinguish the medieval artist from his early modern successor is the extent to which medieval art is based on the observation of nature. In this vein, much recent commentary has focused on selected works whose descriptiveness challenges the schematism of most medieval imagery. As argued here, assessing these images and the visual evidence they present of the artist's working method requires a methodology that is sensitive to the syntax of visual communication.

  18. Southern hemisphere all-sky imaging investigations into the latitude extent of the 6300 Å emission feature associated with the midnight temperature maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colerico, M. J.; Mendillo, M.

    2001-05-01

    An all-sky imaging system has been in operation in Arequipa, Peru, (16.2\\symbol{23}S, 71.35\\symbol{23}W) from October 1993 - October 2000 conducting routine observations of 6300 Å airglow emissions. Using this imaging system, Colerico et al. [1996] reported on the persistent occurrence of an enhanced 6300 Å emission feature with an apparent north-south propagation through the field of view past 24\\symbol{23}S near local midnight. This enhanced airglow feature was referred to as the midnight brightness wave (MBW). The authors concluded that MBW was the airglow signature of the thermospheric midnight temperature maximum (MTM), a highly variable, large scale neutral temperature anomaly which occurs at low latitudes. The MTM is accompanied by a pressure increase and a signature reversal/abatement in the meridional winds from equatorward to poleward. Poleward winds serve to move plasma down magnetic field lines to altitudes where it can dissociatively recombine and produce 6300 Å emissions. Additional imaging systems in operation south of Arequipa in Tucuman, Argentina, (26.5\\symbol{23}S, 65.15\\symbol{23}W) and El Leoncito, Argentina, (31.8\\symbol{23}S, 69.0\\symbol{23}W) extend the latitude range over which MBW events can be observed to 39\\symbol{23}S. In this paper, we use the combined latitude range of the three imaging systems to investigate the latitudinal extent of the MTM's influence on upper atmospheric parameters. Observations of MBW propagation past 39\\symbol{23}S suggest that the MTM's influence may be felt at mid-latitudes in the southern hemisphere.

  19. Bayesian Analysis of Hmi Images and Comparison to Tsi Variations and MWO Image Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.; Tran, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    We have previously applied the Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass to solar magnetogram and intensity images from the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to identify classes of solar surface features associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, modeled TSI time series with improved accuracy (r > 0.96). (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass identifies classes by a two-step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images capture four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two observables-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI observables for images from June, 2010 to December, 2014 to identify solar surface feature classes. We use contemporaneous TSI measurements to determine whether and how variations in the HMI classes are related to TSI variations and compare the characteristic statistics of the HMI classes to those found from MWO images. We also attempt to derive scale factors between the HMI and MWO magnetic and intensity observables.The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment.Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and

  20. MOLECULAR AND IONIZED HYDROGEN IN 30 DORADUS. I. IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2015-07-10

    We present the first fully calibrated H{sub 2} 1–0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H{sub 2}-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H{sub 2}, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H{sub 2} to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H{sub 2} emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2–3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H{sub 2} emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  1. Observing submesoscale currents from high resolution surface roughness images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascle, N.; Chapron, B.; Nouguier, F.; Mouche, A.; Ponte, A.

    2015-12-01

    At times, high resolution sea surface roughness variations can provide stunning details of submesoscale upper ocean dynamics. As interpreted, transformations of short scale wind waves by horizontal current gradients are responsible for those spectacular observations. Here we present tow major advances towards the quantitative interpretation of those observations. First, we show that surface roughness variations mainly trace two particular characteristics of the current gradient tensor, the divergence and the strain in the wind direction. Local vorticity and shear in the wind direction should not affect short scale roughness distribution and would not be detectable. Second, we discuss the effect of the viewing direction using sets of quasi-simultaneous sun glitter images, taken from different satellites to provide different viewing configurations. We show that upwind and crosswind viewing observations can be markedly different. As further confirmed with idealized numerical simulations, this anisotropy well traces surface current strain area, while more isotropic contrasts likely trace areas dominated by surface divergence conditions. These findings suggest the potential to directly observe surface currents at submesoscale by using high resolution roughness observations at multiple azimuth viewing angles.

  2. Imaging X-ray spectrophotometric observation of SN 1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vartanian, M. H.; Lum, K. S. K.; Ku, W. H.-M.

    1985-01-01

    An imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (IGSPC) at the focal plane of a grazing incidence telescope was carried aloft by a sounding rocket and used to observe soft X-ray emission from the supernova remnant SN 1006. The instrument obtained the first unambiguous detection of strong (8 + or 0.0-2 photons/sq cm s) oxygen He-alpha and Ly-alpha emission at 0.59 + or - 0.02 keV from SN 1006. This line emission is consistent with emission from a 1.8 x 10 to the 6th K plasma, although hard X-ray emission from an additional power law or a higher temperature component was also observed. The X-ray emission may be interpreted as due to either (1) a combination of blast-wave and reverse shock assuming equilibrium ionization in the plasma or (2) blast-wave emission alone with a significant degree of ionization disequilibrium.

  3. First Radio Burst Imaging Observation From Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua; Chen, Linjie; Yu, Sijie; CSRH Team

    2015-08-01

    Radio imaging spectroscopy over wide range wavelength in dm/cm-bands will open new windows on solar flares and coronal mass ejections by tracing the radio emissions from accelerated electrons. The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with two arrays in 400MHz-2GHz /2-15GHz ranges with 64/532 frequency channels have been established in Mingantu Observing Station, Inner Mongolia of China, since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide SpEctral Radioheliograph) after it's accomplishment We will introduce the progress and current status of CSRH. Some preliminary results of CSRH will be presented.On 11 Nov2014, the first burst event was registered by MUSER-I array at 400MHz-2GHz waveband. According to SGD event list there was a C-class flare peaked at 04:49UT in the disk center and the radio bursts around 04:22-04:24UT was attributed to this flare. However, MUSER-I image observation of the burst indicates that the radio burst peaked around 04:22UT was due to the eruption at the east limb of the Sun and connected to a CME appeared in that direction about 1 hour later. This demonstrate the importance of the spectroscopy observation of the solar radio burst.Acknowledgement: The CSRH team includes Wei Wang, Zhijun Chen, Fei Liu, Lihong Geng and Jian Zhang and CSRH project is supported by National Major Scientific Equipment R&D Project ZDYZ2009-3. The research was also supported by NSFC grants (11433006, 11221063), MOST grant (MOST2011CB811401), CAS Pilot-B Project (XDB09000000) and Marie Curie PIRSES- GA-295272-RADIOSUN.

  4. The Saturn System as Observed by Cassini's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Hansen, C. J.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Shemansky, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has major new findings in all aspects of Saturn science: Saturn, its rings, Titan and the icy satellites, and the Saturn magnetosphere. Dynamic interactions between neutrals, ions, rings, moons and meteoroids produce a highly structured and time variable Saturn system. Highlights and outstanding new results will be reported, focusing on Saturn s moons and their interaction with their environment. The UVIS is one of Cassini s suite of remote sensing instruments. The UVIS instrument includes channels for extreme UV (55 to 110 nm) and far UV (110 to 190 nm) spectroscopic imaging, high speed photometry of stellar occultations, solar EUV occultation, and a hydrogen/deuterium absorption cell. UVIS has detected products of water dissociation, neutral oxygen and OH, which dominate the Saturn inner magnetosphere, in contrast to Jupiter, and H fills the entire magnetosphere apparently extending through the magnetopause at far greater density than the ion population. The O and OH and a fraction of the H are probably the products of water physical chemistry, and derived ultimately from water ice. Observed fluctuations indicate close interactions with plasma sources. Sputtering from the satellites water ice surfaces is insufficient to supply the observed mass. Stochastic events in the E ring may be the ultimate source.

  5. Processing Earth Observing images with Ames Stereo Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Moratto, Z. M.; Alexandrov, O.; Fong, T.; Shean, D. E.; Smith, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    ICESat with its GLAS instrument provided valuable elevation measurements of glaciers. The loss of this spacecraft caused a demand for alternative elevation sources. In response to that, we have improved our Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) software (version 2.1+) to ingest satellite imagery from Earth satellite sources in addition to its support of planetary missions. This enables the open source community a free method to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from Digital Globe stereo imagery and alternatively other cameras using RPC camera models. Here we present details of the software. ASP is a collection of utilities written in C++ and Python that implement stereogrammetry. It contains utilities to manipulate DEMs, project imagery, create KML image quad-trees, and perform simplistic 3D rendering. However its primary application is the creation of DEMs. This is achieved by matching every pixel between the images of a stereo observation via a hierarchical coarse-to-fine template matching method. Matched pixels between images represent a single feature that is triangulated using each image's camera model. The collection of triangulated features represents a point cloud that is then grid resampled to create a DEM. In order for ASP to match pixels/features between images, it requires a search range defined in pixel units. Total processing time is proportional to the area of the first image being matched multiplied by the area of the search range. An incorrect search range for ASP causes repeated false positive matches at each level of the image pyramid and causes excessive processing times with no valid DEM output. Therefore our system contains automatic methods for deducing what the correct search range should be. In addition, we provide options for reducing the overall search range by applying affine epipolar rectification, homography transform, or by map projecting against a prior existing low resolution DEM. Depending on the size of the images, parallax, and image

  6. Image quality in CT: From physical measurements to model observers.

    PubMed

    Verdun, F R; Racine, D; Ott, J G; Tapiovaara, M J; Toroi, P; Bochud, F O; Veldkamp, W J H; Schegerer, A; Bouwman, R W; Giron, I Hernandez; Marshall, N W; Edyvean, S

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of image quality (IQ) in Computed Tomography (CT) is important to ensure that diagnostic questions are correctly answered, whilst keeping radiation dose to the patient as low as is reasonably possible. The assessment of individual aspects of IQ is already a key component of routine quality control of medical x-ray devices. These values together with standard dose indicators can be used to give rise to 'figures of merit' (FOM) to characterise the dose efficiency of the CT scanners operating in certain modes. The demand for clinically relevant IQ characterisation has naturally increased with the development of CT technology (detectors efficiency, image reconstruction and processing), resulting in the adaptation and evolution of assessment methods. The purpose of this review is to present the spectrum of various methods that have been used to characterise image quality in CT: from objective measurements of physical parameters to clinically task-based approaches (i.e. model observer (MO) approach) including pure human observer approach. When combined together with a dose indicator, a generalised dose efficiency index can be explored in a framework of system and patient dose optimisation. We will focus on the IQ methodologies that are required for dealing with standard reconstruction, but also for iterative reconstruction algorithms. With this concept the previously used FOM will be presented with a proposal to update them in order to make them relevant and up to date with technological progress. The MO that objectively assesses IQ for clinically relevant tasks represents the most promising method in terms of radiologist sensitivity performance and therefore of most relevance in the clinical environment.

  7. Comparison of theories for gravity wave induced fluctuations in airglow emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Schubert, G.; Hickey, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison is undertaken of theories for the gravity wave induced fluctuations in the intensity of airglow emissions and the associated temperature of the source region. The comparison is made in terms of Krassovsky's ratio eta(sub E) for a vertically extended emission region (eta(sub E) is the ratio of the vertically integrated normalized intensity perturbation to the vertically integrated intensity-weighted temperature perturbation). It is shown that the formulas for eta(sub E) in the works by Tarasick and Hines (1990) and Schubert et al. (1991) are in agreement for the case of an inviscid atmosphere. The calculation of eta(sub E) using the theory of Tarasick and Hines (1990) requires determination of their function chi; we show that chi is simply related to the 'single-level' Krassovsky's ratio eta of Schubert et al. (1991). The general relationship between chi and eta is applied to a simple chemical-dynamical model of the O2 atmospheric airglow and the altitude dependence of these quantities is evaluated for nonsteady state chemistry. Though the Tarasick and Hines (1990) formula for eta(sub E) does not explicitly depend on the scale heights of the minor constituents involved in airglow chemistry, eta(sub E) implicitly depends upon these scale heights through its dependences on chemical production and loss contained in chi. We demonstrate this dependence of eta(sub E) for the OH nightglow on atomic oxygen scale height by direct numerical evaluation of eta(sub E) in this case the dependence originates in the chemical production of perturbed ozone.

  8. Airglow-solar spectrometer instrument (20-700 nm) aboard the San Marco D/L satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Seidl, P.; Wita, C.

    1985-10-01

    The ASSI experiment aboard the San Marco D/L aeronomy satellite will monitor the airglow, solar, and interplanetary radiations from the EUV through the visible spectral regions. Four spectrometers with solar pointing control cover this broad region using channels with eighteen overlapping wavelength ranges with spectral resolutions from 0.8 to 3.0 nm, which are adequate for aeronomy. Large dynamic ranges up to 1:10 to the 11th permit the measurement of faint airglow or interplanetary radiation and intense solar emissions with one and the same instrument. Instrumental details such as the special optical design and calibration procedures are presented in detail.

  9. Monitoring Saturn's Upper Atmosphere Density Variations Using Helium 584 Å Airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The study of He 584 Å brightness of Saturn is interesting as the EUV planetary airglow have the potential to yield useful information about mixing and other important parameters in its thermosphere. Resonance scattering of sunlight by He atoms is the principal source of the planetary emission of He 585 Å. The helium is embedded in an absorbing atmosphere of H2 and since it is heavier than the background atmosphere, it's concentration falls off rapidly above the homopause. The scattering region (i.e. where the absorption optical depth in H2 is < ~1) generally lies well above the homopause. As the eddy diffusion coefficient, Kzz, increases in the middle atmosphere, relatively more helium is mixed into the scattering region and thus the reflected intensity increases. The principal parameter involved in determining the He 584 Å albedo are the He volume mixing ratio, f, well below the homopause, and Kzz, (which will generally be a function of altitude), the solar He 584 Å flux and line shape, and the atmospheric temperature profile. The main science objective discussed is the estimation of the helium mixing ratio in the lower atmosphere. Specifically, He emissions come from above the homopause where τ =1 in H2 and therefore the interpretation depends mainly on two parameters: He mixing ratio of the lower atmosphere and Kzz. The occultations of Koskinen et al (2015) give Kzz with an accuracy that has never been possible before and the combination of occultations and airglow therefore provide estimates of the mixing ratio in the lower atmosphere. We have made these estimates at several locations that can be reasonably studied with both occultations and airglow and then average the results. Our results point to a greatly improved estimate of the mixing ratio of He in the upper atmosphere and below. The second topic addressed is regarding constraining the dynamics in the atmosphere by using the estimate of the He mixing ratio from the main objective. Once we have an

  10. Imaging Protoplanets: Observing Transition Disks with Non-Redundant Masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallum, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Transition disks - protoplanetary disks with inner, solar system sized clearings - may be shaped by young planets. Directly imaging protoplanets in these objects requires high contrast and resolution, making them promising targets for future extremely large telescopes. The interferometric technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) is well suited for these observations, enabling companion detection for contrasts of 1:100 - 1:1000 at or within the diffraction limit. My dissertation focuses on searching for and characterizing companions in transition disk clearings using NRM. I will briefly describe the technique and present spatially resolved observations of the T Cha and LkCa 15 transition disks. Both of these objects hosted posited substellar companions. However multi-epoch T Cha datasets cannot be explained by planets orbiting in the disk plane. Conversely, LkCa 15 data taken with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in single-aperture mode reveal the presence of multiple forming planets. The dual aperture LBT will provide triple the angular resolution of these observations, dramatically increasing the phase space for exoplanet detection. I will also present new results from the dual-aperture LBT, with similar resolution to that expected for next generation facilities like GMT.

  11. Images of Bottomside Irregularities Observed at Topside Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; Shomo, S. R.; Roddy, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    We have analyzed plasma and field measurements acquired by the Communication/ Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during an eight-hour interval on 13 - 14 January 2010 when strong to moderate 250 MHz scintillation activity was observed at nearby Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) ground stations. C/NOFS consistently detected relatively small-scale density and electric field irregularities embedded within large-scale (~100 km) structures at topside altitudes. Significant spectral power measured at the Fresnel (~1 km) scale size suggests that C/NOFS was magnetically conjugate to bottomside irregularities similar to those directly responsible for the observed scintillations. Simultaneous ion drift and plasma density measurements indicate three distinct types of large-scale irregularities: (1) upward moving depletions, (2) downward moving depletions, and (3) upward moving density enhancements. The first type has the characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles, the second and third do not. The data suggest that both they and embedded small-scale irregularities may be regarded as Alfvénic images of bottomside irregularities. This interpretation is consistent with predictions of previously reported theoretical modeling and with satellite observations of upward directed Poynting flux in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  12. Images of bottomside irregularities observed at topside altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.; Gentile, Louise C.; Shomo, Shannon R.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2012-03-01

    We analyzed plasma and field measurements acquired by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during an eight-hour period on 13-14 January 2010 when strong to moderate 250 MHz scintillation activity was observed at nearby Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) ground stations. C/NOFS consistently detected relatively small-scale density and electric field irregularities embedded within large-scale (˜100 km) structures at topside altitudes. Significant spectral power measured at the Fresnel (˜1 km) scale size suggests that C/NOFS was magnetically conjugate to bottomside irregularities similar to those directly responsible for the observed scintillations. Simultaneous ion drift and plasma density measurements indicate three distinct types of large-scale irregularities: (1) upward moving depletions, (2) downward moving depletions, and (3) upward moving density enhancements. The first type has the characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles; the second and third do not. The data suggest that both downward moving depletions and upward moving density enhancements and the embedded small-scale irregularities may be regarded as Alfvénic images of bottomside irregularities. This interpretation is consistent with predictions of previously reported theoretical modeling and with satellite observations of upward-directed Poynting flux in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  13. ASCA solid state imaging spectrometer observations of O stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Waldron, W. L.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Chen, W.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Torrii, K.; Kitamoto, S.; Muira, N.; Egoshi, M.; Ohno, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We report ASCA Solid State Imaging Spectrometer (SIS) x-ray observations of the O stars delta Ori and lambda Ori. The energy resolution of the SIS allows us to resolve features in the O star x-ray spectra which are not apparent in spectra obtained by x-ray spectrometers with lower energy resolution. SIS spectra from both stars show evidence of line emission, suggesting the thermal nature of the x-ray source. However, the observed line strengths are different for the two stars. The observed stellar x-ray spectra are not well described by isothermal models although absorbed thermal emission models with two or more temperatures can provide an adequate fit to the data. For both stars we present evidence of absorbing columns significantly larger than the known ISM columns, indicative of absorption by a circumstellar medium, presumably the stellar winds. In addition, the lambda Ori spectrum shows the presence of emission at energies greater than 3 keV which is not seen in the delta Ori spectrum.

  14. Images of Bottomside Irregularities Observed at Topside Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, William J.; Gentile, Louise C.; Shomo, Shannon R.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plasma and field measurements acquired by the Communication/ Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during an eight-hour period on 13-14 January 2010 when strong to moderate 250 MHz scintillation activity was observed at nearby Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) ground stations. C/NOFS consistently detected relatively small-scale density and electric field irregularities embedded within large-scale (approx 100 km) structures at topside altitudes. Significant spectral power measured at the Fresnel (approx 1 km) scale size suggests that C/NOFS was magnetically conjugate to bottomside irregularities similar to those directly responsible for the observed scintillations. Simultaneous ion drift and plasma density measurements indicate three distinct types of large-scale irregularities: (1) upward moving depletions, (2) downward moving depletions, and (3) upward moving density enhancements. The first type has the characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles; the second and third do not. The data suggest that both downward moving depletions and upward moving density enhancements and the embedded small-scale irregularities may be regarded as Alfvenic images of bottomside irregularities. This interpretation is consistent with predictions of previously reported theoretical modeling and with satellite observations of upward-directed Poynting flux in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  15. Ionospheric and Thermospheric Imaging from Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, R. P.; Wood, K.; Dymond, K. F.; Thonnard, S. E.; Cannon, K.; Makela, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Office of Naval Research is sponsoring the development of an ultraviolet imaging system to test the concept of real-time synoptic observations of the ionosphere and thermosphere from geosynchronous orbit. The observational hardware consists of two ultraviolet telescopes mounted to a two-axis gimbal to measure airglow radiances on the disk and limb of the Earth. A far-ultraviolet telescope will use a filter wheel with filters to image atomic oxygen emission at 130.4 nm, 135.6 nm, and molecular nitrogen emission at 143.0 nm. An extreme-ultraviolet telescope will image the oxygen ion airglow at 83.4 nm. The oxygen emission measurements will be used to infer nightside ionospheric total electron content (TEC) on the disk and electron density profiles on the limb. On the dayside the oxygen ion measurements will be used to determine electron density profiles, and the oxygen and nitrogen measurements will be used to infer thermospheric neutral density profiles on the limb and O/N2 ratios on the disk. The telescope fields of view cover a 1000 km x 1000 km region with 10 km x 10 km resolution. A goal for nightside TEC measurements is to obtain images with 100 second integrations and to be able to track ionospheric irregularities in real time as "weather systems". Ratios of oxygen nightglow measurements will be used to explore the possibility of providing three dimensional measurements of the ionosphere. These telescopes will be mounted aboard an Air Force Space Test Program satellite which will be launched into geosynchronous orbit over the continental U. S. for about year and then moved over the Indian Ocean for an additional seven years.

  16. Instrument for the monochromatic observation of all sky auroral images.

    PubMed

    Mende, S B; Eather, R H; Aamodt, E K

    1977-06-01

    To investigate the dynamics of auroras and faint upper atmospheric emissions, a new type of imaging instrument was developed. The instrument is a wide field of view, narrow-spectral-band imaging system using an intensified S.E.C. TV camera in a time exposure mode. Pictures were taken at very low light levels of a few photons per exposure per resolution element. These pictures are displayed in the form of a pseudocolor presentation in which the color represents spectral ratios of two of the observed auroral spectral emission features. The spectral ratios play an important part in the interpretation of auroral particle dynamics. A digital picture processing facility is also part of the system which enables the digital manppulation of the pictures at standard TV rates. As an example, hydrogen auroras can be displayed having been corrected for nonspectral background by subtracting a picture obtained by a suitable background filter. The instrumentation was calibrated in the laboratory and was used in several field xperiments. Elaborate exposure sequences were developed to extend the dynamic range and to cover the large range of auroral brightnesses in a fairly linear manner.

  17. VISPO project: visible image-spectrometer for planetary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchiorri, R.; Capaccioni, F.; Coradini, A.; Filacchione, G.; Piccioni, G.; De Petris, M.

    2004-10-01

    Satellite instrumentations designed for planetary studies are often open to other interesting applications from ground: not only one can efficiently carry out detailed calibrations before space data become available, but also the prototypes of the satellite instruments can be successfully employed in different fields ranging from astrophysics to cosmology. Both possibilities are opened by coupling these instruments with ground based telescopes having short focal ratios, like those designed for far infrared studies. These possibilities are particularly amazing in view of the long delay usually present between the launch and the collection of the first scientific data (months in case of Mars Express, years in case of Rosetta). We propose in this article to employ immediately this technology, by coupling the developing model of the Image-Spectrometer VIRTIS-M with the ground telescope MITO. This project will allow us to perform a better calibration of the space qualified instrument and observational campaigns, including some important cosmological investigations.

  18. BATMAN flies: a compact spectro-imager for space observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Ilbert, Olivier; Zoubian, Julien; Delsanti, Audrey; Boissier, Samuel; Lancon, Ariane

    2014-08-01

    BATMAN flies is a compact spectro-imager based on MOEMS for generating reconfigurable slit masks, and feeding two arms in parallel. The FOV is 25 x 12 arcmin2 for a 1m telescope, in infrared (0.85-1.7μm) and 500-1000 spectral resolution. Unique science cases for Space Observation are reachable with this deep spectroscopic multi-survey instrument: deep survey of high-z galaxies down to H=25 on 5 deg2 with continuum detection and all z>7 candidates at H=26.2 over 5 deg2; deep survey of young stellar clusters in nearby galaxies; deep survey of the Kuiper Belt of ALL known objects down to H=22. Pathfinder towards BATMAN in space is already running with ground-based demonstrators.

  19. Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst Observed by IMAGE and Geotail Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Hashimoto, KoZo; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Boardson, Scott A.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Green, James L.; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the simultaneous detection of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) by IMAGE and Geotail on 19 August 2001. The TMRB was confined in time (0830-1006 UT) and frequency (12-50kHz). Comparisons with all known nonthermal myriametric radiation components reveal that the TMRB might be a distinct radiation with a source that is unrelated to the previously known radiation. Considerations of beaming from spin-modulation analysis and observing satellite and source locations suggest that the TMRB may have a fan beamlike radiation pattern emitted by a discrete, dayside source located along the poleward edge of magnetospheric cusp field lines. TMRB responsiveness to IMF Bz and By orientations suggests that a possible source of the TMRB could be due to dayside magnetic reconnection instigated by northward interplanetary field condition.

  20. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  1. Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  2. Galileo imaging observations of Lunar Maria and related deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kadel, Steven D.; Williams, David A.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Head, James W.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nagel, Engelbert; Neukum, Gerhard; Pieters, Carle M.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Wagner, Roland; Belton, Michael J. S.

    The Galileo spacecraft imaged parts of the western limb and far side of the Moon in December 1990. Ratios of 0.41/0.56 μm filter images from the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment provided information on the titanium content of mare deposits; ratios of the 0.76/0.99 μm images indicated 1 μm absorptions associated with Fe2+ in mafic minerals. Mare ages were derived from crater statistics obtained from Lunar Orbiter images. Results on mare compositions in western Oceanus Procellarum and the Humorum basin are consistent with previous Earth-based observations, thus providing confidence in the use of Galileo data to extract compositional information. Mare units in the Grimaldi and Riccioli basins range in age from 3.25 to 3.48 Ga and consist of medium- to medium-high titanium (<4 to 7% TiO2) content lavas. The Schiller-Zucchius basin shows a higher 0.76/0.99 μm ratio than the surrounding highlands, indicating a potentially higher mafic mineral content consistent with previous interpretations that the area includes mare deposits blanketed by highland ejecta and light plains materials. The oldest mare materials in the Orientale basin occur in south-central Mare Orientale and are 3.7 Ga old; youngest mare materials are in Lacus Autumni and are 2.85 Ga old; these units are medium- to medium-high titanium (<4 to 7% TiO2) basalts. Thus, volcanism was active in Orientale for 0.85 Ga, but lavas were relatively constant in composition. Galileo data suggest that Mendel-Rydberg mare is similar to Mare Orientale; cryptomare are present as well. Thus, the mare lavas on the western limb and far side (to 178°E) are remarkably uniform in composition, being generally of medium- to medium-high titanium content and having relatively low 0.76/0.99 μm ratios. This region of the Moon is between two postulated large impact structures, the Procellarum and the South Pole-Aitken basins, and may have a relatively thick crust. In areas underlain by an inferred thinner crust, i.e., zones

  3. Radio imaging observations of hard x-ray microflares observed by RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, M.; Trottet, G.; Garaimov, V.; Grigis, P.

    We describe the properties of two sets of microflares observed simultaneously by RHESSI (Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) in hard X-rays and by two radio imaging instruments--NoRH (Nobeyama Radio Heliograph) in microwaves (17 GHz) and NRH (Nancay Radio Heliograph) at metric wavelengths. The two sets of events occurred in two different time zones, and as a result we do not have simultaneous imaging data in microwaves and metric wavlengths for the same RHESSI events. We'll discuss four events--two observed by NoRH in microwaves and two observed by NRH in meter waves, along with RHESSI events. The microwave (17 GHz) events occurred in AR 9934 at 03:58 UT May 3, 2002 and at 05:08 UT May 4, 2002. We have detected microwave (17 & 34 GHz) emissions in association with RHESSI microflares in the energy range 3-50 keV. The microwave emission comes from footpoints for higher energies, and from the entire mini or small flaring loop for lower energies. The relative positions of microwaves and hard X-rays are as they should be in normal flares. Sometimes the two sources coincide, at other times the two sources are at opposite ends of the flaring loop. One sees the mini flaring loops clearly in NoRH images. RHESSI maps at the time of maximum X-ray emission during the event of May 3, 2002 clearly show an X-ray loop in the range 3-6 keV and two footpoints of the loop in the 6-12 and 12-25 keV ranges. These footpoints are located above opposite magnetic polarities as seen in overlays of hard X-ray images on the MDI images. The MDI magnetograms taken before the microflares show rapid evolution of the magnetic field, including sometimes the emergence of a new region. The hard X-ray spectrum of microwave associated RHESSI microflares can be fit by a thermal component (EM ˜ 3× 1046 cm-3) at low energies (3-6 keV) and a nonthermal component (with slope -3.2) at higher energies. The two metric events imaged by NRH occurred on August 5 and September 3, 2003, one located on

  4. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Imaging Performance On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes the on-orbit imaging performance of the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 satellite. The pre-flight calibrations are first summarized. The methods used to reconstruct and geometrically correct the image data from this push-broom sensor are described. The method used here does not refer to the position and attitude telemetry from the spacecraft. Rather, it is assumed that the image of the scene moves across the focal plane with a constant velocity, which can be ascertained from the image data itself. Next, an assortment of the images so reconstructed is presented. Color images sharpened with the 10-m panchromatic band data are shown, and the algorithm for producing them from the 30-m multispectral data is described. The approach taken for assessing spatial resolution is to compare the sharpness of features in the on-orbit image data with profiles predicted on the basis of the pre-flight calibrations. A large assortment of bridge profiles is analyzed, and very good fits to the predicted shapes are obtained. Lunar calibration scans are analyzed to examine the sharpness of the edge-spread function at the limb of the moon. The darkness of the space beyond the limb is better for this purpose than anything that could be simulated on the ground. From these scans, we find clear evidence of scattering in the optical system, as well as some weak ghost images. Scans of planets and stars are also analyzed. Stars are useful point sources of light at all wavelengths, and delineate the point-spread functions of the system. From a quarter-speed scan over the Pleiades, we find that the ALI can detect 6th magnitude stars. The quality of the reconstructed images verifies the capability of the ALI to produce Landsat-type multi spectral data. The signal-to-noise and panchromatic spatial resolution are considerably superior to those of the existing Landsat sensors. The spatial resolution is confirmed to be as good as it was designed to be.

  5. The VIRMOS deep imaging survey. IV. Near-infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Garilli, B.; Foucaud, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Saracco, P.; Bardelli, S.; Busarello, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.; Paioro, L.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bertin, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Gregorini, L.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we present a new deep, wide-field near-infrared imaging survey. Our J- and K-band observations in four separate fields (0226-04, 2217+00, 1003+02, 1400+05) complement optical BVRI, ultraviolet and spectroscopic observations undertaken as part of the VIMOS-VLT deep survey (VVDS). In total, our survey spans ~400 arcmin2. Our catalogues are reliable in all fields to at least K˜20.75 and J˜21.50 (defined as the magnitude where object contamination is less than 10% and completeness greater than 90%). Taken together these four fields represents a unique combination of depth, wavelength coverage and area. Most importantly, our survey regions span a broad range of right ascension and declination which allow us to make a robust estimate of the effects of cosmic variance. We describe the complete data reduction process from raw observations to the construction of source lists and outline a comprehensive series of tests carried out to characterise the reliability of the final catalogues. From simulations we determine the completeness function of each final stacked image, and estimate the fraction of spurious sources in each magnitude bin. We compare the statistical properties of our catalogues with literature compilations. We find that our J- and K-selected galaxy counts are in good agreement with previously published works, as are our (J-K) versus K colour-magnitude diagrams. Stellar number counts extracted from our fields are consistent with a synthetic model of our galaxy. Using the location of the stellar locus in colour-magnitude space and the measured field-to-field variation in galaxy number counts we demonstrate that the absolute accuracy of our photometric calibration is at the 5% level or better. Finally, an investigation of the angular clustering of K-selected extended sources in our survey displays the expected scaling behaviour with limiting magnitude, with amplitudes in each magnitude bin in broad agreement with literature values. In summary

  6. Estimating the electron energy distribution during ionospheric modification from spectrographic airglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Varney, R. H.; Vlasov, M. N.; Nossa, E.; Watkins, B.; Pedersen, T.; Huba, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    The electron energy distribution during an F region ionospheric modification experiment at the HAARP facility near Gakona, Alaska, is inferred from spectrographic airglow emission data. Emission lines at 630.0, 557.7, and 844.6 nm are considered along with the absence of detectable emissions at 427.8 nm. Estimating the electron energy distribution function from the airglow data is a problem in classical linear inverse theory. We describe an augmented version of the method of Backus and Gilbert which we use to invert the data. The method optimizes the model resolution, the precision of the mapping between the actual electron energy distribution and its estimate. Here, the method has also been augmented so as to limit the model prediction error. Model estimates of the suprathermal electron energy distribution versus energy and altitude are incorporated in the inverse problem formulation as representer functions. Our methodology indicates a heater-induced electron energy distribution with a broad peak near 5 eV that decreases approximately exponentially by 30 dB between 5-50 eV.

  7. Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.

    PubMed

    Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

    2014-09-10

    Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ∼87  km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ∼1.5  μm) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (∼0.5  km) and temporal (typically 30″) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ∼87  km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument.

  8. Airglow and aurora in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. L.

    Measurements and models of the luminosity that originates in the Martian and Venusian atmospheres, including dayglow, nightglow and aurora, are compared. Most of the emission features considered appear in the UV and visible regions of the spectrum and arise from electronic transitions of thermospheric species. Spatially and temporally variable intensities of the oxygen 1304 and 1356 A lines have been observed on the nightside of Venus and have been labeled 'auroral', that is, ascribed to electron precipitation. Only a future aeronomy mission to Mars could unequivocally determine whether such emissions are present on the nightside of Mars.

  9. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Not only are scientific objectives and instrument characteristics given of a calibrated optical LIS for the EOS but also for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) which was designed to acquire and study the distribution and variability of total lightning on a global basis. The LIS can be traced to a lightning mapper sensor planned for flight on the GOES meteorological satellites. The LIS consists of a staring imager optimized to detect and locate lightning. The LIS will detect and locate lightning with storm scale resolution (i.e., 5 to 10 km) over a large region of the Earth's surface along the orbital track of the satellite, mark the time of occurrence of the lightning, and measure the radiant energy. The LIS will have a nearly uniform 90 pct. detection efficiency within the area viewed by the sensor, and will detect intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges during day and night conditions. Also, the LIS will monitor individual storms and storm systems long enough to obtain a measure of the lightning flashing rate when they are within the field of view of the LIS. The LIS attributes include low cost, low weight and power, low data rate, and important science. The LIS will study the hydrological cycle, general circulation and sea surface temperature variations, along with examinations of the electrical coupling of thunderstorms with the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and observations and modeling of the global electric circuit.

  10. H I Imaging Observations of Superthin Galaxies. I. UGC 7321

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uson, Juan M.; Matthews, L. D.

    2003-05-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to image the isolated ``superthin'' galaxy UGC 7321 in the H I line with a spatial resolution of 16" and a spectral resolution of 24 kHz (5.2 km s-1). We have reached a sensitivity of (0.36-0.40) mJy beam-1 channel-1, which correspond to a column density of (8-9)×1018 atoms cm-2 (1 σ). UGC 7321 has a gas-rich disk, with MHI=(1.06+/-0.01)×109 d210 Msolar and MHI/LB=1.0 (d10 is the distance to UGC 7321 in units of 10 Mpc, the value adopted in this paper), and no detectable radio continuum emission (FCONT=0.41+/-0.25 mJy). The global H I distribution of UGC 7321 is rather symmetric and extends to ~1.5 times the optical radius (DHI=8.65‧+/-0.15‧ at nHI=3×1019 atoms cm-2). An ``integral sign'' warp is observed in the H I disk, commencing near the edge of the stellar distribution and twisting back toward the equatorial plane in the outermost regions. In addition, the position-velocity diagram suggests the presence of a bar or inner arm within ~40" from the center. The rotation curve of UGC 7321 is slowly rising; it reaches its asymptotic velocity of ~110 km s-1 at ~2.5‧ from the center (about 0.9 optical radii) and declines near the edge of the H I disk. The ratio of the inferred dynamical mass to the mass in gas and stars is ~12d-110, implying that UGC 7321 is a highly dark-matter-dominated galaxy.

  11. T he Analysis of the seasonal variations of equatorial plasma bubble, occurrence observed from Oukaimeden Observatory, Morroco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amine, Lagheryeb; Zouhair, Benkhaldoun; Jonathan, Makela; Mohamed, Kaab; Aziza, Bounhir; Brian, Hardin; Dan, Fisher; Tmuthy, Duly

    2016-04-01

    T he Analysis of the seasonal variations of equatorial plasma bubble, occurrence using the 630.0 nm airglow images collected by the PICASSO imager deployed at the Oukkaimden observatory in Morocco. Data have been taken since November 2013 to december 2015. We show the monthly average of appearance of EPBs. A maximum probability for bubble development is seen in the data in January and between late February and early March. We also observe that there are a maximum period of appearance where the plasma is observed (3-5 nights successivies) and we will discuss its connection with the solar activity in storm time. Future analysis will compare the probability of bubble occurrence in our site with the data raised in other observation sites.

  12. Ideal-observer computation in medical imaging with use of Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques.

    PubMed

    Kupinski, Matthew A; Hoppin, John W; Clarkson, Eric; Barrett, Harrison H

    2003-03-01

    The ideal observer sets an upper limit on the performance of an observer on a detection or classification task. The performance of the ideal observer can be used to optimize hardware components of imaging systems and also to determine another observer's relative performance in comparison with the best possible observer. The ideal observer employs complete knowledge of the statistics of the imaging system, including the noise and object variability. Thus computing the ideal observer for images (large-dimensional vectors) is burdensome without severely restricting the randomness in the imaging system, e.g., assuming a flat object. We present a method for computing the ideal-observer test statistic and performance by using Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques when we have a well-characterized imaging system, knowledge of the noise statistics, and a stochastic object model. We demonstrate the method by comparing three different parallel-hole collimator imaging systems in simulation.

  13. Observation of pressure ridges in SAR images of sea ice: Scattering theory and comparison with observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Daida, J. M.; Shuchman, R. A.; Onstott, R. H.; Camiso, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Ridges and keels (hummocks and bummocks) in sea ice flows are important in sea ice research for both scientific and practical reasons. Sea ice movement and deformation is driven by internal and external stresses on the ice. Ridges and keels play important roles in both cases because they determine the external wind and current stresses via drag coefficients. For example, the drag coefficient over sea ice can vary by a factor of several depending on the fluid mechanical roughness length of the surface. This roughness length is thought to be strongly dependent on the ridge structures present. Thus, variations in ridge and keel structure can cause gradients in external stresses which must be balanced by internal stresses and possibly fracture of the ice. Ridging in sea ice is also a sign of fracture. In a practical sense, large ridges form the biggest impediment to surface travel over the ice or penetration through sea ice by ice-strengthened ships. Ridges also play an important role in the damage caused by sea ice to off-shore structures. Hence, observation and measurement of sea ice ridges is an important component of sea ice remote sensing. The research reported here builds on previous work, estimating the characteristics of ridges and leads in sea ice from SAR images. Our objective is to develop methods for quantitative measurement of sea ice ridges from SAR images. To make further progress, in particular, to estimate ridge height, a scattering model for ridges is needed. Our research approach for a ridge scattering model begins with a survey of the geometrical properties of ridges and a comparison with the characteristics of the surrounding ice. For this purpose we have used airborne optical laser (AOL) data collected during the 1987 Greenland Sea Experiment. These data were used to generate a spatial wavenumber spectrum for height variance for a typical ridge - the typical ridge is the average over 10 large ridges. Our first-order model radar scattering includes

  14. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Inital Observations and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Robinson, M. L.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Bean, K. M.; Beegle, L. W.; Carsten, J. L.; Collins, C. L.; Cooper, B.; Deen, R. G.; Gupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel focusable macro lens color camera on the turret on Curiosity's robotic arm. The investigation centers on stratigraphy, grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials at Curiosity's Gale robotic field site. MAHLI acquires focused images at working distances of 2.1 cm to infinity; for reference, at 2.1 cm the scale is 14 microns/pixel; at 6.9 cm it is 31 microns/pixel, like the Spirit and Opportunity Microscopic Imager (MI) cameras.

  15. Dynamics of the Polar Mesopause and Lower Thermosphere Region as Observed in the Night Airglow Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Seasonal variations are mainly dealt with in paper 4.6, 4.7 and 4.10. Paper 4.10 also treats differences in the morphological behaviour of the odd...ci simultaceous tempera- soIlar time or solar depresion angle i5"). The norm snd OH and sodium intensity variations, lack of data between 10O0 and 2100

  16. Novel Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission Observations with Artificial Airglow Using RF Excitation with HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Michell, R.; Hampton, D. L.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral hydrogen plays an important role in determining the state of the plasmasphere and its response to forcing from geomagnetic storms. Hydrogen's solar cycle variation is counterintuitive: there is more hydrogen at solar minimum at 300 km that there is at solar maximum. Similarly there is more hydrogen in winter than in summer and hydrogen density maximizes in the morning. In this presentation we describe these variations and consider some possible causes for them.

  17. Low energy neutral atom imaging: Remote observations of the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.; Moore, K.R.

    1995-02-01

    Recent developments in detection of neutral atom imaging should enable imaging the global structure and dynamics of the terrestrial magnetosphere. The inherent technical challenge of imaging low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) with energy < 30 keV is their separation from the tremendous UV background, to which LENA detectors are sensitive, without loss of information of LENA trajectory and energy. Three instrument concepts for separating LENAs from the background UV are presented: LENA charge conversion via transmission through an ultrathin carbon foil and subsequent electrostatic deflection, EUV grating polarizers and attenuators, and high frequency shutters. Each of these concepts can be mated to a detector section that provides both LENA imaging capability and coincidence/time-of-flight.

  18. The nonlinear thermodynamics of meteors, noctilucent clouds, enhanced airglow and global atmospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajchl, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of fundamental topological junctions of elements are deduced from a nonlinear thermodynamical model. Using this scheme, the possibility of a causal relation between fireballs and faint meteors as nonlinear sources on the one hand, and noctilucent clouds (NC) and Hoffmeister's enhanced airglow (EA) as complementary formative processes in the middle atmosphere and ionosphere, on the other hand, is examined. The principal role of the global atmospheric circulation in this relation is demonstrated. Such circulation in the mesosphere appears to prevent the neutral dust dissipated by fireballs from becoming an efficient agent in NLC generation. In this case, the behavior of ionized material deposited by both the bright and faint meteors is more probably controlled, as shown from the annual variation of the E sub s layer by the darkness of lunar eclipses and the global circulation of the lower thermosphere. The role of fireballs and neutral dust might be more significant as a source of EA phenomenon.

  19. Planetary instrument definition and development program: 'Miniature Monochromatic Imager'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadfoot, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The miniature monochromatic imager (MMI) development work became the basis for the preparation of several instruments which were built and flown on the shuttle STS-39 as well as being used in ground based experiments. The following subject areas are covered: (1) applications of the ICCD to airglow and auroral measurements and (2) a panchromatic spectrograph with supporting monochromatic imagers.

  20. Observations of Beta Pictoris b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, J.; Graham, J.; Barman, T.; Fitzgerald, M.; Larkin, J.; Macintosh, B.; Bauman, B.; Burrows, A.; Cardwell, A.; De Rosa, R.; Dillon, D.; Doyon, R.; Dunn, J.; Erikson, D.; Gavel, D.; Goodsell, S.; Hartung, M.; Hibon, P.; Ingraham, P.; Kalas, P.; Konopacky, Q.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Marley, M.; Mcbride, J.; Millar-Blanchaer, M.; Morzinski, K.; Norton, A.; Oppenheimer, B.; Palmer, D.; Patience, J.; Pueyo, L.; Rantakyro, F.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Savransky, D.; Serio, A.; Soummer, R.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Thomas, S.; Wallace, K.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Wolff, S.

    2014-09-01

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we present measurements of the planetary companion to the nearby young star beta Pic. GPI is a facility class instrument located at Gemini South designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. We present the current imaged spectrum and atmospheric models of the planet based upon GPI's R ˜50 integral field spectrograph. Further, we present a joint analysis of the GPI and NACO astrometry, and the Snellen et al. (2014) radial velocity measurement of beta Pic b that provides the first constraint on the argument of periastron, providing a causal link to the infalling, evaporating bodies.

  1. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Gregory S.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Cheng, Kwang P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gull, Theodore P.; Hintzen, Paul; Isensee, Joan E.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1992-01-01

    We obtained ultraviolet images of the Crab Nebula with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission in 1990 December. The UV continuum morphology of the Crab is generally similar to that in the optical region, but the wispy structures are less conspicuous in the UV and X-ray. UV line emission from the thermal filaments is not strong. UV spectral index maps with a resolution of 10 arcsecs show a significant gradient across the nebula, with the outer parts being redder, as expected from synchrotron losses. The location of the bluest synchrotron continuum does not coincide with the pulsar.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

  3. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Gregory S.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Cheng, Kwang P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hintzen, Paul; Isensee, Joan E.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-08-01

    We obtained ultraviolet images of the Crab Nebula with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope during the Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission in 1990 December. The UV continuum morphology of the Crab is generally similar to that in the optical region, but the wispy structures are less conspicuous in the UV and X-ray. UV line emission from the thermal filaments is not strong. UV spectral index maps with a resolution of 10 arcsecs show a significant gradient across the nebula, with the outer parts being redder, as expected from synchrotron losses. The location of the bluest synchrotron continuum does not coincide with the pulsar.

  4. Study and Removal of the Interference Fringes in Images Observed by the Imaging System of NVST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. B.; Xu, Z.; Xiang, Y. Y.; Jin, Z. Y.

    2016-09-01

    The 1-meter New Vacuum Solar Telescope is a new generation ground-based solar observation facility of China, located at the FuXian-Lake Solar Observatory of Yunnan Observatories. One of its instrumentations is a five-channel high-resolution image system, while the Hα-channel is used as the traditional way for solar chromospheric observation. Using a pco.4000 CCD as the detector, we usually observe complicated fringes resulted from the thin-film interference in scientific data. These fringes can not be eliminated completely by flat-field calibration, and even be intensified after image reconstruction processes. From about 4-hour continuous Hα off-band observations, we study the temporal-variation of the fringe pattern and amplitude. We find that in contrast to the stable pattern, the fringe amplitude obviously changed with time. The visibility increases 9 times over 4 hours. We speculate that it is due to the temporal-variation of the incident light intensity and the direction with respect to the CCD position. Consequently, we suggest two methods to calibrate or eliminate the fringes. On one hand, we suggest to change the CCD inner-glass-window to a wedge-shape with a wedge-angle of about 2 degree in order to reduce the fringe-interval to a CCD pixel size. It is shown that this change can eliminate the majority of fringes. Only few fringes with the visibility of 0.6% can be found in 1/24 of field-of-view. On the other hand, we make efforts to eliminate the fringes by correcting the data using a so-called fringe-flat again after the normal data reduction (flat-field and dark-field modification). A fringe-flat is extracted from the data by using a Fourier filtering technique in frequency domain or a median-filter in space domain, and both produce a very similar result. We find that the corrected data using the fringe-flat produces a substantial reduction in the fringe amplitude with the visibility decreasing to about 1/8. However, we have to point out that there

  5. Dust Transport and Deposition Observed from the Terra-Moderate Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Space Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Meteorological observations, in situ data and satellite images of dust episodes were used already in the 1970s to estimate that 100 tg of dust are transported from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean every year between June and August and deposited in the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas. Desert dust is a main source of nutrients to oceanic biota and the Amazon forest, but deteriorates air quality and caries pathogens as shown for Florida. Dust affects the Earth radiation budget, thus participating in climate change and feedback mechanisms. There is an urgent need for new tools for quantitative evaluation of the dust distribution, transport and deposition. The Terra spacecraft launched at the dawn of the last millennium provides first systematic well calibrated multispectral measurements from the MODIS instrument, for daily global analysis of aerosol. MODIS data are used here to distinguish dust from smoke and maritime aerosols and evaluate the African dust column concentration, transport and deposition. We found that 230 plus or minus 80 tg of dust are transported annually from Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, 30 tg return to Africa and Europe, 70 tg reach the Caribbean, 45 tg fertilize the Amazon Basin, 4 times as previous estimates thus explaining a paradox regarding the source of nutrition to the Amazon forest, and 120 plus or minus 40 tg are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The results are compared favorably with dust transport models for particle radius less than or equal to 12 microns. This study is a first example of quantitative use of MODIS aerosol for a geophysical study.

  6. Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

  7. Angioscopic image-enhanced observation of atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Nagao, R.; Matsui, D.; Awazu, K.

    2015-02-01

    Spectroscopic techniques have been researched for intravascular diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque. Nearinfrared (NIR) light efficiently penetrates of biological tissues, and the NIR region contains the characteristic absorption range of lipid-rich plaques. The objective of this study is to observe atherosclerotic plaque using a NIR multispectral angioscopic imaging. Atherosclerotic plaque phantoms were prepared using a biological tissue model and bovine fat. For the study, we developed an NIR multispectral angioscopic imaging system with a halogen light, mercury-cadmiumtelluride camera, band-pass filters and an image fiber. Apparent spectral absorbance was obtained at three wavelengths, 1150, 1200 and 1300 nm. Multispectral images of the phantom were constructed using the spectral angle mapper algorithm. As a result, the lipid area, which was difficult to observe in a visible image, could be clearly observed in a multispectral image. Our results show that image-enhanced observation and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque by NIR multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a promising angioscopic technique with the potential to identify lipid-rich plaques.

  8. Observation angle and plane characterisation for ISAR imaging of LEO space objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Fu, Tuo; Chen, Defeng; Gao, Meiguo

    2016-07-01

    For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of low Earth orbit (LEO) space objects, examining the variations in the image plane of the object over the entire visible arc period allows more direct characterisation of the variations in the object imaging. In this study, the ideal turntable model was extended to determine the observation geometry of near-circular LEO objects. Two approximations were applied to the observation model to calculate the image plane's normal and observation angles for near-circular orbit objects. One approximation treats the orbit of the space object as a standard arc relative to the Earth during the radar observation period, and the other omits the effect of the rotation of the Earth on the observations. First, the closed-form solution of the image plane normal in various attitude-stabilisation approaches was determined based on geometric models. The characteristics of the image plane and the observation angle of the near-circular orbit object were then analysed based on the common constraints of the radar line-of-sight (LOS). Subsequently, the variations in the image plane and the geometric constraints of the ISAR imaging were quantified. Based on the image plane's normal, the rotational angular velocity of the radar LOS was estimated. The cross-range direction of the ISAR image was then calibrated. Three-dimensional imaging was then reconstructed based on dual station interferometry. Finally, simulations were performed to verify the result of the three-dimensional interferometric reconstruction and to calculate the reconstruction's precision errors.

  9. Flight Test Results of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Hearn, David R.; Digenis, Constantine J.

    2002-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft (EO-1) and was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture, which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field-of-view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The sensor includes detector arrays that operate in ten bands, one panchromatic, six VNIR and three SWIR, spanning the range from 0.433 to 2.35 μm. Launched on November 21, 2000, ALI instrument performance was monitored during its first year on orbit using data collected during solar, lunar, stellar, and earth observations. This paper will provide an overview of EO-1 mission activities during this period. Additionally, the on-orbit spatial and radiometric performance of the instrument will be compared to pre-flight measurements and the temporal stability of ALI will be presented.

  10. Global Observation Information Networking: Using the Distributed Image Spreadsheet (DISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    1999-01-01

    The DISS and many other tools will be used to present visualizations which span the period from the original Suomi/Hasler animations of the first ATS-1 GEO weather satellite images in 1966 ....... to the latest 1999 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. Hot off the SGI Onyx Graphics-Supercomputers are NASA's visualizations of Hurricanes Mitch, Georges, Fran and Linda. These storms have been recently featured on the covers of National Geographic, Time, Newsweek and Popular Science and used repeatedly this season on National and International network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1-min GOES images that appeared in the November BAMS.

  11. Climatology and modeling of quasi-monochromatic atmospheric gravity waves observed over Urbana Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Hickey, M. P.; Franke, S. J.

    2001-03-01

    From analyzing nine months of airglow imaging observations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) over Adelaide, Australia (35°S) [Walterscheid et al., 1999] have proposed that many of the quasi-monochromatic waves seen in the images were primarily thermally ducted. Here are presented 15 months of observations, from February 1996 to May 1997, for AGW frequency and propagation direction from a northern latitude site, Urbana Illinois (40°N). As Adelaide, Urbana is geographically distant from large orographic features. Similar to what was found in Adelaide, the AGWs seem to originate from a preferred location during the time period around summer solstice. In conjunction with these airglow data there exists MF radar data to provide winds in the 90 km region and near-simultaneous lidar data which provide a temperature climatology. The temperature data have previously been analyzed by States and Gardner [2000]. The temperature and wind data are used here in a full wave model analysis to determine the characteristics of the wave ducting and wave reflection during the 15 month observation period. This model analysis is applied to this and another existing data set recently described by Nakamura et al. [1999]. It is shown that the existence of a thermal duct around summer solstice can plausibly account for our observations. However, the characteristics of the thermal duct and the ability of waves to be ducted is also greatly dependent on the characteristics of the background wind. A simple model is constructed to simulate the trapping of these waves by such a duct. It is suggested that the waves seen over Urbana originate no more than a few thousand kilometers from the observation site.

  12. Imaging-based observational databases for clinical problem solving: the role of informatics

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Alex A T; Hsu, William; Arnold, Corey; El-Saden, Suzie; Aberle, Denise R; Taira, Ricky K

    2013-01-01

    Imaging has become a prevalent tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, providing a unique in vivo, multi-scale view of anatomic and physiologic processes. With the increased use of imaging and its progressive technical advances, the role of imaging informatics is now evolving—from one of managing images, to one of integrating the full scope of clinical information needed to contextualize and link observations across phenotypic and genotypic scales. Several challenges exist for imaging informatics, including the need for methods to transform clinical imaging studies and associated data into structured information that can be organized and analyzed. We examine some of these challenges in establishing imaging-based observational databases that can support the creation of comprehensive disease models. The development of these databases and ensuing models can aid in medical decision making and knowledge discovery and ultimately, transform the use of imaging to support individually-tailored patient care. PMID:23775172

  13. Bit-plane-channelized hotelling observer for predicting task performance using lossy-compressed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmanske, Brian M.; Loew, Murray H.

    2003-05-01

    A technique for assessing the impact of lossy wavelet-based image compression on signal detection tasks is presented. A medical image"s value is based on its ability to support clinical decisions such as detecting and diagnosing abnormalities. Image quality of compressed images is, however, often stated in terms of mathematical metrics such as mean square error. The presented technique provides a more suitable measure of image degradation by building on the channelized Hotelling observer model, which has been shown to predict human performance of signal detection tasks in noise-limited images. The technique first decomposes an image into its constituent wavelet subband coefficient bit-planes. Channel responses for the individual subband bit-planes are computed, combined,and processed with a Hotelling observer model to provide a measure of signal detectability versus compression ratio. This allows a user to determine how much compression can be tolerated before signal detectability drops below a certain threshold.

  14. Stellar Imager - Observing the Universe in High Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV Optical Interferometer (UVOI) with over 200x the resolution of HST. It will enable 0.1 milli-arcsec spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and the Universe in general and open an enormous new 'discovery space' for Astrophysics with its combination of high angular resolution, dynamic imaging, and spectral energy resolution. SI's goal is to study the role of magnetism in the Universe and revolutionize our understanding of: 1) Solar/Stellar Magnetic Activity and their impact on Space Weather, Planetary Climates. and Life, 2) Magnetic and Accretion Processes and their roles in the Origin and Evolution of Structure and in the Transport of Matter throughout the Universe, 3) the close-in structure of Active Galactic Nuclei and their winds, and 4) Exo-Solar Planet Transits and Disks. The SI mission is targeted for the mid 2020's - thus significant technology development in the upcoming decade is critical to enabling it and future spacebased sparse aperture telescope and distributed spacecraft missions. The key technology needs include: 1) precision formation flying of many spacecraft, 2) precision metrology over km-scales, 3) closed-loop control of many-element, sparse optical arrays, 4) staged-control systems with very high dynamic ranges (nm to km-scale). It is critical that the importance of timely development of these capabilities is called out in the upcoming Astrophysics and Heliophysics Decadal Surveys, to enable the flight of such missions in the following decade. S1 is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap and a candidate UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan. It is a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen) and has also been recommended for further study in the 2008 NRC interim report on missions potentially enabled enhanced by an Ares V' launch, although a incrementally-deployed version could be launched using smaller rockets.

  15. X-ray imaging optimization using virtual phantoms and computerized observer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, I.-Y.; Winslow, M.; Yazici, B.; Xu, X. G.

    2006-09-01

    This study develops and demonstrates a realistic x-ray imaging simulator with computerized observers to maximize lesion detectability and minimize patient exposure. A software package, ViPRIS, incorporating two computational patient phantoms, has been developed for simulating x-ray radiographic images. A tomographic phantom, VIP-Man, constructed from Visible Human anatomical colour images is used to simulate the scattered portion using the ESGnrc Monte Carlo code. The primary portion of an x-ray image is simulated using the projection ray-tracing method through the Visible Human CT data set. To produce a realistic image, the software simulates quantum noise, blurring effects, lesions, detector absorption efficiency and other imaging artefacts. The primary and scattered portions of an x-ray chest image are combined to form a final image for computerized observer studies and image quality analysis. Absorbed doses in organs and tissues of the segmented VIP-Man phantom were also obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations. Approximately 25 000 simulated images and 2500 000 data files were analysed using computerized observers. Hotelling and Laguerre-Gauss Hotelling observers are used to perform various lesion detection tasks. Several model observer tasks were used including SKE/BKE, MAFC and SKEV. The energy levels and fluence at the minimum dose required to detect a small lesion were determined with respect to lesion size, location and system parameters.

  16. Observing temperature fluctuations in humans using infrared imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph; Scully, Christopher G.; Elster, Eric; Gorbach, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that functional infrared imaging is capable of detecting low frequency temperature fluctuations in intact human skin and revealing spatial, temporal, spectral, and time-frequency based differences among three tissue classes: microvasculature, large sub-cutaneous veins, and the remaining surrounding tissue of the forearm. We found that large veins have stronger contractility in the range of 0.005-0.06 Hz compared to the other two tissue classes. Wavelet phase coherence and power spectrum correlation analysis show that microvasculature and skin areas without vessels visible by IR have high phase coherence in the lowest three frequency ranges (0.005-0.0095 Hz, 0.0095-0.02 Hz, and 0.02-0.06 Hz), whereas large veins oscillate independently. PMID:23538682

  17. Three mars years: Viking lander 1 imaging observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E.A.; Moore, H.J.; Tillman, J.; Wall, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Mutch Memorial Station (Viking Lander 1) on Mars acquired imaging and meteorological data over a period of 2245 martian days (3:3 martian years). This article discusses the deposition and erosion of thin deposits (ten to hundreds of micrometers) of bright red dust associated with global dust storms, and the removal of centimeter amounts of material in selected areas during a dust storm late in the third winter. Atmospheric pressure data acquired during the period of intense erosion imply that baroclinic disturbances and strong diurnal solar tidal heating combined to produce strong winds. Erosion occurred principally in areas where soil cohesion was reduced by earlier surface sampler activities. Except for redistribution of thin layers of materials, the surface appears to be remarkably stable, perhaps because of cohesion of the undisturbed surface material.

  18. Radiometric Calibration of the Earth Observing System's Imaging Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The work on the grant was mainly directed towards developing new, accurate, redundant methods for the in-flight, absolute radiometric calibration of satellite multispectral imaging systems and refining the accuracy of methods already in use. Initially the work was in preparation for the calibration of MODIS and HIRIS (before the development of that sensor was canceled), with the realization it would be applicable to most imaging multi- or hyper-spectral sensors provided their spatial or spectral resolutions were not too coarse. The work on the grant involved three different ground-based, in-flight calibration methods reflectance-based radiance-based and diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio used with the reflectance-based method. This continuing research had the dual advantage of: (1) developing several independent methods to create the redundancy that is essential for the identification and hopefully the elimination of systematic errors; and (2) refining the measurement techniques and algorithms that can be used not only for improving calibration accuracy but also for the reverse process of retrieving ground reflectances from calibrated remote-sensing data. The grant also provided the support necessary for us to embark on other projects such as the ratioing radiometer approach to on-board calibration (this has been further developed by SBRS as the 'solar diffuser stability monitor' and is incorporated into the most important on-board calibration system for MODIS)- another example of the work, which was a spin-off from the grant funding, was a study of solar diffuser materials. Journal citations, titles and abstracts of publications authored by faculty, staff, and students are also attached.

  19. Improving Resolution and Depth of Astronomical Observations via Modern Mathematical Methods for Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M.; Ottaviani, D.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Pilo, S.; Falcone, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  20. New observations with the gamma ray imager SIGMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roques, J. P.; Vedrenne, G.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the use of the gamma ray telescope SIGMA are given. An identification and an extensive study was done of sources contributing to the emission of the Galactic center region above 30 keV. A strong line was observed at 480 keV from Nova Muscae, which may be interpreted as an annihilation line with a redshift due to the presence of a compact object. The soft x-ray tails observed by SIGMA in some transient sources already identified as soft x-ray transients might be a common characteristic of these objects and has to be explained. The unusual spectrum of NGC4151 with a break around 50 keV can characterize a particular state of this kind of object. If it is the case, it has interesting implications for the origin of the Cosmic Diffuse Background.

  1. Wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer. [measuring atmospheric emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The optical system, stepping control, phase and modulation depth, array detector, and directions sensor are described for a specialized type of Michelson interferometer which works at sufficiently high resolution to measure the line widths and Doppler shifts of naturally occurring atmospheric emissions. With its imaging capability, the instrument can potentially supply this data independently for each element of the 100 x 100 detector array. The experiment seeks: (1) to obtain vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures as functions of latitude by observing near the limb; (2) to acquire exploratory wind and temperature data on smaller scale structures in airglow irregularities and in auroral forms; and (3) to collaborate with other Spacelab experiments, such as barium cloud releases, in providing wind and temperature data.

  2. Images of Bottomside Irregularities Observed at Topside Altitudes (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-04

    launched from the disturbed region toward the quiescent con- jugate ionosphere . Adapted from Kelley [2009]. Figure 13. Schematic representation of...JA091iA12p13723. Fejer, B. G., and L. Scherliess (1995), Time dependent response of equato- rial ionospheric electric fields to magnetospheric disturbances ...theoretical modeling and with satellite observations of upward-directed Poynting flux in the low-latitude ionosphere . 15. SUBJECT TERMS C/NOFS

  3. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations V: astrometry and distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacky, Quinn M.; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Dillon, Daren; Sadakuni, Naru; Maire, Jérôme; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hinkley, Sasha; Kalas, Paul; Esposito, Thomas; Marois, Christian; Ingraham, Patrick J.; Marchis, Franck; Perrin, Marshall D.; Graham, James R.; Wang, Jason J.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Morzinski, Katie; Pueyo, Laurent; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Larkin, James E.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Patience, Jenny; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of both laboratory and on sky astrometric characterization of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). This characterization includes measurement of the pixel scale* of the integral field spectrograph (IFS), the position of the detector with respect to north, and optical distortion. Two of these three quantities (pixel scale and distortion) were measured in the laboratory using two transparent grids of spots, one with a square pattern and the other with a random pattern. The pixel scale in the laboratory was also estimate using small movements of the artificial star unit (ASU) in the GPI adaptive optics system. On sky, the pixel scale and the north angle are determined using a number of known binary or multiple systems and Solar System objects, a subsample of which had concurrent measurements at Keck Observatory. Our current estimate of the GPI pixel scale is 14.14 +/- 0.01 millarcseconds/pixel, and the north angle is -1.00 +/- 0.03°. Distortion is shown to be small, with an average positional residual of 0.26 pixels over the field of view, and is corrected using a 5th order polynomial. We also present results from Monte Carlo simulations of the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) assuming GPI achieves ~1 milliarcsecond relative astrometric precision. We find that with this precision, we will be able to constrain the eccentricities of all detected planets, and possibly determine the underlying eccentricity distribution of widely separated Jovians.

  4. High resolution reconstruction of solar prominence images observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yong-yuan; Liu, Zhong; Jin, Zhen-yu

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution image showing fine structures is crucial for understanding the nature of solar prominence. In this paper, high resolution imaging of solar prominence on the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is introduced, using speckle masking. Each step of the data reduction especially the image alignment is discussed. Accurate alignment of all frames and the non-isoplanatic calibration of each image are the keys for a successful reconstruction. Reconstructed high resolution images from NVST also indicate that under normal seeing condition, it is feasible to carry out high resolution observations of solar prominence by a ground-based solar telescope, even in the absence of adaptive optics.

  5. Solar measurements from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the solar spectral irradiance from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite is the focus for this research grant. A pre-print copy of the paper describing the calibrations of and results from the San Marco ASSI is attached to this report. The calibration of the ASSI included (1) transfer of photometric calibration from a rocket experiment and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), (2) use of the on-board radioactive calibration sources, (3) validation of the ASSI sensitivity over its field of view, and (4) determining the degradation of the spectrometers. We have determined that the absolute values for the solar irradiance needs adjustment in the current proxy models of the solar UV irradiance, and the amount of solar variability from the proxy models are in reasonable agreement with the ASSI measurements. This research grant also has supported the development of a new solar EUV irradiance proxy model. We expected that the magnetic flux is responsible for most of the heating, via Alfen waves, in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. From examining time series of solar irradiance data and magnetic fields at different levels, we did indeed find that the chromospheric emissions correlate best with the large magnetic field levels.

  6. New approach of gravity wave detection in mesopause temperatures operating an array of airglow spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Paul; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    GRIPS (Ground based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer) airglow measurements allow the derivation of kinetic temperature in the mesopause region averaged over a field of view of some 10km x 10km. In 2011, three identical GRIPS instruments were setup at Oberpfaffenhofen (11.28°E, 48.09°N), Germany, in a way that their fields of view form an equilateral triangle shape in the mesopause with a horizontal dimension of approximately 70km. Using this setup, GRIPS time series cannot only be analyzed with respect to gravity wave periods, but also spatial wave parameters can be derived. Based on the results of the harmonic analysis the horizontal wavelength, phase speed and the direction of propagation were determined for gravity wave events from February to July 2011. We present distinct relationships between periods, amplitudes, phase speeds and wavelengths, which were identified in this dataset. Further data analysis of the derived wave parameters show preferred directions of propagation and suggest seasonal variations of the wave characteristics. The presentation will be concluded by the introduction of a measurement setup relying on one GRIPS instrument which is equipped with a variably adjustable mirror optic. The capability to scan multiple fields of view during nightly measurements will offer longer-term investigations of mesopause gravity waves.

  7. Visual-search observers for assessing tomographic x-ray image quality

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Howard C.; Liang, Zhihua; Das, Mini

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers commonly used for diagnostic image-quality assessments in x-ray imaging research are generally constrained to relatively simple detection tasks due to their need for statistical prior information. Visual-search (VS) model observers that employ morphological features in sequential search and analysis stages have less need for such information and fewer task constraints. The authors compared four VS observers against human observers and an existing scanning model observer in a pilot study that quantified how mass detection and localization in simulated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can be affected by the number P of acquired projections. Methods: Digital breast phantoms with embedded spherical masses provided single-target cases for a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study. DBT projection sets based on an acquisition arc of 60° were generated for values of P between 3 and 51. DBT volumes were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with a constant 3D Butterworth postfilter; extracted 2D slices were used as test images. Three imaging physicists participated as observers. A scanning channelized nonprewhitening (CNPW) observer had knowledge of the mean lesion-absent images. The VS observers computed an initial single-feature search statistic that identified candidate locations as local maxima of either a template matched-filter (MF) image or a gradient-template MF (GMF) image. Search inefficiencies that modified the statistic were also considered. Subsequent VS candidate analyses were carried out with (i) the CNPW statistical discriminant and (ii) the discriminant computed from GMF training images. These location-invariant discriminants did not utilize covariance information. All observers read 36 training images and 108 study images per P value. Performance was scored in terms of area under the LROC curve. Results: Average human-observer performance was stable for P between 7 and 35. In the absence of

  8. A New Display Format Relating Azimuth-Scanning Radar Data and All-Sky Images in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.; Seker, Ilgin; Mathews, John D.; Aponte, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Here we correlate features in a sequence of all-sky images of 630 nm airglow with the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of electron densities in the F region above Arecibo. Pairs of 180 azimuth scans (using the Gregorian and line feeds) of the two-beam incoherent scatter radar (ISR) have been plotted in cone pictorials of the line-of-sight electron densities. The plots include projections of the 630 nm airglow onto the ground using the same spatial scaling as for the ISR data. Selected sequential images from the night of 16-17 June 2004 correlate ionospheric plasma features with scales comparable to the ISR density-cone diameter. The entire set of over 100 images spanning about eight hours is available as a movie. The correlation between the airglow and the electron densities is not unexpected, but the new display format shows the 3-D structures better than separate 2-D plots in latitude and longitude for the airglow and in height and time for the electron densities. Furthermore, the animations help separate the bands of airglow from obscuring clouds and the star field.

  9. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a “background-known-statistically” protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer. PMID:26835503

  10. Generalization Evaluation of Machine Learning Numerical Observers for Image Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kalayeh, Mahdi M.; Marin, Thibault; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present two new numerical observers (NO) based on machine learning for image quality assessment. The proposed NOs aim to predict human observer performance in a cardiac perfusion-defect detection task for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Human observer (HumO) studies are now considered to be the gold standard for task-based evaluation of medical images. However such studies are impractical for use in early stages of development for imaging devices and algorithms, because they require extensive involvement of trained human observers who must evaluate a large number of images. To address this problem, numerical observers (also called model observers) have been developed as a surrogate for human observers. The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO), with or without internal noise model, is currently the most widely used NO of this kind. In our previous work we argued that development of a NO model to predict human observers' performance can be viewed as a machine learning (or system identification) problem. This consideration led us to develop a channelized support vector machine (CSVM) observer, a kernel-based regression model that greatly outperformed the popular and widely used CHO. This was especially evident when the numerical observers were evaluated in terms of generalization performance. To evaluate generalization we used a typical situation for the practical use of a numerical observer: after optimizing the NO (which for a CHO might consist of adjusting the internal noise model) based upon a broad set of reconstructed images, we tested it on a broad (but different) set of images obtained by a different reconstruction method. In this manuscript we aim to evaluate two new regression models that achieve accuracy higher than the CHO and comparable to our earlier CSVM method, while dramatically reducing model complexity and computation time. The new models are defined in a Bayesian machine-learning framework: a channelized

  11. Development of Fluorescence Imaging Lidar for Boat-Based Coral Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, Masahiko; Imasato, Motonobu; Yamano, Hiroya; Oguma, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    A fluorescence imaging lidar system installed in a boat-towable buoy has been developed for the observation of reef-building corals. Long-range fluorescent images of the sea bed can be recorded in the daytime with this system. The viability of corals is clear in these fluorescent images because of the innate fluorescent proteins. In this study, the specifications and performance of the system are shown.

  12. NEQ and task in dual-energy imaging: from cascaded systems analysis to human observer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Samuel; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Tward, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    The relationship between theoretical descriptions of imaging performance (Fourier-based cascaded systems analysis) and the performance of real human observers was investigated for various detection and discrimination tasks. Dual-energy (DE) imaging provided a useful basis for investigating this relationship, because it presents a host of acquisition and processing parameters that can significantly affect signal and noise transfer characteristics and, correspondingly, human observer performance. The detectability index was computed theoretically using: 1) cascaded systems analysis of the modulation transfer function (MTF), and noise-power spectrum (NPS) for DE imaging; 2) a Fourier description of imaging task; and 3.) integration of MTF, NPS, and task function according to various observer models, including Fisher-Hotelling and non-prewhitening with and without an eye filter and internal noise. Three idealized tasks were considered: sphere detection, shape discrimination (sphere vs. disk), and texture discrimination (uniform vs. textured disk). Using images of phantoms acquired on a prototype DE imaging system, human observer performance was assessed in multiple-alternative forced choice (MAFC) tests, giving an estimate of area under the ROC curve (A Ζ). The degree to which the theoretical detectability index correlated with human observer performance was investigated, and results agreed well over a broad range of imaging conditions, depending on the choice of observer model. Results demonstrated that optimal DE image acquisition and decomposition parameters depend significantly on the imaging task. These studies provide important initial validation that the detectability index derived theoretically by Fourier-based cascaded systems analysis correlates well with actual human observer performance and represents a meaningful metric for system optimization.

  13. The need for hard X-ray imaging observations at the next solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Canonical models of solar hard X-ray bursts; associated length and time scales; the adequacies and inadequacies of previous observations; theoretical modeling predictions; arcsecond imaging of solar hard X-rays are outlined.

  14. Evaluation of the channelized Hotelling observer for signal detection in 2D tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRoque, Samuel J.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Edwards, Darrin C.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2007-03-01

    Signal detection by the channelized Hotelling (ch-Hotelling) observer is studied for tomographic application by employing a small, tractable 2D model of a computed tomography (CT) system. The primary goal of this manuscript is to develop a practical method for evaluating the ch-Hotelling observer that can generalize to larger 3D cone-beam CT systems. The use of the ch-Hotelling observer for evaluating tomographic image reconstruction algorithms is also demonstrated. For a realistic model for CT, the ch-Hotelling observer can be a good approximation to the ideal observer. The ch-Hotelling observer is applied to both the projection data and the reconstructed images. The difference in signal-to-noise ratio for signal detection in both of these domains provides a metric for evaluating the image reconstruction algorithm.

  15. V are Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Observed with the SOlar Mass Ejection Imager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    SUBTITLE V arc interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed with the Solar Mass Ejection Imager 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER a. 5c...doi: 10.1029/2007JA012358 14. ABSTRACT Since February 2003, The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has been observing interplanetary- coronal mass...ejections (ICMEs) at solar elongation angles ^ > 20 degrees. The ICMEs generally appear as loops or arcs in the sky, but five show distinct outward

  16. Model observer design for detecting multiple abnormalities in anatomical background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Existing model observers were typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g., multifocal and multicentric breast cancers (MMBC)), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MMBC than planar mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model-observer mechanism to detect multiple signals in the same image dataset. To handle the high dimensionality of images, a novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. Without any prior knowledge of the background or the signals, the PLS channels capture interactions between signals and the background which provide discriminant image information. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our preliminary results show that the model observer using PLS channels, compared to our first attempts with Laguerre-Gauss channels, can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels, and the optimal design of the model observer may vary as the tasks of clinical interest change.

  17. Average coherence image derived observations over an urban area: the case of Athens city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcharidis, I.; Foumelis, M.; Kourkouli, P.

    2007-10-01

    In the present study coherence observations, in relation to the land-cover type, obtained using 20 C-band ERS SAR Single Look Complex (SLC) VV-polarization images acquired in descending mode over the metropolitan area of Athens covering the period 1992-1999 are presented. A straightforward approach using a single master SAR image on which the other images are mapped was adopted ensuring perfect registration of the interferometric results. After generating single coherence images, with temporal separation varying between 138 and 1335 days, an averaging procedure followed leading to the average coherence image. In order to identify and statistically interpret the properties of selected land cover types in terms of average degree of coherence, very high resolution QuickBird imagery was downloaded from Google Earth environment. The final geocoding of the average coherence image has been improved using common features in the coherence image and the very high-resolution QuickBird image. Overlay of coherence product on the QuickBird image allows correlating the level of coherence with characteristics and properties of the urban shell. As urban areas are considered of high coherence, observations of this type permit to investigate and evaluate their phase stability in details.

  18. Near infrared spectrometric airglow measurements during the total solar eclipse of 26 February 1979. Final report, 2 February 1972-31 July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, W.R. Jr.; Baker, D.J.; Steed, A.J.

    1981-01-15

    Spectrometric airglow measurements during the solar eclipse of 26 February 1979 have yielded first-of-a-kind residual airglow spectra during the total phase of the eclipse. The temporal variations of the O2 infrared atmospheric features and the He multiplet at 1.083 microns are consistent with current excitation/emission models; however, the OH Meinel emission levels decreased almost monotonically by totality, in contrast with expectations based on most code predictions. Twilight transition, nightglow and auroral data were also acquired to characterize airflow conditions during the general timeframe of the eclipse. The twilight-transition results compare favorably with similar earlier measurement by other investigators.

  19. Experimental observation of sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging with a two-photon entangled source

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, De-Qin; Song, Xin-Bing; Li, Hong-Guo; Zhang, De-Jian; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun Wang, Kaige

    2015-04-27

    It has been theoretically predicted that N-photon quantum imaging can realize either an N-fold resolution improvement (Heisenberg-like scaling) or a √(N)-fold resolution improvement (standard quantum limit) beyond the Rayleigh diffraction bound, over classical imaging. Here, we report the experimental study on spatial sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging using a two-photon entangled source. Two experimental schemes are proposed and performed. In a Fraunhofer diffraction scheme with a lens, two-photon Airy disk pattern is observed with subwavelength diffraction property. In a lens imaging apparatus, however, two-photon sub-Rayleigh imaging for an object is realized with super-resolution property. The experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction in the two-photon quantum imaging regime.

  20. Experimental observation of sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging with a two-photon entangled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-Qin; Song, Xin-Bing; Li, Hong-Guo; Zhang, De-Jian; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun; Wang, Kaige

    2015-04-01

    It has been theoretically predicted that N-photon quantum imaging can realize either an N-fold resolution improvement (Heisenberg-like scaling) or a √{ N } -fold resolution improvement (standard quantum limit) beyond the Rayleigh diffraction bound, over classical imaging. Here, we report the experimental study on spatial sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging using a two-photon entangled source. Two experimental schemes are proposed and performed. In a Fraunhofer diffraction scheme with a lens, two-photon Airy disk pattern is observed with subwavelength diffraction property. In a lens imaging apparatus, however, two-photon sub-Rayleigh imaging for an object is realized with super-resolution property. The experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction in the two-photon quantum imaging regime.

  1. High-Definition Television (HDTV) Images for Earth Observations and Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Holland, S. Douglas; Runco, Susan K.; Pitts, David E.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Andrefouet, Serge M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of Detailed Test Objective 700-17A, astronauts acquired Earth observation images from orbit using a high-definition television (HDTV) camcorder, Here we provide a summary of qualitative findings following completion of tests during missions STS (Space Transport System)-93 and STS-99. We compared HDTV imagery stills to images taken using payload bay video cameras, Hasselblad film camera, and electronic still camera. We also evaluated the potential for motion video observations of changes in sunlight and the use of multi-aspect viewing to image aerosols. Spatial resolution and color quality are far superior in HDTV images compared to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) video images. Thus, HDTV provides the first viable option for video-based remote sensing observations of Earth from orbit. Although under ideal conditions, HDTV images have less spatial resolution than medium-format film cameras, such as the Hasselblad, under some conditions on orbit, the HDTV image acquired compared favorably with the Hasselblad. Of particular note was the quality of color reproduction in the HDTV images HDTV and electronic still camera (ESC) were not compared with matched fields of view, and so spatial resolution could not be compared for the two image types. However, the color reproduction of the HDTV stills was truer than colors in the ESC images. As HDTV becomes the operational video standard for Space Shuttle and Space Station, HDTV has great potential as a source of Earth-observation data. Planning for the conversion from NTSC to HDTV video standards should include planning for Earth data archiving and distribution.

  2. Spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for signal detection from image sequences

    PubMed Central

    Caucci, Luca; Barrett, Harrison H.; Rodríguez, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Detection of signals in noisy images is necessary in many applications, including astronomy and medical imaging. The optimal linear observer for performing a detection task, called the Hotelling observer in the medical literature, can be regarded as a generalization of the familiar prewhitening matched filter. Performance on the detection task is limited by randomness in the image data, which stems from randomness in the object, randomness in the imaging system, and randomness in the detector outputs due to photon and readout noise, and the Hotelling observer accounts for all of these effects in an optimal way. If multiple temporal frames of images are acquired, the resulting data set is a spatio-temporal random process, and the Hotelling observer becomes a spatio-temporal linear operator. This paper discusses the theory of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer and estimation of the required spatio-temporal covariance matrices. It also presents a parallel implementation of the observer on a cluster of Sony PLAYSTATION 3 gaming consoles. As an example, we consider the use of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for exoplanet detection. PMID:19550494

  3. Spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for signal detection from image sequences.

    PubMed

    Caucci, Luca; Barrett, Harrison H; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J

    2009-06-22

    Detection of signals in noisy images is necessary in many applications, including astronomy and medical imaging. The optimal linear observer for performing a detection task, called the Hotelling observer in the medical literature, can be regarded as a generalization of the familiar prewhitening matched filter. Performance on the detection task is limited by randomness in the image data, which stems from randomness in the object, randomness in the imaging system, and randomness in the detector outputs due to photon and readout noise, and the Hotelling observer accounts for all of these effects in an optimal way. If multiple temporal frames of images are acquired, the resulting data set is a spatio-temporal random process, and the Hotelling observer becomes a spatio-temporal linear operator. This paper discusses the theory of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer and estimation of the required spatio-temporal covariance matrices. It also presents a parallel implementation of the observer on a cluster of Sony PLAYSTATION 3 gaming consoles. As an example, we consider the use of the spatio-temporal Hotelling observer for exoplanet detection.

  4. Combining Imaging and Non-Imaging Observations for Improved Space-Object Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-27

    Optical and Digital Superresolution Early in the project, we expolited Fisher information (FI) to characterize the extent of spatial-frequency...extrapolation beyond the diffraction-limited optical bandwidth when the support of the object is known a priori. This support-assisted optical superresolution ...both digital (DSR) and optical superresolution (OSR). Indeed, by analyzing a se- quence of sub-pixel-shifted undersampled images one can show the

  5. Observations of a Breakdown of a Mountain Wave Near 84 km Altitude Over Cerro Pachon Chile from the Andes Lidar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, S. M.; Franke, S. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain waves are produced by flow over orography. They propagate almost vertically, and are characterized by nearly zero velocity phase speed. The altitude to which they typically propagate is not well documented. They are thought to mainly dissipate by absorption in a critical layer although large-amplitude wave breakdown is also thought to occur. There have been almost no direct observations of the breakdown of mountain waves in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The region over Cerro Pachon Chile (a 2715 meter mountain in the Andes where large astronomical telescopes are located) is especially favorable to the production of mountain waves. In 2009 Smith and colleagues reported on the first observations of such waves propagating into the mesopause region (85 to 95 km) from El Leoncito Argentina, where waves over Cerro Pachon could be seen using airglow observations. The Aerospace Corporation's Nightglow Imager (ANI) is located at the Andes Lidar Observatory near the crest of Cerro Pachon. ANI observes nighttime OH emission (near 1.6 microns) every 2 seconds over an approximate 73 degree field of view. ANI had previously been used to the breakdown of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability features not associated with a specific gravity wave. Here we present OH airglow observations, originating near 84 km, from 22 UT to 3 UT on 8/9 July 2012 that show the breakdown of a mountain wave into instability features that subsequently dissipate into turbulence. These multi-hour observations provide the most detailed images to date of the breakdown of a mountain wave. The causes for, and the results of, the breakdown of this mountain wave are discussed.

  6. Comparing the Scoring of Human Decomposition from Digital Images to Scoring Using On-site Observations.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Bytheway, Joan A; Connor, Melissa

    2017-01-25

    When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test. The average difference between on-site and photographic observations was -0.20 (t = -1.679, df = 928, p = 0.094). Individually, only two observers, both students with <1 year of experience, demonstrated TBS statistically significantly different than the on-site value, suggesting that with experience, observations of human decomposition based on digital images can be substituted for assessments based on observation of the corpse in situ, when necessary.

  7. Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks: Spiral Arms Observed in Scattered Light Imaging Can be Induced by Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.

    2015-08-01

    Using 3D global hydro simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations, we study the appearance of density waves induced by giant planets in direct imaging observations at near-infrared wavelengths. We find that a 6{M}{{J}} planet in a typical disk around a 1{M}⊙ star can produce prominent and detectable spiral arms both interior and exterior to its orbit. The inner arms have (1) two well separated arms in roughly m = 2 symmetry, (2) exhibit ˜10°-15° pitch angles, (3) ˜180°-270° extension in the azimuthal direction, and (4) ˜ 150 % surface brightness enhancement, all broadly consistent with observed spiral arms in the SAO 206462 and MWC 758 systems. The outer arms cannot explain observations as they are too tightly wound given typical disk scale height. We confirm previous results that the outer density waves excited by a 1{M}{{J}} planet exhibit low contrast in the IR and are practically not detectable. We also find that 3D effects of the waves are important. Compared to isothermal models, density waves in adiabatic disks exhibit weaker contrast in surface density but stronger contrast in scattered light images, due to a more pronounced vertical structure in the former caused by shock heating and maybe hydraulic jump effect. To drive observed pairs of arms with an external companion on a circular orbit, a massive planet, possibly a brown dwarf, is needed at around [r˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 7, {PA}˜ 10^\\circ ] (position angle PA from north to east) in SAO 206462 and [r˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 6, {PA}˜ 10^\\circ ] in MWC 758. Their existence may be confirmed by direct imaging planet searches.

  8. The Mesospheric OH* layer above Spitsbergen: Investigation of polar mesospheric dynamics and temperature trends by means of ground based OH* airglow measurements and model studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, S.; Palm, M.; Notholt, J.

    2012-04-01

    The hydroxyl (OH*) emission layer is one of the dominant features of the mesopause region. It is primarily formed via the reaction of ozone and atomic hydrogen, which results in vibrationally excited OH* radicals. Due to radiative deexcitation, these radicals contribute to the airglow, which we can observe at different emission bands. For low excitation levels (ν≤6) of OH*, its lifetime can be sufficient to become thermalized by collision with the surrounding molecules, hence its emission can serve as a measure of ambient temperature. Because of the remoteness of the mesosphere, this offers a valuable source of information on mesospheric temperatures. While satellite based observations of the OH* layer offer comprehensive data sets on global scales, the spatial as well as the temporal resolution is limited by the corresponding orbits. Ground based measurements can fill this gap and enable us to study mesospheric disturbances at shorter time scales. Particularly the polar mesospheric region can be subject to large variability, which becomes apparent in the brightness and temperature signals from the OH* emission layer. In this poster we present temperatures derived from measurements taken from a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which is located at the AWIPEV Arctic Research Base in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (79°). Measurements are available since 2007 and cover various emission bands of OH* in the spectral region from 5900 cm^-1 to 6500 cm^-1. We illustrate large scale polar mesospheric warming events, which have a striking impact on mesospheric dynamics and the coupling to the lower atmosphere. In addition to satellite based observations that we compare with our data, we illustrate the ability of our instrument to resolve short term perturbations. We discuss how we will combine these observations to model studies, in order to shed more light on the associated polar mesospheric dynamics in an upcoming analyis.

  9. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of the 9 March 2016 Total Solar Eclipse in Palangkaraya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholish, Abdul Majid Al; Jihad, Imanul; Taufik Andika, Irham; Puspitaningrum, Evaria; Ainy, Fathin Q.; Ramadhan, Sahlan; Ikbal Arifyanto, M.; Malasan, Hakim L.

    2016-11-01

    The March 9th 2016 total solar eclipse observation was carried out at Universitas Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan. Time-resolved imaging of the Sun has been conducted before, after, and during totality of eclipse while optical spectroscopic observation has been carried out only at the totality. The imaging observation in white light was done to take high resolution images of solar corona. The images were taken with a DSLR camera that is attached to a refractor telescope (d=66 mm, f/5.9). Despite cloudy weather during the eclipse moments, we managed to obtain the images with lower signal-to-noise ratio, including identifiable diamond ring, prominence and coronal structure. The images were processed using standard reduction procedure to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to enhance the corona. Then, the coronal structure is determined and compared with ultraviolet data from SOHO to analyze the correlation between visual and ultraviolet corona. The spectroscopic observation was conducted using a slit-less spectrograph and a DSLR camera to obtain solar flash spectra. The flash spectra taken during the eclipse show emissions of H 4861 Å, He I 5876 Å, and H 6563 Å. The Fe XIV 5303 Å and Fe X 6374 Å lines are hardly detected due to low signal-to-noise ratio. Spectral reduction and analysis are conducted to derive the emission lines intensity relative to continuum intensity. We use the measured parameters to determine the temperature of solar chromosphere.

  10. IMAGE EUV Observation of a Radially, Bifurcated Plasmapause: First Observations of a Possible Standing ULF Waveform in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Avanov, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    We present EUV observations of the plasmasphere-plasmapause from 19:38-22:11 UT on 28 June 2000 characterized by the presence of bifurcated radial enhancements of the He(+) plasma distribution in the nighside sector. These features remain stable throughout the period of observation and are found to co-rotate at 67% of the expected rate. Two-dimensional simulation of the plasmasphere assuming the presence of field lines resonances at L = 1.8 and 2.5 suggest that the organization of the outer plasmasphere and plasmapause is the result convective motion driven by a standing ULF-wave. Preliminary analysis of ground-based magnetometer data provided by the IMAGE magnetometer network during the period of EUV observation indicates the presence of a discrete spectrum of field line resonances extending down to 0.68-mHz.

  11. Image-domain sampling properties of the Hotelling Observer in CT using filtered back-projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-03-01

    The Hotelling Observer (HO),1 along with its channelized variants,2 has been proposed for image quality evaluation in x-ray CT.3,4 In this work, we investigate HO performance for a detection task in parallel-beam FBP as a function of two image-domain sampling parameters, namely pixel size and field-of-view. These two parameters are of central importance in adapting HO methods to use in CT, since the large number of pixels in a single image makes direct computation of HO performance for a full image infeasible in most cases. Reduction of the number of image pixels and/or restriction of the image to a region-of-interest (ROI) has the potential to make direct computation of HO statistics feasible in CT, provided that the signal and noise properties lead to redundant information in some regions of the image. For small signals, we hypothesize that reduction of image pixel size and enlargement of the image field-of-view are approximately equivalent means of gaining additional information relevant to a detection task. The rationale for this hypothesis is that the backprojection operation in FBP introduces long range correlations so that, for small signals, the reconstructed signal outside of a small ROI is not linearly independent of the signal within the ROI. In this work, we perform a preliminary investigation of this hypothesis by sweeping these two sampling parameters and computing HO performance for a signal detection task.

  12. Study on Image Drift Induced by Charging during Observation by Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, Nobuhiro; Sohda, Yasunari

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism of image drift in the observation of a boundary between a metal and an insulator by scanning electron microscope (SEM) is clarified by electron-trajectory simulation and experiment. In the region involving a straight boundary between a large-area metal layer and an insulating substrate, the largest image drift is expected to be observed owing to an asymmetric charging on the sample surface. The simulation result shows that a metal-insulator boundary in the SEM image shifts toward the metal part over several seconds, which is induced by a positively charged area outside of the irradiation region in the insulator part. This simulation result is confirmed to qualitatively coincide with the experimental one. In addition, we demonstrate that the direction and magnitude of the image drift can be controlled by changing the charging voltage of the insulating substrate by applying a bias voltage to the anode facing the sample surface.

  13. Ground-Truth Observations of Ice-Covered North Slope Lakes Imaged by Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    published by the American Society for Testing and Materi- als, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103. Cover: Radar image of the north coast of Alaska...truth observations of ice-covered North Slope lakes imaged by radar W.F. Weeks, A.J. Cow and R.J. Schertler J October 1981 ’AA Prepared for OCEAN...PROCESSES BRANCH NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION By UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY

  14. Earth-based Radar Observations of Mercury: Imaging Results with the Upgraded Arecibo Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, J.

    With the completion of the Arecibo upgrade in 1998 came the opportunity to do Mercury radar imaging of unprecedented quality. Among the early results with the upgraded S-band radar was the delay-Doppler imaging of the north polar ice features at 1.5-km resolution (Harmon et al., 2001). These images provided accurate mapping of the putative ice deposits within shaded crater floors as well as a precise determination of the pole position. They also produced the surprising discovery of ice features in small craters and at relatively low latitudes, which places important constraints on thermal models. We are also planning imaging observations of the south pole as it returns to view in 2004 and subsequent years. Besides polar studies, an important component of the Arecibo program is full-disk radar imaging around the entire planet, with a special emphasis on the hemisphere left unimaged by Mariner 10. For this purpose we are conducting a program of delay-Doppler observations using the long-code method (Harmon, 2002), which produces cleaner images than conventional delay-Doppler. Most striking are the depolarized images, which are found to be dominated by bright features associated with fresh crater ejecta. These images show some spectacular rayed craters in the Tycho class, as well as numerous bright, rayless features from smaller impacts. Also visible are some diffuse albedo features with no obvious impact association. Some of these high-albedo patches are found in smooth plains regions such as Tolstoy basin and Tir Planitia, which is the reverse of the mare-highland contrast seen in radar images of the Moon. In addition to the imaging results, we will briefly review the major findings from the pre-upgrade radar altimetry measurements.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the 1990 equatorial disturbance on Saturn - Images, albedos, and limb darkening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, James A.; Baum, William A.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Barnet, Christopher D.; De Jong, Eric M.; Danielson, G. E.; Caldwell, John

    1992-01-01

    The HST recorded 150 images of the September 1990 equatorial eruption on Saturn in six passbands; four of the passbands were selected for photometric analysis, and the images are compared with those obtained before the onset of the disturbance and those from a time when no indication of the disturbance remained. Using deconvolved images from all three observational epochs, measurements were conducted of reflectivities of the disk along parallels of latitude as a function of longitudinal distance from the central meridian, as well as along the central meridian, as a function of latitude from zero to 90 deg.

  16. The potential of pigeons as surrogate observers in medical image perception studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Levenson, Richard M.; Navarro, Victor; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of medical image quality and how changes in image appearance impact performance are critical but assessment can be expensive and time-consuming. Could an animal (pigeon) observer with well-known visual skills and documented ability to distinguish complex visual stimuli serve as a surrogate for the human observer? Using sets of whole slide pathology (WSI) and mammographic images we trained pigeons (cohorts of 4) to detect and/or classify lesions in medical images. Standard training methods were used. A chamber equipped with a 15' display with a resistive touchscreen was used to display the images and record responses (pecks). Pigeon pellets were dispensed for correct responses. The pigeons readily learned to distinguish benign from malignant breast cancer histopathology in WSI (mean % correct responses rose 50% to 85% over 15 days) and generalized readily from 4X to 10X and 20X magnifications; to detect microcalcifications (mean % correct responses rose 50% to over 85% over 25 days); to distinguish benign from malignant breast masses (3 of 4 birds learned this task to around 80% and 60% over 10 days); and ignore compression artifacts in WSI (performance with uncompressed slides averaged 95% correct; 15:1 and 27:1 compression slides averaged 92% and 90% correct). Pigeons models may help us better understand medical image perception and may be useful in quality assessment by serving as surrogate observers for certain types of studies.

  17. Mesospheric nightglow spectral survey taken by the ISO spectral spatial imager on Atlas 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, J. K.; Torr, D. G.; Torr, M. R.; Chang, T.; Fennelly, J. A.; Richards, P. G.; Morgan, M. F.; Baldridge, T. W.; Dougani, H.; Swift, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the first comprehensive spectral survey of the mesospheric airglow between 260 and 832 nm taken by the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) on the ATLAS I mission. We select data taken in the spectral window between 275 and 300 nm to determine the variation with altitude of the Herzberg I bands originating from the vibrational levels v' = 3 to 8. These data provide the first spatially resolved spectral measurements of the system. The data are used to demonstrate that to within an uncertainty of + 10%, the vibrational distribution remains invariant with altitude. The deficit reported previously for the v' = 5 level is not observed although there is a suggestion of depletion in v' = 6. The data could be used to place tight constraints on the vibrational dependence of quenching rate coefficients, and on the abundance of atomic oxygen.

  18. Mesospheric nightglow spectral survey taken by the ISO spectral spatial imager on ATLAS 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, J. K.; Torr, D. G.; Torr, M. R.; Chang, T.; Fennelly, J. A.; Richards, P. G.; Morgan, M. F.; Baldridge, T. W.; Fellows, C. W.; Dougani, H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the first comprehensive spectral survey of the mesospheric airglow between 260 and 832 nm taken by the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory on the ATLAS 1 mission. We select data taken in the spectral window between 275 and 300 nm to determine the variation with altitude of the Herzberg I bands originating from the vibrational levels v-prime = 3 to 8. These data provide the first spatially resolved spectral measurements of the system. The data are used to demonstrate that to within an uncertainty of +/- 10 percent, the vibrational distribution remains invariant with altitude. The deficit reported previously for the v-prime = 5 level is not observed although there is a suggestion of depletion in v-prime = 6. The data could be used to place tight constraints on the vibrational dependence of quenching rate coefficients, and on the abundance of atomic oxygen.

  19. A line rate calculation method for arbitrary directional imaging of an Earth observing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Moon-Jin; Kim, Eunghyun; Lim, Seong-Bin; Choi, Seok-Weon

    2016-10-01

    For an earth observing satellite, a line rate is the number of lines which the CCD of push broom type camera scans in a second. It can be easily calculated by ground velocity divided by ground sample distance. Accurate calculation of line rate is necessary to obtain high quality image using TDI CCD. The earth observing satellite has four types of imaging missions which are strip imaging, stereo imaging, multi-point imaging, and arbitrary directional imaging. For the first three types of imaging, ground scanning direction is aligned with satellite velocity direction. Therefore, if the orbit propagation and spacecraft attitude information are available, the ground velocity and ground sample distance could be easily calculated. However, the calculation method might not be applicable to the arbitrary directional imaging. In the arbitrary directional imaging mode, the ground velocity is not fixed value which could be directly derived by orbit information. Furthermore, the ground sample distance might not be easily calculated by simple trigonometry which is possible for the other types of imaging. In this paper, we proposed a line rate calculation method for the arbitrary directional imaging. We applied spherical geometry to derive the equation of ground point which is the intersection between the line of sight vector of the camera and earth surface. The derivative of this equation for time is the ground velocity except the factor of earth rotation. By adding this equation and earth rotation factor, the true ground velocity vector could be derived. For the ground sample distance, we applied the equation of circle and ellipse for yaw angle difference. The equation of circle is used for the yaw angle representation on the plane which is orthogonal to the line of sight vector. The equation of ellipse is used for the yaw angle representation on the ground surface. We applied the proposed method to the KOMPSAT-3A (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 3A) mission which is the first

  20. High-precision image aided inertial navigation with known features: observability analysis and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-10-17

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.

  1. Quantifying Kelvin-Helmholtz instability dynamics observed in noctilucent clouds: 2. Modeling and interpretation of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, David C.; Baumgarten, Gerd; Wan, Kam; Werne, Joseph; Lund, Tom

    2014-08-01

    A companion paper describes high-resolution, ground-based imaging of apparent Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) observed in noctilucent clouds (NLCs) near the polar summer mesopause. Here we employ direct numerical simulations of KHI at Richardson numbers from Ri = 0.05 to 0.20 and relatively high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the dependence of KHI and secondary instabilities on these quantities and interpret and quantify the KHI events described by Baumgarten and Fritts (2014). We conclude that one event triggered by small-scale gravity waves provides clear evidence of strong KHI initiated at Ri ~0.05-0.10. Events arising in a more uniform shear environment exhibit KHI and small-scale dynamics that compare reasonably well with modeled KHI initiated at Ri ~0.20. Our application of numerical modeling in quantifying KHI dynamics observed in NLCs suggests that characteristics of KHI, and perhaps other small-scale dynamics, that are defined well in NLC displays can be used to quantify the dynamics and spatial scales of such events with high confidence. Specifically, our comparisons of KHI observations and modeling appear to indicate a "turbulent" viscosity ~5-40 times the true kinematic viscosity at the NLC altitude. This offers an alternative, or an augmentation, to more traditional radar, lidar, and/or airglow measurements employed for such studies of small-scale dynamics at coarser spatial scales during polar summer.

  2. Airglow in the Visible and Infrared Spectral Ranges of the Disturbed Upper Atmosphere under Conditions of High-Velocity Plasma Jet Injection: I. Experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetzer, J. I.; Kozlov, S. I.; Rybakov, V. A.; Ponomarenko, A. V.; Smirnova, N. V.; Romanovsky, Yu. A.; Meng, C.-I.; Erlandson, R.; Stoyanov, B.

    2002-05-01

    The measurements of infrared emission from an artificial structure, which was generated during the Fluxus experiment with plasma jet injection into the atmosphere, are obtained and discussed for the first time. Additional experimental data on the airglow in the visible spectral band of the disturbed region of the atmosphere are presented. A generalized analysis of the data is given.

  3. Atmospheric gravity waves excited by a fireball meteor: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, Sharon L.; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Nicolls, Michael J.; Nakamura, Takuji; Harmon, Robert O.

    2014-07-01

    In a companion paper, Suzuki et al. (2013) studied an expanding circular train observed in the Na airglow for 9 min above Syowa Station, Antarctica, on 7 June 2008. This train was created by a southwestward moving fireball meteor. Here we report on "V"-shaped faint gravity waves (GWs) partially visible in many of the Na airglow images 8 to 43 min after the meteor. The GW phase lines appear to originate from the horizontal projection of the meteor path, with angles -42 to -52° south and 10 to 20° north of the path. The GWs south of the path propagated southwestward with a horizontal phase speed of cH˜80-100m/s, while those north of the path propagated northwestward with cH˜20-40m/s. Those south (north) of the path had horizontal wavelengths λH˜25-35km (λH˜18 km) and periods τr˜5-6 min (τr˜7-15 min). We then model the GWs excited by idealized horizontal and slanted heatings and body forces. We show that the GW phase lines form Vs when the heat/force is slanted vertically. If the central altitude of the heat/force is z0>92 km, the open ends of the Vs are mainly directed away from the meteor trajectory. If the heat/force is long enough, two oppositely directed Vs are created, forming an "X" at the center of the structure. We find that λH depends sensitively on the width of the heating. We obtain heating parameters which compare reasonably well with the Na observations: z0˜120 km, half-length half maximum of ˜25-35km, and half width half maximum of ˜2-3km.

  4. Ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, Jean-Claude

    1994-01-01

    The main scientific results of the participation of the Institute of Astrophysics (Belgium) in the NASA's Pioneer Venus mission are reported on. The data were obtained with the Pioneer Orbiter's Ultraviolet Spectrometer (POUVS). The instrument provided a morphological study of the nitric oxide ultraviolet night glow. Information concerning the altitude of the airglow emitting layer was also collected and used to constrain models of turbulent transport on the night side of the planet. Models of the odd nitrogen thermospheric chemistry and transport were developed to analyze the observations and derive the properties of the global circulation of Venus' upper atmosphere. Images of the Jovian ultraviolet aurora were obtained. The morphology and the time variations of the HI Ly-alpha and H2 Lyman and Werner bands were acquired at different longitudes. The observed distribution was compared with the results of the spectrometric observations made with the Voyager and the International Ultraviolet Explorer missions. Images concerning the Io surface albedo and Saturn's disk and ring's reflectivity were also obtained.

  5. Spaceborne radar observations: A guide for Magellan radar-image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Blom, R. G.; Crisp, J. A.; Elachi, Charles; Farr, T. G.; Saunders, R. Stephen; Theilig, E. E.; Wall, S. D.; Yewell, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic analyses of spaceborne radar images of Earth are reviewed and summarized with respect to detecting, mapping, and interpreting impact craters, volcanic landforms, eolian and subsurface features, and tectonic landforms. Interpretations are illustrated mostly with Seasat synthetic aperture radar and shuttle-imaging-radar images. Analogies are drawn for the potential interpretation of radar images of Venus, with emphasis on the effects of variation in Magellan look angle with Venusian latitude. In each landform category, differences in feature perception and interpretive capability are related to variations in imaging geometry, spatial resolution, and wavelength of the imaging radar systems. Impact craters and other radially symmetrical features may show apparent bilateral symmetry parallel to the illumination vector at low look angles. The styles of eruption and the emplacement of major and minor volcanic constructs can be interpreted from morphological features observed in images. Radar responses that are governed by small-scale surface roughness may serve to distinguish flow types, but do not provide unambiguous information. Imaging of sand dunes is rigorously constrained by specific angular relations between the illumination vector and the orientation and angle of repose of the dune faces, but is independent of radar wavelength. With a single look angle, conditions that enable shallow subsurface imaging to occur do not provide the information necessary to determine whether the radar has recorded surface or subsurface features. The topographic linearity of many tectonic landforms is enhanced on images at regional and local scales, but the detection of structural detail is a strong function of illumination direction. Nontopographic tectonic lineaments may appear in response to contrasts in small-surface roughness or dielectric constant. The breakpoint for rough surfaces will vary by about 25 percent through the Magellan viewing geometries from low to high

  6. Computational assessment of mammography accreditation phantom images and correlation with human observer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barufaldi, Bruno; Lau, Kristen C.; Schiabel, Homero; Maidment, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Routine performance of basic test procedures and dose measurements are essential for assuring high quality of mammograms. International guidelines recommend that breast care providers ascertain that mammography systems produce a constant high quality image, using as low a radiation dose as is reasonably achievable. The main purpose of this research is to develop a framework to monitor radiation dose and image quality in a mixed breast screening and diagnostic imaging environment using an automated tracking system. This study presents a module of this framework, consisting of a computerized system to measure the image quality of the American College of Radiology mammography accreditation phantom. The methods developed combine correlation approaches, matched filters, and data mining techniques. These methods have been used to analyze radiological images of the accreditation phantom. The classification of structures of interest is based upon reports produced by four trained readers. As previously reported, human observers demonstrate great variation in their analysis due to the subjectivity of human visual inspection. The software tool was trained with three sets of 60 phantom images in order to generate decision trees using the software WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis). When tested with 240 images during the classification step, the tool correctly classified 88%, 99%, and 98%, of fibers, speck groups and masses, respectively. The variation between the computer classification and human reading was comparable to the variation between human readers. This computerized system not only automates the quality control procedure in mammography, but also decreases the subjectivity in the expert evaluation of the phantom images.

  7. Observations of Io's Active Volcanoes from IRTF: Imaging and Occultation Lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have been observing Ionian volcanism from NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) for more than two decades. The frequency of our observations increases dramatically when spacecraft are observing Io in order to complement the data returned by the spacecraft. The Japanese Space Agency's (JAXA) Hisaki (Sprint-A) mission recently observd the Jupiter system from earth orbit, monitoring the Io Plasma Torus and Jovian aurora. In order to investigate the possible influence of Io volcanism on the torus, we observed Io's volcanoes from the IRTF in Hawaii between September 2013 and May 2014. We imaged Io at 2.2, 3.5, and 4.8 microns in eclipse and reflected sunlight. We also observed Io during occultation by Jupiter, which allows us to locate and characterize individual volcanic eruptions, with greater spatial accuracy, on the Jupiter-facing hemisphere. The 2013 3.5 micron images of a sunlit Io showed no obvious bright volcanic features. However, further increases in spatial resolution is possible with shift-and-add processing of short exposure images. Preliminary occultation lightcurves from 2013 show moderate levels of activity at Kaneheliki/Janus and Loki, the two volcanic centers most often observed in occultation lightcurves. Loki was much brighter in 2013 than during the New Horizons flyby in 2007, but not as bright as during the Galileo era (see figure). From February 2014 through May 2014, due to a planned upgrade on the SPEX instrument and an unplanned required repair on the NSFCam2 instrument (both of which we have used previously), we exclusively used the CSHELL instrument as an imager. Unfortunately, CSHELL was not designed for imaging and has limited spatial resolution and photometric precision, complicating image analysis.

  8. Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations and numerical simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darouzet, Fabien; DeKeyser, Johan; Decreau, Pierrette; Gallagher, Dennis; Pierrard, Viviane; Lemaire, Joseph; Dandouras, Iannis; Matsui, Hiroshi; Dunlop, Malcolm; Andre, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Plasmaspheric plumes have been routinely observed by CLUSTER and IMAGE. The CLUSTER mission provides high time resolution four-point measurements of the plasmasphere near perigee. Total electron density profiles can be derived from the plasma frequency and/or from the spacecraft potential (note that the electron spectrometer is usually not operating inside the plasmasphere); ion velocity is also measured onboard these satellites (but ion density is not reliable because of instrumental limitations). The EUV imager onboard the IMAGE spacecraft provides global images of the plasmasphere with a spatial resolution of 0.1 RE every 10 minutes; such images acquired near apogee from high above the pole show the geometry of plasmaspheric plumes, their evolution and motion. We present coordinated observations for 3 plume events and compare CLUSTER in-situ data (panel A) with global images of the plasmasphere obtained from IMAGE (panel B), and with numerical simulations for the formation of plumes based on a model that includes the interchange instability mechanism (panel C). In particular, we study the geometry and the orientation of plasmaspheric plumes by using a four-point analysis method, the spatial gradient. We also compare several aspects of their motion as determined by different methods: (i) inner and outer plume boundary velocity calculated from time delays of this boundary observed by the wave experiment WHISPER on the four spacecraft, (ii) ion velocity derived from the ion spectrometer CIS onboard CLUSTER, (iii) drift velocity measured by the electron drift instrument ED1 onboard CLUSTER and (iv) global velocity determined from successive EUV images. These different techniques consistently indicate that plasmaspheric plumes rotate around the Earth, with their foot fully co-rotating, but with their tip rotating slower and moving farther out.

  9. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Richard M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Navarro, Victor M.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)—which share many visual system properties with humans—can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds’ histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task—namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)—the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds’ successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools. PMID:26581091

  10. Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Modeling of Lightning Observed in Galileo Images of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyudine, U. A.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    We study lightning on Jupiter and the clouds illuminated by the lightning using images taken by the Galileo orbiter. The Galileo images have a resolution of 25 km/pixel and axe able to resolve the shape of the single lightning spots in the images, which have full widths at half the maximum intensity in the range of 90-160 km. We compare the measured lightning flash images with simulated images produced by our ED Monte Carlo light-scattering model. The model calculates Monte Carlo scattering of photons in a ED opacity distribution. During each scattering event, light is partially absorbed. The new direction of the photon after scattering is chosen according to a Henyey-Greenstein phase function. An image from each direction is produced by accumulating photons emerging from the cloud in a small range (bins) of emission angles. Lightning bolts are modeled either as points or vertical lines. Our results suggest that some of the observed scattering patterns axe produced in a 3-D cloud rather than in a plane-parallel cloud layer. Lightning is estimated to occur at least as deep as the bottom of the expected water cloud. For the six cases studied, we find that the clouds above the lightning are optically thick (tau > 5). Jovian flashes are more regular and circular than the largest terrestrial flashes observed from space. On Jupiter there is nothing equivalent to the 30-40-km horizontal flashes which axe seen on Earth.

  11. Observation of sea-ice dynamics using synthetic aperture radar images: Automated analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, John F.; Samadani, Ramin; Smith, Martha P.; Daida, Jason M.; Bracewell, Ronald N.

    1988-01-01

    The European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite, as well as others planned to follow, is expected to carry synthetic-aperture radars (SARs) over the polar regions beginning in 1989. A key component in utilization of these SAR data is an automated scheme for extracting the sea-ice velocity field from a time sequence of SAR images of the same geographical region. Two techniques for automated sea-ice tracking, image pyramid area correlation (hierarchical correlation) and feature tracking, are described. Each technique is applied to a pair of Seasat SAR sea-ice images. The results compare well with each other and with manually tracked estimates of the ice velocity. The advantages and disadvantages of these automated methods are pointed out. Using these ice velocity field estimates it is possible to construct one sea-ice image from the other member of the pair. Comparing the reconstructed image with the observed image, errors in the estimated velocity field can be recognized and a useful probable error display created automatically to accompany ice velocity estimates. It is suggested that this error display may be useful in segmenting the sea ice observed into regions that move as rigid plates of significant ice velocity shear and distortion.

  12. PATHOLOGIC BASIS FOR RIM ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES OF FELINE NASOPHARYNGEAL POLYPS.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Christopher R; Sibbing, Kendall; Priestnall, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    In postcontrast computed tomographic (CT) images, feline nasopharyngeal polyps typically demonstrate enhancement of the peripheral rim. Computed tomographic images and histologic specimens of a case series of 22 cats with surgically removed nasopharyngeal polyps were reviewed retrospectively in an attempt to elucidate the origin of rim enhancement. Polyps were present in the tympanic cavity in 15 (68%) cats (three with extension into the nasopharynx), only in the nasopharynx in four (18%) cats, and only in the external ear canal in the remaining three (14%) cats. All polyps had variable degrees of epithelial injury. Hemorrhage and inflammatory infiltration were significantly more marked in the superficial stroma whereas edema was significantly more marked in the core stroma. In noncontrast CT images (n = 22), the tympanic bulla was thickened in all 15 cats with a polyp in the tympanic cavity and enlarged in eight (53%) of these cats. In postcontrast CT images (n = 15), an outer zone of relatively increased attenuation compatible with a rim was observed in 11 (73%) polyps. The magnitude and extent of rim enhancement in CT images was positively correlated with the histologic grade of inflammation in the superficial stroma and negatively correlated with the grade of edema in the superficial stroma. It appears that inflammation is the major determinant of contrast medium accumulation in feline nasopharyngeal polyps, and the tendency for inflammation to affect predominantly the superficial layers explains the frequent observation of a rim in postcontrast CT images.

  13. A stereo matching model observer for stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Muralidlhar, Gautam S.

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic viewing of 3D medical imaging data has the potential to increase the detection of abnormalities. We present a new stereo model observer inspired by the characteristics of stereopsis in human vision. Given a stereo pair of images of an object (i.e., left and right images separated by a small displacement), the model observer rst nds the corresponding points between the two views, and then fuses them together to create a 2D cyclopean view. Assuming that the cyclopean view has extracted most of the 3D information presented in the stereo pair, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can be utilized to make decisions. We conduct a simulation study that attempts to mimic the detection of breast lesions on stereoscopic viewing of breast tomosynthesis projection images. We render voxel datasets that contain random 3D power-law noise to model normal breast tissues with various breast densities. 3D Gaussian signal is added to some of the datasets to model the presence of a breast lesion. By changing the separation angle between the two views, multiple stereo pairs of projection images are generated for each voxel dataset. The performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of binary decisions on the presence of the simulated lesions.

  14. Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

  15. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Omidi, N.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversy surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  16. Modeling Images and Spectra of a Solar Flare Observed by RHESSI on 20 February 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Linhui; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.; Krucker, Saem; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert Kim

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed a C7.5 limb flare observed by RHESSI on 20 February 2002. The RHESSI images appear to show two footpoints and a loop-top source. Our goal was to determine if the data are consistent with a simple steady-state model in which high-energy electrons are continuously injected at the top of a semicircular flare loop. A comparison of the RHESSI images with simulated images from the model has made it possible for us to identify spurious sources and fluxes in the RHESSI images. We find the RHESSI results are in many aspects consistent with the model if a thermal source is included between the loop footpoints, but there is a problem with the spectral index of the loop-top source. The thermal source between the footpoints is likely to be a low-lying loop interacting with the northern footpoint of a higher loop containing the loop-top source.

  17. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Burch, J.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Kuntz, Kip; Omidi, N.; Read, A.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversies surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  18. EIT: Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Michels, D. J.; Dere, K. P.; Howard, R. A.; Catura, R.; Stern, R.; Lemen, J.; Neupert, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) of SOHO (solar and heliospheric observatory) will provide full disk images in emission lines formed at temperatures that map solar structures ranging from the chromospheric network to the hot magnetically confined plasma in the corona. Images in four narrow bandpasses will be obtained using normal incidence multilayered optics deposited on quadrants of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The EIT is capable of providing a uniform one arc second resolution over its entire 50 by 50 arc min field of view. Data from the EIT will be extremely valuable for identifying and interpreting the spatial and temperature fine structures of the solar atmosphere. Temporal analysis will provide information on the stability of these structures and identify dynamical processes. EIT images, issued daily, will provide the global corona context for aid in unifying the investigations and in forming the observing plans for SOHO coronal instruments.

  19. Toward realistic and practical ideal observer (IO) estimation for the optimization of medical imaging systems.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Caffo, Brian S; Frey, Eric C

    2008-10-01

    The ideal observer (IO) employs complete knowledge of the available data statistics and sets an upper limit on observer performance on a binary classification task. However, the IO test statistic cannot be calculated analytically, except for cases where object statistics are extremely simple. Kupinski have developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based technique to compute the IO test statistic for, in principle, arbitrarily complex objects and imaging systems. In this work, we applied MCMC to estimate the IO test statistic in the context of myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). We modeled the imaging system using an analytic SPECT projector with attenuation, distant-dependent detector-response modeling and Poisson noise statistics. The object is a family of parameterized torso phantoms with variable geometric and organ uptake parameters. To accelerate the imaging simulation process and thus enable the MCMC IO estimation, we used discretized anatomic parameters and continuous uptake parameters in defining the objects. The imaging process simulation was modeled by precomputing projections for each organ for a finite number of discretely-parameterized anatomic parameters and taking linear combinations of the organ projections based on continuous sampling of the organ uptake parameters. The proposed method greatly reduces the computational burden and allows MCMC IO estimation for a realistic MPS imaging simulation. We validated the proposed IO estimation technique by estimating IO test statistics for a large number of input objects. The properties of the first- and second-order statistics of the IO test statistics estimated using the MCMC IO estimation technique agreed well with theoretical predictions. Further, as expected, the IO had better performance, as measured by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, than the Hotelling observer. This method is developed for SPECT imaging. However, it can be adapted to any linear imaging system.

  20. Interference data correction methods for lunar observation with a large-aperture static imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng; Wang, Shuang; Li, Libo; Hu, Xiuqing; Hu, Bingliang

    2016-11-01

    The lunar spectrum has been used in radiometric calibration and sensor stability monitoring for spaceborne optical sensors. A ground-based large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS) can be used to acquire the lunar spectral image for lunar radiance model improvement when the moon orbits over its viewing field. The lunar orbiting behavior is not consistent with the desired scanning speed and direction of LASIS. To correctly extract interferograms from the obtained data, a translation correction method based on image correlation is proposed. This method registers the frames to a reference frame to reduce accumulative errors. Furthermore, we propose a circle-matching-based approach to achieve even higher accuracy during observation of the full moon. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches, experiments are run on true lunar observation data. The results show that the proposed approaches outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Instrumental and observational requirements for space-based imaging of magnetospheric emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. M.; Chiu, Y. T.; Catura, R. C.; Collin, H. L.; Garrido, D.; Smith, R.

    1992-01-01

    Simulated images of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from energetic outflowing ions have been constructed to study techniques for remotely sensing the dynamic behavior of hot plasmas in the near-Earth environment. These calculations include realistic assumptions about the energetic ion outflow from high latitudes and take into account the effects of cold plasmaspheric and ionospheric ions. The energetic ion outflow is determined from a statistical study based on five years of measurements from the Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer 1. The simulated images change significantly with viewing geometry and certain spacecraft locations are clearly favorable for observing emissions from energetic ions. For example, for a near equatorial orbit, viewing locations greater than 9 Earth radii are required to observe outflowing ions above the cold plasmaspheric background. We will discuss other important considerations for magnetospheric imaging including the sensitivity requirements of the detector. In particular, we consider the performance of multi-layer optics for EUV wavelengths.

  2. IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K.; Raymond, John C.; Chen, Bin; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Li, Gang; Guo, Fan; Liu, Wei

    2014-12-20

    Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant energy release mechanism in solar flares. The standard flare model predicts both downward and upward outflow plasmas with speeds close to the coronal Alfvén speed. Yet, spectroscopic observations of such outflows, especially the downflows, are extremely rare. With observations of the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we report the detection of a greatly redshifted (∼125 km s{sup –1} along the line of sight) Fe XXI 1354.08 Å emission line with a ∼100 km s{sup –1} nonthermal width at the reconnection site of a flare. The redshifted Fe XXI feature coincides spatially with the loop-top X-ray source observed by RHESSI. We interpret this large redshift as the signature of downward-moving reconnection outflow/hot retracting loops. Imaging observations from both IRIS and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory also reveal the eruption and reconnection processes. Fast downward-propagating blobs along these loops are also found from cool emission lines (e.g., Si IV, O IV, C II, Mg II) and images of AIA and IRIS. Furthermore, the entire Fe XXI line is blueshifted by ∼260 km s{sup –1} at the loop footpoints, where the cool lines mentioned above all exhibit obvious redshift, a result that is consistent with the scenario of chromospheric evaporation induced by downward-propagating nonthermal electrons from the reconnection site.

  3. Phase Error Correction for Approximated Observation-Based Compressed Sensing Radar Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Liu, Falin; Zhou, Chongbin; Lv, Yuanhao; Hu, Jingqiu

    2017-01-01

    Defocus of the reconstructed image of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) occurs in the presence of the phase error. In this work, a phase error correction method is proposed for compressed sensing (CS) radar imaging based on approximated observation. The proposed method has better image focusing ability with much less memory cost, compared to the conventional approaches, due to the inherent low memory requirement of the approximated observation operator. The one-dimensional (1D) phase error correction for approximated observation-based CS-SAR imaging is first carried out and it can be conveniently applied to the cases of random-frequency waveform and linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform without any a priori knowledge. The approximated observation operators are obtained by calculating the inverse of Omega-K and chirp scaling algorithms for random-frequency and LFM waveforms, respectively. Furthermore, the 1D phase error model is modified by incorporating a priori knowledge and then a weighted 1D phase error model is proposed, which is capable of correcting two-dimensional (2D) phase error in some cases, where the estimation can be simplified to a 1D problem. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of 1D phase error or weighted 1D phase error. PMID:28304353

  4. MALDI-imaging enables direct observation of kinetic and thermodynamic products of mixed peptide fiber assembly.

    PubMed

    Medini, Karima; West, Brandi; Williams, David E; Brimble, Margaret A; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2017-02-04

    Controlling the self-assembly of multicomponent systems provides a key to designing new materials and understanding the molecular complexity of biology. Here, we demonstrate the first use of MALDI-imaging to characterize a multicomponent self-assembling peptide fiber. Observations of mixed peptide systems over time demonstrate how simple sequence variation can change the balance between kinetic and thermodynamic products.

  5. Phase Error Correction for Approximated Observation-Based Compressed Sensing Radar Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Liu, Falin; Zhou, Chongbin; Lv, Yuanhao; Hu, Jingqiu

    2017-03-17

    Defocus of the reconstructed image of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) occurs in the presence of the phase error. In this work, a phase error correction method is proposed for compressed sensing (CS) radar imaging based on approximated observation. The proposed method has better image focusing ability with much less memory cost, compared to the conventional approaches, due to the inherent low memory requirement of the approximated observation operator. The one-dimensional (1D) phase error correction for approximated observation-based CS-SAR imaging is first carried out and it can be conveniently applied to the cases of random-frequency waveform and linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform without any a priori knowledge. The approximated observation operators are obtained by calculating the inverse of Omega-K and chirp scaling algorithms for random-frequency and LFM waveforms, respectively. Furthermore, the 1D phase error model is modified by incorporating a priori knowledge and then a weighted 1D phase error model is proposed, which is capable of correcting two-dimensional (2D) phase error in some cases, where the estimation can be simplified to a 1D problem. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of 1D phase error or weighted 1D phase error.

  6. Precise calibration of CCD images with a small field of view. Application to observations of Phoebe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Q.; Vienne, A.; Han, Y. B.; Li, Z. L.

    2004-09-01

    A precise astrometric calibration method is presented for a CCD image with a small field of view. Its detailed computational formulae are given, and its feasibility and accuracy are tested by the observations of both the star and Phoebe, the 9th satellite of Saturn. This new method can also be applicable to other planetary satellites, asteroids and optical counterparts of extragalactic radio sources.

  7. A Comparison of Electron Density Profiles Derived from the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) Ultraviolet Measurements: Resolution of the 911 Å Conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Coker, C.; Nicholas, A. C.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Previous measurements of the 911 Å emission made by sounding rockets, at altitude less than 320 km, indicated that the emission was either very weak or non-existent. Newer measurements made by the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) currently in operation aboard the International Space Station, at an altitude of 340 km, show the same behavior. Yet, satellite-based measurements made at altitudes above 800 km showed the emission to be present and strong enough to be accurately measured and inverted; those inversions were validated against ionosonde measurements and demonstrated the possibility of using the 911 Å emission for daytime ionospheric sensing. So the conundrum is: why do measurements made at lower altitudes (< 350 km) indicate weak or non-existent emission while satellite measurements at higher altitudes (>800 km) show the presence of the emission at the expected level? We present our measurements of the daytime and nighttime electron density derived by analysis of the O I 1356 and O I 911 Å altitude profiles measured by the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) instrument launched aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), which operated between mid-May 1999 and April 2002. We compare the retrieved electron density profiles inferred from the limb intensities of the ultraviolet emissions to peak heights and peak densities measured during ionosonde overflights. We show that the 911 Å emission is strongly affected by the height of the ionosphere and show that this is consistent with absorption of the 911 Å by atomic oxygen. Model results are presented showing that the RAIDS and sounding rocket measurements can be explained by this absorption.

  8. SCIAMACHY observations of OH*(3-1) rotational temperature and OH* emission height variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Savigny, C.; McDade, I. C.; Eichmann, K.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    SCIAMACHY, the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY on ESA's Envisat provided night-time limb measurements of the terrestrial airglow between fall 2002 and spring 2012 over a wide spectral range (220 - 2380 nm). These measurements are employed to retrieve OH(3-1) rotational temperatures and vertical emission rate profiles of several different Meinel bands. This contribution will focus on three different topics related to the OH airglow. First, a solar-driven 27-day signature in OH(3-1) rotational temperatures was identified using cross-correlation and superposed epoch analysis methods. This signature was found to be highly significant. Interestingly, the sensitivity of the mesopause temperatures to the 27-day solar forcing agrees within uncertainties with the sensitivity in terms of the 11-year solar cycle, suggesting similar forcing mechanims. The sensitivity in terms of the 27-day cycle is consistent with recent model simulations, but is significantly larger than previously published experimental results. Second, SCIAMACHY observations and model simulations are used to investigate, whether the Meinel emissions originating from different vibrational levels peak at the same altitude. We find systematic differences in emission peak altitudes between different Meinel bands - emissions from higher vibrational levels peak at higher altitudes - and good qualitative and quantitative agreement between measurements and model results. Third, the variability of the OH(3-1) emission altitude is investigated. A pronounced semi-annual variation with an amplitude of about 1 km is found at low latitudes. Annually averaged emission altitudes do not vary by more than about 300 m between 2003 and 2011, i.e. they show no evidence of an obvious 11-year solar cycle signature or a long-term trend. This provides important information for the interpretation of ground-based OH rotational temperature measurements.

  9. Method for optimizing channelized quadratic observers for binary classification of large-dimensional image datasets

    PubMed Central

    Kupinski, M. K.; Clarkson, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method for computing optimized channels for channelized quadratic observers (CQO) that is feasible for high-dimensional image data. The method for calculating channels is applicable in general and optimal for Gaussian distributed image data. Gradient-based algorithms for determining the channels are presented for five different information-based figures of merit (FOMs). Analytic solutions for the optimum channels for each of the five FOMs are derived for the case of equal mean data for both classes. The optimum channels for three of the FOMs under the equal mean condition are shown to be the same. This result is critical since some of the FOMs are much easier to compute. Implementing the CQO requires a set of channels and the first- and second-order statistics of channelized image data from both classes. The dimensionality reduction from M measurements to L channels is a critical advantage of CQO since estimating image statistics from channelized data requires smaller sample sizes and inverting a smaller covariance matrix is easier. In a simulation study we compare the performance of ideal and Hotelling observers to CQO. The optimal CQO channels are calculated using both eigenanalysis and a new gradient-based algorithm for maximizing Jeffrey's divergence (J). Optimal channel selection without eigenanalysis makes the J-CQO on large-dimensional image data feasible. PMID:26366764

  10. Spatially resolved and observer-free experimental quantification of spatial resolution in tomographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsekenis, S. A.; McCann, H.; Tait, N.

    2015-03-15

    We present a novel framework and experimental method for the quantification of spatial resolution of a tomography system. The framework adopts the “black box” view of an imaging system, considering only its input and output. The tomography system is locally stimulated with a step input, viz., a sharp edge. The output, viz., the reconstructed images, is analysed by Fourier decomposition of their spatial frequency components, and the local limiting spatial resolution is determined using a cut-off threshold. At no point is an observer involved in the process. The framework also includes a means of translating the quantification region in the imaging space, thus creating a spatially resolved map of objectively quantified spatial resolution. As a case-study, the framework is experimentally applied using a gaseous propane phantom measured by a well-established chemical species tomography system. A spatial resolution map consisting of 28 regions is produced. In isolated regions, the indicated performance is 4-times better than that suggested in the literature and varies by 57% across the imaging space. A mechanism based on adjacent but non-interacting beams is hypothesised to explain the observed behaviour. The mechanism suggests that, as also independently concluded by other methods, a geometrically regular beam array maintains maximum objectivity in reconstructions. We believe that the proposed framework, methodology, and findings will be of value in the design and performance evaluation of tomographic imaging arrays and systems.

  11. Supernova Remnants and Nucleosynthesis (fos 30): Augmentation Cycle 2 Observations - Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Arthur

    1991-07-01

    Overall program: UV and optical spectra of four supernova remnants (SNRs) will be used to study a number of problems related to abundances, grain destruction, interstellar medium properties and physical conditions in SNR shocks. Representatives of three of the main classes of SNRs (Crab-nebula like, Balmer-line and "normal") will be studied in the LMC, where reasonably low reddening permits UV observations. An oxygen-rich SNR in NGC 4449 will be observed, taking advantage of the small FOS slits to isolate the SNR from surrounding H II emission. Two M33 SNRs that were previously part of this proposal have been dropped due to time limitations. This proposal is augmented time to obtain early acq images of two LMC remnants and spectra of N49, which had early acq images in Cy. 0. NOTE: SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING ORIGINALLY IN THE CYCLE 2 PROPOSAL 4108 HAVE BEEN SPLIT BY STSCI INTO TWO SEPARATE PROPOSALS TO ALLOW FOR SCHEDULING OF CYCLE 2 EARLY ACQ IMAGING ( THIS PROPOSAL ) SINCE CYCLE 2 SPECTROSCOPY DEPENDS ON MEASUREMENT OF EARLY ACQ IMAGING OF OTHER TARGETS FROM EARLIER CYCLES.

  12. Asteroid (4179) Toutatis size determination via optical images observed by the Chang'e-2 probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Huang, J.; Zhao, W.; Wang, X.; Meng, L.; Tang, X.

    2014-07-01

    This work is a physical and statistical study of the asteroid (4179) Toutatis using the optical images obtained by a solar panel monitor of the Chang'e-2 probe on Dec. 13, 2012 [1]. In the imaging strategy, the camera is focused at infinity. This is specially designed for the probe with its solar panels monitor's principle axis pointing to the relative velocity direction of the probe and Toutatis. The imaging strategy provides a dedicated way to resolve the size by multi-frame optical images. The inherent features of the data are: (1) almost no rotation was recorded because of the 5.41-7.35 Earth-day rotation period and the small amount of elapsed imaging time, only minutes, make the object stay in the images in a fixed position and orientation; (2) the sharpness of the upper left boundary and the vagueness of lower right boundary resulting from the direction of SAP (Sun-Asteroid-Probe angle) cause a varying accuracy in locating points at different parts of Toutatis. A common view is that direct, accurate measurements of asteroid shapes, sizes, and pole positions are now possible for larger asteroids that can be spatially resolved using the Hubble Space Telescope or large ground-based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics. For a quite complex planetary/asteroid probe study, these measurements certainly need continuous validation via a variety of ways [2]. Based on engineering parameters of the probe during the fly-by, the target spatial resolving and measuring procedures are described in the paper. Results estimated are optical perceptible size on the flyby epoch under the solar phase angles during the imaging. It is found that the perceptible size measured using the optical observations and the size derived from the radar observations by Ostro et al.~in 1995 [3], are close to one another.

  13. Optical Observation, Image-processing, and Detection of Space Debris in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on optical observations and an efficient detection method of space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). We operate our new Australia Remote Observatory (ARO) where an 18 cm optical telescope with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera covering a 3.14-degree field of view is used for GEO debris survey, and analyse datasets of successive CCD images using the line detection method (Yanagisawa and Nakajima 2005). In our operation, the exposure time of each CCD image is set to be 3 seconds (or 5 seconds), and the time interval of CCD shutter open is about 4.7 seconds (or 6.7 seconds). In the line detection method, a sufficient number of sample objects are taken from each image based on their shape and intensity, which includes not only faint signals but also background noise (we take 500 sample objects from each image in this paper). Then we search a sequence of sample objects aligning in a straight line in the successive images to exclude the noise sample. We succeed in detecting faint signals (down to about 1.8 sigma of background noise) by applying the line detection method to 18 CCD images. As a result, we detected about 300 GEO objects up to magnitude of 15.5 among 5 nights data. We also calculate orbits of objects detected using the Simplified General Perturbations Satellite Orbit Model 4(SGP4), and identify the objects listed in the two-line-element (TLE) data catalogue publicly provided by the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). We found that a certain amount of our detections are new objects that are not contained in the catalogue. We conclude that our ARO and detection method posse a high efficiency detection of GEO objects despite the use of comparatively-inexpensive observation and analysis system. We also describe the image-processing specialized for the detection of GEO objects (not for usual astronomical objects like stars) in this paper.

  14. Investigation of Interpolation for Solar Irradiation in Non-Observed Point Based on Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Fujisawa, Sei; Seki, Tomomichi

    Penetrating the Photovoltaic Power Generation System (PV) on an enormous scale over a next decade has some crucial problems which affect on, for example, power grid stabilization and operation including existing power stations for electric power utilities. It would be therefore important for future operation to estimate power output generated by PV in advance. We focus on interpolation using observed solar irradiation (SI) and brightness of pixel on a satellite visible image for estimating SI even in non-observed point. Our results by single regression analysis between observed SI and brightness on a satellite image as cloudiness show that a shift of highest determination coefficient on each hour would represent solar movement and this higher determination coefficient would indicate a position which SI and cloud would cross. Finally assessment of error in this interpolation shows enough accuracy at least in daytime period, which is important for electricity utilities.

  15. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation, Imaging, Observations, and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    This report presents particle formation observations and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Hydrogen was frozen into particles in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. These newly analyzed data are from the test series held on February 28, 2001. Particle sizes from previous testing in 1999 and the testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed: microparticles and delayed particle formation. These experiment image analyses are some of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and they allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  16. DEEP U BAND AND R IMAGING OF GOODS-SOUTH: OBSERVATIONS, DATA REDUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS ,

    SciTech Connect

    Nonino, M.; Cristiani, S.; Vanzella, E.; Dickinson, M.; Reddy, N.; Rosati, P.; Grazian, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Daddi, E.

    2009-08-01

    We present deep imaging in the U band covering an area of 630 arcmin{sup 2} centered on the southern field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). The data were obtained with the VIMOS instrument at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope. The final images reach a magnitude limit U {sub lim} {approx} 29.8 (AB, 1{sigma}, in a 1'' radius aperture), and have good image quality, with full width at half-maximum {approx}0.''8. They are significantly deeper than previous U-band images available for the GOODS fields, and better match the sensitivity of other multiwavelength GOODS photometry. The deeper U-band data yield significantly improved photometric redshifts, especially in key redshift ranges such as 2 < z < 4, and deeper color-selected galaxy samples, e.g., Lyman break galaxies at z {approx} 3. We also present the co-addition of archival ESO VIMOS R-band data, with R {sub lim} {approx} 29 (AB, 1{sigma}, 1'' radius aperture), and image quality {approx}0.''75. We discuss the strategies for the observations and data reduction, and present the first results from the analysis of the co-added images.

  17. Range-imaging observations of cumulus convection and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with the MU radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, H.; Hassenpflug, G.; Yamamoto, M.; Crochet, M.; Fukao, S.

    2007-02-01

    In the present work, we report observations of cumulus convection and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities in the troposphere at high vertical and time resolution with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (46.5 MHz, 34.85°N, 136.10°E, Japan). A detailed morphology of the structures could be obtained through application of range-imaging technique (called frequency radar interferometric imaging (FII) or range imaging (RIM)) with the Capon processing method. The usefulness of this work lies in the demonstration of the performance of the MU radar in range-imaging mode for investigating various atmospheric phenomena at small scales. As one case study, we describe the high-resolution echo pattern during a convective event. It is found that the convective cells formed in the early afternoon and reached a maximum altitude of about 3.5 km. The high-resolution images revealed thin layers above this altitude, unresolved at the standard 150-m low-resolution mode, associated with vertical oscillations possibly due to gravity waves generated by the convective cells through the mechanism of "obstacle effects." As a second case study, two clear images of KH billows and waves are shown. The KH billows were observed in the troposphere in regions of strong vertical shear of the horizontal wind and persisted for at least 20 min in both cases. The horizontal wavelengths of the KH waves were estimated to be about 2.5 and 5.7 km, according to the magnitude of the horizontal wind in the altitude range where the dynamic shear instabilities were observed.

  18. DYNAMICS OF ON-DISK PLUMES AS OBSERVED WITH THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH, THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY, AND THE HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Vaibhav; Mazumder, Rakesh; Banerjee, Dipankar; Panditi, Vemareddy; Dolla, Laurent; Prasad, S. Krishna

    2015-07-01

    We examine the role of small-scale transients in the formation and evolution of solar coronal plumes. We study the dynamics of plume footpoints seen in the vicinity of a coronal hole using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager magnetogram on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and spectroscopic data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Quasi-periodic brightenings are observed in the base of the plumes and are associated with magnetic flux changes. With the high spectral and spatial resolution of IRIS, we identify the sources of these oscillations and try to understand what role the transients at the footpoints can play in sustaining the coronal plumes. IRIS “sit-and-stare” observations provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of footpoints of the plumes. We notice enhanced line width and intensity, and large deviation from the average Doppler shift in the line profiles at specific instances, which indicate the presence of flows at the footpoints of plumes. We propose that outflows (jet-like features) as a result of small-scale reconnections affect the line profiles. These jet-like features may also be responsible for the generation of propagating disturbances (PDs) within the plumes, which are observed to be propagating to larger distances as recorded from multiple AIA channels. These PDs can be explained in terms of slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  19. Dynamics of On-disk Plumes as Observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Vaibhav; Dolla, Laurent; Mazumder, Rakesh; Banerjee, Dipankar; Krishna Prasad, S.; Panditi, Vemareddy

    2015-07-01

    We examine the role of small-scale transients in the formation and evolution of solar coronal plumes. We study the dynamics of plume footpoints seen in the vicinity of a coronal hole using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager magnetogram on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and spectroscopic data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Quasi-periodic brightenings are observed in the base of the plumes and are associated with magnetic flux changes. With the high spectral and spatial resolution of IRIS, we identify the sources of these oscillations and try to understand what role the transients at the footpoints can play in sustaining the coronal plumes. IRIS “sit-and-stare” observations provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of footpoints of the plumes. We notice enhanced line width and intensity, and large deviation from the average Doppler shift in the line profiles at specific instances, which indicate the presence of flows at the footpoints of plumes. We propose that outflows (jet-like features) as a result of small-scale reconnections affect the line profiles. These jet-like features may also be responsible for the generation of propagating disturbances (PDs) within the plumes, which are observed to be propagating to larger distances as recorded from multiple AIA channels. These PDs can be explained in terms of slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  20. Comparison of human observers and CDCOM software reading for CDMAM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanconelli, Nico; Rivetti, Stefano; Golinelli, Paola; Serafini, Marco; Bertolini, Marco; Borasi, Giovanni

    2007-03-01

    Contrast-detail analysis is one the most common way for the assessment of the performance of an imaging system. Usually, the reading of phantoms, such as CDMAM, is obtained by human observers. The main drawbacks of this practice is the presence of inter-observer variability and the great amount of time needed. However, software programs are available, for reading CDMAM images in an automatic way. In this paper we present a comparison of human and software reading of CDMAM images coming from three different FFDM clinical units. Images were acquired at different exposures in the same conditions for the three systems. Once software has completed the reading, the interpretation of the results is achieved on the same way used for the human case. CDCOM results are consistent with human analysis, if we consider figures such as COR and IQF. On the other hand, we find out some discrepancies along the CD curves obtained by human observers, with respect to those estimated by automated CDCOM analysis.

  1. Assessment of a fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging system using the Hotelling observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Amit K.; Joshi, Amit; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2006-08-01

    This study represents a first attempt to assess the detection capability of a fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging system as quantified by the Hotelling observer. The imaging system is simulated by the diffusion approximation of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation, which describes near infra-red (NIR) light propagation through clinically relevant tissue volumes. The random structures in the background are introduced using a lumpy-object model as a representation of anatomical structure as well as non-uniform distribution of disease markers. The systematic errors and noise associated with the actual experimental conditions are incorporated into the simulated boundary measurements to acquire imaging data sets. A large number of imaging data sets are considered in order to perform Hotelling observer studies. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of Hotelling observer (i) decreases as the strength of lumpy perturbations in the background increases, (ii) decreases as the target depth increases, and (iii) increases as excitation light leakage decreases, and reaches a maximum for filter optical density values of 5 or higher.

  2. Qualities of sequential chromospheric brightenings observed in Hα and UV images

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Michael S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Jackiewicz, Jason; McAteer, R. T. James

    2014-12-01

    Chromospheric flare ribbons observed in Hα appear well-organized when first examined: ribbons impulsively brighten, morphologically evolve, and exponentially decay back to pre-flare levels. Upon closer inspection of the Hα flares, there is often a significant number of compact areas brightening in concert with the flare eruption but are spatially separated from the evolving flare ribbon. One class of these brightenings is known as sequential chromospheric brightenings (SCBs). SCBs are often observed in the immediate vicinity of erupting flares and are associated with coronal mass ejections. In the past decade there have been several previous investigations of SCBs. These studies have exclusively relied upon Hα images to discover and analyze these ephemeral brightenings. This work employs the automated detection algorithm of Kirk et al. to extract the physical qualities of SCBs in observations of ground-based Hα images and complementary Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images in He II, C IV, and 1700 Å. The metadata produced in this tracking process are then culled using complementary Doppler velocities to isolate three distinguishable types of SCBs. From a statistical analysis, we find that the SCBs at the chromospheric Hα layer appear earlier and last longer than their corresponding signatures measured in AIA. From this multi-layer analysis, we infer that SCBs are spatially constrained to the mid-chromosphere. We also derive an energy budget to explain SCBs which have a postulated energy of not more than 0.01% of the total flare energy.

  3. Dayside Proton Aurora: Comparisons between Global MHD Simulations and Image Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Petrinec, S.; Frey, H. U.; Burch, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The IMAGE mission provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of current global models of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, images of proton auroras from the Far Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) onboard the IMAGE spacecraft are well suited to support investigations of the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to interplanetary disturbances. Accordingly, we have modeled two events that occurred on June 8 and July 28, 2000, using plasma and magnetic field parameters measured upstream of the bow shock as input to three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. This paper begins with a discussion of images of proton auroras from the FUV SI-12 instrument in comparison with the simulation results. The comparison showed a very good agreement between intensifications in the auroral emissions measured by FUV SI-12 and the enhancement of plasma flows into the dayside ionosphere predicted by the global simulations. Subsequently, the IMAGE observations are analyzed in the context of the dayside magnetosphere's topological changes in magnetic field and plasma flows inferred from the simulation results. Finding include that the global dynamics of the auroral proton precipitation patterns observed by IMAGE are consistent with magnetic field reconnection occurring as a continuous process while the iMF changes in direction and the solar wind dynamic pressure varies. The global simulations also indicate that some of the transient patterns observed by IMAGE are consistent with sporadic reconnection processes. Global merging patterns found in the simulations agree with the antiparallel merging model. though locally component merging might broaden the merging region, especially in the region where shocked solar wind discontinuities first reach the magnetopause. Finally, the simulations predict the accretion of plasma near the bow shock in the regions threaded by newly open field lines on which plasma flows into the dayside

  4. The zodiacal light as observed with the Clementine startracker cameras - Calibration and image analysis procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zook, H. A.; Cooper, B. L.; Potter, A. E.

    1997-03-01

    The zodiacal light, due to sunlight reflected off interplanetary dust grains, is a measure of their spatial density as a function of heliocentric distance and latitude. We have developed procedures to photometrically correct the brightness variations in the Clementine Corona and Zodiacal Light (CZL) photographs to true image brightnesses. The processing steps follow generally along the path described by Berry (1994); however, there are additional processing steps involved for the Clementine images. Careful corrections are necessary because of the dimness of the features that we wish to observe.

  5. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Sol 0-179 activities, observations, range and scale characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; MSL Science Team

    2013-09-01

    During the Curiosity rover's first six months on Mars, images acquired by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) provided critical observations that were used to distinguish a silt/clay-stone from sandstone; interrogate and document the physical properties of an eolian sand deposit and a silt/clay-stone rock in support of sample collection efforts; support robotic arm engineering, tool placement, and wheel position and condition; and contribute to the overall geologic investigation of rocks exposed and only thinly coated with dust in northern Gale crater, Mars.

  6. Image processing improvement for optical observations of space debris with the TAROT telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebaut, C.; Theron, S.; Richard, P.; Blanchet, G.; Klotz, A.; Boër, M.

    2016-07-01

    CNES is involved in the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and is observing space debris with two robotic ground based fully automated telescopes called TAROT and operated by the CNRS. An image processing algorithm devoted to debris detection in geostationary orbit is implemented in the standard pipeline. Nevertheless, this algorithm is unable to deal with debris tracking mode images, this mode being the preferred one for debris detectability. We present an algorithm improvement for this mode and give results in terms of false detection rate.

  7. Initial Observations by the MRO Mars Color Imager and Context Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, M. C.

    2006-12-01

    The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on MRO is a copy of the wide angle instrument flown on the unsuccessful Mars Climate Orbiter. It consists of two optical systems (visible and ultraviolet) projecting images onto a single CCD detector. The field of view of the optics is 180 degrees cross-track, sufficient to image limb-to-limb even when the MRO spacecraft is pointing off-nadir by 20 degrees. MARCI can image in two UV (260 and 320 ±15 nm) and five visible (425, 550, 600, 650, and 750 nm, ±25 nm) channels. The visible channels have a nadir scale of about 900 m, and a limb scale of just under 5 km; the UV channels are summed to 7-8 km nadir scale. Daily global observations, consisting of 12 terminator to terminator, limb-to-limb swaths are used to monitor meteorological conditions, clouds, dust storms, and ozone concentration (a surrogate for water). During high data rate periods, MARCI can reproduce the Mariner 9 global image mosaic every day. The Context Camera (CTX) acquires 30 km wide, 6 m/pixel images, and is new camera derived from the MCO medium angle MARCI. Its primary purpose is to provide spatial context for MRO instruments with higher resolution, or more limited fields of view. Scientifically, CTX acquires images that are nearly as high in spatial resolution as the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard MGS. CTX can cover about 9 percent of Mars, but stereoscopic coverage, overlap for mosaics, and re-imaging locations to search for changes will reduce this coverage significantly.

  8. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun; Miao, Jun; Wilson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, PC. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit and

  9. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Miao, Jun; Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun; Wilson, David L.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, P{sub C}. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit

  10. The Venus nitric oxide night airglow - Model calculations based on the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Gerard, J. C.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Fesen, C. G.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the Venus nitric oxide (0,1) delta band nightglow observed in the Pioneer Venus Orbiter UV spectrometer (OUVS) images was investigated using the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (Dickinson et al., 1984), modified to include simple odd nitrogen chemistry. Results obtained for the solar maximum conditions indicate that the recently revised dark-disk average NO intensity at 198.0 nm, based on statistically averaged OUVS measurements, can be reproduced with minor modifications in chemical rate coefficients. The results imply a nightside hemispheric downward N flux of (2.5-3) x 10 to the 9th/sq cm sec, corresponding to the dayside net production of N atoms needed for transport.

  11. Observations of barium ion jets in the magnetosphere using Doppler imaging systems and very sensitive imaging systems using imaging photon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, D.; Conboy, J.; Heinz, W.; Heppner, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of four shaped charge releases from rockets launched from Alaska are described. Results demonstrate that imaging and Doppler imaging instruments, based on exploiting the imaging photon detector, provide additional insight into the motion and development of low intensity targets such as the fast ion jets produced by shaped charge releases. It is possible to trace the motion of fast ion jets to very great distances, of the order of 50,000 km, outward along the Earth's magnetic field, when the conditions are suitable for the outward (upward) motion and/or acceleration of such ion jets. It is shown that ion jets, which fade below the lower sensitivity threshold of previous instruments, do not always disappear. There is no evidence of an abrupt field-aligned shear-type acceleration.

  12. Patches of polar mesospheric summer echoes characterized from radar imaging observations with MAARSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Svenja; Chau, Jorge L.

    2016-12-01

    A recent study has hypothesized that polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) might consist mainly of localized isotropic scattering. These results have been inferred from indirect measurements. Using radar imaging with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY), we observed horizontal structures that support our previous findings. We observe that small-scale irregularities, causing isotropic scattering, are organized in patches. We find that patches of PMSEs, as observed by the radar, are usually smaller than 1 km. These patches occur throughout the illuminated volume, supporting that PMSEs are caused by localized isotropic or inhomogeneous scattering. Furthermore, we show that imaging can be used to identify side lobe detections, which have a significant influence even for narrow beam observations. Improved spectra estimations are obtained by selecting the desired volume to study parameters such as spectral width and to estimate the derived energy dissipation rates. In addition, a combined wide beam experiment and radar imaging is used to resolve the radial velocity and spectral width at different volumes within the illuminated volume.

  13. Structural anomalies in undoped Gallium Arsenide observed in high resolution diffraction imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, B.; Kuriyama, M.; Dobbyn, R. C.; Laor, U.; Larson, D.; Brown, M.

    1988-01-01

    Novel, streak-like disruption features restricted to the plane of diffraction have recently been observed in images obtained by synchrotron radiation diffraction from undoped, semi-insulating gallium arsenide crystals. These features were identified as ensembles of very thin platelets or interfaces lying in (110) planes, and a structural model consisting of antiphase domain boundaries was proposed. We report here the other principal features observed in high resolution monochromatic synchrotron radiation diffraction images: (quasi) cellular structure; linear, very low-angle subgrain boundaries in (110) directions, and surface stripes in a (110) direction. In addition, we report systematic differences in the acceptance angle for images involving various diffraction vectors. When these observations are considered together, a unifying picture emerges. The presence of ensembles of thin (110) antiphase platelet regions or boundaries is generally consistent not only with the streak-like diffraction features but with the other features reported here as well. For the formation of such regions we propose two mechanisms, operating in parallel, that appear to be consistent with the various defect features observed by a variety of techniques.

  14. GEOMETRIC TRIANGULATION OF IMAGING OBSERVATIONS TO TRACK CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS CONTINUOUSLY OUT TO 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Ying; Luhmann, Janet G.; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Davies, Jackie A.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2010-02-10

    We describe a geometric triangulation technique, based on time-elongation maps constructed from imaging observations, to track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) continuously in the heliosphere and predict their impact on the Earth. Taking advantage of stereoscopic imaging observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, this technique can determine the propagation direction and radial distance of CMEs from their birth in the corona all the way to 1 AU. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by its application to the 2008 December 12 CME, which manifests as a magnetic cloud (MC) from in situ measurements at the Earth. The predicted arrival time and radial velocity at the Earth are well confirmed by the in situ observations around the MC. Our method reveals non-radial motions and velocity changes of the CME over large distances in the heliosphere. It also associates the flux-rope structure measured in situ with the dark cavity of the CME in imaging observations. Implementation of the technique, which is expected to be a routine possibility in the future, may indicate a substantial advance in CME studies as well as space weather forecasting.

  15. Solar Flares Observed with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2004-01-01

    Solar flares are impressive examples of explosive energy release in unconfined, magnetized plasma. It is generally believed that the flare energy is derived from the coronal magnetic field. However, we have not been able to establish the specific energy release mechanism(s) or the relative partitioning of the released energy between heating, particle acceleration (electrons and ions), and mass motions. NASA's RHESSI Mission was designed to study the acceleration and evolution of electrons and ions in flares by observing the X-ray and gamma-ray emissions these energetic particles produce. This is accomplished through the combination of high-resolution spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, including the first images of flares in gamma rays. RHESSI has observed over 12,000 solar flares since its launch on February 5, 2002. I will demonstrate how we use the RHESSI spectra to deduce physical properties of accelerated electrons and hot plasma in flares. Using images to estimate volumes, w e typically find that the total energy in accelerated electrons is comparable to that in the thermal plasma. I will also present flare observations that provide strong support for the presence of magnetic reconnection in a large-scale, vertical current sheet in the solar corona. RHESSI observations such as these are allowing us to probe more deeply into the physics of solar flares.

  16. Interactions between Coronal Mass Ejections Viewed in Coordinated Imaging and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Martinez-Oliveros, Juan C.; Bale, Stewart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Harrison, Richard A.; Temmer, Manuela; Webb, David F.; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    The successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2010 July 30 - August 1 present us the first opportunity to study CME-CME interactions with unprecedented heliospheric imaging and in situ observations from multiple vantage points. We describe two cases of CME interactions: merging of two CMEs launched close in time and overtaking of a preceding CME by a shock wave. The first two CMEs on August 1 interact close to the Sun and form a merged front, which then overtakes the July 30 CME near 1 AU, as revealed by wide-angle imaging observations. Connections between imaging observations and in situ signatures at 1 AU suggest that the merged front is a shock wave, followed by two ejecta observed at Wind which seem to have already merged. In situ measurements show that the CME from July 30 is being overtaken by the shock at 1 AU and is significantly compressed, accelerated and heated. The interaction between the preceding ejecta and shock also results in variations in the shock strength and structure on a global scale, as shown by widely separated in situ measurements from Wind and STEREO B. These results indicate important implications of CME-CME interactions for shock propagation, particle acceleration and space weather forecasting.

  17. Use of dust storm observations on satellite images to identify areas vulnerable to severe wind erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Blowing dust is symptomatic of severe wind erosion and deterioration of soils in areas undergoing dessication and/or devegetation. Dust plumes on satellite images can commonly be traced to sources in marginally arable semiarid areas where protective lag gravels or vegetation have been removed and soils are dry, as demonstrated for the Portales Valley, New Mexico. Images from Landsat and manned orbiters such as Skylab and the Space Shuttle are useful for illustrating the regional relations of airborne dust plumes to source areas. Geostationary satellites such as GOES are useful in tracking the time-histories of episodic dust storms. These events sometimes go unrecognized by weather observers and are the precursors of long-term land degradation trends. In areas where soil maps and meteorological data are inadequate, satellite images provide a means for identifying problem areas where measures are needed to control or mitigate wind erosion. ?? 1986 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  18. Theoretical Model Images and Spectra for Comparison with HESSI and Microwave Observations of Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor); Holman, G. D.; Sui, L.; McTiernan, J. M.; Petrosian, V.

    2003-01-01

    We have computed bremsstrahlung and gyrosynchrotron images and spectra from a model flare loop. Electrons with a power-law energy distribution are continuously injected at the top of a semi-circular magnetic loop. The Fokker-Planck equation is integrated to obtain the steady-state electron distribution throughout the loop. Coulomb scattering and energy losses and magnetic mirroring are included in the model. The resulting electron distributions are used to compute the radiative emissions. Sample images and spectra are presented. We are developing these models for the interpretation of the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) x-ray/gamma ray data and coordinated microwave observations. The Fokker-Planck and radiation codes are available on the Web at http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/hessi/modelware.htm This work is supported in part by the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Program.

  19. Observer-model optimization of X-ray system in photon-counting breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederström, Björn; Fredenberg, Erik; Lundqvist, Mats; Ericson, Tove; Åslund, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    An ideal-observer model is applied to optimize the design of an X-ray tube intended for use in a multi-slit scanning photon-counting mammography system. The design is such that the anode and the heel effect are reversed and the projected focal spot is smallest at the chest wall. Using linear systems theory, detectability and dose efficiency for a 0.1-mm disk are calculated for different focal spot sizes and anode angles. It is shown that the image acquisition time can be reduced by about 25% with spatial resolution and dose efficiency improved near the chest wall and worsened further away. The image quality is significantly more homogeneous than for the conventional anode orientation, both with respect to noise and detectability of a small object. With the tube rotated 90∘, dose efficiency can be improved by 20% for a fixed image acquisition time.

  20. TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH OBSERVATIONS IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. II. BLACK HOLE IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, Tim; Psaltis, Dimitrios E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.ed

    2010-07-20

    According to the no-hair theorem, all astrophysical black holes are fully described by their masses and spins. This theorem can be tested observationally by measuring (at least) three different multipole moments of the spacetimes of black holes. In this paper, we analyze images of black holes within a framework that allows us to calculate observables in the electromagnetic spectrum as a function of the mass, spin, and, independently, the quadrupole moment of a black hole. We show that a deviation of the quadrupole moment from the expected Kerr value leads to images of black holes that are either prolate or oblate depending on the sign and magnitude of the deviation. In addition, there is a ring-like structure around the black hole shadow with a diameter of {approx}10 black hole masses that is substantially brighter than the image of the underlying accretion flow and that is independent of the astrophysical details of accretion flow models. We show that the shape of this ring depends directly on the mass, spin, and quadrupole moment of the black hole and can be used for an independent measurement of all three parameters. In particular, we demonstrate that this ring is highly circular for a Kerr black hole with a spin a {approx}< 0.9 M, independent of the observer's inclination, but becomes elliptical and asymmetric if the no-hair theorem is violated. Near-future very long baseline interferometric observations of Sgr A* will image this ring and may allow for an observational test of the no-hair theorem.

  1. Effect of image compression for model and human observers in signal-known-statistically tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh; Abbey, Craig K.

    2002-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that model observers can be used for automated evaluation and optimization of image compression with respect to human visual performance in a task where the signal does not vary and is known a priori by the observer (signal known exactly, SKE). Here, we extend previous work to two tasks that are intended to more realistically represent the day-to-day visual diagnostic decision in the clinical setting. In the signal known exactly but variable task (SKEV), the signal varies from trial to trial (e.g., size, shape, etc) but is known to the observer. In the signal known statistically task (SKS) the signal varies from trial to trial and the observer does not have knowledge of which signal is present in that trial. We compare SKEV/SKS human and model observer performance detecting simulated arterial filling defects embedded in real coronary angiographic backgrounds in images that have undergone different amounts of JPEG and JPEG 2000 image compression. Our results show that both human and model performance at low compression ratios is better for the JPEG algorithm than the JPEG 2000 algorithm. Metrics of image quality such as the root mean square error (or the related peak signal to noise ratio) incorrectly predict a JPEG 2000 superiority. Results also show that although model and to a lesser extent human performance improves with the trial to trial knowledge of the signal present (SKEV vs. SKS task), conclusions about which compression algorithm is better (JPEG vs. JPEG 2000) for the current task would not change whether one used an SKEV or SKS task. These findings might suggest that the computationally more tractable SKEV models could be used as a good first approximation for automated evaluation of the more clinically realistic SKS task.

  2. Examining Periodic Solar-Wind Density Structures Observed in the SECCHI Heliospheric Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Spence, Harlan E.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Howard, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of small-scale, periodic, solar-wind density enhancements (length scales as small as approximately equals 1000 Mm) observed in images from the Heliospheric Imager (HI) aboard STEREO-A. We discuss their possible relationship to periodic fluctuations of the proton density that have been identified at 1 AU using in-situ plasma measurements. Specifically, Viall, Kepko, and Spence examined 11 years of in-situ solar-wind density measurements at 1 AU and demonstrated that not only turbulent structures, but also nonturbulent, periodic density structures exist in the solar wind with scale sizes of hundreds to one thousand Mm. In a subsequent paper, Viall, Spence, and Kasper analyzed the alpha-to-proton solar-wind abundance ratio measured during one such event of periodic density structures, demonstrating that the plasma behavior was highly suggestive that either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma created those density structures. Large periodic density structures observed at 1 AU, which were generated in the corona, can be observable in coronal and heliospheric white-light images if they possess sufficiently high density contrast. Indeed, we identify such periodic density structures as they enter the HI field of view and follow them as they advect with the solar wind through the images. The smaller, periodic density structures that we identify in the images are comparable in size to the larger structures analyzed in-situ at 1 AU, yielding further evidence that periodic density enhancements are a consequence of coronal activity as the solar wind is formed.

  3. Multi-observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment.

    PubMed

    David, S; Visvikis, D; Roux, C; Hatt, M

    2011-09-21

    In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, an early therapeutic response is usually characterized by variations of semi-quantitative parameters restricted to maximum SUV measured in PET scans during the treatment. Such measurements do not reflect overall tumor volume and radiotracer uptake variations. The proposed approach is based on multi-observation image analysis for merging several PET acquisitions to assess tumor metabolic volume and uptake variations. The fusion algorithm is based on iterative estimation using a stochastic expectation maximization (SEM) algorithm. The proposed method was applied to simulated and clinical follow-up PET images. We compared the multi-observation fusion performance to threshold-based methods, proposed for the assessment of the therapeutic response based on functional volumes. On simulated datasets the adaptive threshold applied independently on both images led to higher errors than the ASEM fusion and on clinical datasets it failed to provide coherent measurements for four patients out of seven due to aberrant delineations. The ASEM method demonstrated improved and more robust estimation of the evaluation leading to more pertinent measurements. Future work will consist in extending the methodology and applying it to clinical multi-tracer datasets in order to evaluate its potential impact on the biological tumor volume definition for radiotherapy applications.

  4. Multi-observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment

    PubMed Central

    David, Simon; Visvikis, Dimitris; Roux, Christian; Hatt, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, an early therapeutic response is usually characterized by variations of semi-quantitative parameters restricted to maximum SUV measured in PET scans during the treatment. Such measurements do not reflect overall tumour volume and radiotracer uptake variations. The proposed approach is based on multi-observation image analysis for merging several PET acquisitions to assess tumour metabolic volume and uptake variations. The fusion algorithm is based on iterative estimation using stochastic expectation maximization (SEM) algorithm. The proposed method was applied to simulated and clinical follow-up PET images. We compared the multi-observation fusion performance to threshold-based methods, proposed for the assessment of the therapeutic response based on functional volumes. On simulated datasets, the adaptive threshold applied independently on both images led to higher errors than the ASEM fusion and on the clinical datasets, it failed to provide coherent measurements for four patients out of seven due to aberrant delineations. The ASEM method demonstrated improved and more robust estimation of the evaluation leading to more pertinent measurements. Future work will consist in extending the methodology and applying it to clinical multi-tracers datasets in order to evaluate its potential impact on the biological tumour volume definition for radiotherapy applications. PMID:21846937

  5. Observation of image pair creation and annihilation from superluminal scattering sources

    PubMed Central

    Clerici, Matteo; Spalding, Gabriel C.; Warburton, Ryan; Lyons, Ashley; Aniculaesei, Constantin; Richards, Joseph M.; Leach, Jonathan; Henderson, Robert; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The invariance of the speed of light is one of the foundational pillars of our current understanding of the universe. It implies a series of consequences related to our perception of simultaneity and, ultimately, of time itself. Whereas these consequences are experimentally well studied in the case of subluminal motion, the kinematics of superluminal motion lack direct evidence or even a clear experimental approach. We investigate kinematic effects associated with the superluminal motion of a light source. By using high-temporal-resolution imaging techniques, we directly demonstrate that if the source approaches an observer at superluminal speeds, the temporal ordering of events is inverted and its image appears to propagate backward. Moreover, for a source changing its speed and crossing the interface between subluminal and superluminal propagation regions, we observe image pair annihilation and creation, depending on the crossing direction. These results are very general and show that, regardless of the emitter speed, it is not possible to unambiguously determine the kinematics of an event from imaging and time-resolved measurements alone. This has implications not only for light, but also, for example, for sound and other wave phenomena. PMID:27152347

  6. Potential for observing and discriminating impact craters and comparable volcanic landforms on Magellan radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of small terrestrial craters by Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) at high resolution (approx. 25 m) and of comparatively large Venusian craters by Venera 15/16 images at low resolution (1000 to 2000 m) and shorter wavelength show similarities in the radar responses to crater morphology. At low incidence angles, the responses are dominated by large scale slope effects on the order of meters; consequently it is difficult to locate the precise position of crater rims on the images. Abrupt contrasts in radar response to changing slope (hence incidence angle) across a crater produce sharp tonal boundaries normal to the illumination. Crater morphology that is radially symmetrical appears on images to have bilateral symmetry parallel to the illumination vector. Craters are compressed in the distal sector and drawn out in the proximal sector. At higher incidence angles obtained with the viewing geometry of SIR-A, crater morphology appears less compressed on the images. At any radar incidence angle, the distortion of a crater outline is minimal across the medial sector, in a direction normal to the illumination. Radar bright halos surround some craters imaged by SIR-A and Venera 15 and 16. The brightness probably denotes the radar response to small scale surface roughness of the surrounding ejecta blankets. Similarities in the radar responses of small terrestrial impact craters and volcanic craters of comparable dimensions emphasize the difficulties in discriminating an impact origin from a volcanic origin in the images. Similar difficulties will probably apply in discriminating the origin of small Venusian craters, if they exist. Because of orbital considerations, the nominal incidence angel of Magellan radar at the center of the imaging swath will vary from about 45 deg at 10 deg N latitude to about 16 deg at the north pole and at 70 deg S latitude. Impact craters and comparable volcanic landforms will show bilateral symmetry parallel to the illumination

  7. Demonstration of Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Performance for Planetary and Geostationary Earth Observing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1 - 5 micrometer range. The results also support definition of the NASA Geostationary Imaging FTS (GIFTS) instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from geostationary earth orbit. The Planetary Imaging FTS (PIFTS) breadboard is based on a custom miniaturized Bomen interferometer that uses corner cube reflectors, a wishbone pivoting voice-coil delay scan mechanism, and a laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial infrared camera procured from Santa Barbara Focalplane. It uses an InSb 128x128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25 mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers. The delay scan is continuous, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16% using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.

  8. Impact of Image Filters and Observations Parameters in CBCT for Identification of Mandibular Osteolytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Bruna Moraes; Nobrega Filho, Denys Silveira; Lopes, Patrícia de Medeiros Loureiro; de Sales, Marcelo Augusto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of filters (algorithms) to improve the image of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the mandible, in order to establish the protocols for viewing images more suitable for CBCT diagnostics. 15 dry mandibles in which perforations were performed, simulating lesions, were submitted to CBCT examination. Two examiners analyzed the images, using filters to improve image Hard, Normal, and Very Sharp, contained in the iCAT Vision software, and protocols for assessment: axial; sagittal and coronal; and axial, sagittal and coronal planes simultaneously (MPR), on two occasions. The sensitivity and specificity (validity) of the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) have been demonstrated as the values achieved were above 75% for sensitivity and above 85% for specificity, reaching around 95.5% of sensitivity and 99% of specificity when we used the appropriate observation protocol. It was concluded that the use of filters (algorithms) to improve the CBCT image influences the diagnosis, due to the fact that all measured values were correspondingly higher when it was used the filter Very Sharp, which justifies its use for clinical activities, followed by Hard and Normal filters, in order of decreasing values. PMID:22956955

  9. Autonomous Observing and Control Systems for PAIRITEL, a 1.3m Infrared Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L.; Blake, C. H.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Falco, E. E.

    2006-07-01

    The Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope (PAIRITEL) is the first meter-class telescope operating as a fully robotic IR imaging system. Dedicated in October 2004, PAIRITEL began regular observations in mid-December 2004 as part of a 1.5 year commissioning period. The system was designed to respond without human intervention to new gamma-ray burst transients: this milestone was finally reached on November 9, 2005 but the telescope had a number of semi-automated sub-10 minute responses throughout early commissioning. When not operating in Target of Opportunity mode, PAIRITEL performs a number of queue scheduled transient monitoring campaigns. To achieve this level of automation, we have developed communicating tools to connect the various sub-systems: an intelligent queue scheduling database, run-time configurable observation sequence software, a data reduction pipeline, and a master state machine which monitors and controls all functions within and affecting the observatory.

  10. Atmospheric Correction Prototype Algorithm for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Earth Observing Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the creation of a prototype algorithm for atmospheric correction using high spatial resolution earth observing imaging systems. The objective of the work was to evaluate accuracy of a prototype algorithm that uses satellite-derived atmospheric products to generate scene reflectance maps for high spatial resolution (HSR) systems. This presentation focused on preliminary results of only the satellite-based atmospheric correction algorithm.

  11. All Sky Imager Network for Science and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, A.; Kendall, E. A.; Zalles, D. R.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Marshall, R. A.; Kaltenbacher, E.

    2012-12-01

    A new all sky imager network for space weather monitoring and education outreach has been developed by SRI International. The goal of this program is to install sensitive, low-light all-sky imagers across the continental United States to observe upper atmospheric airglow and aurora in near real time. While aurora borealis is often associated with the high latitudes, during intense geomagnetic storms it can extend well into the continental United States latitudes. Observing auroral processes is instrumental in understanding the space weather, especially in the times of increasing societal dependence on space-based technologies. Under the THEMIS satellite program, Canada has installed a network of all-sky imagers across their country to monitor aurora in real-time. However, no comparable effort exists in the United States. Knowledge of the aurora and airglow across the entire United States in near real time would allow scientists to quickly assess the impact of a geomagnetic storm in concert with data from GPS networks, ionosondes, radars, and magnetometers. What makes this effort unique is that we intend to deploy these imagers at high schools across the country. Selected high-schools will necessarily be in rural areas as the instrument requires dark night skies. At the commencement of the school year, we plan to give an introductory seminar on space weather at each of these schools. Science nuggets developed by SRI International in collaboration with the Center for GeoSpace Studies and the Center for Technology in Learning will be available for high school teachers to use during their science classes. Teachers can use these nuggets as desired within their own curricula. We intend to develop a comprehensive web-based interface that will be available for students and scientific community alike to observe data across the network in near real time and also to guide students towards complementary space weather data sets. This interface will show the real time extent of

  12. Expanding imaging capabilities for microfluidics: applicability of darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) to observations in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Chino; Sanzo, James; Higgins, Christopher; Nirei, Tatsuo; Schilling, Tobias; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics is used increasingly for engineering and biomedical applications due to recent advances in microfabrication technologies. Visualization of bubbles, tracer particles, and cells in a microfluidic device is important for designing a device and analyzing results. However, with conventional methods, it is difficult to observe the channel geometry and such particles simultaneously. To overcome this limitation, we developed a Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) system that improved the drawbacks of a conventional darkfield illuminator. This study was performed to investigate its utility in the field of microfluidics. The results showed that the developed system could clearly visualize both microbubbles and the channel wall by utilizing brightfield and DIRI illumination simultaneously. The methodology is useful not only for static phenomena, such as clogging, but also for dynamic phenomena, such as the detection of bubbles flowing in a channel. The system was also applied to simultaneous fluorescence and DIRI imaging. Fluorescent tracer beads and channel walls were observed clearly, which may be an advantage for future microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) analysis, especially near a wall. Two types of cell stained with different colors, and the channel wall, can be recognized using the combined confocal and DIRI system. Whole-slide imaging was also conducted successfully using this system. The tiling function significantly expands the observing area of microfluidics. The developed system will be useful for a wide variety of engineering and biomedical applications for the growing field of microfluidics.

  13. Versatile illumination platform and fast optical switch to give standard observation camera gated active imaging capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasser, R.; Peyronneaudi, Benjamin; Yon, Kevin; Aubry, Marie

    2015-10-01

    CILAS, subsidiary of Airbus Defense and Space, develops, manufactures and sales laser-based optronics equipment for defense and homeland security applications. Part of its activity is related to active systems for threat detection, recognition and identification. Active surveillance and active imaging systems are often required to achieve identification capacity in case for long range observation in adverse conditions. In order to ease the deployment of active imaging systems often complex and expensive, CILAS suggests a new concept. It consists on the association of two apparatus working together. On one side, a patented versatile laser platform enables high peak power laser illumination for long range observation. On the other side, a small camera add-on works as a fast optical switch to select photons with specific time of flight only. The association of the versatile illumination platform and the fast optical switch presents itself as an independent body, so called "flash module", giving to virtually any passive observation systems gated active imaging capacity in NIR and SWIR.

  14. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9/Jupiter collision observed with a high resolution speckle imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Gravel, D.

    1994-11-15

    During the week of July 16, 1994, comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, broken into 20 plus pieces by tidal forces on its last orbit, smashed into the planet Jupiter, releasing the explosive energy of 500 thousand megatons. A team of observers from LLNL used the LLNL Speckle Imaging Camera mounted on the University of California`s Lick Observatory 3 Meter Telescope to capture continuous sequences of planet images during the comet encounter. Post processing with the bispectral phase reconstruction algorithm improves the resolution by removing much of the blurring due to atmospheric turbulence. High resolution images of the planet surface showing the aftermath of the impact are probably the best that were obtained from any ground-based telescope. We have been looking at the regions of the fragment impacts to try to discern any dynamic behavior of the spots left on Jupiter`s cloud tops. Such information can lead to conclusions about the nature of the comet and of Jupiter`s atmosphere. So far, the Hubble Space Telescope has observed expanding waves from the G impact whose mechanism is enigmatic since they appear to be too slow to be sound waves and too fast to be gravity waves, given the present knowledge of Jupiter`s atmosphere. Some of our data on the G and L impact region complements the Hubble observations but, so far, is inconclusive about spot dynamics.

  15. THE STRUCTURE OF A SELF-GRAVITATING PROTOPLANETARY DISK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR DIRECT IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Takayuki

    2011-09-20

    We consider the effects of self-gravity on the hydrostatic balance in the vertical direction of a gaseous disk and discuss the possible signature of the self-gravity that may be captured by direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks in the future. In this paper, we consider a vertically isothermal disk in order to isolate the effects of self-gravity. The specific disk model we consider in this paper is the one with a radial surface density gap, at which the Toomre's Q-parameter of the disk varies rapidly in the radial direction. We calculate the vertical structure of the disk including the effects of self-gravity. We then calculate the scattered light and the dust thermal emission. We find that if the disk is massive enough and the effects of self-gravity come into play, a weak bump-like structure at the gap edge appears in the near-infrared (NIR) scattered light, while no such bump-like structure is seen in the submillimeter (sub-mm) dust continuum image. The appearance of the bump is caused by the variation of the height of the surface in the NIR wavelength. If such a bump-like feature is detected in future direct imaging observations, combined with sub-mm observations, it will give us useful information about the physical states of the disk.

  16. The Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Harris, S. E.; Heetderks, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Su, H.-T.; Hsu, R.-R.; Chen, A. B.; Fukunishi, H.; Chang, Y.-S.; Lee, L.-C.

    2016-08-01

    The Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) was the first specifically dedicated instrument to observe lightning-induced transient luminous events (TLE): sprites, elves, halos, and gigantic jets from space. The Imager is an intensified CCD system operating in the visible wavelength region with a filter wheel to select from six positions with filters. The Imager has a 5° × 20° (vertical times horizontal) field of view. The spectrophotometer (SP) is populated with six photometers with individual filters for emissions from the far ultraviolet to the near infrared. An array photometer with two channels operating in the blue and red provides altitude profiles of the emission over 16 altitude bins each. The Associated Electronics Package (AEP) controls instrument functions and interfaces with the spacecraft. ISUAL was launched 21 May 2004 into a Sun-synchronous 890 km orbit on the Formosat-2 satellite and has successfully been collecting data ever since. ISUAL is running on the nightside of the orbit and is pointed to the east of the orbit down toward the limb. The instrument runs continuously and writes data to a circular buffer. Whenever the SP detects a sudden signal increase above a preset threshold, a trigger signal is generated that commands the system to keep the data for about 400 ms starting from ~50 ms before the trigger. Over its lifetime of ~11 years the system recorded thousands of TLE and also successfully observed aurora and airglow.

  17. An EUV imaging spectrograph for high-resolution observations of the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neupert, Werner M.; Epstein, Gabriel L.; Thomas, Roger J.; Thompson, William T.

    1992-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrograph for the wavelength range from 235 to 450 A has been developed and used for resolution observations of the sun. The instrument incorporates a glancing incidence Wolter Type II Telescope and a near-normal incidence toroidal grating spectrograph to achieve near-stigmatic performance over this spectral range. The design of the spectrograph entrance aperture enables both stigmatic spectra with spectral resolution adequate to observe emission line profiles and spectroheliograms of restricted portions of the sun to be obtained concurrently. The design and performance of the instrument are described, and an overview of results obtained during a sounding rocket flight on May 5, 1989 is provided.

  18. New color images of transient luminous events from dedicated observations on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Mezuman, Keren; Elhalel, Gal; Pariente, Meidad; Glickman-Pariente, Maya; Ziv, Baruch; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the “Cosmic Shore” program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Cupola module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of <2 h of video. Sprites tend to appear in a single frame simultaneously with maximum lightning brightness. Unique images (a) from nadir of a sprite horizontally displaced form the lightning light and (b) from the oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly enhance the value of observation time.

  19. GOES imager visible-to-infrared channel registration using star observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Donald; Baucom, Jeanette G.; Baltimore, Perry; Bremer, James C.

    2003-11-01

    Due to optical misalignment, visible and infrared channels of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) I-M Imager may not be properly registered. This "co-registration" error is currently estimated by comparing groups of visible and infrared observation residuals from the GOES Orbit and Attitude Tracking System (OATS). To make the channel-to-channel comparison more direct, it was proposed to compare individual observations rather than groups of observations. This has already been done for landmarks but not for stars. Stars would help determine nighttime co-registration when visible landmarks are not available. Although most stars in the GOES catalog are not detectable in the shortwave infrared channel, many are. Because stars drift west-to-east across the detectors and because of their high observation frequency, stars provide good east-west co-registration information. Due to the large detector fields-of-view, stars do not provide much information about north-south co-registration.

  20. Initial Observations and Activities of Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) at the Gale Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    the dust and sand obscuration, the observables are unclear —grains 300-500 µm size in the Bathurst Inlet images and 300-500 µm-sized rhombus-shaped crystals in the rock, Jake Matijevic have been observed by some workers. Sand and granules (as well as dust), exhibiting a variety of colors, shapes, and other grain attributes, were deposited on rover hardware during descent. As noted above, sand as well as dust also mantles the rocks observed by MAHLI; in one case the cohesive properties of this material was demonstrated by the presence of a "micro landslide" on a rock named Burwash. At the Rocknest sand shadow, a variety of coarse to very coarse sand grains of differing color, shape, luster, angularity, and roundness were observed, including glassy spheroids and ellipsoids (perhaps formed from impact melt droplets) and clear, translucent grains. The fine to very fine sands sieved (≤ 150 µm) and delivered to the rover's observation tray exhibited at least four distinct grain types, including clear, translucent crystal fragments.

  1. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Massive-Cluster Gravitational Lenses Observed by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Rawle, Timothy; Cava, Antonio; Clement, Benjamin; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Ebeling, Harald; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Richard, Johan; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Schaerer, Daniel; Walth, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory, our team has been conducting a large survey of the fields of massive galaxy clusters, 'The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). The main scientific goal is to penetrate the confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of these massive clusters and study the population of low-luminosity and/or high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies that are beyond the reach of field Herschel surveys. In the course of this survey, we have obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 clusters (HLS-deep) as well as shallower (but nearly confusion-limited) SPIRE images for 527 clusters (HLS-snapshot). The goal of this proposal is to obtain shallow (500 sec/band) 3.6/4.5 um images of 266 cluster fields that have been observed by the HLS-snapshot survey but do not have any corresponding IRAC data. The HLS-snapshot SPIRE images are deep enough to detect a large number of sources in the target cluster fields, many of which are distant star-forming galaxies lensed by the foreground clusters, and the large sample size of HLS-snapshot promises a great potential for making exciting discoveries. Yet, these Herschel images would be of limited use if we could not identify the counterparts of the Herschel sources accurately and efficiently. The proposed IRAC snapshot program will greatly enhance the utility of these Herschel data, and will feed powerful gound observing facilities like ALMA and NOEMA with interesting targets to follow up.

  2. Probing the functions of contextual modulation by adapting images rather than observers

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Countless visual aftereffects have illustrated how visual sensitivity and perception can be biased by adaptation to the recent temporal context. This contextual modulation has been proposed to serve a variety of functions, but the actual benefits of adaptation remain uncertain. We describe an approach we have recently developed for exploring these benefits by adapting images instead of observers, to simulate how images should appear under theoretically optimal states of adaptation. This allows the long-term consequences of adaptation to be evaluated in ways that are difficult to probe by adapting observers, and provides a common framework for understanding how visual coding changes when the environment or the observer changes, or for evaluating how the effects of temporal context depend on different models of visual coding or the adaptation processes. The approach is illustrated for the specific case of adaptation to color, for which the initial neural coding and adaptation processes are relatively well understood, but can in principle be applied to examine the consequences of adaptation for any stimulus dimension. A simple calibration that adjusts each neuron’s sensitivity according to the stimulus level it is exposed to is sufficient to normalize visual coding and generate a host of benefits, from increased efficiency to perceptual constancy to enhanced discrimination. This temporal normalization may also provide an important precursor for the effective operation of contextual mechanisms operating across space or feature dimensions. To the extent that the effects of adaptation can be predicted, images from new environments could be “pre-adapted” to match them to the observer, eliminating the need for observers to adapt. PMID:25281412

  3. The Anisotropy of the Microwave Background to l=3500: Mosaic Observations with the Cosmic Background Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Mason, B. S.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Shepherd, M. C.; Sievers, J. L.; Udomprasert, P. S.; Cartwright, J. K.; Farmer, A. J.; Padin, S.; Myers, S. T.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using the Cosmic Background Imager, a 13-element interferometer array operating in the 26-36 GHz frequency band, we have observed 40 deg (sup 2) of sky in three pairs of fields, each approximately 145 feet x 165 feet, using overlapping pointings: (mosaicing). We present images and power spectra of the cosmic microwave background radiation in these mosaic fields. We remove ground radiation and other low-level contaminating signals by differencing matched observations of the fields in each pair. The primary foreground contamination is due to point sources (radio galaxies and quasars). We have subtracted the strongest sources from the data using higher-resolution measurements, and we have projected out the response to other sources of known position in the power-spectrum analysis. The images show features on scales approximately 6 feet-15 feet, corresponding to masses approximately 5-80 x 10(exp 14) solar mass at the surface of last scattering, which are likely to be the seeds of clusters of galaxies. The power spectrum estimates have a resolution delta l approximately 200 and are consistent with earlier results in the multipole range l approximately less than 1000. The power spectrum is detected with high signal-to-noise ratio in the range 300 approximately less than l approximately less than 1700. For 1700 approximately less than l approximately less than 3000 the observations are consistent with the results from more sensitive CBI deep-field observations. The results agree with the extrapolation of cosmological models fitted to observations at lower l, and show the predicted drop at high l (the "damping tail").

  4. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  5. Undercover EUV Solar Jets Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, N.-H.; Innes, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    It is well-known that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission emitted at the solar surface is absorbed by overlying cool plasma. Especially in active regions, dark lanes in EUV images suggest that much of the surface activity is obscured. Simultaneous observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, consisting of UV spectra and slit-jaw images (SJI), give vital information with sub-arcsecond spatial resolution on the dynamics of jets not seen in EUV images. We studied a series of small jets from recently formed bipole pairs beside the trailing spot of active region 11991, which occurred on 2014 March 5 from 15:02:21 UT to 17:04:07 UT. Collimated outflows with bright roots were present in SJI 1400 Å (transition region) and 2796 Å (upper chromosphere) that were mostly not seen in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 304 Å (transition region) and AIA 171 Å (lower corona) images. The Si iv spectra show a strong blue wing enhancement, but no red wing, in the line profiles of the ejecta for all recurrent jets, indicating outward flows without twists. We see two types of Mg ii line profiles produced by the jets spires: reversed and non-reversed. Mg ii lines remain optically thick, but turn optically thin in the highly Doppler shifted wings. The energy flux contained in each recurrent jet is estimated using a velocity differential emission measure technique that measures the emitting power of the plasma as a function of the line-of-sight velocity. We found that all the recurrent jets release similar energy (108 erg cm-2 s-1) toward the corona and the downward component is less than 3%.

  6. On the Active Region Bright Grains Observed in the Transition Region Imaging Channels of IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogsrud, H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De Pontieu, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provides spectroscopy and narrow band slit-jaw (SJI) imaging of the solar chromosphere and transition region at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. Combined with high-resolution context spectral imaging of the photosphere and chromosphere as provided by the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), we can now effectively trace dynamic phenomena through large parts of the solar atmosphere in both space and time. IRIS SJI 1400 images from active regions, which primarily sample the transition region with the Si iv 1394 and 1403 Å lines, reveal ubiquitous bright “grains” which are short-lived (two to five minute) bright roundish small patches of sizes 0.″5-1.″7 that generally move limbward with velocities up to about 30 km s-1. In this paper, we show that many bright grains are the result of chromospheric shocks impacting the transition region. These shocks are associated with dynamic fibrils (DFs), most commonly observed in Hα. We find that the grains show the strongest emission in the ascending phase of the DF, that the emission is strongest toward the top of the DF, and that the grains correspond to a blueshift and broadening of the Si iv lines. We note that the SJI 1400 grains can also be observed in the SJI 1330 channel which is dominated by C ii lines. Our observations show that a significant part of the active region transition region dynamics is driven from the chromosphere below rather than from coronal activity above. We conclude that the shocks that drive DFs also play an important role in the heating of the upper chromosphere and lower transition region.

  7. ON THE ACTIVE REGION BRIGHT GRAINS OBSERVED IN THE TRANSITION REGION IMAGING CHANNELS OF IRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Skogsrud, H.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Pontieu, B. De

    2016-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provides spectroscopy and narrow band slit-jaw (SJI) imaging of the solar chromosphere and transition region at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. Combined with high-resolution context spectral imaging of the photosphere and chromosphere as provided by the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), we can now effectively trace dynamic phenomena through large parts of the solar atmosphere in both space and time. IRIS SJI 1400 images from active regions, which primarily sample the transition region with the Si iv 1394 and 1403 Å lines, reveal ubiquitous bright “grains” which are short-lived (two to five minute) bright roundish small patches of sizes 0.″5–1.″7 that generally move limbward with velocities up to about 30 km s{sup −1}. In this paper, we show that many bright grains are the result of chromospheric shocks impacting the transition region. These shocks are associated with dynamic fibrils (DFs), most commonly observed in Hα. We find that the grains show the strongest emission in the ascending phase of the DF, that the emission is strongest toward the top of the DF, and that the grains correspond to a blueshift and broadening of the Si iv lines. We note that the SJI 1400 grains can also be observed in the SJI 1330 channel which is dominated by C ii lines. Our observations show that a significant part of the active region transition region dynamics is driven from the chromosphere below rather than from coronal activity above. We conclude that the shocks that drive DFs also play an important role in the heating of the upper chromosphere and lower transition region.

  8. Gemini Planet Imager observations of the AU Microscopii debris disk: Asymmetries within one arcsecond

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jason J.; Graham, James R.; Pueyo, Laurent; Nielsen, Eric L.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; De Rosa, Robert J.; Kalas, Paul; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine; Chiang, Eugene; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Doyon, René; Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Hung, Li -Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Matthews, Brenda C.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-09-23

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) observations of AU Microscopii, a young M dwarf with an edge-on, dusty debris disk. Integral field spectroscopy and broadband imaging polarimetry were obtained during the commissioning of GPI. In our broadband imaging polarimetry observations, we detect the disk only in total intensity and find asymmetries in the morphology of the disk between the southeast (SE) and northwest (NW) sides. The SE side of the disk exhibits a bump at 1'' (10 AU projected separation) that is three times more vertically extended and three times fainter in peak surface brightness than the NW side at similar separations. This part of the disk is also vertically offset by 69 ± 30 mas to the northeast at 1'' when compared to the established disk midplane and is consistent with prior Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations. We see hints that the SE bump might be a result of detecting a horizontal sliver feature above the main disk that could be the disk backside. Alternatively, when including the morphology of the NW side, where the disk midplane is offset in the opposite direction ~50 mas between 0farcs4 and 1farcs2, the asymmetries suggest a warp-like feature. Using our integral field spectroscopy data to search for planets, we are 50% complete for ~4 MJup planets at 4 AU. Lastly, we detect a source, resolved only along the disk plane, that could either be a candidate planetary mass companion or a compact clump in the disk.

  9. Gemini Planet Imager observations of the AU Microscopii debris disk: Asymmetries within one arcsecond

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jason J.; Graham, James R.; Pueyo, Laurent; ...

    2015-09-23

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) observations of AU Microscopii, a young M dwarf with an edge-on, dusty debris disk. Integral field spectroscopy and broadband imaging polarimetry were obtained during the commissioning of GPI. In our broadband imaging polarimetry observations, we detect the disk only in total intensity and find asymmetries in the morphology of the disk between the southeast (SE) and northwest (NW) sides. The SE side of the disk exhibits a bump at 1'' (10 AU projected separation) that is three times more vertically extended and three times fainter in peak surface brightness than the NW side atmore » similar separations. This part of the disk is also vertically offset by 69 ± 30 mas to the northeast at 1'' when compared to the established disk midplane and is consistent with prior Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations. We see hints that the SE bump might be a result of detecting a horizontal sliver feature above the main disk that could be the disk backside. Alternatively, when including the morphology of the NW side, where the disk midplane is offset in the opposite direction ~50 mas between 0farcs4 and 1farcs2, the asymmetries suggest a warp-like feature. Using our integral field spectroscopy data to search for planets, we are 50% complete for ~4 MJup planets at 4 AU. Lastly, we detect a source, resolved only along the disk plane, that could either be a candidate planetary mass companion or a compact clump in the disk.« less

  10. GEMINI PLANET IMAGER OBSERVATIONS OF THE AU MICROSCOPII DEBRIS DISK: ASYMMETRIES WITHIN ONE ARCSECOND

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jason J.; Graham, James R.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Kalas, Paul; Chiang, Eugene; Duchêne, Gaspard; Pueyo, Laurent; Chen, Christine; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Doyon, René; Draper, Zachary H.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; and others

    2015-10-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) observations of AU Microscopii, a young M dwarf with an edge-on, dusty debris disk. Integral field spectroscopy and broadband imaging polarimetry were obtained during the commissioning of GPI. In our broadband imaging polarimetry observations, we detect the disk only in total intensity and find asymmetries in the morphology of the disk between the southeast (SE) and northwest (NW) sides. The SE side of the disk exhibits a bump at 1″ (10 AU projected separation) that is three times more vertically extended and three times fainter in peak surface brightness than the NW side at similar separations. This part of the disk is also vertically offset by 69 ± 30 mas to the northeast at 1″ when compared to the established disk midplane and is consistent with prior Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations. We see hints that the SE bump might be a result of detecting a horizontal sliver feature above the main disk that could be the disk backside. Alternatively, when including the morphology of the NW side, where the disk midplane is offset in the opposite direction ∼50 mas between 0.″4 and 1.″2, the asymmetries suggest a warp-like feature. Using our integral field spectroscopy data to search for planets, we are 50% complete for ∼4 M{sub Jup} planets at 4 AU. We detect a source, resolved only along the disk plane, that could either be a candidate planetary mass companion or a compact clump in the disk.

  11. Is tissue harmonic ultrasound imaging (THI) of the prostatic urethra and rectum superior to brightness (B) mode imaging? An observer study.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gurpreet K; Angyalfi, Steve; Dunscombe, Peter B; Khan, Rao F

    2014-09-01

    Quality ultrasound images are an essential part of prostate brachytherapy procedure. The authors have previously reported that tissue harmonic ultrasound images (THI) are superior to brightness (B) mode for the prostate. The objective of the current study was to compare both imaging modes for visualization of the prostatic urethra and rectum. B and THI mode transrectal ultrasound images were acquired for ten patients. The prostatic urethra and rectal wall were contoured by a radiation oncologist (RO) and five observers on randomly presented images. The contours on one patient were repeated four additional times by four observers. All the images were qualitatively scored using a five-level Likert scale. The values of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients showed that the observers were in close agreement with the RO. Two sample paired student t-test showed that the rectum volumes with THI were significantly smaller than B-mode, but no significant difference for urethra. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant observer variability in defining the rectum and urethra in both imaging modes. Observer consistency of the rectum volumes, estimated by standard deviations as percentages of means was significantly improved for THI. The Likert scale based qualitative assessment supported quantitative observations. The significant improvement in image quality of the prostate (reported previously) and rectum with THI may offer better-quality treatment plans for prostate brachytherapy and potential improvement in local control.

  12. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Boone, J M; Abbey, C K; Hargreaves, J; Bateni, C; Lindfors, K K; Yang, K; Nosratieh, A; Hernandez, A; Gazi, P

    2015-04-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33, 0.71, 1.5 and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast.The percent correct of the human observer's responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist's performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92% correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67% for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the average physicist observer, however trends

  13. IMAGE Observations of Sounder Stimulated and Naturally Occurring Fast Z mode Cavity Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Taylor, C.; Reddy, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report first observations of sounder stimulated and naturally occurring fast Z mode (ZM) cavity noise detected by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite. The fast Z mode cavity noise is a banded, structure-less radio emission trapped inside fast Z mode cavities, which are characterized by a minimum (fz,min) in fast Z mode cut-off frequency (fz) along a geomagnetic field line [Gurnett et al., JGR, 1983]. Fast Z mode waves reflect at fz ~ f, where f is the wave frequency. Waves in the frequency range fz,min < f < fz,max, where fz,max is the maximum fz above fz,min altitude, are trapped within the cavity as they bounce back and forth between reflection altitudes (fz ~ f) above and below the fz,min altitude. These trapped waves will be observed by a satellite passing through the cavity. The observed cavity noise lower cutoff is at the local Z mode cut-off frequency (fz,Sat) and the upper cut-off is presumably close to fz,max. The cavity noise is observed typically inside the plasmasphere. Comparison of cavity noise as observed on the plasmagram obtained during active sounding with that observed on the dynamic spectra obtained from the interspersed passive wave measurements indicate that the cavity noise is either stimulated by transmissions from the sounder (RPI) or is of natural origin. The sounder stimulated noise is often accompanied by fast Z mode echoes. The naturally occurring cavity noise is observed on both the plasmagram and the dynamic spectra. We believe the stimulated cavity noise is generated due to scattering from small-scale irregularities of waves transmitted by RPI. One potential candidate for the source of naturally occurring Z mode cavity noise is the ring current electrons that can generate fast ZM waves via higher order cyclotron resonance [Nishimura et al., Earth Planets Space, 2007].

  14. Aperture optimization in emission imaging using ideal observers for joint detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lili; Khurd, Parmeshwar; Kulkarni, Santosh; Rangarajan, Anand; Gindi, Gene

    2008-04-01

    For the familiar 2-class detection problem (signal present/absent), ideal observers have been applied to optimization of pinhole and collimator parameters in planar emission imaging. Given photon noise and background and signal variabilities, such experiments show how to optimize an aperture to maximize detectability of the signal. Here, we consider a fundamentally different, more realistic task in which the observer is required to both detect and localize a signal. The signal is embedded in a variable background and is known except for location. We inquire whether the addition of a localization requirement changes conclusions on aperture optimization. We have previously formulated an ideal observer for this joint detection/localization task, and here apply it to the classic problem of determining an optimal pinhole diameter in a planar emission imaging system. We conclude that as search tolerance on localization decreases, the optimal pinhole diameter shrinks from that required by detection alone, and, in addition, task performance becomes more sensitive to fluctuations about the optimal pinhole diameter. As in the case for detection only, the optimal pinhole diameter shrinks as the amount of background variability grows and, in addition, conspicuity limits can be observed. Unlike the case for detection only, our task leads to a finite aperture size in the absence of background variability. For both tasks, the inclusion of background variability yields a finite aperture size.

  15. Detection of facilities in satellite imagery using semi-supervised image classification and auxiliary contextual observables

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Neal R; Ruggiero, Christy E; Pawley, Norma H; Brumby, Steven P; Macdonald, Brian; Balick, Lee; Oyer, Alden

    2009-01-01

    Detecting complex targets, such as facilities, in commercially available satellite imagery is a difficult problem that human analysts try to solve by applying world knowledge. Often there are known observables that can be extracted by pixel-level feature detectors that can assist in the facility detection process. Individually, each of these observables is not sufficient for an accurate and reliable detection, but in combination, these auxiliary observables may provide sufficient context for detection by a machine learning algorithm. We describe an approach for automatic detection of facilities that uses an automated feature extraction algorithm to extract auxiliary observables, and a semi-supervised assisted target recognition algorithm to then identify facilities of interest. We illustrate the approach using an example of finding schools in Quickbird image data of Albuquerque, New Mexico. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory's Genie Pro automated feature extraction algorithm to find a set of auxiliary features that should be useful in the search for schools, such as parking lots, large buildings, sports fields and residential areas and then combine these features using Genie Pro's assisted target recognition algorithm to learn a classifier that finds schools in the image data.

  16. The 30 MHz imaging radar observations of auroral irregularities during the JOULE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcivan, H.; Hysell, D. L.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2005-05-01

    Coherent backscatter from the auroral electrojet was observed by a 30 MHz imaging radar in Anchorage during the Joint Observations of Upper Latitude Electrodynamics (JOULE) campaign conducted from the Poker Flat Research Range in the spring of 2003. The observations were made at the same time that ionospheric electric fields and plasma number densities were measured in situ by instruments on sounding rockets. Neutral wind profiles were also measured during the campaign from triangulation of chemiluminescent trails from rocket releases. Aperture synthesis radar imaging techniques permit the sorting of the coherent backscatter into small azimuth and range bins and the determination of the scattering altitude. Individual Doppler spectra could thereby be unambiguously associated with in situ electric field measurements in the same small volume. We find that the Doppler shifts of the auroral echoes correspond to the ion acoustic speed times the cosine of the flow angle, where the former is predicted according to an empirical wave heating law. Type I echoes are only observed for very small flow angles regardless of the convection speed.

  17. Atomic oxygen on the Venus nightside: Global distribution deduced from airglow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, L.; Gérard, J.-C.; Montmessin, F.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2012-02-01

    The Visible and Infra-Red Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument on board the Venus Express spacecraft has measured the O 2(a 1Δ) nightglow distribution at 1.27 μm in the Venus mesosphere for more than two years. Nadir observations have been used to create a statistical map of the emission on Venus nightside. It appears that the statistical 1.6 MR maximum of the emission is located around the antisolar point. Limb observations provide information on the altitude and on the shape of the emission layer. We combine nadir observations essentially covering the southern hemisphere, corrected for the thermal emission of the lower atmosphere, with limb profiles of the northern hemisphere to generate a global map of the Venus nightside emission at 1.27 μm. Given all the O 2(a 1Δ) intensity profiles, O 2(a 1Δ) and O density profiles have been calculated and three-dimensional maps of metastable molecular and atomic oxygen densities have been generated. This global O density nightside distribution improves that available from the VTS3 model, which was based on measurements made above 145 km. The O 2(a 1Δ) hemispheric average density is 2.1 × 10 9 cm -3, with a maximum value of 6.5 × 10 9 cm -3 at 99.2 km. The O density profiles have been derived from the nightglow data using CO 2 profiles from the empirical VTS3 model or from SPICAV stellar occultations. The O hemispheric average density is 1.9 × 10 11 cm -3 in both cases, with a mean altitude of the peak located at 106.1 km and 103.4 km, respectively. These results tend to confirm the modeled values of 2.8 × 10 11 cm -3 at 104 km and 2.0 × 10 11 cm -3 at 110 km obtained by Brecht et al. [Brecht, A., Bougher, S.W., Gérard, J.-C., Parkinson, C.D., Rafkin, S., Foster, B., 2011a. J. Geophys. Res., in press] and Krasnopolsky [Krasnopolsky, V.A., 2010. Icarus 207, 17-27], respectively. Comparing the oxygen density map derived from the O 2(a 1Δ) nightglow observations, it appears that the morphology is very

  18. A Decameter Stationary Type IV Burst in Imaging Observations on 2014 September 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Artem; Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Konovalenko, Aleksander; Volvach, Yaroslav

    2016-08-01

    First-of-its-kind radio imaging of a decameter solar stationary type IV radio burst has been presented in this paper. On 2014 September 6 the observations of type IV burst radio emission were carried out with the two-dimensional heliograph based on the Ukrainian T-shaped radio telescope (UTR-2), together with other telescope arrays. Starting at ˜09:55 UT and for ˜3 hr, the radio emission was kept within the observational session of UTR-2. The interesting observation covered the full evolution of this burst, “from birth to death.” During the event lifetime, two C-class solar X-ray flares with peak times 11:29 UT and 12:24 UT took place. The time profile of this burst in radio has a double-humped shape that can be explained by injection of energetic electrons, accelerated by the two flares, into the burst source. According to the heliographic observations, we suggest that the burst source was confined within a high coronal loop, which was part of a relatively slow coronal mass ejection. The latter has been developed for several hours before the onset of the event. Through analysis of about 1.5 × 106 heliograms (3700 temporal frames with 4096 images in each frame that correspond to the number of frequency channels), the radio burst source imaging shows a fascinating dynamical evolution. Both space-based (GOES, SDO, SOHO, STEREO) data and various ground-based instrumentation (ORFEES, NDA, RSTO, NRH) records have been used for this study.

  19. MAPIR: An Airborne Polarmetric Imaging Radiometer in Support of Hydrologic Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, C.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; McCracken, J.; Meyer, P.; Richeson, J.; Sims, W.; Srinivasan, K.; Varnevas, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of dwindling water resources and increasing demands, accurate estimation of water balance components at every scale is more critical to end users than ever before. Several near-term Earth science satellite missions are aimed at global hydrologic observations. The Marshall Airborne Polarimetric Imaging Radiometer (MAPIR) is a dual beam, dual angle polarimetric, scanning L band passive microwave radiometer system developed by the Observing Microwave Emissions for Geophysical Applications (OMEGA) team at MSFC to support algorithm development and validation efforts in support of these missions. MAPIR observes naturally-emitted radiation from the ground primarily for remote sensing of land surface brightness temperature from which we can retrieve soil moisture and possibly surface or water temperature and ocean salinity. MAPIR has achieved Technical Readiness Level 6 with flight heritage on two very different aircraft, the NASA P-3B, and a Piper Navajo.

  20. In vivo Observation of Tree Drought Response with Low-Field NMR and Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Michael W.; Yoder, Jacob; Hunter, James F.; Espy, Michelle A.; Dickman, Lee T.; Nelson, Ron O.; Vogel, Sven C.; Sandin, Henrik J.; Sevanto, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple low-field NMR system, we monitored water content in a living tree in a greenhouse over 2 months. By continuously running the system, we observed changes in tree water content on a scale of half an hour. The data showed a diurnal change in water content consistent both with previous NMR and biological observations. Neutron imaging experiments show that our NMR signal is primarily due to water being rapidly transported through the plant, and not to other sources of hydrogen, such as water in cytoplasm, or water in cell walls. After accounting for the role of temperature in the observed NMR signal, we demonstrate a change in the diurnal signal behavior due to simulated drought conditions for the tree. These results illustrate the utility of our system to perform noninvasive measurements of tree water content outside of a temperature controlled environment. PMID:27200037

  1. Case studies for observation planning algorithm of a Japanese spaceborne sensor: Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Kenta; Konno, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Komoda, Mako; Kashimura, Osamu; Rokugawa, Shuichi

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI)[1] is a Japanese future spaceborne hyperspectral instrument being developed by Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and will be delivered to ISS in 2018. In HISUI project, observation strategy is important especially for hyperspectral sensor, and relationship between the limitations of sensor operation and the planned observation scenarios have to be studied. We have developed concept of multiple algorithms approach. The concept is to use two (or more) algorithm models (Long Strip Model and Score Downfall Model) for selecting observing scenes from complex data acquisition requests with satisfactory of sensor constrains. We have tested the algorithm, and found that the performance of two models depends on remaining data acquisition requests, i.e. distribution score along with orbits. We conclude that the multiple algorithms approach will be make better collection plans for HISUI comparing with single fixed approach.

  2. In vivo observation of tree drought response with low-field NMR and neutron imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Malone, Michael W.; Yoder, Jacob; Hunter, James F.; ...

    2016-05-06

    Using a simple low-field NMR system, we monitored water content in a living tree in a greenhouse over 2 months. By continuously running the system, we observed changes in tree water content on a scale of half an hour. The data showed a diurnal change in water content consistent both with previous NMR and biological observations. Neutron imaging experiments show that our NMR signal is primarily due to water being rapidly transported through the plant, and not to other sources of hydrogen, such as water in cytoplasm, or water in cell walls. After accounting for the role of temperature inmore » the observed NMR signal, we demonstrate a change in the diurnal signal behavior due to simulated drought conditions for the tree. Lastly, these results illustrate the utility of our system to perform noninvasive measurements of tree water content outside of a temperature controlled environment.« less

  3. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Boone, J. M.; Abbey, C. K.; Hargreaves, J.; Bateni, C.; Lindfors, K. K.; Yang, K.; Nosratieh, A.; Hernandez, A.; Gazi, P.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33, 0.71, 1.5 and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast. The percent correct of the human observer’s responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist’s performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92% correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67% for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the average physicist

  4. IRTF Observations of Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies Identified in the SDSS Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allyn Smith, J.; Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; Lin, H.; SDSS Bright Arcs Search Team

    2009-12-01

    The SDSS Bright Arcs Search Team (see poster by H. Lin et al. #478.02) has been carrying out an ongoing systematic search for bright, strongly-lensed, high-redshift galaxies in samples of SDSS luminous red galaxies, clusters, and interacting/merging galaxy pairs. So far we have spectroscopically confirmed a dozen lensing systems, with source galaxy redshifts z = 0.4 - 2.7, with 6 of these among the brightest known z > 2 lensed galaxies, including the 8 O'Clock Arc (Allam et al. 2007) and the Clone (Lin et al. 2008). Here, we report on our JHK imaging of several of these confirmed lensed systems based upon observations taken with the SpeX and NSFCAM2 on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Further, we discuss our future plans for NIR imaging of this sample.

  5. (21) Lutetia spectrophotometry from Rosetta-OSIRIS images and comparison to ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Massironi, M.; Ferri, F.; da Deppo, V.; Barbieri, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    Here we present some preliminary results on surface variegation found on (21) Lutetia from ROSETTA-OSIRIS images acquired on 2010-07-10. The spectrophotometry obtained by means of the two cameras NAC and WAC (Narrow and Wide Angle Cameras) is consistent with ground based observations, and does not show surface diversity above the data error bars. The blue and UV images (shortward 500 nm) may, however, indicate a variegation of the optical properties of the asteroid surface on the Baetica region (Sierks et al., 2011). We also speculate on the contribution due to different illumination and to different ground properties (composition or, more probably, grain size diversity). In particular a correlation with geologic units independently defined by Massironi et al. (2012) is evident, suggesting that the variegation of the ground optical properties is likely to be real.

  6. On the Effects of Imaging Geometry on Multipolarization SAR Features for Oil Spill Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrunes, Stine; Jones, Cathleen E.; Brekke, Camilla; Holt, Benjamin; Espeseth, Martine M.

    2016-08-01

    Polarimetric SAR is increasingly used for oil spill observation. In order to develop reliable methods for oil spill detection and characterization, the sensitivity of these measurements to the imaging geometry, including incidence angle and look direction relative to the wind, must be investigated. In this paper, we study the effects of these parameters on L-band SAR data collected with the UAVSAR instrument over experimental oil spills. The relative look direction is found to have a larger effect on the slick detectability than the incidence angle, and the detectability is better in the downwind direction compared to upwind. The features showing the best slick detectability in the conditions investigated here are the VV intensity, HV intensity, the geometric intensity and the polarization difference. The latter feature shows low dependency on imaging geometry.

  7. Star Observations by Asteroid Multiband Imaging Camera (AMICA) on Hayabusa (MUSES-C) Cruising Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Kubota, T.; Hayabusa AMICA Team

    Muses-C is the first Japanese asteroid mission and also a technology demonstration one to the S-type asteroid, 25143 Itokawa (1998SF36). It was launched at May 9, 2003, and renamed Hayabusa after the spacecraft was confirmed to be on the interplanetary orbit. This spacecraft has the event of the Earth-swingby for gravitational assist in the way to Itokawa on 2004 May. The arrival to Itokawa is scheduled on 2005 summer. During the visit to Itokawa, the remote-sensing observation with AMICA, NIRS (Near Infrared Spectrometer), XRS (X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer), and LIDAR are performed, and the spacecraft descends and collects the surface samples at the touch down to the surface. The captured asteroid sample will be returned to the Earth in the middle of 2007. The telescopic optical navigation camera (ONC-T) with seven bandpass filters (and one wide-band filter) and polarizers is called AMICA (Asteroid Multiband Imaging CAmera) when ONC-T is used for scientific observations. The AMICA's seven bandpass filters are nearly equivalent to the seven filters of the ECAS (Eight Color Asteroid Survey) system. Obtained spectroscopic data will be compared with previously obtained ECAS observations. AMICA also has four polarizers, which are located on one edge of the CCD chip (covering 1.1 x 1.1 degrees each). Using the polarizers of AMICA, we can obtain polarimetric information of the target asteroid's surface. Since last November, we planned the test observations of some stars and planets by AMICA and could successfully obtain these images. Here, we briefly report these observations and its calibration by the ground-based observational data. In addition, we also present a current status of AMICA.

  8. Observables Processing for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvidat, S.; Schou, J.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bogart, R. S.; Bush, R. I.; Duvall, T. L.; Liu, Y.; Norton, A. A.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2016-08-01

    NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft was launched 11 February 2010 with three instruments onboard, including the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). After commissioning, HMI began normal operations on 1 May 2010 and has subsequently observed the Sun's entire visible disk almost continuously. HMI collects sequences of polarized filtergrams taken at a fixed cadence with two 4096 × 4096 cameras, from which are computed arcsecond-resolution maps of photospheric observables that include line-of-sight velocity and magnetic field, continuum intensity, line width, line depth, and the Stokes polarization parameters [I, Q, U, V]. Two processing pipelines have been implemented at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University to compute these observables from calibrated Level-1 filtergrams, one that computes line-of-sight quantities every 45 seconds and the other, primarily for the vector magnetic field, that computes averages on a 720-second cadence. Corrections are made for static and temporally changing CCD characteristics, bad pixels, image alignment and distortion, polarization irregularities, filter-element uncertainty and nonuniformity, as well as Sun-spacecraft velocity. We detail the functioning of these two pipelines, explain known issues affecting the measurements of the resulting physical quantities, and describe how regular updates to the instrument calibration impact them. We also describe how the scheme for computing the observables is optimized for actual HMI observations. Initial calibration of HMI was performed on the ground using a variety of light sources and calibration sequences. During the five years of the SDO prime mission, regular calibration sequences have been taken on orbit to improve and regularly update the instrument calibration, and to monitor changes in the HMI instrument. This has resulted in several changes in the observables processing that are detailed here. The instrument more than satisfies all

  9. Visual observations from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations from space reveal a number of fascinating natural phenomena of interest to meteorologists and aeronomists, such as aurorae, airglow, aerosol layers, lightning, and atmospheric refraction effects. Other man-made radiation, including city lights and laser beacons, are also of considerable interest. Of course, the most widely used space observations are of the large-scale weather systems viewed each day by millions of people on their local television. From lower altitudes than the geostationary meteorological satellite orbits, obliques and overlapping stereo views are possible, allow height information to be obtained directly, often a key element in the use of the photographs for research purposes. However, this note will discuss only the less common observations mentioned at the beginning of this paragraph.

  10. Initial lunar calibration observations by the EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Jarecke, P.; Pearlman, Jay; ,

    2002-01-01

    The Moon provides an exo-atmospheric radiance source that can be used to determine trends in instrument radio-metric responsivity with high precision. Lunar observations can also be used for absolute radiometric calibration; knowledge of the radiometric scale will steadily improve through independent study of lunar spectral photometry and with sharing of the Moon as a calibration target by increasing numbers of spacecraft, each with its own calibration history. EO-1 calibration includes periodic observation of the Moon by all three of its instruments. Observations are normally made with a phase angle of about 7 degrees (or about 12 hours from the time of Full Moon). Also, SeaWiFS has been making observations at such phase angles for several years, and observations of the Moon by instrument pairs, even if at different times, can be used to transfer absolute calibration. A challenge for EO-1 is pointing to include the entire full Moon in the narrow Hyperion scan. Three Hyperion observations in early 2001 covering an order-of-magnitude difference in lunar irradiance show good agreement for responsivity; the SWIR detector has undergone some changes in responsivity. Small discrepancies of calibration with wavelength could be smoothed using the Moon as a source. Off-axis scattered light response and cross-track response variations can be assessed using the lunar image.

  11. IMAGING AND SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Ning, Z. J.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-07-01

    We explore the quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in a solar flare observed by Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) on 2014 September 10. QPPs are identified as the regular and periodic peaks on the rapidly varying components, which are the light curves after removing the slowly varying components. The QPPs display only three peaks at the beginning on the hard X-ray emissions, but 10 peaks on the chromospheric and coronal line emissions, and more than seven peaks (each peak corresponds to a type III burst on the dynamic spectra) at the radio emissions. A uniform quasi-period of about 4 minutes is detected among them. AIA imaging observations exhibit that the 4-minute QPPs originate from the flare ribbon and tend to appear on the ribbon front. IRIS spectral observations show that each peak of the QPPs tends to a broad line width and a red Doppler velocity at C i, O iv, Si iv, and Fe xxi lines. Our findings indicate that the QPPs are produced by the non-thermal electrons that are accelerated by the induced quasi-periodic magnetic reconnections in this flare.

  12. Gemini Planet Imager observational calibrations XI: pipeline improvements and enhanced calibrations after two years on sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Follette, Katherine B.; Maire, Jérôme; Wang, Jason J.; Savransky, Dmitry; Arriaga, Pauline; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Draper, Zachary H.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hung, Li-Wei; Konopacky, Quinn; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Nielsen, Eric; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rantakyro, Fredrik T.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Zalesky, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager has been successfully obtaining images and spectra of exoplanets, brown dwarfs, and debris and protoplanetary circumstellar disks using its integral field spectrograph and polarimeter. GPI observations are transformed from raw data into high-quality astrometrically and photometrically calibrated datacubes using the GPI Data Reduction Pipeline, an open-source software framework continuously developed by our team and available to the community. It uses a flexible system of reduction recipes composed of individual primitive steps, allowing substantial customization of processing depending upon science goals. This paper provides a broad overview of the GPI pipeline, summarizes key lessons learned, and describes improved calibration methods and new capabilities available in the latest version. Enhanced automation better supports observations at the telescope with streamlined and rapid data processing, for instance through real-time assessments of contrast performance and more automated calibration file processing. We have also incorporated the GPI Data Reduction Pipeline as one component in a larger automated data system to support the GPI Exoplanet Survey campaign, while retaining its flexibility and stand-alone capabilities to support the broader GPI observer community. Several accompanying papers describe in more detail specific aspects of the calibration of GPI data in both spectral and polarimetric modes.

  13. Obtaining coincident image observations for Mission to Planet Earth science data return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Folta, David C.; Farrell, James P.

    1994-01-01

    One objective of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) program involves comparing data from various instruments on multiple spacecraft to obtain a total picture of the Earth's systems. To correlate image data from instruments on different spacecraft, these spacecraft must be able to image the same location on the Earth at approximately the same time. Depending on the orbits of the spacecraft involved, complicated operational details must be considered to obtain such observations. If the spacecraft are in similar orbits, close formation flying or synchronization techniques may be used to assure coincident observations. If the orbits are dissimilar, the launch time of the second satellite may need to be restricted in order to align its orbit with that of the first satellite launched. This paper examines strategies for obtaining coincident observations for spacecraft in both similar and dissimilar orbits. Although these calculations may be performed easily for coplanar spacecraft, the non-coplanar case involves additional considerations which are incorporated into the algorithms presented herein.

  14. Solar Polar Imager: Observing Coronal Transients from a New Perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    The heliophysics community has long recognized the need for a mission to observe the Sun and corona from a polar perspective. One mission concept, the Solar Polar Imager (SPI), has been studied extensively (Liewer et al in NASA Space Science Vision Missions, 2008). In this concept, a solar sail is used to place a spacecraft in a circular 0.48-AU heliocentric orbit with an inclination of ~75 degrees. This orbit enables crucial observations not possible from lower latitude perspectives. Magnetograph and Doppler observations from a polar vantage point would revolutionize our understanding of the mechanism of solar activity cycles, polar magnetic field reversals, the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun and its atmosphere. The rapid 4-month polar orbit combined with both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation further enables unprecedented studies of the physical connection between the Sun, the solar wind, and solar energetic particles. From the polar perspective, white light imagers could be used to track CMEs and predict their arrival at Earth (as demonstrated by STEREO). SPI is also well suited to study the relative roles of CME-driven shock versus flare-associated processes in solar energetic particle acceleration. With the circular 0.48 AU orbit, solar energetic particles could be more easily traced to their sources and their variation with latitude can be studied at a constant radius. This talk will discuss the science objectives, instrumentation and mission design for the SPI mission.

  15. A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. H.; England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2007-11-01

    The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to observe plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. Observations from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which shows that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this automation allows the drift velocities of each bubble to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude, which will give us the capability of retrieving geophysically important parameters such as the electric field, which are believed to vary rapidly with magnetic latitude.

  16. Two Types of Aurora on Mars as Observed by MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Deighan, J.; Jain, S.; Stiepen, A.; Stewart, I. F.; Larson, D. E.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C. X.; Lee, C.; Lillis, R. J.; Evans, J. S.; Brain, D. A.; Stevens, M. H.; McClintock, W. E.; Chaffin, M.; Crismani, M. M. J.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Lefèvre, F.; Lo, D.; Clarke, J. T.; Montmessin, F.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on the MAVEN spacecraft has detected two distinct types of auroral emission on Mars. First, we report the discovery of a low altitude, diffuse aurora spanning much of Mars' northern hemisphere coincident with a solar energetic particle outburst. IUVS observed northerly latitudes during late December 2014, detecting auroral emission in virtually all nightside observations for ~5 days spanning virtually all geographic longitudes. The vertical profile showed emission down to ~70 km altitude (1 microbar), deeper than confirmed at any other planet. The onset and duration of emission coincide with the observed arrival of solar energetic particles up to 200 keV precipitating directly and deeply into the atmosphere. Preliminary modeling of the precipitation, energy deposition and spectral line emission yields good matches to the observations. These observations represent a new class of planetary auroras produced in the Martian middle atmosphere. Given minimal magnetic fields over most of the planet, Mars is likely to exhibit aurora more globally than Earth. Second, we confirm the existence of small patches of discrete aurora near crustal magnetic fields in Mars' southern hemisphere, as observed previously by SPICAM on Mars Express (Bertaux et al., Nature, 435, 790-794 (2005)). IUVS observed southern latitudes in July and August 2015, detecting discrete auroral emission in ~1% of suitable observations. Limb scans resolved both vertically and along-slit indicate this type of auroral emission was patchy on the scale of ~40 km, and located at higher altitudes ~140 km. The higher altitudes imply a lower energy of precipitating particles. The mix of spectral emissions also differed signficiantly from the discrete aurora, indicating different excitation and quenching processes. We will discuss the observed properties of the aurora and associated charged particle precipitation, as well as the broader implications of this high

  17. The HEXITEC hard x-ray pixelated CdTe imager for fast solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Christe, Steven D.; Ryan, Daniel F.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Shih, Albert Y.; Gregory, Kyle; Wilson, Matt; Seller, Paul; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing demand in solar and astrophysics for high resolution X-ray spectroscopic imaging. Such observations would present ground breaking opportunities to study the poorly understood high energy processes in our solar system and beyond, such as solar flares, X-ray binaries, and active galactic nuclei. However, such observations require a new breed of solid state detectors sensitive to high energy X-rays with fine independent pixels to sub-sample the point spread function (PSF) of the X-ray optics. For solar observations in particular, they must also be capable of handling very high count rates as photon fluxes from solar flares often cause pile up and saturation in present generation detectors. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) has recently developed a new cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector system, called HEXITEC (High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology). It is an 8080 array of 250 μm independent pixels sensitive in the 2-200 keV band and capable of a high full frame read out rate of 10 kHz. HEXITEC provides the smallest independently read out CdTe pixels currently available, and are well matched to the few arcsecond PSF produced by current and next generation hard X-ray focusing optics. NASA's Goddard and Marshall Space Flight Centers are collaborating with RAL to develop these detectors for use on future space borne hard X-ray focusing telescopes. We show the latest results on HEXITEC's imaging capability, energy resolution, high read out rate, and reveal it to be ideal for such future instruments.

  18. Ultraviolet imaging telescope and optical emission-line observations of H II regions in M81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jesse K.; Cheng, K.-P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hintzen, P. M. N.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1995-01-01

    Images of the type Sab spiral galaxy M81 were obtained in far-UV and near-UV bands by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the Astro-1 Spacelab mission of 1990 December. Magnitudes in the two UV bands are determined for 52 H II regions from the catalog of Petit, Sivan, & Karachentsev (1988). Fluxes of the H-alpha and H-beta emission lines are determined from CCD images. Extinctions for the brightest H II regions are determined from observed Balmer decrements. Fainter H II regions are assigned the average of published radio-H-alpha extinctions for several bright H II regions. The radiative transfer models of Witt, Thronson, & Capuano (1992) are shown to predict a relationship between Balmer Decrement and H-alpha extinction consistent with observed line and radio fluxes for the brightest 7 H II regions and are used to estimate the UV extinction. Ratios of Lyman continuum with ratios predicted by model spectra computed for initial mass function (IMF) slope equal to -1.0 and stellar masses ranging from 5 to 120 solar mass. Ages and masses are estimated by comparing the H-alpha and far-UV fluxes and their ratio with the models. The total of the estimated stellar masses for the 52 H II regions is 1.4 x 10(exp 5) solar mass. The star-formation rate inferred for M81 from the observed UV and H-alpha fluxes is low for a spiral galaxy at approximately 0.13 solar mass/yr, but consistent with the low star-formation rates obtained by Kennicutt (1983) and Caldwell et al. (1991) for early-type spirals.

  19. Collaborative real-time motion video analysis by human observer and image exploitation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.

  20. Observations of the quasi 2-day wave from the High Resolution Doppler Imager on UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Hays, P. B.; Skinner, W. R.; Marshall, A. R.; Burrage, M. D.; Lieberman, R. S.; Ortland, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    A strong westward traveling oscillation, with a period of 2 days and zonal wave number 3, is observed in the mesospheric and lower thermospheric winds from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The important events happen in January, July, and September/October, of which the occurrence in January is the strongest with an amplitude over 60 m/s. Detailed analyses for the periods of January 1992 and January 1993 reveal a cause-and-effect relationship in the wave developing process at 95 km. The global structures of the wave amplitude and phase are also presented.

  1. Automated Astrometric Analysis of Satellite Observations using Wide-field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuljan, J.; Kay, J.

    2016-09-01

    An observational trial was conducted in the South Island of New Zealand from 24 to 28 February 2015, as a collaborative effort between the United Kingdom and New Zealand in the area of space situational awareness. The aim of the trial was to observe a number of satellites in low Earth orbit using wide-field imaging from two separate locations, in order to determine the space trajectory and compare the measurements with the predictions based on the standard two-line elements. This activity was an initial step in building a space situational awareness capability at the Defence Technology Agency of the New Zealand Defence Force. New Zealand has an important strategic position as the last land mass that many satellites selected for deorbiting pass before entering the Earth's atmosphere over the dedicated disposal area in the South Pacific. A preliminary analysis of the trial data has demonstrated that relatively inexpensive equipment can be used to successfully detect satellites at moderate altitudes. A total of 60 satellite passes were observed over the five nights of observation and about 2600 images were collected. A combination of cooled CCD and standard DSLR cameras were used, with a selection of lenses between 17 mm and 50 mm in focal length, covering a relatively wide field of view of 25 to 60 degrees. The CCD cameras were equipped with custom-made GPS modules to record the time of exposure with a high accuracy of one millisecond, or better. Specialised software has been developed for automated astrometric analysis of the trial data. The astrometric solution is obtained as a two-dimensional least-squares polynomial fit to the measured pixel positions of a large number of stars (typically 1000) detected across the image. The star identification is fully automated and works well for all camera-lens combinations used in the trial. A moderate polynomial degree of 3 to 5 is selected to take into account any image distortions introduced by the lens. A typical RMS

  2. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Dark Current and Noise Characterization and Anomalous Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The dark current and noise characteristics of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager measured during ground calibration at MIT Lincoln Laboratory are presented. Data were collected for the nominal focal plane operating temperature of 220 K as well as supplemental operating temperatures (215 and 225 K). Dark current baseline values are provided, and noise characterization includes the evaluation of white, coherent, low frequency, and high frequency components. Finally, anomalous detectors, characterized by unusual dark current, noise, gain, or cross-talk properties are investigated.

  3. Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

    Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

  4. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  5. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  6. Spectral and Imaging Observations of a White-light Solar Flare in the Mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, Matt; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh; Jhabvala, Murzy; Jennings, Don; Lunsford, Allen; Kaufmann, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    We report high-resolution observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of a minor solar flare, SOL2014-09-24T17:50 (C7.0), using Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector cameras at an auxiliary of the McMath-Pierce telescope. The flare emissions, the first simultaneous observations in two mid-infrared bands at 5.2 and 8.2 μ {{m}} with white-light and hard X-ray coverage, revealed impulsive time variability with increases on timescales of ˜4 s followed by exponential decay at ˜10 s in two bright regions separated by about 13\\prime\\prime . The brightest source is compact, unresolved spatially at the diffraction limit (1\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;72 at 5.2 μ {{m}}). We identify the IR sources as flare ribbons also seen in white-light emission at 6173 Å observed by SDO/HMI, with twin hard X-ray sources observed by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, and with EUV sources (e.g., 94 Å) observed by SDO/AIA. The two infrared points have nearly the same flux density (fν, W m-2 Hz) and extrapolate to a level of about an order of magnitude below that observed in the visible band by HMI, but with a flux of more than two orders of magnitude above the free-free continuum from the hot (˜15 MK) coronal flare loop observed in the X-ray range. The observations suggest that the IR emission is optically thin; this constraint and others suggest major contributions from a density less than about 4× {10}13 cm-3. We tentatively interpret this emission mechanism as predominantly free-free emission in a highly ionized but cool and rather dense chromospheric region.

  7. Application of a special JBIG processor to compression of Earth observation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirco, Piero L.; Evangelisti, Pietro; Zanarini, Martina

    1999-09-01

    The large size is a typical feature of earth observation images. The increasing number of bands simultaneously available on satellites and the launch of system able to achieve a ground resolution as low as one meter is making this problem more a nd more hot. Indeed, the large size of typical images dramatically reduces the possibility to distribute them to a wide number of interest parties. In the wide majority of cases, this problem is currently tackled either by using lossy compression schemes such as basic versions of JPEG or by narrowing the ground extension of the pictures. Of course, both of them are unsatisfactory. Indeed, the partial loss of data may be acceptable only for non-quantitative analysis while narrower pictures may not carry all the needed informant. An alternate possibility is the use of an efficient lossless algorithm. Among others, JBIG has been preferred for this purpose because it achieves very high compression rate, overperforming the well known ZIP algorithm in the wide majority of cases. Further advantages are due to its progressive nature and to its availability as an ITU international standard. In order to have a very performant syste, this algorithm has been implemented by the development of an application specific integrated circuit designed to compress/decompress large volumes of data with throughput rate greater than 1 Gb/min. The performances achieved by the system when dealing with typical visual and radar satellite images and the perspective applications are described.

  8. A method and technique for observing the stereo pseudocolor image of phase change of objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guan-ying; Duan, Wenshan

    2000-04-01

    A real-time white light stereo pseudocolor encoding method and technique in a microscope is presented, which demonstrated that the phase information of an object is not totally lost in incoherent imaging. The image system is an improved microscope and attached optical elements can be stacked together in the microscope tube, so the structure is compact. The irradiance distribution at the output plane of the microscope is obtained by means of the theory of partially coherent light. At the conditions of that the aperture stop and focal length of condenser are a right magnitude, and the illuminative light source is incoherent or partially coherent, the theoretical analysis indicates that the irradiance distribution at output plane is presented by the stereo pseudocolor image which is characterized by the phase rate-of-change function of input object. A bleached holographic grating as an input object is observed, and its optical parameters are measured directly. Experimental results are discussed, which basically agreed with theoretical analysis.

  9. Latitudinal amplitude-phase structure of MHD waves: STARE radar and image magnetometer observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Kozyreva, Olga; Fedorov, Evgeniy; Uspenskiy, Mihail; Kauristi, Kirsti

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a numerical model that yields a steady-state distribution of field components of MHD wave in an inhomogeneous plasma box simulating the realistic magnetosphere. The problem of adequate boundary condition at the ionosphere-magnetosphere interface for coupled MHD mode is considered. To justify the model's assumptions, we have derived the explicit inequality showing when the ionospheric inductive Hall effect can be neglected upon the consideration of Alfven wave reflection from the ionospheric boundaries. The model predicts a feature of the ULF spatial amplitude/phase distribution that has not been noticed by the field line resonance theory: the existence of a region with opposite phase delays on the source side of the resonance. This theoretical prediction is supported by the amplitude-phase latitudinal structures of Pc5 waves observed by STARE radar and IMAGE magnetometers. A gradual decrease in azimuthal wave number m at smaller L-shells was observed at longitudinally separated radar beams.

  10. New Space Shuttle Observations of Transient Luminous Events During the MEIDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Israelevitch, P.; Devir, A.; Moalem, M.; Ziv, B.; Levin, Z.; Joseph, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) was conducted on-board the space shuttle Columbia during its last mission in January 2003. Nocturnal observations with a multispectral CCD video camera were targeted above thunderstorms near the Earth's limb, with the aim or recording Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the mesosphere. Most of our nighttime observations were conducted in the SE-Pacific (Australia and Papua-New Guinea), equatorial Africa, the southern Indian Ocean and South America. Relevant inputs and information on the active storms during a specific orbit were uplinked to the crew daily. The necessary shuttle attitude maneuvers were deduced based on the use of (almost) real-time IR satellite images and VLF lightning location data that were available on the Internet. In order to enhance the probability of success of each observation, the astronauts were instructed to visually observe lightning activity (easily discernable from the shuttle) and to direct the gimbaled camera toward these regions. A total of more than 8 hours of video obtained during the MEIDEX was saved, and it includes a considerable amount of new sprite data. Most events were captured at ranges 1600-1900 km from the shuttle, using the red filter (665nm). The results suggest the occurrence rate of sprites and elves over oceanic and continental storms may be higher than earlier estimates. Strong enhancements of the brightness of the airglow layer above lightning flashes were observed, with lateral dimensions on the order of 400-500 km. It is assumed that these may be Elves observed edge-on, though it may also be a new type of airglow enhancement. The calculated brightness of these events is in the range 2.2-8.8 MR. This phenomena seems to be widespread and is probably a manifestation of the interaction between lightning EMP and QE fields and the lower nocturnal ionosphere. A unique observation from space of the Congo basin in Africa caught a chain of events where in the span of less

  11. Surface Wind Vector and Rain Rate Observation Capability of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; El-Nimri, Salem; Hood, Robbie; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is the next-generation Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), and it will offer the capability of simultaneous wide-swath observations of both extreme ocean surface wind vector and strong precipitation from either aircraft (including UAS) or satellite platforms. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce valid wind observations under hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered by precipitation. The SFMR i s a proven aircraft remote sensing system for simultaneously observing extreme ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. The first version of the instrument will be a single polarization system for wind speed and rain rate, with a dual-polarization system to follow for wind vector capability. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by NASA s Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard (laboratory) version of the instrument has been completed and successfully tested in a test chamber. Development of the aircraft instrument is underway, with flight testing planned for the fall of 2009. Preliminary Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on surface wind analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor. New off-nadir data collected in 2008 by SFMR that affirms the ability of this measurement technique to obtain wind speed data at non-zero incidence angle will

  12. Conjugate Observations of Optical Aurora with POLAR Satellite and Ground Based Imagers in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. H.; Frey, H.; Vo, H.; Geller, S. P.; Doolittle, J. H.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Operation of the ultraviolet imager on the POLAR satellite permits the observation of Aurora Borealis in daylight during northern summer. With optical imagers in the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGO-s) large regions of the oval of Aurora Australis can be observed simultaneously during the southern winter polar night. This opportunity permits conducting a systematic study of the properties of auroras on opposite ends of the same field line. It is expected that simultaneously observed conjugate auroras occurring on closed field lines should be similar to each other in appearance because of the close connection between the two hemispheres through particle scattering and mirroring processes. On open or greatly distorted field lines there is no a priori expectation of similarity between conjugate auroras. To investigate the influence of different IMF conditions on auroral behavior we have examined conjugate data for periods of southward IMF. Sudden brightening and subsequent poleward expansions are observed to occur simultaneously in both hemispheres. The POLAR data show that sudden brightening are initiated at various local time regions. When the local time of this region is in the field of view of the AGO station network then corresponding brightening is also found to occur in the southern hemisphere. Large features such as substorm induced westward propagation and resulting auroral brightening seem to occur simultaneously on conjugate hemispheres. The widely different view scales make it difficult to make unique identification of individual auroral forms in the POLAR and in the ground based data but in a general sense the data is consistent with conjugate behavior.

  13. Low contrast detectability performance of model observers based on CT phantom images: kVp influence.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Giron, I; Calzado, A; Geleijns, J; Joemai, R M S; Veldkamp, W J H

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies low contrast detectability (LCD) performance of two model observers in CT phantom images acquired at different kVp levels and compares the results with humans in a 2-alternative forced choice experiment (2-AFC). Images of the Catphan phantom with objects of different contrasts (0.5 and 1%) and diameters (2-15 mm) were acquired in an Aquilion ONE 320-detector row CT (Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan), in two experiments, selecting (80-100-120-135 kV) with fixed mAs and varying the mAs to keep the dose constant, respectively. Four human observers evaluated the objects visibility obtaining a proportion correct (PC) for each case. LCD was also analyzed with two model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter with an eye filter, NPWE, and channelized Hotelling observer with Gabor channels, CHO). Object contrast was affected by kV, with differences up to 17% between the lowest and highest kV. Both models overestimated human performance and were corrected by efficiency and internal noise factors. The NPWE model reproduced better the human PC values trends showing Pearson's correlation coefficients ≥0.976 (0.954-0.987, 95% CI) for both experiments, whereas for CHO they were ≥0.706 (0.493-0.839). Bland-Altman plots showed better agreement between NPWE and humans being the average difference Δ and the range of the differences Δ±2σ (σ, standard deviation) of Δ=-0.3%, Δ±2σ = [-4.0%,4.5%]. For CHO, Δ=-1.2%, Δ± 2σ= [-10.7%,8.3%]. The NPWE model can be a useful tool to predict human performance in CT low contrast detection tasks in a standard phantom and be potentially used in protocol optimization based on kV selection.

  14. Statistical correlation of low-altitude ENA emissions with geomagnetic activity from IMAGE/MENA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackler, D. A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Perez, J. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma sheet particles transported Earthward during times of active magnetospheric convection can interact with exospheric/thermospheric neutrals through charge exchange. The resulting Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are free to leave the influence of the magnetosphere and can be remotely detected. ENAs associated with low-altitude (300-800 km) ion precipitation in the high-latitude atmosphere/ionosphere are termed low-altitude emissions (LAEs). Remotely observed LAEs are highly nonisotropic in velocity space such that the pitch angle distribution at the time of charge exchange is near 90°. The Geomagnetic Emission Cone of LAEs can be mapped spatially, showing where proton energy is deposited during times of varying geomagnetic activity. In this study we present a statistical look at the correlation between LAE flux (intensity and location) and geomagnetic activity. The LAE data are from the MENA imager on the IMAGE satellite over the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2000-2005). The SYM-H, AE, and Kp indices are used to describe geomagnetic activity. The goal of the study is to evaluate properties of LAEs in ENA images and determine if those images can be used to infer properties of ion precipitation. Results indicate a general positive correlation to LAE flux for all three indices, with the SYM-H showing the greatest sensitivity. The magnetic local time distribution of LAEs is centered about midnight and spreads with increasing activity. The invariant latitude for all indices has a slightly negative correlation. The combined results indicate LAE behavior similar to that of ion precipitation.

  15. The deep structure of the Western Pyrenees: constraints from tomographic imaging, field and marine geological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Chevrot, Sébastien; Mohn, Geoffroy

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of magma-poor rifted margin architecture has significantly evolved over the past decades. Refraction seismic data combined with drill-hole observations unravelled the velocity structure and lithological assemblages of the most distal part of continental rifted margins. Present-day models of continental rifted margins include the occurrence of hyperextended domains consisting in extremely thinned continental crust and/or exhumed subcontinental mantle as described at many rifted margins. Studies in mountain belts revealed that remnants of hyperextended domains could also be identified in internal parts of collisional orogens. Integrating recent developments in the understanding of rifted margins in the study of mountain building processes, in particular the importance of the reactivation of inherited rift structures is therefore essential and may result in alternative interpretations of the lithospheric scale structure of collisional orogens. In this contribution, we focus on the western part of the Pyrenean orogen that resulted from the inversion of a complex Late Jurassic to Mid Cretaceous rift system. The transition from preserved oceanic and rift domains to the west (in the offshore Bay of Biscay) to their complete inversion in the east provides simultaneous access to seismically imaged and exposed parts of a hyperextended rift system. Based on a multi-scale dataset that combines sub-surface data (field and drill-hole observations) with tomographic imaging (PYROPE experiment) and integrating new concepts derived from the study of present-day rifted margins, we investigate the lithospheric-scale architecture of the Western Pyrenees. Our results suggest that the imaged north-dipping crustal root may correspond to the former exhumed mantle and hyperthinned domains that have been subducted/underthrust at the onset of convergence. This interpretation contrasts with the classical assumption that the crustal root is made of lower crustal rocks. This

  16. Application of a multiscale maximum entropy image restoration algorithm to HXMT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Ju; Song, Li-Ming; Huo, Zhuo-Xi

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a multiscale maximum entropy (MSME) algorithm for image restoration of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), which is a collimated scan X-ray satellite mainly devoted to a sensitive all-sky survey and pointed observations in the 1-250 keV range. The novelty of the MSME method is to use wavelet decomposition and multiresolution support to control noise amplification at different scales. Our work is focused on the application and modification of this method to restore diffuse sources detected by HXMT scanning observations. An improved method, the ensemble multiscale maximum entropy (EMSME) algorithm, is proposed to alleviate the problem of mode mixing exiting in MSME. Simulations have been performed on the detection of the diffuse source Cen A by HXMT in all-sky survey mode. The results show that the MSME method is adapted to the deconvolution task of HXMT for diffuse source detection and the improved method could suppress noise and improve the correlation and signal-to-noise ratio, thus proving itself a better algorithm for image restoration. Through one all-sky survey, HXMT could reach a capacity of detecting a diffuse source with maximum differential flux of 0.5 mCrab. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA04010300) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11403014)

  17. The High Energy X-ray Imager Technology (HEXITEC) for Solar Hard X-ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For current high resolution X-ray mirrors, the HPD is about 25 arcsec. Over a 6-m focal length this converts to 750 µm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 µm. Annother requirement are that the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK has been developing the electronics for such a detector. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), to create a fine (250 µm pitch) HXR detector. The NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFC and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present on recent results and capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  18. Observing the Invisible through Imaging Mass Spectrometry, a Window into the Metabolic Exchange Patterns of Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, David J.; Xu, Yuquan; Yang, Yu-Liang; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Liu, Wei-Ting; Edlund, Anna; Duong, Tram; Du, Liangcheng; Molnár, István; Gerwick, William H.; Jensen, Paul R.; Fischbach, Michael; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Straight, Paul; Nizet, Victor; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2012-01-01

    Many microbes can be cultured as single-species communities. Often, these colonies are controlled and maintained via the secretion of metabolites. Such metabolites have been an invaluable resource for the discovery of therapeutics (e.g. penicillin, taxol, rapamycin, epothilone). In this article, written for a special issue on imaging mass spectrometry, we show that MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry can be adapted to observe, in a spatial manner, the metabolic exchange patterns of a diverse array of microbes, including thermophilic and mesophilic fungi, cyanobacteria, marine and terrestrial actinobacteria, and pathogenic bacteria. Dependent on media conditions, on average and based on manual analysis, we observed 11.3 molecules associated with each microbial IMS experiment, which was split nearly 50:50 between secreted and colony-associated molecules. The spatial distributions of these metabolic exchange factors are related to the biological and ecological functions of the organisms. This work establishes that MALDI-based IMS can be used as a general tool to study a diverse array of microbes. Furthermore the article forwards the notion of the IMS platform as a window to discover previously unreported molecules by monitoring the metabolic exchange patterns of organisms when grown on agar substrates. PMID:22641157

  19. Cell death associated with abnormal mitosis observed by confocal imaging in live cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castiel, Asher; Visochek, Leonid; Mittelman, Leonid; Zilberstein, Yael; Dantzer, Francoise; Izraeli, Shai; Cohen-Armon, Malka

    2013-08-21

    Phenanthrene derivatives acting as potent PARP1 inhibitors prevented the bi-focal clustering of supernumerary centrosomes in multi-centrosomal human cancer cells in mitosis. The phenanthridine PJ-34 was the most potent molecule. Declustering of extra-centrosomes causes mitotic failure and cell death in multi-centrosomal cells. Most solid human cancers have high occurrence of extra-centrosomes. The activity of PJ-34 was documented in real-time by confocal imaging of live human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with vectors encoding for fluorescent γ-tubulin, which is highly abundant in the centrosomes and for fluorescent histone H2b present in the chromosomes. Aberrant chromosomes arrangements and de-clustered γ-tubulin foci representing declustered centrosomes were detected in the transfected MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with PJ-34. Un-clustered extra-centrosomes in the two spindle poles preceded their cell death. These results linked for the first time the recently detected exclusive cytotoxic activity of PJ-34 in human cancer cells with extra-centrosomes de-clustering in mitosis, and mitotic failure leading to cell death. According to previous findings observed by confocal imaging of fixed cells, PJ-34 exclusively eradicated cancer cells with multi-centrosomes without impairing normal cells undergoing mitosis with two centrosomes and bi-focal spindles. This cytotoxic activity of PJ-34 was not shared by other potent PARP1 inhibitors, and was observed in PARP1 deficient MEF harboring extracentrosomes, suggesting its independency of PARP1 inhibition. Live confocal imaging offered a useful tool for identifying new molecules eradicating cells during mitosis.

  20. A study into the effects of gravity wave activity on the diurnal tide and airglow emissions in the equatorial mesosphere and lower thermosphere using the Coupled Middle Atmosphere and Thermosphere (CMAT) general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S. L.; Dobbin, A.; Harris, M. J.; Arnold, N. F.; Aylward, A. D.

    2006-02-01

    airglow, and the magnitude of the peak emission rate. When using gravity wave momentum sources from the Medvedev and Klaassen [2000. Parameterisation of gravity wave momentum deposition based on non-linear wave interactions: basic formulation and sensitivity tests. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 1015 1033] parameterisation, the magnitude and morphology of CMAT tidal winds and O(1S) 557.7 nm emission rates are in agreement with recent satellite observations.

  1. Observation sequences and onboard data processing of Planet-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Ishi, N.; Ueno, M.; Hihara, H.; Abe, T.; Yamada, T.

    Planet-C or VCO Venus Climate Orbiter will carry 5 cameras IR1 IR 1micrometer camera IR2 IR 2micrometer camera UVI UV Imager LIR Long-IR camera and LAC Lightning and Airglow Camera in the UV-IR region to investigate atmospheric dynamics of Venus During 30 hr orbiting designed to quasi-synchronize to the super rotation of the Venus atmosphere 3 groups of scientific observations will be carried out i image acquisition of 4 cameras IR1 IR2 UVI LIR 20 min in 2 hrs ii LAC operation only when VCO is within Venus shadow and iii radio occultation These observation sequences will define the scientific outputs of VCO program but the sequences must be compromised with command telemetry downlink and thermal power conditions For maximizing science data downlink it must be well compressed and the compression efficiency and image quality have the significant scientific importance in the VCO program Images of 4 cameras IR1 2 and UVI 1Kx1K and LIR 240x240 will be compressed using JPEG2000 J2K standard J2K is selected because of a no block noise b efficiency c both reversible and irreversible d patent loyalty free and e already implemented as academic commercial software ICs and ASIC logic designs Data compression efficiencies of J2K are about 0 3 reversible and 0 1 sim 0 01 irreversible The DE Digital Electronics unit which controls 4 cameras and handles onboard data processing compression is under concept design stage It is concluded that the J2K data compression logics circuits using space

  2. Climatology of the O+ temperatures over Arecibo for the historical deep solar minimum using Incoherent Scatter Radar and airglow data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, P. T.; Brum, C. G. M.; Kerr, R.; Noto, J.

    2014-12-01

    At Arecibo Observatory (AO) a comprehensive description of the ionosphere and thermosphere environment is achieved by the synergy between the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) and the optical instruments nested on site. An example of this synergy is present in his work where optical and radar techniques were reconciled in order to obtain the O+ temperature variability for 2008 and 2009. During this period, a historical deep solar minimum condition was registered with a remarkable absence of sunspots for a long period (translated into a decreasing in the EUV-UV irradiance). This particular feature implies in an important tool to investigate the variability of O+ temperature, once that any variation can be related to season (modulated by the neutral atmosphere) and/or another modulator different than solar energy input. The OII 7320 Å twilight airglow data used in this work were obtained during new moon periods using a high-spectral resolution Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) with CCD array detection. The FPI was configured with 0.9 cm plate spacing, which produced a free spectral range of 0.298Å and a spectral resolution of 0.03Å, sufficient to sample line width temperatures as low as 500K. A very narrow 3Å Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) three-cavity interference filter was also used.

  3. Results from UV Imaging in the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Seth H.; WFC3-SOC

    2013-01-01

    A portion of the GOOD-S field was observed with the HST Wide Field Camera 3 with both the UVIS and IR channels, as part of the Early Release Science Observations. Here we present a summary of our results from imaging intermediate redshift galaxies with an emphasis on what was learned from the ultraviolet portion of the observations. We discuss the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies, the assembly of massive spheroids during the peak epoch of the cosmic star-formation rate, the evolution and properties of UV-selected star-forming galaxies, analysis of AGN host galaxies, and the UV properties of z<1.5 early-type galaxies. Additionally, we will discuss how the UV data affect derived galaxy properties such as photometric redshifts and SED parameters. This work is based on the Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program. Support for program 11359 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  4. CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR FLARES WITH THE HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Bain, Hazel; Lindsey, Charles; Bogart, Rick; Couvidat, Sebastien; Scherrer, Phil; Schou, Jesper

    2014-01-10

    We report observations of white-light ejecta in the low corona, for two X-class flares on 2013 May 13, using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. At least two distinct kinds of sources appeared (chromospheric and coronal), in the early and later phases of flare development, in addition to the white-light footpoint sources commonly observed in the lower atmosphere. The gradual emissions have a clear identification with the classical loop-prominence system, but are brighter than expected and possibly seen here in the continuum rather than line emission. We find the HMI flux exceeds the radio/X-ray interpolation of the bremsstrahlung produced in the flare soft X-ray sources by at least one order of magnitude. This implies the participation of cooler sources that can produce free-bound continua and possibly line emission detectable by HMI. One of the early sources dynamically resembles {sup c}oronal rain{sup ,} appearing at a maximum apparent height and moving toward the photosphere at an apparent constant projected speed of 134 ± 8 km s{sup –1}. Not much literature exists on the detection of optical continuum sources above the limb of the Sun by non-coronagraphic instruments and these observations have potential implications for our basic understanding of flare development, since visible observations can in principle provide high spatial and temporal resolution.

  5. Observations of Leonid Meteors Using a Mid-Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossano, G. S.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Tessensohn, T. K.; Warren, D.; Jenniskens, P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report broadband 3-5.5 micrometer detections of two Leonid meteors observed during the 1998 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. Each meteor was detected at only one position along their trajectory just prior to the point of maximum light emission. We describe the particular aspects of the Aerospace Corp. Mid-wave Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph (MIRIS) developed for the observation of short duration transient events that impact its ability to detect Leonid meteors. This instrument had its first deployment during the 1998 Leonid MAC. We infer from our observations that the mid-infrared light curves of two Leonid meteors differed from the visible light curve. At the points of detection, the infrared emission in the MIRIS passband was 25 +/- 4 times that at optical wavelengths for both meteors. In addition, we find an upper limit of 800 K for the solid body temperature of the brighter meteor we observed, at the point in the trajectory where we made our mid-wave infrared detection.

  6. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  7. Microwave, soft and hard X-ray imaging observations of two solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Erskine, F. T.; Schmahl, E. J.; Machado, M. E.; Rovira, M. G.

    1984-01-01

    A set of microwave and hard X-ray observations of two flares observed simultaneously with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Solar Maximum Mission Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (SMM-HXIS) are presented. The LVA was used at 6 cm to map the slowly varying and burst components in three neighboring solar active regions (Boulder Nos. 2522, 2530, and 2519) from approximately 14:00 UT until 01:00 UT on June 24-25, 1980. Six microwave bursts less than 30 sfu were observed, and for the strongest of these, two-dimensional 'snapshot' (10 s) maps with spatial resolution of 5 in. were synthesized. HXIS data show clear interconnections between regions 2522 and 2530. The X-ray observations present a global picture of flaring activity, while the VLA data show the complexity of the small magnetic structures associated with the impulsive phase phenomena. It is seen that energy release did not occur in a single isolated magnetic structure, but over a large area of intermingled loop structures.

  8. Unusual optical observations of OI greenline during a geospace event on 1 February 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, V. Lakshmi; Gurubaran, S.; Emperumal, K.; Patil, P. T.

    2011-09-01

    We herein report the first observations of an unusual phenomenon recorded by an all-sky airglow imager from the low-latitude site Panhala (16.8°N, 74.1°E, geographic; 8.2°N geomagnetic), on the night of 1 February 2008, during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm. The observations of OI 557.7 nm emission reveal discrete, transient, filamentary structures referred to as “streaks.” No such features were seen in the OI 630.0 nm emission and the mesospheric sodium and hydroxyl emissions. Here we speculate on possible mechanisms for generation of such structures, though we cannot conclude firmly that any one of them was responsible for the observed features. This is a puzzling observation made from very low geomagnetic latitude during the main phase of a moderate recurrent geomagnetic storm in the declining phase of solar cycle. In spite of the limitations in identifying the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for this striking observation, it is felt that understanding of processes driving such unusual and rare events will substantiate our knowledge on the mysterious coupling processes occurring in the equatorial upper atmosphere.

  9. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  10. Active Region Coronal Rain Event Observed by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph on the NST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Song, Donguk; Yang, Heesu; Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda; Park, Hyungmin; Nah, Jakyung; Jang, Bi-Ho; Park, Young-Deuk

    2014-11-01

    The Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) is being operated on the New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. It simultaneously records spectra of Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å lines, and this dual-spectra measurement provides an estimate of the temperature and nonthermal speed components. We observed a loop structure in AR 11305 using the FISS, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI in 304 Å, and found plasma material falling along the loop from a coronal height into the umbra of a sunspot, which accelerated up to 80 km s-1. We also observed C2 and C7 flare events near the loop. The temperature of the downflows was in the range of 10 000 - 33 000 K, increasing toward the umbra. The temperature of the flow varied with time, and the temperature near the footpoint rose immediately after the C7 flare, but the temperature toward the umbra remained the same. There seemed to be a temporal correlation between the amount of downflow material and the observed C-class flares. The downflows decreased gradually soon after the flares and then increased after a few hours. These high-speed red-shift events occurred continuously during the observations. The flows observed on-disk in Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å appeared as fragmented, fuzzy condensed material falling from the coronal heights when seen off-limb with STEREO/EUVI at 304 Å. Based on these observations, we propose that these flows were an on-disk signature of coronal rain.

  11. Observations and temperatures of Io's Pele Patera from Cassini and Galileo spacecraft images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Turtle, E.P.; Dawson, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pele has been the most intense high-temperature hotspot on Io to be continuously active during the Galileo monitoring from 1996-2001. A suite of characteristics suggests that Pele is an active lava lake inside a volcanic depression. In 2000-2001, Pele was observed by two spacecraft, Cassini and Galileo. The Cassini observations revealed that Pele is variable in activity over timescales of minutes, typical of active lava lakes in Hawaii and Ethiopia. These observations also revealed that the short-wavelength thermal emission from Pele decreases with rotation of Io by a factor significantly greater than the cosine of the emission angle, and that the color temperature becomes more variable and hotter at high emission angles. This behavior suggests that a significant portion of the visible thermal emission from Pele comes from lava fountains within a topographically confined lava body. High spatial resolution, nightside images from a Galileo flyby in October 2001 revealed a large, relatively cool (< 800 K) region, ringed by bright hotspots, and a central region of high thermal emission, which is hypothesized to be due to fountaining and convection in the lava lake. Images taken through different filters revealed color temperatures of 1500 ?? 80 K from Cassini ISS data and 1605 ?? 220 and 1420 ?? 100 K from small portions of Galileo SSI data. Such temperatures are near the upper limit for basaltic compositions. Given the limitations of deriving lava eruption temperature in the absence of in situ measurement, it is possible that Pele has lavas with ultramafic compositions. The long-lived, vigorous activity of what is most likely an actively overturning lava lake in Pele Patera indicates that there is a strong connection to a large, stable magma source region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gemini planet imager observational calibration XII: photometric calibration in the polarimetry mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Li-Wei; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Wang, Jason J.; Arriaga, Pauline; Metchev, Stanimir; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a high-contrast instrument specially designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets and debris disks. GPI can also operate as a dual-channel integral field polarimeter. The instrument primarily operates in a coronagraphic mode which poses an obstacle for traditional photometric calibrations since the majority of on-axis starlight is blocked. To enable accurate photometry relative to the occulted central star, a diffractive grid in a pupil plane is used to create a set of faint copies, named satellite spots, of the occulted star at specified locations and relative intensities in the field of view. We describe the method we developed to perform the photometric calibration of coronagraphic observations in polarimetry mode using these fiducial satellite spots. With the currently available data, we constrain the calibration uncertainty to be <13%, but the actual calibration uncertainty is likely to be lower. We develop the associated calibration scripts in the GPI Data Reduction Pipeline, which is available to the public. For testing, we use it to photometrically calibrate the HD 19467 B and β Pic b data sets taken in the H-band polarimetry mode. We measure the calibrated flux of HD 19467 B and β Pic b to be 0:078+/-0:011 mJy and 4:87+/-0:73 mJy, both agreeing with other measurements found in the literature. Finally, we explore an alternative method which performs the calibration by scaling the photometry in polarimetry mode to the photometrically calibrated response in spectroscopy mode. By comparing the reduced observations in raw units, we find that observations in polarimetry mode are 1:03 0:01 brighter than those in spectroscopy mode.

  13. The observation of Martian dune migration using very high resolution image analysis and photogrammetric data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungrack; Yun, Hyewon; Kim, Younghwi; Baik, Hyunseob

    2016-04-01

    Although the origins and processes of Martian aeolian features, especially dunes, have not been fully identified yet, it has been better understood by the orbital observation method which has led to the identification of Martian dune migration such as a case in Nili Patera (Bridges, 2012), and the numerical model employing advanced computational fluid dynamics (Jackson et al., 2015). Specifically, the recent introduction of very high-resolution image products, such as 25 cm-resolution HiRISE imagery and its precise photogrammetric processor, allows us to trace the estimated, although tiny, dune migration over the Martian surface. In this study, we attempted to improve the accuracy of active dune migration measurements by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on the hierarchical geodetic control (Kim and Muller, 2009) for better initial point settings; 2) positioning error removal throughout polynomial image control; and 3) the improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage conducted on a pyramidal grid processor and a blunder classifier. Consequently, this scheme not only measured Martian dune migration more precisely, but it will further achieve the extension of 3D observations combining stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using the HiRISE time series images over several dune fields, such as the Kaiser, Procter, and Wirtz craters, which were reported by the Mars Global Digital Dune Database (Hayward et al., 2013). The detected dune migrations were significantly larger than previously reported values and slightly correlated with the wind directions estimated by Martian Climate Database (Bingham et al., 2003). The outcomes in our study will be demonstrated with the quantified values in 2D and volumetric direction. In the future, the method will be further applied to the dune fields in the Mars Global dune database comprehensively and

  14. Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

  15. Simultaneous observations of atmospheric tides from combined in situ and remote observations at Mars from the MAVEN spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Scott L.; Liu, Guiping; Withers, Paul; Yiǧit, Erdal; Lo, Daniel; Jain, Sonal; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Deighan, Justin; McClintock, William E.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Elrod, Meredith; Benna, Mehdi; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the observations of longitudinal variations in the Martian thermosphere associated with nonmigrating tides. Using the Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) and the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN) spacecraft, this study presents the first combined analysis of in situ and remote observations of atmospheric tides at Mars for overlapping volumes, local times, and overlapping date ranges. From the IUVS observations, we determine the altitude and latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the nonmigrating tidal signatures, which is combined with the NGIMS, providing information on the compositional impact of these waves. Both the observations of airglow from IUVS and the CO2 density observations from NGIMS reveal a strong wave number 2 signature in a fixed local time frame. The IUVS observations reveal a strong latitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature. Combining this with the accurate CO2 density observations from NGIMS, this would suggest that the CO2 density variation is as high as 27% at 0-10° latitude. The IUVS observations reveal little altitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature, varying by only 20% from 160 to 200 km. Observations of five different species with NGIMS show that the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature varies in proportion to the inverse of the species scale height, giving rise to variation in composition as a function of longitude. The analysis and discussion here provide a roadmap for further analysis as additional coincident data from these two instruments become available.

  16. Observations of Brine Pool Surface Characteristics and Internal Structure Through Remote Acoustic and Structured Light Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the surface characteristics and internal structure of deep-sea brine pools are currently limited to discrete in-situ observations. Complementary acoustic and structured light imaging sensors mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) have demonstrated the ability systematically detect variations in surface characteristics of a brine pool, reveal internal stratification and detect areas of active hydrocarbon activity. The presented visual and acoustic sensors combined with a stereo camera pair are mounted on the 4000m rated ROV Hercules (Ocean Exploration Trust). These three independent sensors operate simultaneously from a typical 3m altitude resulting in visual and bathymetric maps with sub-centimeter resolution. Applying this imaging technology to 2014 and 2015 brine pool surveys in the Gulf of Mexico revealed acoustic and visual anomalies due to the density changes inherent in the brine. Such distinct changes in acoustic impedance allowed the high frequency 1350KHz multibeam sonar to detect multiple interfaces. For instance, distinct acoustic reflections were observed at 3m and 5.5m below the vehicle. Subsequent verification using a CDT and lead line indicated the acoustic return from the brine surface was the signal at 3m, while a thicker muddy and more saline interface occurred at 5.5m, the bottom of the brine pool was not located but is assumed to be deeper than 15m. The multibeam is also capable of remotely detecting emitted gas bubbles within the brine pool, indicative of active hydrocarbon seeps. Bubbles associated with these seeps were not consistently visible above the brine while using the HD camera on the ROV. Additionally, while imaging the surface of brine pool the structured light sheet laser became diffuse, refracting across the main interface. Analysis of this refraction combined with varying acoustic returns allow for systematic and remote detection of the density, stratification and activity levels within and

  17. Coherent and incoherent scatter radar observations during intense mid-latitude spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.; Kelley, Michael C.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Collins, Stephen C.; Kudeki, Erhan; Franke, Steve; Urbina, Julio; Aponte, Nestor; Sulzer, Michael P.; González, Sixto A.

    2000-09-01

    An intense mid-latitude spread-F event occurred over Puerto Rico during the night of February 17, 1998. Simultaneous observations were made with the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) located near Isabela, PR, the University of Illinois VHF radar located at Salinas, PR, GPS receivers at Isabela and St. Croix, measuring total electron content, the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar, and the Cornell All-Sky imager located at the Arecibo Observatory. This was the first time that such a broad range of complementary instrumentation captured a mid-latitude spread-F space weather event. It was the first (and still only) time that a spread-F event over the Caribbean exhibited large Doppler shifts in the VHF spectra. This event was characterized with multiple filaments that initially produced receding Doppler velocities exceeding 300 m/s as seen by CUPRI and the Illinois radar. The Arecibo incoherent scatter radar recorded line-of-sight velocities exceeding 100 m/s that moved the F-layer peak to over 400-km altitude. Airglow images of 630.0 nm emissions from F-region heights showed depleted structures oriented southeast to northwest. The large velocities observed with the radars suggest that we caught this event in a stage of explosive development. It is interesting that the first fully documented Caribbean event occurred during a magnetically active period.

  18. Creation of an ensemble of simulated cardiac cases and a human observer study: tools for the development of numerical observers for SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Gifford, Howard C.; Licho, Robert; Joffe, Samuel; McGuiness, Matthew; Mehurg, Shannon; Zacharias, Michael; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2012-02-01

    Our previous Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) research explored the utility of numerical observers. We recently created two hundred and eighty simulated SPECT cardiac cases using Dynamic MCAT (DMCAT) and SIMIND Monte Carlo tools. All simulated cases were then processed with two reconstruction methods: iterative ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and filtered back-projection (FBP). Observer study sets were assembled for both OSEM and FBP methods. Five physicians performed an observer study on one hundred and seventy-nine images from the simulated cases. The observer task was to indicate detection of any myocardial perfusion defect using the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) 17-segment cardiac model and the ASNC five-scale rating guidelines. Human observer Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) studies established the guidelines for the subsequent evaluation of numerical model observer (NO) performance. Several NOs were formulated and their performance was compared with the human observer performance. One type of NO was based on evaluation of a cardiac polar map that had been pre-processed using a gradient-magnitude watershed segmentation algorithm. The second type of NO was also based on analysis of a cardiac polar map but with use of a priori calculated average image derived from an ensemble of normal cases.

  19. Role of Seed Coat in Imbibing Soybean Seeds Observed by Micro-magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Mika; Kikuchi, Kaori; Isobe, Seiichiro; Ishida, Nobuaki; Naito, Shigehiro; Kano, Hiromi

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Imbibition of Japanese soybean (Glycine max) cultivars was studied using micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to elucidate the mechanism of soaking injury and the protective role of the seed coat. Methods Time-lapse images during water uptake were acquired by the single-point imaging (SPI) method at 15-min intervals, for 20 h in the dry seed with seed coat, and for 2 h in seeds with the seed coat removed. The technique visualized water migration within the testa and demonstrated the distortion associated with cotyledon swelling during the very early stages of water uptake. Key Results Water soon appeared in the testa and went around the dorsal surface of the seed from near the raphe, then migrated to the hilum region. An obvious protrusion was noted when water reached the hypocotyl and the radicle, followed by swelling of the cotyledons. A convex area was observed around the raphe with the enlargement of the seed. Water was always incorporated into the cotyledons from the abaxial surfaces, leading to swelling and generating a large air space between the adaxial surfaces. Water uptake greatly slowed, and the internal structures, veins and oil-accumulating tissues in the cotyledons developed after the seed stopped expanding. When the testa was removed from the dry seeds before imbibition, the cotyledons were severely damaged within 1·5 h of water uptake. Conclusions The activation of the water channel seemed unnecessary for water entry into soybean seeds, and the testa rapidly swelled with steeping in water. However, the testa did not regulate the water incorporation in itself, but rather the rate at which water encountered the hypocotyl, the radicle, and the cotyledons through the inner layer of the seed coat, and thus prevented the destruction of the seed tissues at the beginning of imbibition. PMID:18565982

  20. Imaging observations of pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in patients over 40 years old

    PubMed Central

    WU, JIANG; ZHU, HONG; LI, KAI; YUAN, CAI-YUN; WANG, YAN-FEN; LU, GUANG-MING

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (PIMTs) are extremely rare in adults. If occurring in patients >40 years old, PIMT should be rapidly distinguished from lung cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the imaging features of PIMT in patients >40 years old in order to improve the diagnosis of PIMT. The imaging data of 10 patients with PIMT were reviewed retrospectively. Of the patients, eight underwent computed tomography (CT), two underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and four underwent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Unenhanced CT revealed 10 lesions with a maximum diameter ranging between 5 and 57 mm located in the lower (n=6) or upper (n=4) lobe, in a peripheral (n=9) or central (n=1) region, and that were well- (n=4) or ill-defined (n=6), and round to oval (n=5) or irregular (n=5) in shape. Calcification (n=3), necrosis (n=6), cavity (n=4), air bronchogram (n=6) and obstructive pneumonia (n=1) were also observed in the patients. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed six lesions with moderate to high contrast enhancement in the arterial and venous phases, including four lesions with delayed enhancement. PET/CT identified two lesions with increased tracer uptake that were homogeneous and heterogeneous and each exhibited a maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of 6.0 and 5.4, respectively. The delayed PET/CT revealed foci that each exhibited an increased SUVmax of 6.9 and 5.9, respectively. SPECT demonstrated no definitive bone metastases, but did reveal atypical hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in one patient. The combined imaging methods may lead to a more precise evaluation of PIMT in patients >40 years old. PMID:25789060

  1. A Method to Retrieve Rainfall Rate Over Land from TRMM Microwave Imager Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over tropical land regions, rain rate maxima in mesoscale convective systems revealed by the Precipitation Radar (PR) flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are foun