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Sample records for airgun shots recorded

  1. ["Piggyback" shot: ballistic parameters of two simultaneously discharged airgun pellets].

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekess, Holger C; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Green and Good reported an uncommon case of homicide committed with an air rifle in 1982 (Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 3: 361-365). The fatal wound was unusual in that two airgun pellets were loaded in so-called "piggyback" fashion into a single shot air rifle. Lack of further information on the ballistic characteristics of two airgun pellets as opposed to one conventionally loaded projectile led to this investigation. The mean kinetic energy (E) of the two pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion was E = 3.6 J and E = 3.4 J, respectively. In comparison, average kinetic energy values of E = 12.5 J were calculated for conventionally discharged single diabolo pellets. Test shots into ballistic soap confirmed the findings of a single entrance wound as reported by Green and Good. While the ballistic background of pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion could be clarified, the reason behind this mode of shooting remains unclear.

  2. Airgun shot wound to the orbit with retention of pellet. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Paweł; Dziedzic, Dariusz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    Shot wounds become a growing clinical concern in the civilian setting, due to increasing popularity of air guns among minors. We present a pediatric case of a shot wound to the orbit with sparing of the eyeball and retention of airgun pellet in the retrobulbar space. The pellet was removed 3 months after injury via lateral orbitotomy. Pathophysiology and ballistics of shot wounds are briefly reviewed and current views on the management strategy of shot wounds with retained projectile are discussed.

  3. Sounds from airguns and fin whales recorded in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Nieukirk, Sharon L; Mellinger, David K; Moore, Sue E; Klinck, Karolin; Dziak, Robert P; Goslin, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Between 1999 and 2009, autonomous hydrophones were deployed to monitor seismic activity from 16° N to 50° N along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These data were examined for airgun sounds produced during offshore surveys for oil and gas deposits, as well as the 20 Hz pulse sounds from fin whales, which may be masked by airgun noise. An automatic detection algorithm was used to identify airgun sound patterns, and fin whale calling levels were summarized via long-term spectral analysis. Both airgun and fin whale sounds were recorded at all sites. Fin whale calling rates were higher at sites north of 32° N, increased during the late summer and fall months at all sites, and peaked during the winter months, a time when airgun noise was often prevalent. Seismic survey vessels were acoustically located off the coasts of three major areas: Newfoundland, northeast Brazil, and Senegal and Mauritania in West Africa. In some cases, airgun sounds were recorded almost 4000 km from the survey vessel in areas that are likely occupied by fin whales, and at some locations airgun sounds were recorded more than 80% days/month for more than 12 consecutive months.

  4. Low-frequency whale and seismic airgun sounds recorded in the mid-Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nieukirk, Sharon L; Stafford, Kathleen M; Mellinger, David K; Dziak, Robert P; Fox, Christopher G

    2004-04-01

    Beginning in February 1999, an array of six autonomous hydrophones was moored near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (35 degrees N-15 degrees N, 50 degrees W-33 degrees W). Two years of data were reviewed for whale vocalizations by visually examining spectrograms. Four distinct sounds were detected that are believed to be of biological origin: (1) a two-part low-frequency moan at roughly 18 Hz lasting 25 s which has previously been attributed to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus); (2) series of short pulses approximately 18 s apart centered at 22 Hz, which are likely produced by fin whales (B. physalus); (3) series of short, pulsive sounds at 30 Hz and above and approximately 1 s apart that resemble sounds attributed to minke whales (B. acutorostrata); and (4) downswept, pulsive sounds above 30 Hz that are likely from baleen whales. Vocalizations were detected most often in the winter, and blue- and fin whale sounds were detected most often on the northern hydrophones. Sounds from seismic airguns were recorded frequently, particularly during summer, from locations over 3000 km from this array. Whales were detected by these hydrophones despite its location in a very remote part of the Atlantic Ocean that has traditionally been difficult to survey.

  5. Low-frequency whale and seismic airgun sounds recorded in the mid-Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Mellinger, David K.; Dziak, Robert P.; Fox, Christopher G.

    2004-04-01

    Beginning in February 1999, an array of six autonomous hydrophones was moored near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (35 °N-15 °N, 50 °W-33 °W). Two years of data were reviewed for whale vocalizations by visually examining spectrograms. Four distinct sounds were detected that are believed to be of biological origin: (1) a two-part low-frequency moan at roughly 18 Hz lasting 25 s which has previously been attributed to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus); (2) series of short pulses approximately 18 s apart centered at 22 Hz, which are likely produced by fin whales (B. physalus); (3) series of short, pulsive sounds at 30 Hz and above and approximately 1 s apart that resemble sounds attributed to minke whales (B. acutorostrata); and (4) downswept, pulsive sounds above 30 Hz that are likely from baleen whales. Vocalizations were detected most often in the winter, and blue- and fin whale sounds were detected most often on the northern hydrophones. Sounds from seismic airguns were recorded frequently, particularly during summer, from locations over 3000 km from this array. Whales were detected by these hydrophones despite its location in a very remote part of the Atlantic Ocean that has traditionally been difficult to survey.

  6. Subcaliber discarding sabot airgun projectiles.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekeß, Holger; Herbst, Jörg; Staats, Hans-Georg; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Nguyen, Thanh Tien; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-03-01

    Medical literature abounds with reports on injuries and fatalities caused by airgun projectiles. While round balls or diabolo pellets have been the standard projectiles for airguns for decades, today, there are a large number of different airgun projectiles available. A very uncommon--and until now unique--discarding sabot airgun projectile (Sussex Sabo Bullet) was introduced into the market in the 1980s. The projectile, available in 0.177 (4.5 mm) and 0.22 (5.5 mm) caliber, consists of a plastic sabot cup surrounding a subcaliber copper-coated lead projectile in typical bullet shape. Following the typical principle of a discarding sabot projectile, the lightweight sabot is supposed to quickly loose velocity and to fall to the ground downrange while the bullet continues on target. These sabot-loaded projectiles are of special forensic interest due to their non-traceability and ballistic parameters. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to investigate the ballistic performance of these sabot airgun projectiles by high-speed video analyses and by measurement of the kinetic parameters of the projectile parts by a transient recording system as well as observing their physical features after being fired. While the sabot principle worked properly in high-energy airguns (E > 17 J), separation of the core projectile from the sabot cup was also observed when discharged in low-energy airguns (E < 7.5 J). While the velocity of the discarded Sussex Sabo core projectile was very close to the velocity of a diabolo-type reference projectile (RWS Meisterkugel), energy density was up to 60 % higher. To conclude, this work is the first study to demonstrate the regular function of this uncommon type of airgun projectile.

  7. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

  8. Biological Significance of Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals: Examples Using an Acoustic Recording tag to Define Acoustic Exposure of Sperm Whales, Physeter catodon, Exposed to Airgun Sounds in Controlled Exposure Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; Miller, P. J.; Lynch, J.

    2006-05-01

    There has been considerable debate about how to regulate behavioral disruption in marine mammals. The U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act prohibits "taking" marine mammals, including harassment, which is defined as injury or disruption of behavioral patterns. A 2005 report by the National Academy of Sciences focuses on the need to analyze acoustic impacts on marine mammal behavior in terms of biological significance. The report develops a model for predicting population consequences of acoustic impacts. One of the key data gaps involves methods to estimate the impact of disruption on an animal's ability to complete life functions critical for growth, survival, and reproduction. One of the few areas where theory and data are available involves foraging energetics. Patrick Miller in the next talk and I will discuss an example study designed to evaluate the impact of exposure to seismic survey on the foraging energetics of sperm whales. As petroleum exploration moves offshore to deep water, there is increasing overlap between seismic exploration and deep diving toothed whales such as the sperm whale which is listed by the US as an endangered species. With support from the US Minerals Management Service and the Industry Research Funding Coalition, we tagged sperm whales with tags that can record sound, orientation, acceleration, temperature and depth. Eight whales tagged in the Gulf of Mexico during 2002-2003 were subjects in 5 controlled experiments involving exposure to sounds of an airgun array. One critical component of evaluating effects involves quantifying exposure at the animal. While the on-axis signature of airgun arrays has been well quantified, there are few broadband calibrated measurements in the water column displaced horizontally away from the downward-directed beam. The acoustic recording tags provide direct data on sounds as received at the animals. Due to multipath propagation, multiple sound pulses were recorded on the tagged whales for each firing of

  9. Far-offset Airgun Imaging of the Mantle: Lithospheric velocity structure of the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarralde, D.; Gaherty, J.; Collins, J. A.; Hirth, G.

    2001-12-01

    The extraction of oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges leaves behind residual mantle depleted of basaltic constituents and volatiles, with an embedded structural fabric associated with melting and mantle flow beneath a spreading center. This basic layered structure should remain in the lithosphere as it cools and translates from the ridge, providing a record of mid-ocean ridge processes over time. Images of the seismic velocity structure within the uppermost oceanic mantle will thus provide a powerful compliment to geologic and geophysical studies of oceanic crust from which much of our understanding of mid-ocean-ridge processes has come. In June 2001, we conducted a lithosphere-scale active-source seismic refraction experiment along an 800-km-long transect in the western Atlantic to investigate the seismic structure of oceanic mantle lithosphere. The transect extends along a plate-kinematic flow line ranging in age from 87 to 145 Ma (a portion of the IPOD-USGS transect). The experiment involved 16 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) deployed along the transect in 3-km-seperated pairs spaced 80-120 km apart and 3 OBSs plus a seismometer on Bermuda located 75, 150, and 350 km off of the transect. These instruments recorded shots from R/V Maurice Ewing's 9,750-cu.-in. airgun array. Shooting occurred in two modes. At 32 locations at the ends of the transect, each spaced 6 km apart, 18-30 shots were fired while steaming in a circle of radius ~800 m. The shot interval was 9 minutes. Over the inner 500-km of the transect, between 4 and 7 passes were made while shooting on distance every 1 km. The extraordinary shot-time intervals were required to ensure all water-borne shot energy had crossed the array befor the next shot was fired. By stacking the co-located and "circle" shots, and by merging data from the paired instruments, profiles can be created with a trace spacing of 1-3 km, which is unprecedented for an experiment of this scale. We will present fully processed record

  10. The suppression of coherent noise from another airgun source in marine multi-channel seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ho-Han; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Tsai, You-Tsung; Chiu, Shye-Donq

    2016-12-01

    During seismic investigations, multiple and unexpected sources may cause serious interference on seismic records, and coherent noise generated by another unwanted active source could result in extremely poor data quality. Because airgun arrays have been widely used as the sound source in marine seismic surveys, the noise generated by another airgun array usually has similar characteristics to the primary signals in both frequency bands and wave forms, so the suppression of this type of coherent noise is very difficult. In practice, seismic crews try to avoid conducting multiple surveys simultaneously in a same area, so the source interference problem normally does not occur, and suppression of coherent noise from another active source has rarely been discussed and proposed before. This paper presents a dataset in which part of the records are contaminated by shot noise from another seismic vessel, and proposes a hybrid approach to suppress the coherent noise from that unwanted seismic source. Noise subtraction and primary signal preservation within different data properties are considered to begin the noise suppression. Based on different noise characteristics from various source directions and wave propagation paths, coherence noise can be separated from primary signals in frequency-wave number (F-K), frequency-time (F-T) and intercept time-slowness (tau-p) domains, respectively. This hybrid coherent noise suppression approach involves applying three different filters, F-K, F-T and tau-p, to the contaminated dataset. Our results show that most of the coherent noise generated by another seismic source could be suppressed, and seismic images could be substantially improved.

  11. S-wave anisotropy revealed by airgun seismic surveys using cabled seafloor seismometers in the Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.; Araki, E.; Mikada, H.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Takahashi, N.; Takaesu, M.; Nakano, M.; Machida, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough, Japan, a cabled real-time seismic, geodetic and tsunami observation system, comprising twenty DONET1 seafloor and one IODP C0002G borehole observatories, monitors seismic activity above the seismogenic zone, where mega-thrust earthquakes occur at 100-150 years interval. On Nov. 2013 through June 2015, we conducted three seismic airgun surveys above DONET1 and C0002G seismometers. In this study, we aimed to reveal spatial distribution of S-wave anisotropy, i.e., a proxy of stress state governing the fault dynamics in the subduction zone, from the dataset recorded by the cabled system during these surveys In these surveys, airgun shootings at circular survey lines around each observatory with different radii of 3, 7 and 10 km were carried out. In the observed horizontal components for each shot from 3km radius lines (R3 lines), seismic waveforms in 3.0 to 5.0s after the shot are clearly visible to indicate the up-coming P-S converted waves from the bottom of the shallow sediment, although signal-to-noise ratio decreases with depth due to spherical divergence and to complicated structure such as dipping reflectors. We computed radial and transverse records for each shot-receiver azimuth, and then estimated S-wave anisotropy parameters, i.e., magnitude and azimuth, as a function of depth for R3 lines at thirteen observatories. The obtained results confirm that the distributions of S-wave anisotropy, especially in shallow sediments, have localities: the magnitude of S-wave anisotropy becomes smaller in landward basin than in imbricated thrust zone. The axes of fast S-wave symmetry become closer to subduction direction for results from deep reflections. We plan to conduct more attentive analysis, including error evaluation using repeated shooting dataset to discuss the detectability of temporal change of S-wave anisotropy deepen the present discussion after integrating numerical analysis in complicated structure model with the current method.

  12. Modelling the signature of clustered airguns and analysis on the directivity of an airgun array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofa; Cao, Mingqiang; Chen, Haolin; Ni, Chengzhou

    2011-03-01

    Based on the Giles-Johnston approximation and the analysis of the mutual interaction between two bubbles at different distances, a model is established to simulate the signature of clustered airguns in offshore seismic exploration, concerning the practical factors which have effects on bubble oscillation such as the gun ports throttling and the heat conduction across the bubble wall. By using this model, the signatures of clustered airguns at different distances are calculated with the volume of airguns equal and unequal; the energy distribution of the airgun array signature in three-dimensional (3D) space is also analysed. The result of simulation indicates (1) the pressure wave emitted from bubble oscillation and the ghost wave reflected from the sea surface change the wave field around other bubbles, which makes it the primary source of the mutual interaction between bubbles; (2) with the distance decreasing, the mutual interaction between bubbles becomes strong, the bubble period increases, the primary peak amplitude decreases, and the primary/bubble peak amplitude ratio increases at first and then decreases afterwards; (3) as the distance between bubbles reduced, the bubbles with unequal volumes oscillate with the same period, and the frequency locking phenomenon occurs accompanying the violent bubble oscillation; and (4) the energy of the pressure wave is strongest down below the midpoint of the airgun array, while relatively weak in other directions, this can be used for true amplitude recovery in seismic data processing.

  13. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  14. First assessment of effects of air-gun seismic shooting on marine resources in the central Adriatic sea

    SciTech Connect

    La Bella, G.; Cannata, S.; Froglia, C.

    1996-11-01

    A series of investigations were carried out to test the effects of air-gun seismic shooting on main fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea during summer 1995. The energy source used for the trial was formed by one air-gun array made up by two sub-arrays consisting in 8 air-guns each developing a total volume of c.a. 2500 i{sup 3} at 2000 psi with an amplitude of 60 bar/m. The interval between two was of 25 s. The intensity was of 210 dB re 1 mPa-m/Hz. Acoustical and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the surveyed areas to correlate fishery and behavior observations with sound pattern of the energization. Main results were: (1) Analysis of trawl catch data evidenced no significant changes before and after the air-gun seismic profiling. (2) Echosurvey relative estimate of pelagic biomass, performed simultaneously to trawling operations, failed to evidence any significant change in the pelagic biomass subsequent to the seismic shooting. (3) Small differences were observed in the trammel net catch composition, but one single set of pre-post fishing operations could be done in the study period. (4) Similar density estimate were obtained from dredge surveys performed by an hydraulic dredger before and after air-gun seismic profiling over a clam bed in 14 in depth. (5) Video recording of captive fish, kept into cages moored on the sea bottom at 12 in depth, evidenced a Behavioral response to the approach of the sound source; but no lethal event was recorded on captive sea-bass immediately after the seismic shooting. (6) Biochemical and histological analysis were performed to verify if it is to be related to the captive condition or is somewhat consequent to the air-gun energization. These results confirm that no relevant effects are induced on fishery resources by seismic air-gun shooting.

  15. The importance of reliability to the SunShot Initiative (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Albertus, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative was launched in 2011 to make subsidy-free solar electricity cost competitive with conventional energy sources by the end of the decade. Research in reliability can play a major role in realizing the SunShot goal of 0.06/kWh. By improving photovoltaic module lifetime and reducing degradation rates, a system's lifetime energy output is increased. Increasing confidence in photovoltaic performance prediction can lower perceived investment risk and thus the cost of capital. Accordingly, in 2015, SunShot expects to award more than $40 million through its SunShot National Laboratory Multiyear Partnership (SuNLaMP) and Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) 2 funding programs, for research into reliability topics such as determining acceleration factors, modeling degradation rates and failure mechanisms, improving predictive performance models, and developing new test methods and instrumentation.

  16. Effects of Airgun Sounds on Bowhead Whale Calling Rates: Evidence for Two Behavioral Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Susanna B.; Nations, Christopher S.; McDonald, Trent L.; Thode, Aaron M.; Mathias, Delphine; Kim, Katherine H.; Greene, Charles R.; Macrander, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    In proximity to seismic operations, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) decrease their calling rates. Here, we investigate the transition from normal calling behavior to decreased calling and identify two threshold levels of received sound from airgun pulses at which calling behavior changes. Data were collected in August–October 2007–2010, during the westward autumn migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Up to 40 directional acoustic recorders (DASARs) were deployed at five sites offshore of the Alaskan North Slope. Using triangulation, whale calls localized within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and tallied every 10 minutes each season, so that the detected call rate could be interpreted as the actual call production rate. Moreover, airgun pulses were identified on each DASAR, analyzed, and a cumulative sound exposure level was computed for each 10-min period each season (CSEL10-min). A Poisson regression model was used to examine the relationship between the received CSEL10-min from airguns and the number of detected bowhead calls. Calling rates increased as soon as airgun pulses were detectable, compared to calling rates in the absence of airgun pulses. After the initial increase, calling rates leveled off at a received CSEL10-min of ~94 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the lower threshold). In contrast, once CSEL10-min exceeded ~127 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the upper threshold), whale calling rates began decreasing, and when CSEL10-min values were above ~160 dB re 1 μPa2-s, the whales were virtually silent. PMID:26039218

  17. Sub-10 ns single-shot dynamic recording in holographic polymeric medium by nonlinear absorption using excited state absorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kenji; Satoh, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Yoshito

    2016-09-01

    Optical recording by a single shot of an 8 ns laser pulse in a dye-doped holographic polymeric medium was demonstrated with a peak power as low as 71 W at a wavelength of 402 nm. Nonlinear absorption triggered by two-photon absorption and enhanced by the succeeding process allows high-speed recording corresponding to 125 Mbps (3.4 times the recording speed of a Blu-ray Disc). The preformed holographic grating in the medium enhanced the readout signal through diffraction, resulting in a signal-to-noise ratio of about 15 dB. The recording capacity was estimated at ca. 80 GB/side for 100 µm/side by recording 20 layers, but that of over TB/side class would be possible for optical optimization. Theoretically, it can be improved to 10 TB/side for 800 µm/side by recording 400 layers.

  18. Single-shot real-time video recording of a photonic Mach cone induced by a scattered light pulse

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jinyang; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Liren; Chen, Yujia; Gao, Liang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast video recording of spatiotemporal light distribution in a scattering medium has a significant impact in biomedicine. Although many simulation tools have been implemented to model light propagation in scattering media, existing experimental instruments still lack sufficient imaging speed to record transient light-scattering events in real time. We report single-shot ultrafast video recording of a light-induced photonic Mach cone propagating in an engineered scattering plate assembly. This dynamic light-scattering event was captured in a single camera exposure by lossless-encoding compressed ultrafast photography at 100 billion frames per second. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions by time-resolved Monte Carlo simulation. This technology holds great promise for next-generation biomedical imaging instrumentation. PMID:28116357

  19. Babies and shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Influenza - shots; Meningococcal - shots; MMR - shots; Pneumococcal - shots; Polio - shots; IPV - shots; Rotavirus - shots; Tdap - shots ... MMR vaccine Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine Polio immunization (vaccine) Rotavirus vaccine Tdap vaccine

  20. Wide-angle seismic recordings from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS), western Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Parsons, Tom; Creager, Ken C.; Crosson, Robert S.; Symons, Neill P.; Spence, George D.; Zelt, Barry C.; Hammer, Philip T.C.; Hyndman, Roy D.; Mosher, David C.; Trehu, Anne M.; Miller, Kate C.; Brink, Uri S. ten; Fisher, Michael A.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Alvarez, Marcos G.; Beaudoin, Bruce C.; Louden, Keith E.; Weaver, Craig S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the acquisition and processing of deep-crustal wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction data obtained in the vicinity of Puget Lowland, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and Georgia Strait, western Washington and southwestern British Columbia, in March 1998 during the Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS). As part of a larger initiative to better understand lateral variations in crustal structure along the Cascadia margin, SHIPS participants acquired 1000 km of deep-crustal multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and 1300 km of wideangle airgun shot lines in this region using the R/V Thompson and R/V Tully. The Tully was used to record airgun shots fired by the Thompson in two different geometries: (1) expanding spread profiles (ESPs) and (2) constant offset profiles (COPs). Prior to this reflection survey, we deployed 257 Reftek and 15 ocean-bottom seismic recorders to record the airgun signals at far offsets. All data were recorded digitally on large-capacity hard disks. Although most of these stations only recorded the vertical component of motion, 95 of these seismographs recorded signals from an oriented 3-component seismometer. By recording signals generated by the Thompson's marine air gun array, operated in two differing geometries having a total volume of 110 and 79 liters (6730 and 4838 cu. in.), respectively, the arrays of wide-angle recorders were designed to (1) image the crustal structure, particularly in the vicinity of crustal faults and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, (2) determine the geometry of the Moho, and (3) image the subducting Gorda and Juan de Fuca plates. Nearly 33,300 air gun shots were recorded along several seismic lines. In this report, we illustrate the expanding spread profiles acquired using the Thompson and Tully, describe the land and ocean-bottom recording of the air gun signals, discuss the processing of the land recorder data into common receiver gathers, and illustrate the processed wide

  1. Swell effect correction for the high-resolution marine seismic data acquired using an airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Wonsik; Kim, Byoung-yeop; Cheong, Snons; Kim, Young-Jun

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution marine seismic surveys are used for the imaging of the detailed subsurface geological structure in engineering and marine geological survey. When the sea state gets worse, the quality of the seismic data become worse due to the sea swell. We corrected the swell effect to enhance the quality of seismic data. To remove the swell effect, we picked the sea bottom location automatically, averaged the picked sea bottom times of the adjacent traces and corrected the differences between the calculated and averaged sea bottom location. To make high quality seismic section, we used high-resolution marine 8-channel airgun seismic data acquired off Yeosu, Korea. The energy source was a 30 in3 airgun and the receiver was a 40 m long 8 channel streamer cable with a group interval of 5 m. The offset distance between the source and the first channel was 20 m. The shot interval was 2 seconds corresponding to ~5 m in distance, assuming ship's speed 5 knots. The data were digitally recorded with a sample interval of 0.1 ms and a record length of 1 s. The processing sequence includes basic processing procedures such as gain recovery, deconvolution, frequency filtering, CMP sorting, NMO correction, swell effect correction and stacking. To select sea bottom location for the swell effect correction, we pick maximum amplitude within the expected range including sea bottom location and find the first location at which the amplitude is larger than the threshold that is 40% of the maximum amplitude. We averaged these two-way travel times of sea bottom and corrected the differences. The range of the swell effect correction was -0.5 ~ 0.4 ms. After correction the continuity of reflectors were improved and high quality of the seismic data was produced. This study is a part of a Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), a National Research Laboratory (NRL) project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), and

  2. Modeling of multi-depth slanted airgun source for deghosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hong-Lei; Elboth, Thomas; Tian, Gang; Lin, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    To obtain high-resolution of the subsurface structure, we modeled multi-depth slanted airgun sources to attenuate the source ghost. By firing the guns in sequence according to their relative depths, such a source can build constructive primaries and destructive ghosts. To evaluate the attenuation of ghosts, the normalized squared error of the spectrum of the actual vs the expected signature is computed. We used a typical 680 cu.in airgun string and found via simulations that a depth interval of 1 or 1.5 m between airguns is optimum when considering deghosting performance and operational feasibility. When more subarrays are combined, preliminary simulations are necessary to determine the optimum depth combination. The frequency notches introduced by the excess use of subarrays may negatively affect the deghosting performance. Two or three slanted subarrays can be combined to remove the ghost effect. The sequence combination may partly affect deghosting but this can be eliminated by matched filtering. Directivity comparison shows that a multi-depth slanted source can significantly attenuate the notches and widen the energy transmission stability area.

  3. Airgun inter-pulse noise field during a seismic survey in an Arctic ultra shallow marine environment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shane; Vignola, Joseph; Judge, John; Turo, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration using seismic airguns generates intense underwater pulses that could cause marine mammal hearing impairment and/or behavioral disturbances. However, few studies have investigated the resulting multipath propagation and reverberation from airgun pulses. This research uses continuous acoustic recordings collected in the Arctic during a low-level open-water shallow marine seismic survey, to measure noise levels between airgun pulses. Two methods were used to quantify noise levels during these inter-pulse intervals. The first, based on calculating the root-mean-square sound pressure level in various sub-intervals, is referred to as the increment computation method, and the second, which employs the Hilbert transform to calculate instantaneous acoustic amplitudes, is referred to as the Hilbert transform method. Analyses using both methods yield similar results, showing that the inter-pulse sound field exceeds ambient noise levels by as much as 9 dB during relatively quiet conditions. Inter-pulse noise levels are also related to the source distance, probably due to the higher reverberant conditions of the very shallow water environment. These methods can be used to quantify acoustic environment impacts from anthropogenic transient noises (e.g., seismic pulses, impact pile driving, and sonar pings) and to address potential acoustic masking affecting marine mammals.

  4. Using at-sea experiments to study the effects of airguns on the foraging behavior of sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. J. O.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; Biassoni, N.; Quero, M.; Tyack, P. L.

    2009-07-01

    Acoustic exposure and behavior of 8 sperm whales were recorded with acoustic and movement-recording tags before, during and after 5 separate 1-2 h controlled sound exposures of industry-provided airgun arrays. None of the 8 whales changed behavioral state (7 foraging, 1 resting) following the start of ramp-up at distances of 7-13 km, or full array exposures at 1-13 km. The most closely approached whale rested throughout exposure but started a foraging dive shortly after the airguns ceased, possibly indicating a delay in foraging during exposure. Using visual tracking and dead-reckoning of tagged animals, we found that their direction-of-movement was random with respect to the airguns, but correlated with their direction-of-movement just prior to the start of exposure, indicating that the tested whales did not show horizontal avoidance of the airguns. Oscillations in pitch generated by swimming movements during foraging dives were on average 6% lower during exposure than during the immediately following post-exposure period, with all 7 foraging whales exhibiting less pitching ( p=0.014). Buzz rates, a proxy for attempts to capture prey, were 19% lower during exposure but given natural variation in buzz rates and the small numbers of whales, this effect was not statistically significant ( P=0.141). Though additional studies are strongly recommended, these initial results indicate that sperm whales in the highly exposed Gulf of Mexico habitat do not exhibit avoidance reactions to airguns, but suggest they are affected at ranges well beyond those currently regulated due to more subtle effects on their foraging behavior.

  5. Lake Nam Co (Tibet, China) - a suitable target for a deep drilling project as confirmed by a preliminary airgun seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Daut, G.; Wenau, S.; Gernhardt, F.; Wang, J.; Schwenk, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Nam Co, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at the intersection of the Westerlies and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, is well suited to study the monsoonal regime over different time scales. High-resolution and continuous sedimentary records from the Tibetan Plateau are still rare and only few reach back to the Last Glacial Maximum. For Nam Co, numerous multiproxy studies unravel the regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental history for the past 24,000 years. These promising results demonstrate the potential of Lake Nam Co as a geoarchive, but nature, thickness and geologic time of the sediment fill have not yet been determined. Therefore the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and the Universities of Bremen and Jena jointly carried out an airgun multichannel seismic survey at Nam Co in June/July 2014. As main equipment, a micro GI Gun(2 x 0.1 L) was used in conjunction with a 64 m long seismic streamer (32 channels/2 m spacing) to achieve deep signal penetration, to confirm a thick sediment infill and to prove the suitability for deep coring of several hundred meters. Although only few lines could be shot due to technical and weather issues, several lines particularly from the deepest part of the lake provide new insight. Preliminary data processing and interpretation reveal a well layered sediment cover of >700 m in the center of the lake. Seismic facies appears to vary in a cyclic manner, indicating a coupling to climatically-driven changes in lake level and sediment delivery. From a comparison with the Holocene/Late Glacial sedimentary and seismic record, several similar units could be imaged. Furthermore, rapid sedimentation is confirmed from the continuous cover of growth faults and doming, and continuous sedimentation throughout glacial/interglacial cycles appears likely due to the absence of erosional unconformities. By tentatively assigning these units to marine isotope stages, different seismostratigraphies can

  6. Get Important Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... just like kids do. Make sure you are up to date on your shots. Get a flu vaccine every ... Protect yourself and those around you by staying up to date on your shots. Next section Other Shots Previous ...

  7. Crustal structure around the asperity regions of large earthquakes along the southernmost Kuril trench revealed by two Airgun-OBS seismic profilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Y.; Takanami, T.; Murai, Y.; Amamiya, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Shinohara, M.; McHizuki, K.; Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Kuwano, A.; Kanazawa, T.; Hino, R.; Azuma, R.

    2007-12-01

    In the southeast off Hokkaido, Japan, large earthquakes have occurred repeatedly with temporal and spatial regularities along the Kuril trench due to the subduction of Pacific plate at a rate of 80 mm/year (DeMets et al., 1990) [e.g. the 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.2), the 1973 Nemuro-oki earthquake (Mw=7.8) and the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.2)]. It is considered that the next large earthquake will occur at the source region of the 1973 Nemuro-oki earthquake in the near future because a low seismic activity has been found in the off shore region of the Nemuro peninsula. In order to clarify the relation between asperity and the recurrence of large earthquake, it is necessary to determine a detailed crustal structure running across the two asperities of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake and 1973 Nemuro-oki earthquake. Therefore we conducted a wide-angle survey across the coseismic rupture areas of the 2003 Tokachi-oki and 1973 Nemuro-oki earthquakes and the afterslip area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake parallel (profile-A) and perpendicular (profile-B) to the Kuril trench using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs). In profile-A, 19 OBSs were deployed at a spacing of about 10km and three 25 liter air-guns were fired every 90 seconds which corresponds to a shot interval of about 230m. In profile-B, 11 OBSs were deployed at a spacing of about 11km and two 25 liter airguns were fired every 60 seconds which corresponds to a shot interval of about 150m. In this presentation, we report on the crustal structure using the data obtained in the profile A and B and compare our results with past researches around this region. This study is founded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  8. Analysis and modeling of broadband airgun data influenced by nonlinear internal waves.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott D; Badiey, Mohsen; Lynch, James F; Siegmann, William L

    2004-12-01

    To investigate acoustic effects of nonlinear internal waves, the two southwest tracks of the SWARM 95 experiment are considered. An airgun source produced broadband acoustic signals while a packet of large nonlinear internal waves passed between the source and two vertical linear arrays. The broadband data and its frequency range (10-180 Hz) distinguish this study from previous work. Models are developed for the internal wave environment, the geoacoustic parameters, and the airgun source signature. Parabolic equation simulations demonstrate that observed variations in intensity and wavelet time-frequency plots can be attributed to nonlinear internal waves. Empirical tests are provided of the internal wave-acoustic resonance condition that is the apparent theoretical mechanism responsible for the variations. Peaks of the effective internal wave spectrum are shown to coincide with differences in dominant acoustic wavenumbers comprising the airgun signal. The robustness of these relationships is investigated by simulations for a variety of geoacoustic and nonlinear internal wave model parameters.

  9. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shots Help Allergy shots help the body build immunity to specific allergens, thus eventually preventing or lessening ... the immune system to safely adjust and build immunity to the allergens. This is called the buildup ...

  10. Birth Control Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  11. Birth Control Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  12. Hydroacoustic Signals Recorded by the International Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Orcutt, J.; Harben, P.

    2002-12-01

    Networks of hydrophones, such as the hydroacoustic part of the International Monitoring System (IMS), and hydrophone arrays, such as the U.S. Navy operates, record many types of signals, some of which travel thousands of kilometers in the oceanic sound channel. Abyssal earthquakes generate many such individual events and occasionally occur in swarms. Here we focus on signals generated by other types of sources, illustrating their character with recent data, mostly from the Indian Ocean. Shipping generates signals in the 5-40 Hz band. Large airgun arrays can generate T-waves that travel across an ocean basin if the near-source seafloor has appropriate depth/slope. Airgun array shots from our 2001 experiment were located with an accuracy of 25-40 km at 700-1000 km ranges, using data from a Diego Garcia tripartite sensor station. Shots at greater range (up to 4800 km) were recorded at multiple stations but their higher background noise levels in the 5-30 Hz band resulted in location errors of ~100 km. Imploding glass spheres shattered within the sound channel produce a very impulsive arrival, even after propagating 4400 km. Recordings of the sphere signal have energy concentrated in the band above 40 Hz. Natural sources such as undersea volcanic eruptions and marine mammals also produce signals that are clearly evident in hydrophone recordings. For whales, the frequency range is 20~120Hz and specific patterns of vocalization characterize different species. Volcanic eruptions typically produce intense swarms of acoustic activity that last days-weeks and the source area can migrate tens of kms during the period. The utility of these types of hydroacoustic sources for research and/or monitoring purposes depends on the accuracy with which recordings can be used to locate and quantitatively characterize the source. Oceanic weather, both local and regional, affect background noise levels in key frequency bands at the recording stations. Databases used in forward modeling of

  13. Transient Gene Expression in Maize, Rice, and Wheat Cells Using an Airgun Apparatus 1

    PubMed Central

    Oard, James H.; Paige, David F.; Simmonds, John A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    An airgun apparatus has been constructed for transient gene expression studies of monocots. This device utilizes compressed air from a commercial airgun to propel macroprojectile and DNA-coated tungsten particles. The β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to monitor transient expression in three distinct cell types of maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). The highest level of GUS activity in cultured maize cells was observed when distance between stopping plate and target cells was adjusted to 4.3 centimeters. Efficiency of transformation was estimated to be 4.4 × 10−3. In a partial vacuum of 700 millimeters Hg, velocity of macroprojectile was measured at 520 meters per second with a 6% reduction in velocity at atmospheric pressure. A polyethylene film placed in the breech before firing contributed to a 12% increase in muzzle velocity. A 700 millimeters Hg level of vacuum was necessary for maximum number of transfornants. GUS expression was also detected in wheat leaf base tissue of microdissected shoot apices. High levels of transient gene expression were also observed in hard, compact embryogenic callus of rice. These results show that the airgun apparatus is a convenient, safe, and low-cost device for rapid transient gene expression studies in cereals. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667278

  14. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication

  15. Empirical prediction of peak pressure levels in anthropogenic impulsive noise. Part I: Airgun arrays signals.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Romero, Marta; Lippert, Tristan; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an empirical linear equation to predict peak pressure level of anthropogenic impulsive signals based on its correlation with the sound exposure level. The regression coefficients are shown to be weakly dependent on the environmental characteristics but governed by the source type and parameters. The equation can be applied to values of the sound exposure level predicted with a numerical model, which provides a significant improvement in the prediction of the peak pressure level. Part I presents the analysis for airgun arrays signals, and Part II considers the application of the empirical equation to offshore impact piling noise.

  16. Kids Guide to Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray A Kid's Guide to Shots KidsHealth > For Kids > A Kid's ...

  17. Kids Guide to Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... t nearly as bad as those illnesses. Making Antibodies Shots protect you by giving you only a ... Your body responds to the vaccine by making antibodies. These antibodies are part of your immune system, ...

  18. Gulf of Mexico low-frequency ocean soundscape impacted by airguns.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Sean M; Hall, Jesse M; Thayre, Bruce J; Hildebrand, John A

    2016-07-01

    The ocean soundscape of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has not been well-studied, although it is an important habitat for marine mammals, including sperm and beaked whales, many dolphin species, and a potentially endangered baleen whale species. The GOM is also home to high levels of hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, heavily used commercial shipping ports, and significant fishery industry activity, all of which are known contributors to oceanic noise. From 2010-2013, the soundscape of three deep and two shallow water sites in the GOM were monitored over 10 - 1000 Hz. Average sound pressure spectrum levels were high, >90 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz at <40 Hz for the deep water sites and were associated with noise from seismic exploration airguns. More moderate sound pressure levels, <55 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz at >700 Hz, were present at a shallow water site in the northeastern Gulf, removed from the zone of industrial development and bathymetrically shielded from deep water anthropogenic sound sources. During passage of a high wind event (Hurricane Isaac, 2012), sound pressure levels above 200 Hz increased with wind speed, but at low frequencies (<100 Hz) sound pressure levels decreased owing to absence of noise from airguns.

  19. [Atypical maxillofacial shot wound].

    PubMed

    Malachovský, I; Straka, L; Novomeský, F; Statelová, D; Janícková, M; Stilla, J; Urbanová, E

    2011-01-01

    Maxillofacial shot wounds belong to the relatively less frequent injuries. The soft tissues might be affected in particular, however the most of injuries are combined with infliction of hard tissues. Shot wounds by the bow or crossbow are very rare. They might result as a consequence of either accident or suicide. In the literature some cases of a suicidal experiments had been published, all of these cases were due to arrow from the crossbow. There was no injury being documented due to arrow from the bow. The authors present a case of maxillofacial injury done by shoot of arrow from the bow in the course of a child's play.

  20. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  1. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... some kids any shot can seem scary. A parent's positive and supportive attitude can go a long way toward helping a child accept the treatment and achieve successful results. Treatment seems to go much better when parents are confident and committed to their child getting ...

  2. Multi-illumination Gabor holography recorded in a single camera snap-shot for high-resolution phase retrieval in digital in-line holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Martin; Picazo-Bueno, Jose A.; Garcia, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    In this contribution we introduce MISHELF microscopy, a new concept and design of a lensless holographic microscope based on wavelength multiplexing, single hologram acquisition and digital image processing. The technique which name comes from Multi-Illumination Single-Holographic-Exposure Lensless Fresnel microscopy, is based on the simultaneous illumination and recording of three diffraction patterns in the Fresnel domain. In combination with a novel and fast iterative phase retrieval algorithm, MISHELF microscopy is capable of high-resolution (micron range) phase-retrieved (twin image elimination) biological imaging of dynamic events (video rate recording speed) since it avoids the time multiplexing needed for the in-line hologram sequence recording when using conventional phase-shifting or phase retrieval algorithms. MISHELF microscopy is validated using two different experimental layouts: one using RGB illumination and detection schemes and another using IRRB as illumination while keeping the RGB color camera as detection device. Preliminary experimental results are provided for both experimental layouts using a synthetic object (USAF resolution test target).

  3. ZAPP shot summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loisel, Guillaume Pascal

    2015-10-01

    This was the second Z Astrophysical Plasma Properties (ZAPP) fundamental science shot series of 2015. ZAPP experiments measure fundamental properties of atoms in plasmas to solve the following important astrophysical puzzles: Why can’t we accurately model the opacity of Fe at the convection zone boundary in the Sun? How accurate are the photoionization models used to interpret data from xray satellite observations? and Why doesn’t spectral fitting provide the correct properties for White Dwarfs?

  4. Lead shot toxicity to passerines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of a single size 7.5 lead shot to passerines. No mortalities or signs of plumbism were observed in dosed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) fed a commercial diet, but when given a more natural diet, three of 10 dosed birds died within 1 day. For all survivors from which shot were recovered, all but one excreted the shot within 24 h of dosing, whereas, the dead birds retained their shot. Shot erosion was significantly greater (P < 0.05) when weathered shot were ingested compared to new shot, and the greatest erosion was observed in those birds that died (2.2-9.7%). Blood lead concentrations of birds dosed with new shot were not significantly different (P=0.14) from those of birds exposed to weathered shot. Liver lead concentrations of birds that died ranged from 71 to 137 ppm, dry weight. Despite the short amount of time the shot was retained, songbirds may absorb sufficient lead to compromise their survival.

  5. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jackson A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John; Young, John V.; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  6. The Physics of Shot Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: "How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height…

  7. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  8. Shot Planning and Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, A; Beeler, R; Conder, A; Fallejo, R; Flegel, M; Hutton, M; Jancaitis, K; Lakamsani, V; Potter, D; Reisdorf, S; Tappero, J; Whitman, P; Carr, W; Liao, Z

    2011-07-25

    Shot planning and analysis tools (SPLAT) integrate components necessary to help achieve a high over-all operational efficiency of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by combining near and long-term shot planning, final optics demand and supply loops, target diagnostics planning, and target fabrication requirements. Currently, the SPLAT project is comprised of two primary tool suites for shot planning and optics demand. The shot planning component provides a web-based interface to selecting and building a sequence of proposed shots for the NIF. These shot sequences, or 'lanes' as they are referred to by shot planners, provide for planning both near-term shots in the Facility and long-term 'campaigns' in the months and years to come. The shot planning capabilities integrate with the Configuration Management Tool (CMT) for experiment details and the NIF calendar for availability. Future enhancements will additionally integrate with target diagnostics planning and target fabrication requirements tools. The optics demand component is built upon predictive modelling of maintenance requirements on the final optics as a result of the proposed shots assembled during shot planning. The predictive models integrate energetics from a Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM), the status of the deployed optics as provided by the online Final Optics Inspection system, and physics-based mathematical 'rules' that predict optic flaw growth and new flaw initiations. These models are then run on an analytical cluster comprised of forty-eight Linux-based compute nodes. Results from the predictive models are used to produce decision-support reports in the areas of optics inspection planning, optics maintenance exchanges, and optics beam blocker placement advisories. Over time, the SPLAT project will evolve to provide a variety of decision-support and operation optimization tools.

  9. Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Goh, S J; Tao, Y; van der Slot, P J M; Bastiaens, H J M; Herek, J; Biedron, S G; Danailov, M B; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J

    2015-09-21

    For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic output energy, fluctuations of the direction of the emission (pointing instabilities), and fluctuations of the beam divergence and shape that reduce the spatial coherence. We present the first single-shot measurements of waveguided high-harmonic generation in a waveguided (capillary-based) geometry. Using a capillary waveguide filled with Argon gas as the nonlinear medium, we provide the first characterization of shot-to-shot fluctuations of the pulse energy, of the divergence and of the beam pointing. We record the strength of these fluctuations vs. two basic input parameters, which are the drive laser pulse energy and the gas pressure in the capillary waveguide. In correlation measurements between single-shot drive laser beam profiles and single-shot high-harmonic beam profiles we prove the absence of drive laser beam-pointing-induced fluctuations in the high-harmonic output. We attribute the main source of high-harmonic fluctuations to ionization-induced nonlinear mode mixing during propagation of the drive laser pulse inside the capillary waveguide.

  10. Moon shots for management.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    In May 2008, a group of management scholars and senior executives worked to define an agenda for management during the next 100 years. The so-called renegade brigade, led by Gary Hamel, included academics, such as C.K. Prahalad, Peter Senge, and Jeffrey Pfeffer; new-age thinkers, like James Surowiecki; and progressive CEOs, such as Whole Foods' John Mackey, W.L. Gore's Terri Kelly, and IDEO's Tim Brown. What drew them together was a set of shared beliefs about the importance of management and a sense of urgency about reinventing it for a new era. The group's first task was to compile a roster of challenges that would focus the energies of management innovators around the world. Accordingly, in this article, Hamel (who has set up the Management Lab, a research organization devoted to management innovation) outlines 25 "moon shots"--ambitious goals that managers should strive to achieve and in the process create Management 2.0. Topping the list is the imperative of extending management's responsibilities beyond just creating shareholder value. To do so will require both reconstructing the field's philosophical foundations so that work serves a higher purpose and fully embedding the ideas of community and citizenship into organizations. A number of challenges focus on ameliorating the toxic effects of hierarchy. Others focus on better ways to unleash creativity and capitalize on employees' passions. Still others seek to transcend the limitations of traditional patterns of management thinking. Not all the moon shots are new, but many tackle issues that are endemic in large organizations. Their purpose is to inspire new solutions to long-simmering problems by making every company as genuinely human as the people who work there.

  11. SunShot Identity Video

    ScienceCinema

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2016-07-12

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  12. Flu Shots Are Worth It

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162776.html Flu Shots Are Worth It Vaccine most important for young kids, seniors, people ... may not keep you from getting the flu, it will limit the severity and duration of the ...

  13. SunShot Identity Video

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2014-05-19

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  14. Techniques to Assess and Mitigate the Environmental Risk Posed by use of Airguns: Recent Advances from Academic Research Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. J.; Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; King, R.

    2006-05-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the ways in which marine mammals might react to noise, the biological significance of reactions, and the effectiveness of planning and real-time mitigation techniques. A planning tool commonly used to assess environmental risk of acoustic activities uses simulations to predict acoustic exposures received by animals, and translates exposure to response using a dose-response function to yield an estimate of the undesired impact on a population. Recent advances show promise to convert this planning tool into a real-time mitigation tool, using Bayesian statistical methods. In this approach, being developed for use by the British Navy, the environmental risk simulation is updated continuously during field operations. The distribution of exposure, set initially based on animal density, is updated in real-time using animal sensing data or environmental data known to correlate with the absence or presence of marine mammals. This conditional probability of animal presence should therefore be more accurate than prior probabilities used during planning, which enables a more accurate and quantitative assessment of both the impact of activities and reduction of impact via mitigation decisions. Two key areas of uncertainty in addition to animal presence/absence are 1.) how biologically-relevant behaviours are affected by exposure to noise, and 2.) whether animals avoid loud noise sources, which is the basis of ramp-up as a mitigation tool. With support from MMS and industry partners, we assessed foraging behaviour and avoidance movements of 8 tagged sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico during experimental exposure to airguns. The whale that was approached most closely prolonged a surface resting bout hours longer than typical, but resumed foraging immediately after the airguns ceased, suggesting avoidance of deep diving necessary for foraging near active airguns. Behavioral indices of foraging rate (echolocation buzzes produced during prey

  15. OBS records of Whale vocalizations from Lucky-strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A.; Rai, A.; Singh, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.; Escartin, J.; Cannat, M.

    2009-12-01

    Passive seismic experiments to study seismicity require a long term deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). These instruments also record a large amount of non-seismogenic signals such as movement of large ships, air-gun shots, and marine mammal vocalizations. We report a bi-product of our passive seismic experiment (BBMOMAR) conducted around the Lucky-strike hydrothermal field of the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic ridge. Five multi-component ocean-bottom seismometers (recording two horizontal, one vertical and one pressure channel) were deployed during 2007-2008. During 13 months of deployment, abundant vocalizations of marine mammals have been recorded by all the five equipments. By analyzing the frequency content of data and their pattern of occurrence, we conclude that these low-frequency vocalizations (~20-40 Hz) typically corresponds to blue and fin-whales. These signals if not identified, could be mis-interpreted as underwater seismic/hydrothermal activity. Our data show an increase in the number of vocalizations recorded during the winter season relative to the summer. As part of the seismic monitoring of the Lucky-strike site, we anticipate to extend this study to the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 periods, after the recovery and deployment of the array during the BATHYLUCK09 cruise. Long-term and continuous records of calls of marine mammals provide valuable information that could be used to identify the species, study their seasonal behaviour and their migration paths. Our study suggestes that passive experiments such as ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at key locations, could provide useful secondary infromation about oceanic species besides recording seismicity, which is otherwise not possible without harming or interfering with their activity.

  16. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Cancer Should People With Cancer Get a Flu Shot? Getting a flu shot is recommended for ... need for the flu season. What types of flu vaccines are recommended for people with cancer? People ...

  17. Allergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor will decide when you can start maintenance treatment. Maintenance shots are usually given just once each month, year round. You'll probably need to get maintenance shots for 3 to 5 years. Then you ...

  18. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p < 0.05), while 1RM squat increased 6.5% (p < 0.025). EMG activity during the delivery phase was increased significantly (p < 0.025) after the training period. Shot put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p < 0.05 and 0.70, p < 0.05), but not with maximum vertical force. One RM squat was not related significantly with shot put performance. These results suggest that muscular power of the lower extremities is a better predictor of rotational shot put performance than absolute muscular strength in skilled athletes, at least during the competition period.

  19. Coherence and shot-to-shot spectral fluctuations in noise-like ultrafast fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Runge, Antoine F J; Aguergaray, Claude; Broderick, Neil G R; Erkintalo, Miro

    2013-11-01

    We report on experimental studies of coherence and fluctuations in noise-like pulse trains generated by ultrafast fiber oscillators. By measuring the degree of first-order coherence using a Young's-type interference experiment, we prove the lack of phase coherence across the seemingly regular array of pulses. We further quantify the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations by recording the single-shot spectra of the megahertz pulse train, and experimentally demonstrate the existence of spectral fluctuations that remain unresolved in conventional time-averaged ensemble measurements. Phase incoherence and spectral fluctuations are contrasted with quantified coherence and spectral stability when the laser is soliton mode-locked.

  20. Shot Automation for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lagin, L J; Bettenhausen, R C; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R; Casavant, D D; Cline, B D; Demaret, R D; Domyancic, D M; Elko, S D; Fisher, J M; Hermann, M R; Krammen, J E; Kohut, T R; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Ludwigsen, A P; Patterson, Jr., R W; Sanchez, R J; Stout, E A; Van Arsdall, P J; Van Wonterghem, B M

    2005-09-21

    A shot automation framework has been developed and deployed during the past year to automate shots performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the Integrated Computer Control System This framework automates a 4-8 hour shot sequence, that includes inputting shot goals from a physics model, set up of the laser and diagnostics, automatic alignment of laser beams and verification of status. This sequence consists of set of preparatory verification shots, leading to amplified system shots using a 4-minute countdown, triggering during the last 2 seconds using a high-precision timing system, followed by post-shot analysis and archiving. The framework provides for a flexible, model-based execution driven of scriptable automation called macro steps. The framework is driven by high-level shot director software that provides a restricted set of shot life cycle state transitions to 25 collaboration supervisors that automate 8-laser beams (bundles) and a common set of shared resources. Each collaboration supervisor commands approximately 10 subsystem shot supervisors that perform automated control and status verification. Collaboration supervisors translate shot life cycle state commands from the shot director into sequences of ''macro steps'' to be distributed to each of its shot supervisors. Each Shot supervisor maintains order of macro steps for each subsystem and supports collaboration between macro steps. They also manage failure, restarts and rejoining into the shot cycle (if necessary) and manage auto/manual macro step execution and collaborations between other collaboration supervisors. Shot supervisors execute macro step shot functions commanded by collaboration supervisors. Each macro step has database-driven verification phases and a scripted perform phase. This provides for a highly flexible methodology for performing a variety of NIF shot types. Database tables define the order of work and dependencies (workflow) of macro steps to be performed for a

  1. Photon-pair shot noise in electron shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, Jean Olivier; Virally, Stéphane; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2017-02-01

    We report the measurement of the statistics of photons in the nonclassical radiation emitted by a tunnel junction. This is obtained by measuring up to the fourth cumulant of the voltage fluctuations generated by the sample. When the electron shot noise generates a squeezed electromagnetic field, the measurement provides a strong signature of the presence of photon pairs, characterized by a Fano factor of the photon flux above unity.

  2. SnapShot: Interferon Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kwan T; Gale, Michael

    2015-12-17

    Interferons (IFNs) are crucial cytokines of antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The three types of IFN (I, II, and III) are classified by their receptor specificity and sequence homology. IFNs are produced and secreted by cells in response to specific stimuli. Here, we review the subsequent IFN signaling events occurring through unique receptors leading to regulation of gene expression for modulation of innate and adaptive immunity. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

  3. Incidence of lead shot in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, 2,544 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from North Dakota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Maryland were flouroscoped to determine the incidence of body shot. A significant increase from west to east was detected in the incidence of shot for immatures from the four states. The incidence of shot in immatures after the 1975-76 hunting season was 18 percent in Maryland and 20 percent in Illinois. In Wisconsin no difference in the incidence of shot could be detected between areas trapped or time periods when trapping was conducted. In Maryland a significant decrease in the incidence of body shot was detected in adults, but not immatures, between 1975 and 1976. shot was located throughout the body of canvasbacks. Frequency varied from one to nine shot per bird and averaged 2.0 for adults and 1.5 for immatures.

  4. Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li-Guo; Meng, Kun; Li, Jiang; Liu, Qiao; Peng, Qi-Xian; Li, Ze-Ren; Zhao, Jian-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy is suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of ultrafast events. However, the study of irreversible or single shot ultrafast events requires ability to record transient properties at multiple time delays, i.e., time resolved at single shot level, which is not available currently. Here by angular multiplexing use of femtosecond laser pulses, we developed and demonstrated a time resolved, transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique, where burst mode THz pulses were generated and then detected in a single shot measurement manner. The burst mode THz pulses contain 2 sub-THz pulses, and the time gap between them is adjustable up to 1 ns with picosecond accuracy, thus it can be used to probe the single shot event at two different time delays. The system can detect the sub-THz pulses at 0.1 THz-2.5 THz range with signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ˜400 and spectrum resolution of 0.05 THz. System design was described here, and optimizations of single shot measurement of THz pulses were discussed in detail. Methods to improve SNR were also discussed in detail. A system application was demonstrated where pulsed THz signals at different time delays of the ultrafast process were successfully acquired within single shot measurement. This time resolved transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique provides a new diagnostic tool for irreversible or single shot ultrafast events where dynamic information can be extracted at terahertz range within one-shot experiment.

  5. The Effects of Modifying the Distance of the Penalty Shot in Water Polo

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Barquín, Roberto; José Borges, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of changing the distance of the penalty shot in water polo from 4 to 5 m. While a shorter distance made the penalty shot more effective, it also reduced the use of this sanction. A total of 192 matches played in the 2003 and 2007 Water Polo World Championships were recorded. The sample included 278 penalty shots in both tournaments. Notational analysis using a longitudinal correlational and descriptive design was employed to determine whether a longer distance increased the number of sanctioned penalties (81 vs 197) and caused a non-significant decrease in scoring efficiency (7.4%) with significant differences in the relationship between the area and the type of a shot, with less centre and power shots (14.8% vs 7.1%) observed and predominance of bounce shots to the right of the goal posts. The rule change prompted more penalties, produced changes in shot direction as well as the type of a shot, and yielded a decrement of 7.4% in scoring efficiency. PMID:28031764

  6. The Effects of Modifying the Distance of the Penalty Shot in Water Polo.

    PubMed

    Argudo, Francisco Manuel; Ruiz-Barquín, Roberto; José Borges, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of changing the distance of the penalty shot in water polo from 4 to 5 m. While a shorter distance made the penalty shot more effective, it also reduced the use of this sanction. A total of 192 matches played in the 2003 and 2007 Water Polo World Championships were recorded. The sample included 278 penalty shots in both tournaments. Notational analysis using a longitudinal correlational and descriptive design was employed to determine whether a longer distance increased the number of sanctioned penalties (81 vs 197) and caused a non-significant decrease in scoring efficiency (7.4%) with significant differences in the relationship between the area and the type of a shot, with less centre and power shots (14.8% vs 7.1%) observed and predominance of bounce shots to the right of the goal posts. The rule change prompted more penalties, produced changes in shot direction as well as the type of a shot, and yielded a decrement of 7.4% in scoring efficiency.

  7. Semantic Shot Classification in Sports Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ling-Yu; Xu, Min; Tian, Qi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified framework for semantic shot classification in sports videos. Unlike previous approaches, which focus on clustering by aggregating shots with similar low-level features, the proposed scheme makes use of domain knowledge of a specific sport to perform a top-down video shot classification, including identification of video shot classes for each sport, and supervised learning and classification of the given sports video with low-level and middle-level features extracted from the sports video. It is observed that for each sport we can predefine a small number of semantic shot classes, about 5~10, which covers 90~95% of sports broadcasting video. With the supervised learning method, we can map the low-level features to middle-level semantic video shot attributes such as dominant object motion (a player), camera motion patterns, and court shape, etc. On the basis of the appropriate fusion of those middle-level shot classes, we classify video shots into the predefined video shot classes, each of which has a clear semantic meaning. The proposed method has been tested over 4 types of sports videos: tennis, basketball, volleyball and soccer. Good classification accuracy of 85~95% has been achieved. With correctly classified sports video shots, further structural and temporal analysis, such as event detection, video skimming, table of content, etc, will be greatly facilitated.

  8. Microwatt shot-noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H. Z.; Wang, L. J.; Thomas, J. E.

    1995-08-01

    We report a simple scheme for sensitive measurements of optical-noise spectra. Optical noise is separated from electronic noise when the output of an analog spectrum analyzer is real-time squared and then lock-in detected. This method directly yields the desired mean-square noise voltage, i.e., the power spectrum of the optical noise on a linear scale. To demonstrate this technique, the mean-square shot noise of a laser beam is measured and found to vary linearly with the laser power from several milliwatts down to one microwatt, in excellent quantitative agreement with predictions.

  9. Shot Noise in Linear Macroscopic Resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomila, G.; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Sampietro, M.; Ferrari, G.; Bertuccio, G.

    2004-06-01

    We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devices.

  10. Shot noise in radiobiological systems.

    PubMed

    Datesman, A

    2016-11-01

    As a model for human tissue, this report considers the rate of free radical generation in a dilute solution of water in which a beta-emitting radionuclide is uniformly dispersed. Each decay dissipates a discrete quantity of energy, creating a large number of free radicals in a short time within a small volume determined by the beta particle range. Representing the instantaneous dissipated power as a train of randomly-spaced pulses, the time-averaged dissipated power p¯ and rate of free radical generation g¯ are derived. The analogous result in the theory of electrical circuits is known as the shot noise theorem. The reference dose of X-rays Dref producing an identical rate of free radical generation and level of oxidative stress is shown a) to increase with the square root of the absorbed dose, D, and b) to be far larger than D. This finding may have important consequences for public health in cases where the level of shot noise exceeds some noise floor corresponding to equilibrium biological processes. An estimate of this noise floor is made using the example of potassium-40, a beta-emitting radioisotope universally present in living tissue.

  11. MODE IDENTIFICATION OF AN ARCH DAM BY A DYNAMIC AIR-GUN TEST.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Fedock, Joseph J.; Fletcher, Jon B.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen natural frequencies of a concrete arch dam (Monticello Dam near Sacramento, California) have been identified by using a dynamic testing method which employs an air gun firing in the reservoir as the excitation source. These vibrations modes are determined from the peak responses in the Fourier amplitude spectra of the free-vibration data recorded at three crest locations using three-component geophones. Comparisons of the first five natural frequencies with results obtained by forced vibration tests using rotating mass shakers show good agreement. The next eight higher-frequency modes, not previously identified, are determined from data of the present tests.

  12. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  13. Modeling max-of-N fluence distribution using measured shot-to-shot beam contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Zhi M.; Huebel, John; Trenholme, John; Manes, Ken; Carr, C. Wren

    2011-07-10

    We have found the local temporal shot-to-shot variation of the NIF high-energy laser system to be relatively constant ({approx}3.4% to 4.2% of the mean fluence). We have developed a statistical model that predicts the maximum fluence distribution any particular location will be exposed to after N independent shots (the so-called max-of-N fluence distribution) using the measured shot-to-shot variance; this method allows for an estimate of maximum optics fluence exposure.

  14. Analysis of the November 1999 Dead Sea Calibration Shots

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A J; Myers, S; Mayeda, K; Walter, W

    2000-07-21

    In November 1999 three chemical explosions were conducted in the Dead Sea for the purposes of calibrating the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These shots were organized and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII). Large chemical explosions are the most valuable form of ground truth as the location, depth and origin time are very well known. We focus on the two largest shots (M{sub w} {ge} 3.6) and performed several types of analysis of the regional recordings and travel times of these shots. These data provide valuable new information about the region and offer an opportunity to test monitoring strategies. A crustal and uppermost mantle velocity model was inferred from the travel times of the regional phases: Pn, Pg and Sg. This effort utilized a grid search method to find suitable models of the structure. Results indicate that the crust is relatively thin (32 km) with lower than average crustal velocities (mean V{sub P} = 6.1-6.2 km/s). We located each shot treating the other shot as a calibration explosion. Locations were computed using both station static corrections and kriged correction surfaces. Results show that the locations with static corrections can be better or worse than the locations without corrections. However, the locations with kriged correction surfaces are consistently better than those without corrections or with static corrections because kriging properly accounts for residual statistics. Measures of the S-wave coda for regional events provide a stable estimate of event size (moment magnitude, M{sub w}) and the event source spectrum. S-wave coda envelope amplitudes were calibrated to moments estimated from long-period waveform modeling. We measured moment and body-wave magnitudes and source spectra for many events in the region. The Dead Sea shots show spectral peaking associated with shallow events. Finally, analysis of regional broadband recordings from the Saudi

  15. A review on the basketball jump shot.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Victor H A; Rodacki, André L F; Satern, Miriam N

    2015-06-01

    The ability to shoot an effective jump shot in the sport of basketball is critical to a player's success. In an attempt to better understand the aspects related to expert performance, researchers have investigated successful free throws and jump shots of various basketball players and identified movement variables that contribute to their success. The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the scientific literature on the basketball free throw and jump shot for the purpose of revealing the critical components of shooting that coaches, teachers, and players should focus on when teaching, learning, practising, and performing a jump shot. The results of this review are presented in three sections: (a) variables that affect ball trajectory, (b) phases of the jump shot, and

  16. Basketball Shot Types and Shot Success in Different Levels of Competitive Basketball

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions. PMID:26038836

  17. Basketball shot types and shot success in different levels of competitive basketball.

    PubMed

    Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.

  18. Wide-angle seismic recording from the 2002 Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative, northwestern Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Spence, George D.; Riedel, Michael; Hyndman, Roy D.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the acquisition and processing of shallow-crustal wide-angle seismicreflection and refraction data obtained during a collaborative study in the Georgia Strait, western Washington and southwestern British Columbia. The study, the 2002 Georgia Strait Geohazards Initiative, was conducted in May 2002 by the Pacific Geoscience Centre, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Victoria. The wide-angle recordings were designed to image shallow crustal faults and Cenozoic sedimentary basins crossing the International Border in southern Georgia basin and to add to existing wide-angle recordings there made during the 1998 SHIPS experiment. We recorded, at wide-angle, 800 km of shallow penetration multichannel seismic-reflection profiles acquired by the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Tully using an air gun with a volume of 1.967 liters (120 cu. in.). Prior to this reflection survey, we deployed 48 Refteks onshore to record the airgun signals at wide offsets. Three components of an oriented, 4.5 Hz seismometer were digitally recorded at all stations. Nearly 160,300 individual air gun shots were recorded along 180 short seismic reflection lines. In this report, we illustrate the wide-angle profiles acquired using the CCGS Tully, describe the land recording of the air gun signals, and summarize the processing of the land recorder data into common-receiver gathers. We also describe the format and content of the archival tapes containing the SEGY-formated, common-receiver gathers for the Reftek data. Data quality is variable but the experiment provided useful data from 42 of the 48 stations deployed. Three-fourths of all stations yielded useful first-arrivals to source-receiver offsets beyond 10 km: the average maximum source-receiver offset for first arrivals was 17 km. Six stations yielded no useful data and useful firstarrivals were limited to offsets less than 10 km at five stations. We separately archived our recordings of 86 local and regional

  19. [Hunting shot - evolution of manufacturing technology].

    PubMed

    Bochyński, Piotr; Kuliczkowski, Maciej; Karpiewska, Anna; Turkiewicz, Mariola; Dobosz, Tadeusz

    Hunting shot are 1.2-10 mm diameter balls, usually made of lead alloys, forming a cluster projectile used in smoothbore hunting shotguns. Shot may also be used in pistol and revolver ammunition, in which it can constitute structural element of the projectile. Shot pellets may also be made of other materials and have other shapes. The aim of this paper is to aggregate information on the topic available from a number of different sources. It is hoped that such information will be useful for forensic ballistics experts. Historical development of pellets and their manufacturing technology from the 15th century is presented.

  20. Transfer of mechanical energy during the shot put.

    PubMed

    Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Łysoń, Barbara; Chmielewski, Adam; Wit, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter. Statistically significant transfer was found in the study group between the following segments: Right Knee - Right Hip (p = 0.0035), Left Hip - Torso (p = 0.0201), Torso - Right Shoulder (p = 0.0122) and Right Elbow - Right Wrist (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis showed that the kinetic chain used during the final shot acceleration movement had two different models. Differences between the groups were revealed mainly in the energy generated by the hips and trunk.

  1. Transfer of mechanical energy during the shot put

    PubMed Central

    Łysoń, Barbara; Chmielewski, Adam; Wit, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter. Statistically significant transfer was found in the study group between the following segments: Right Knee – Right Hip (p = 0.0035), Left Hip - Torso (p = 0.0201), Torso – Right Shoulder (p = 0.0122) and Right Elbow – Right Wrist (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis showed that the kinetic chain used during the final shot acceleration movement had two different models. Differences between the groups were revealed mainly in the energy generated by the hips and trunk. PMID:28149401

  2. Shots ESS through MET and SHOT ZUCCHINI. The Final TEAPOT Tests, 23 March-15 May 1955

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-27

    7- =- AD Aj1 4 0 8- DNA 6013F SHOTS ESS THROUGH MET AND SHOT ZUCCHINI The Final TEAPOT Tests 23 March 1955-15 May 1955 United States...PERIOD COVERED Technical Rep)ort SHOTS ESS THROUGH MET AND SHOT ZUCCHINI The Final TEAPOT Tests 6. PERFORM NG ORG. REPORT NUMBER 23 March-15 May... ZUCCHINI WASP PRTME Exercise Desert Rock VI 20. ABSTRACT (Couffome r er" slab H n ceray and Identlfy by block number) This report describes the activities

  3. Indirect monitoring shot-to-shot shock waves strength reproducibility during pump-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Ozaki, N.; Hartley, N. J.; Albertazzi, B.; Matsuoka, T.; Takahashi, K.; Habara, H.; Tange, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Ochante, R.; Sueda, K.; Sakata, O.; Sekine, T.; Sato, T.; Umeda, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabuuchi, T.; Togashi, T.; Katayama, T.; Yabashi, M.; Harmand, M.; Morard, G.; Koenig, M.; Zhakhovsky, V.; Inogamov, N.; Safronova, A. S.; Stafford, A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Pikuz, S. A.; Okuchi, T.; Seto, Y.; Tanaka, K. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present an indirect method of estimating the strength of a shock wave, allowing on line monitoring of its reproducibility in each laser shot. This method is based on a shot-to-shot measurement of the X-ray emission from the ablated plasma by a high resolution, spatially resolved focusing spectrometer. An optical pump laser with energy of 1.0 J and pulse duration of ˜660 ps was used to irradiate solid targets or foils with various thicknesses containing Oxygen, Aluminum, Iron, and Tantalum. The high sensitivity and resolving power of the X-ray spectrometer allowed spectra to be obtained on each laser shot and to control fluctuations of the spectral intensity emitted by different plasmas with an accuracy of ˜2%, implying an accuracy in the derived electron plasma temperature of 5%-10% in pump-probe high energy density science experiments. At nano- and sub-nanosecond duration of laser pulse with relatively low laser intensities and ratio Z/A ˜ 0.5, the electron temperature follows Te ˜ Ilas2/3. Thus, measurements of the electron plasma temperature allow indirect estimation of the laser flux on the target and control its shot-to-shot fluctuation. Knowing the laser flux intensity and its fluctuation gives us the possibility of monitoring shot-to-shot reproducibility of shock wave strength generation with high accuracy.

  4. Measurement of the lidar signal fluctuation with a shot-per-shot instrument.

    PubMed

    Durieux, E; Fiorani, L

    1998-10-20

    A measurement of the signal noise was carried out with a shot-per-shot lidar. This system was operated in the UV spectral region for ozone profiling in the low troposphere. We report on important discrepancies between our results and the estimations based on the assumptions commonly supporting the numerical modeling of lidar experiments.

  5. Increasing shot and data collection rates of the Shock/Shear experiment at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Flippo, K. A.; Capelli, D.; Cardenas, T.; DeVolder, B.; Kline, J.; Kot, L.; Kurien, S.; Loomis, E.; Merritt, E. C.; Perry, T.; Schmidt, D.; Di Stefano, C.

    2016-05-01

    Updates to the Los Alamos laser-driven high-energy-density Shock/Shear mixing- layer experiment are reported, which have collectively increased the platform's shot and data acquisition rates. The strategies employed have included a move from two-strip to four-strip imagers (allowing four times to be recorded per shot instead of two), the implementation of physics-informed rules of engagements allowing for the maximum flexibility in a shot's total energy and symmetry performance, and splitting the laser's main drive pulse from a monolithic single pulse equal to all beams into a triply-segmented pulse which minimizes optics damage.

  6. Estimating shot distance from limited pellets pattern.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio; Compagnini, Domenico

    2012-10-10

    Several methods are available for shooting range estimation based on pellets pattern on the target that have a remarkable degree of accuracy. The task is usually approached working under the assumption that the entire distribution of pellets is available for examination. These methods fail, however, when the victim has been hit by a portion of the pattern only. The problem can be solved with reasonable accuracy when there are areas of void in the victim that are adjacent to the area struck by pellets. This study presents a method that can be used in precisely this type of situation, allowing the estimation of shot distance in cases of partial pellet patterns. It is based on collecting distributions in test shots at several distances, and taking samples in the targets, constrained by the shape of the void and the pellet hit areas. Statistical descriptors of patterns are extracted from such samples, and fed into a neural network classifier, estimating shot ranges of distance.

  7. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  8. Single-shot polarization-imaging digital holography based on simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Shimozato, Yuki; Kakue, Takashi; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2011-08-15

    We propose single-shot digital holography which is capable of simultaneously capturing both the information of multiple phase-shifted holograms and the distribution of the polarization. In this technique, a single image sensor records both the information required for phase-shifting interferometry and that of the polarization states of objects using an array of polarizers. The essence of the technique is the capability of imaging the distribution of the polarization of three-dimensional objects with a single-shot exposure by using the space-division multiplexing of holograms. The validity of the proposed technique was confirmed by the preliminary experiments.

  9. Single shot ptychographical iterative engine based on multi-beam illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xingchen; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2013-10-01

    An optical alignment and a corresponding reconstruction algorithm are proposed to realize a single shot Ptychographical Iterative Engine (PIE). Multiple light beams generated by a cross grating are used to illuminate the specimen, and the resulting diffraction patterns formed on the detector plane by each beam are recorded simultaneously. The modulus and phase images are properly reconstructed with standard PIE algorithm. The proposed single shot method omits the needs for a mechanical x-y scanning of standard PIE algorithm and hence dramatically reduces the data acquisition time.

  10. SnapShot: chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Maria; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J; Calin, George A

    2014-11-10

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia among adults in western countries. This SnapShot depicts the origins and evolution of this B cell malignancy, describes prognostic factors and CLL animal models, and illustrates therapies in preclinical and clinical development against CLL.

  11. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... have not been shown to cause harm to pregnant women or their developing babies. If you have your baby before getting your flu shot, you still need to get vaccinated. The flu is spread from person to person. You, or others who care for ...

  12. Ultrasonics and Optics Would Control Shot Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    Feedback system assures production of silicon shot of uniform size. Breakup of silicon stream into drops is controlled, in part, by varying frequency of vibrations imparted to stream by ultrasonic transducer. Drop size monitored by photodetector. Control method particularly advantageous in that constant size is maintained even while other process variables are changed deliberately or inadvertently. Applicable to materials other than silicon.

  13. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  14. Black Americans More Likely to Skip Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164106.html Black Americans More Likely to Skip Flu Shot They're concerned about vaccine safety, study ... of American adults don't get an annual flu shot, and black Americans are even less likely ...

  15. 35. INTERIOR VIEW, WHEELBRATORFRYE SHOT PEENER FOR REMOVAL OF RUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR VIEW, WHEELBRATOR-FRYE SHOT PEENER FOR REMOVAL OF RUST AND SCALE; NOTE TOOLS ARE TUMBLED WITH BLASTED WITH LEAD SHOT TO CLEAN SURFACES - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  16. Shot-to-shot reproducibility of a self-magnetically insulated ion diode

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Yu. I.; Khailov, I. P.

    2012-07-15

    In this paper we present the analysis of shot to shot reproducibility of the ion beam which is formed by a self-magnetically insulated ion diode with an explosive emission graphite cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: the first pulse is of negative polarity (300-500 ns, 100-150 kV), and this is followed by a second pulse of positive polarity (150 ns, 250-300 kV). The ion current density was 10-70 A/cm{sup 2} depending on the diode geometry. The beam was composed from carbon ions (80%-85%) and protons. It was found that shot to shot variation in the ion current density was about 35%-40%, whilst the diode voltage and current were comparatively stable with the variation limited to no more than 10%. It was shown that focusing of the ion beam can improve the stability of the ion current generation and reduces the variation to 18%-20%. In order to find out the reason for the shot-to-shot variation in ion current density we examined the statistical correlation between the current density of the accelerated beam and other measured characteristics of the diode, such as the accelerating voltage, total current, and first pulse duration. The correlation between the ion current density measured simultaneously at different positions within the cross-section of the beam was also investigated. It was shown that the shot-to-shot variation in ion current density is mainly attributed to the variation in the density of electrons diffusing from the drift region into the A-K gap.

  17. Shot to shot variation in perveance of the explosive emission electron beam diode

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Menon, R.; Singh, S. K.; Kulkarni, M. R.; Saroj, P. C.; Nagesh, K. V.; Mittal, K. C.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-03-15

    The shot to shot variation in perveance of a planar diode with explosive emission graphite cathode in a range of accelerating gaps 3-12 mm is investigated experimentally. The typical electron beam parameters were 200 kV, 12 kA, 100 ns, with a few hundreds of A/cm{sup 2} current density. The diode perveance remains less than the Child-Langmuir value, indicating that only a fraction of the cathode take part in the emission process. A simple statistical analysis of the diode perveance shows that the shot to shot variation is more pronounced for the later part of the accelerating pulse. The cathode plasma expansion velocity and the effective initial emission area have been calculated from the perveance data. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity varies from 3 to 6.5 cm/{mu}s. The mean expansion velocity and the standard deviation increase with the increase in the accelerating gap. The initial emission areas also varies randomly on a shot to shot basis and at the beginning of the accelerating pulse only 4%-35% of the cathode area take part in the emission process. The mean initial emission area and the standard deviation also increase with the increase in the accelerating gap. Experimental result indicates that the larger gaps and lower electric fields suggest a path to more uniform emission.

  18. A biomechanical comparison of the topspin and backspin forehand approach shots in tennis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, B; Marsh, T

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) high-speed cinematographic techniques were used to record topspin and backspin forehand approach shots hit down-the-line by high-performance players. The direct linear transformation (DLT) technique was used in the 3-D space reconstruction from 2-D images recorded via laterally placed phase-locked cameras operating at 200 Hz. A Mann-Whitney U-test was calculated for the different aspects of the topspin and backspin shots to test for significance (P less than 0.05). A significant difference was recorded between topspin and backspin shots in the angle of the racket at the completion of the backswing. The racket was taken 0.48 rad past a line drawn perpendicular to the back fence for topspin trials, but only rotated 0.86 rad from a line parallel to the net in the backspin shot. Maximum racket velocities occurred prior to impact and were significantly higher in topspin (26.5 m s-1) compared to backspin (16.6 m s-1) trials. This resulted in the topspin trials recording a significantly higher ball velocity compared to backspin trials (27.6 m s-1 vs 21.7 m s-1). Pre-impact racket trajectories revealed that in topspin shots the racket moved on an upward path of 0.48 rad while in backspin shots it moved down at an angle of 0.34 rad. In the topspin trials impact occurred significantly further forward of the front foot than in backspin shots (0.26 m vs 0.05 m) while the angle of the racket was the same for both strokes (0.14 rad behind a line parallel to the net). The mean angle of the racket-face at impact was inclined backwards by 0.11 rad for backspin strokes and rotated forward by 0.13 rad for topspin strokes. Angles of incidence and reflection of the impact between the ball and the court showed that backspin trials had larger angles of incidence and reflection than topspin strokes.

  19. 78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... coatings submitted for approval as nontoxic. We addressed lead poisoning in waterfowl in an environmental... organisms. Research has shown that ingested spent lead shot causes significant mortality in migratory birds... scientific justification for a ban on the use of lead shot and the subsequent approval of steel shot...

  20. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... submitted for approval as nontoxic. We addressed lead poisoning in waterfowl in an environmental impact... organisms. Research has shown that ingested spent lead shot causes significant mortality in migratory birds... justification for a ban on the use of lead shot and the subsequent approval of steel shot for hunting...

  1. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, George E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  2. Analysis of multispectral signatures of the shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafał; Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Madura, Henryk; Bareła, Jarosław; Polakowski, Henryk

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents some practical aspects of sniper IR signature measurements. Description of particular signatures for sniper shot in typical scenarios has been presented. We take into consideration sniper activities in the open area as well as in urban environment. The measurements were made at field test ground. High precision laboratory measurements were also performed. Several infrared cameras were used during measurements to cover all measurement assumptions. Some of the cameras are measurement-class devices with high accuracy and frame rates. The registrations were simultaneously made in UV, NWIR, SWIR and LWIR spectral bands. The infrared cameras have possibilities to install optical filters for multispectral measurement. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Exemplary sniper IR signatures for typical situation were presented. LWIR imaging spectroradiometer HyperCam was also used during the laboratory measurements and field experiments. The signatures collected by HyperCam were useful for the determination of spectral characteristics of shot.

  3. Terahertz single-shot quadrature phase-shifting interferometry.

    PubMed

    Földesy, Péter

    2012-10-01

    A single-shot quadrature phase-shifting interferometry architecture is presented that is applicable to antenna coupled detector technologies. The method is based on orthogonally polarized object and reference beams and on linear and circular polarization sensitive antennas in space-division multiplexing. The technique can be adapted to two-, three-, and four-step and Gabor holography recordings. It is also demonstrated that the space-division multiplexing does not necessarily cause sparse sampling. A sub-THz detector array is presented containing multiple on-chip antennas and FET plasma wave detectors implemented in a 90 nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. As an example, two-step phase-shifting reconstruction results are given at 360 GHz.

  4. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  5. SnapShot: GI tract development.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Patrick S; Wells, James M

    2015-03-26

    The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) lineages during development, giving rise to an array of specialized epithelial cell types lining organs, including the thyroid, thymus, lungs, liver, biliary system, pancreas, and intestines. This SnapShot timelines and summarizes key stages following gastrulation, including endoderm patterning, organ specification, and organogenesis. A lineage tree of the developing endocrine pancreas is outlined to further illustrate this process.

  6. Networked localization of sniper shots using acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengy, S.; Hamery, P.; De Mezzo, S.; Duffner, P.

    2011-06-01

    The presence of snipers in modern conflicts leads to high insecurity for the soldiers. In order to improve the soldier's protection against this threat, the French German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) initiated studies in the domain of acoustic localization of shots. Mobile antennas mounted on the soldier's helmet were initially used for real-time detection, classification and localization of sniper shots. It showed good performances in land scenarios, but also in urban scenarios if the array was in the shot corridor, meaning that the microphones first detect the direct wave and then the reflections of the Mach and muzzle waves. As soon as the acoustic arrays were not near to the shot corridor (only reflections are detected) this solution lost its efficiency and erroneous estimated position were given. In order to estimate the position of the shooter in every kind of urban scenario, ISL started studying time reversal techniques. Knowing the position of every reflective object in the environment (buildings, walls, ...) it should be possible to estimate the position of the shooter. First, a synthetic propagation algorithm has been developed and validated for real scale applications. It has then been validated for small scale models, allowing us to test our time reversal based algorithms in our laboratory. In this paper we discuss all the challenges that are induced by the application of sniper detection using time reversal techniques. We will discuss all the hard points that can be encountered and try to find some solutions in order to optimize the use of this technique.

  7. Shot-time photography at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovec, Donald; Christensen, Kim

    2015-08-01

    The Nation Ignition Facility (NIF) conducts a variety of experiments to study matter at the extremes, including studies of material properties, hydrodynamics, and the interaction of intense radiation fields with matter. The NIF supports the users by operating twenty-four hours a day, with a laser shot rate that averages one per day. We have developed a shot time camera that has the capability to provide an image of each shot for the users. While initially more of a promotional tool, there is emerging interest from the scientific staff in support of their experiments at the NIF. The shot time camera is a time integrated, shot-triggered, digital camera that images visible light generated at shot time in the NIF target chamber. It is selectable by the user and operates automatically with the NIF shot cycle. We will discuss the system design, recent results, and plans for the future.

  8. Shot detection combining Bayesian and structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung H.; Kweon, In-So

    2000-12-01

    There are a number of shots in a video, each of which has boundary types, such as cut, fade, dissolve and wipe. Many previous approaches can find the cut boundary without difficulty. However, most of them often produce false alarms for the videos with large motions of camera and objects. We propose a shot boundary detection method combining Bayesian and structural information. In the Bayesian approach, a probability distribution function models each transition type, e.g., normal, abrupt, gradual transition, and also models shot length. But inseparability between those distributions causes unwanted results and degrades the precision. In this paper, we demonstrate that the shape of the filtered frame difference, called the structural information, provides an important cue to distinguish fade and dissolve effects form cut effects and gradual changes caused by motion of camera and objects. The proposed method has been tested for a few golf video segments and shown good performances in detecting fade and dissolve effects as well as cut.

  9. High-dynamic-range cross-correlator for shot-to-shot measurement of temporal contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Akira; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Koichi; Mori, Michiaki; Sakaki, Hironao; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Kiminori

    2017-01-01

    The temporal contrast of an ultrahigh-intensity laser is a crucial parameter for laser plasma experiments. We have developed a multichannel cross-correlator (MCCC) for single-shot measurements of the temporal contrast in a high-power laser system. The MCCC is based on third-order cross-correlation, and has four channels and independent optical delay lines. We have experimentally demonstrated that the MCCC system achieves a high dynamic range of ˜1012 and a large temporal window of ˜1 ns. Moreover, we were able to measure the shot-to-shot fluctuations of a short-prepulse intensity at -26 ps and long-pulse (amplified spontaneous emission, ASE) intensities at -30, -450, and -950 ps before the arrival of the main pulse at the interaction point.

  10. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M. Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  11. Single-shot digital holography by use of the fractional Talbot effect.

    PubMed

    Martínez-León, Lluís; Araiza-E, María; Javidi, Bahram; Andrés, Pedro; Climent, Vicent; Lancis, Jesús; Tajahuerce, Enrique

    2009-07-20

    We present a method for recording in-line single-shot digital holograms based on the fractional Talbot effect. In our system, an image sensor records the interference between the light field scattered by the object and a properly codified parallel reference beam. A simple binary two-dimensional periodic grating is used to codify the reference beam generating a periodic three-step phase distribution over the sensor plane by fractional Talbot effect. This provides a method to perform single-shot phase-shifting interferometry at frame rates only limited by the sensor capabilities. Our technique is well adapted for dynamic wavefront sensing applications. Images of the object are digitally reconstructed from the digital hologram. Both computer simulations and experimental results are presented.

  12. Single-shot betatron source size measurement from a laser-wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Couperus, J. P.; Zarini, O.; Jochmann, A.; Irman, A.; Schramm, U.

    2016-09-01

    Betatron radiation emitted by accelerated electrons in laser-wakefield accelerators can be used as a diagnostic tool to investigate electron dynamics during the acceleration process. We analyze the spectral characteristics of the emitted Betatron pattern utilizing a 2D x-ray imaging spectroscopy technique. Together with simultaneously recorded electron spectra and x-ray images, the betatron source size, thus the electron beam radius, can be deduced at every shot.

  13. Single shot interferogram analysis for optical metrology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar

    2014-10-10

    We report a novel constrained optimization method for single shot interferogram analysis. The unknown test wavefront is estimated as a minimum L2-norm squared solution whose phase is constrained to the space spanned by a finite number of Zernike polynomials. Using a single frame from standard phase shifting datasets, we demonstrate that our approach provides a phase map that matches with that generated using phase shifting algorithms to within λ/100  rms error. Our simulations and experimental results suggest the possibility of a simplified low-cost high quality optical metrology system for performing routine metrology tests involving smooth surface profiles.

  14. Single Shot Hugoniots of Toluene and Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolme, C. A.; Eakins, D. E.; Funk, D. J.; McGrane, S. D.; Moore, D. S.; Whitley, V. H.

    2009-12-01

    Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry was used to acquire shock and particle velocities and shocked refractive indices for toluene and methanol. The liquids were driven with a shock wave that was approximately 300 ps in duration, and the data for each was acquired in a single laser shot by utilizing the Gaussian spatial profile of the drive laser beam to create a range of pressures in the samples. The Hugoniot data match well with previous shock data and with Woolfolk's "universal liquid Hugoniot." The shocked refractive indices of both liquids deviate from the Gladstone-Dale relation, the value expected exclusively from a change in density.

  15. Settlement rate of lead shot in tundra wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    Several species of breeding waterfowl have been shown to be exposed to lead shot on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta, Alaska. I 'seeded' experimental plots with number 4 lead shot to determine the settlement rate of shot in wetland types commonly used by foraging waterfowl. I resampled plots for 3 years, using a suction dredge to remove sediment in 4-cm layers. There was no consistent change in the proportion of shot recovered in the 0-4-cm layer among years or habitat types. My results suggest lead shot is available to feeding waterfowl for many years, and that exposure of waterfowl to lead poisoning will likely occur for >3 years after the use of lead shot is curtailed.

  16. Quiet eye predicts goaltender success in deflected ice hockey shots.

    PubMed

    Panchuk, Derek; Vickers, Joan N; Hopkins, Will G

    2017-02-01

    In interceptive timing tasks, long quiet eye (QE) durations at the release point, along with early tracking on the object, allow performers to couple their actions to the kinematics of their opponent and regulate their movements based on emergent information from the object's trajectory. We used a mobile eye tracker to record the QE of eight university-level ice hockey goaltenders of an equivalent skill level as they responded to shots that deflected off a board placed to their left or right, resulting in a trajectory with low predictability. QE behaviour was assessed using logistic regression and magnitude-based inference. We found that when QE onset occurred later in the shot (950 ± 580 ms, mean ± SD) there was an increase in the proportion of goals allowed (41% vs. 22%) compared to when QE onset occurred earlier. A shorter QE duration (1260 ± 630 ms) predicted a large increase in the proportion of goals scored (38% vs. 14%). More saves occurred when QE duration (2074 ± 47 ms) was longer. An earlier QE offset (2004 ± 66 ms) also resulted in a large increase in the number of goals allowed (37% vs. 11%) compared to a later offset (2132 ± 41 ms). Since an early, sustained QE duration contributed to a higher percentage of saves, it is important that coaches develop practice activities that challenge the goaltender's ability to fixate the puck early, as well as sustain a long QE fixation on the puck until after it is released from the stick.

  17. [Forensic medical characteristics of Glock 19 pistol-shot wounds].

    PubMed

    Musin, E Kh; Lepik, D; Viali, M

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study was made of gun-shot wounds inflicted by shots from a modern stub-barrelled pistol 9mm Glock 19. The study has ascertain characteristics differentiating injuries inflicted by shots from this pistol: specific recoil injury, specific topography, intensity and distribution of begrime, gunpowder and metal particles and relevant lesions. It was found that depth of penetration under the skin depends both on shooting distance and the position of the particle from the inlet.

  18. Matching forensic sketches to mug shot photos.

    PubMed

    Klare, Brendan F; Li, Zhifeng; Jain, Anil K

    2011-03-01

    The problem of matching a forensic sketch to a gallery of mug shot images is addressed in this paper. Previous research in sketch matching only offered solutions to matching highly accurate sketches that were drawn while looking at the subject (viewed sketches). Forensic sketches differ from viewed sketches in that they are drawn by a police sketch artist using the description of the subject provided by an eyewitness. To identify forensic sketches, we present a framework called local feature-based discriminant analysis (LFDA). In LFDA, we individually represent both sketches and photos using SIFT feature descriptors and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP). Multiple discriminant projections are then used on partitioned vectors of the feature-based representation for minimum distance matching. We apply this method to match a data set of 159 forensic sketches against a mug shot gallery containing 10,159 images. Compared to a leading commercial face recognition system, LFDA offers substantial improvements in matching forensic sketches to the corresponding face images. We were able to further improve the matching performance using race and gender information to reduce the target gallery size. Additional experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework leads to state-of-the-art accuracys when matching viewed sketches.

  19. Single-shot curved slice imaging.

    PubMed

    Jochimsen, Thies H; Norris, David G

    2002-03-01

    The feasibility of imaging a curved slice with a single-shot technique so that the reconstructed image shows an un-warping of the slice is examined. This could be of practical importance when the anatomical structures of interest can be more efficiently covered with curved slices than with a series of flat planes. One possible example of such a structure is the cortex of the human brain. Functional imaging would especially benefit from this technique because several planar images can be replaced by a few curved slice images. A method is introduced that is based on multidimensional pulses to excite the desired curved slice profile. A GRASE imaging sequence is then applied that is tailored to the k-space representation of the curved slice. This makes it possible to capture the in-plane information of the slice with a single-shot technique. The method presented is limited to slices that are straight along one axis and can be approximated by a polygon. Reconstruction is performed using a simple numeric Fourier integration along the curved slice. This leads to an image that shows the desired un-warped representation of the slice. Experimental results obtained with this method from healthy volunteers are presented and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  20. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    earthquake energy can travel through the sediments. All of these factors determine how hard the earth will shake during a major earthquake. If we can improve on our understanding of how and where earthquakes will occur, and how strong their resultant shaking will be, then buildings can be designed or retrofitted accordingly in order to resist damage and collapse, and emergency plans can be adequately prepared. In addition, SSIP will investigate the processes of rifting and magmatism in the Salton Trough in order to better understand this important plate-boundary region. The Salton Trough is a unique rift in that subsidence is accompanied by huge influxes of infilling sediment from the Colorado River. Volcanism that accompanies the subsidence here is muted by these influxes of sediment. The Salton Trough, in the central part of the Imperial Valley, is apparently made up of entirely new crust: young sediment in the upper crust and basaltic intrusive rocks in the mid-to-lower crust (Fuis and others, 1984). Similar to the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans performed by the medical industry, seismic imaging is a collection of techniques that enable scientists to obtain a picture of what is underground. The petroleum industry routinely uses these techniques to search for oil and gas at relatively shallow depths; however, the scope of this project demanded that we image as much as 30 km into the Earth’s crust. This project generated and recorded seismic waves, similar to sound waves, which move downward into the Earth and are bent (refracted) or echoed (reflected) back to the surface. SSIP acquired data in a series of intersecting lines that cover key areas of the Salton Trough. The sources of sound waves were detonations (shots) in deep boreholes, designed to create energy equivalent to magnitude 1–2 earthquakes. The study region routinely experiences earthquakes of these magnitudes, but earthquakes are not located in such a way as to permit us to create the

  1. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? A A A I just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get ...

  2. Effects of lead shot ingestion in willow grouse

    SciTech Connect

    Fimreite, N.

    1984-07-01

    Willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) is the most popular game bird in Norway and hunted extensively. Ingestion of lead shot pellets as grit with consequently adverse effects is therefore a distinct possibility as this has been observed in other upland game birds. The present experiment was carried out to study the possible effects of ingested lead shot pellets on willow grouse.

  3. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    An extreme sensitivity of pen-reared black ducks (BDs) to lead shot was observed incidental to development of an enzyme assay (Pain & Rattner, 1988). Intubation of pen-reared BDs with one no. 4 lead shot resulted in 60% mortality in 6 days. It was concluded that BDs were more sensitive to lead shot than expected, or that lead toxicity may be exacerbated by stressful conditions (elevated temperature, confinement in small pens). We reexamined lead shot toxicity in BDs and mallards (MLs). In winter 1986 (Ta=1.7-14.6? C), pen-reared and wild BDs, and game-farm and wild MLs were sham-dosed or given one no. 4 shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional shot. Since the original observation of enhanced. shot toxicity to BDs occurred during summer, the study was also repeated in summer 1987 (Ta=I7:6-30.9?C), with pen-reared BDs and game-farm MLs. Mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, and protoporphyrin concentration were used to compare sensitivity among groups. Sensitivity to lead shot was similar between BDs and MLs. However, the wild ducks appeared more vulnerable than their domesticated counterparts, and signs of intoxication were more pronounced in winter than in summer.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  5. Toxicity of Lead and Proposed Substitute Shot to Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Andrews, R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Young, L.T.

    1974-01-01

    Poisoning of North American waterfowl resulting from the ingestion of lead shot by ducks, geese, and swans causes an estimated annual mortality of 2 to 3% of the population (Bellrose 1959). To alleviate this problem the search for a suitable substitute for lead has been underway since the early 1950's. Proposed substitutes for lead shot were evaluated in a series of acute toxicity tests with pen-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Most candidate materials were as toxic to ducks as commercial lead shot. Coating or alloying lead with other metals only delayed mortality among dosed ducks. The reputedly 'disintegrable' lead shot with the water-soluble binder and the lead containing biochemical additives were also as toxic to mallards as the commercial lead shot. Mortality was not significantly different among lead-dosed adult or first-year hen and drake pen-reared mallards; lead-dosed adult, wild mallards of both sexes; and lead-dosed adult, male black ducks (Anas rubripes). The ingestion of one lead shot, size 4, by each of 80 pen-reared mallards caused an average 19% mortality. The presence and type of grit in the gizzard had a measurable effect on erosion of ingested shot and on shot retention among dosed mallards. Significantly fewer lead-dosed ducks died when fed crushed oystershell grit than when fed either quartz grit or no grit.

  6. Circle pattern detector & VSB shot count estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Sebastian; Kondepudy, Raghava

    2013-06-01

    There are two main technologies commercially available to write photomasks: Raster Scanning and Variable Shape Beam (VSB). For masks with features sizes that can be written on either kind of machine, it is advantageous to estimate the write time on both kinds of machines. The machine that is expected to have a faster Turn Around Time could be chosen. It is trivial to estimate how much time a design would take to be written by using a Raster Scanning machine. Since this kind of machine scans the whole design area, its TAT depends mainly on the size of the design and the size of the pixel. The write time is therefore mostly independent of the number of figures composing the design data. Estimating how long the same design would take to be written by a VSB machine is more involved, since its TAT depends greatly on how data is organized and fractured. In other words, there is a direct relation between number of elementary data figures (rectangles and trapezoids) and writing time. In VSB machines, data with curvilinear geometries can produce a huge increase in the amount of shots needed to write a design, which in turn directly affects TAT. This paper presents a novel technique used to provide the user with relevant information to aid with deciding which technology is to be used for writing the mask. The technique yields two vital pieces of information: a) An estimation of the amount of VSB Shots needed by a VSB Machine to write the design data into a photomask, and b) A map of where curvilinear geometries are located throughout the design.

  7. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  8. Novel fracturing algorithm to reduce shot count for curvy shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Takuya; Takahashi, Nobuyasu; Hamaji, Masakazu

    2013-09-01

    The increasing complexity of RET solutions has increased the shot count for advanced photomasks. In particular, the introduction of the inverse lithography technique (ILT) brings a significant increase in mask complexity and conventional fracturing algorithms generate much more shots because they are not optimized for curvilinear shapes. Several methods have been proposed to reduce shot count for ILT photomasks. One of the stronger approaches is the model-based fracturing, which utilizes precise dose control, shot overlaps and many other techniques. However, it requires much more computation resource and upgrades to the EB mask writer to support user-level dose modulation and shot overlaps. The algorithm proposed here is not model-based but based on geometry processing, the combination of shape extraction and direct manhattanization. Because it is not based on physical simulation, its processing speed is as fast as a conventional fracturing algorithm. It can generate both non-overlapping shots and overlapping shots and does not require user-level dose modulation. As the result, it can be utilized for the current standard VSB mask writers.

  9. Concrete Cleaning, Inc. centrifugal shot blaster: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The centrifugal shot blaster technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The centrifugal shot blaster is an electronically operated shot blast machine that has been modified to remove layers of concrete to varying depths. A hardened steel shot propelled at a high rate of speed abrades the surface of the concrete. The depth of material removed is determined by the rate of speed the machine is traveling and the volume of shot being fired into the blast chamber. The steel shot is recycled and used over until it is pulverized into dust, which ends up in the waste container with the concrete being removed. Debris is continually vacuumed by a large dust collection system attached to the shot blaster. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  10. Shot noise in negative-differential-conductance devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Woon

    Shot noise, which results from the discreteness of charge carriers, is one of the sources of current fluctuations in electronic circuits. The measurement of the shot noise in devices can provide useful information concerning the charge carriers and the correlation among them. In this thesis the shot noise of negative-differential-conductance (NDC) devices such as resonant-tunneling diodes (RTD), superlattice-tunnel diodes (STD), superlattice photodiodes, and triple-barrier diodes (TBD) has been studied at low temperature. These NDC devices, which have different number of barriers, can be useful for amplifiers and digital electronic applications. The measurements of shot noise in the RTD and TBD, in which quantum wells exist, showed an enhancement of noise in the NDC region relative to the Poissonian noise, 2eI, and a reduction in the region of positive differential conductance. In contrast, we found neither enhancement nor reduction of shot noise in the STD, in which no quantum wells exist. From the comparison of the result in the RTD, TBD and STD, we found that charge accumulation in the quantum wells of the RTD and TBD is responsible for the deviation of shot noise from its Poissonian value, which is in agreement with the existing theory. The superlattice photodiode has many barriers compared with the RTD, TBD and STD. The measurement of shot noise in superlattice photodiodes at high electric fields produced Poissonian noise. However, we found that the shot noise was smaller than the Poissonian value at low electric fields, and the reduction depended on the thickness of the barriers in the superlattices. For strongly coupled (i.e. thin-barrier) superlattices we found that the shot noise approaches one third of the Poissonian value. This phenomenon may be explained by a semi-classical theory developed by de Jong and Beenakker for identical multiple barriers.

  11. Method and device for measuring single-shot transient signals

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Yan

    2004-05-18

    Methods, apparatus, and systems, including computer program products, implementing and using techniques for measuring multi-channel single-shot transient signals. A signal acquisition unit receives one or more single-shot pulses from a multi-channel source. An optical-fiber recirculating loop reproduces the one or more received single-shot optical pulses to form a first multi-channel pulse train for circulation in the recirculating loop, and a second multi-channel pulse train for display on a display device. The optical-fiber recirculating loop also optically amplifies the first circulating pulse train to compensate for signal losses and performs optical multi-channel noise filtration.

  12. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  13. Concerning Shot-term Earthquake Forecasting Through Magnetotelluric Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerimov, K. M.; Agaguliyev, G. B.; Biagi, F. P.; Abdullayev, A. A.; Mammadhasanov, K. G.

    It is recognized, each earthquake event is a unique phenomena and there is no similarity in its paradigm multiplicity, this event just bears information on a series of identical aspects. and therefore, several aspects, such as structure and peculiarities of geotectonical development, geologic setting, monitoring station location and monitoring technology should be considered while shot-term forecasting of strong earthquakes. In this context available data picked up from Earth's magnetic field magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) conducted within the major Caucasus sout hern slope in Azerbaijan is suggested to be of particular interest. Acquired data analysis made it possible to reveal a systematic trend in magnetotelluric field behavior while preceding period, at the moment of and after strong earthquakes. This effect is def initely reflected by MTS data acquired while two catastrophic earthquakes ­ Spitac (Armenia, 1988) and Zandjan (Iran, 1990). It has been identified that prior to this events, there were abrupt variations observed in electromagnetic field component intensity. These variations were recorded about 10 - 12 hour prior to event first case, and 5-6 hour prior ­ in the second case. Maximum values of MT-fields components had been recorded at the moment of events. Important implication of this study is the fact, that magnetic field vector prior to event becomes gaining direct ion towards the focus of up coning event. Intersection point detected from monitoring stations can provide the useful data on the coordinates of the upcoming event focus. So, MT-field components, intensity and vector trend abnormal variation observed prior to event, may probably elucidate all three required criteria (time, location and magnitude) of up coming event. Moreover, such kind of approach make it possible to forecast earthquakes in the area about 600-700 km away from observation point. Acquired data has been corroborated by further investigations. This is especially important

  14. Multi-shot compressed coded aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Du, Juan; Wu, Tengfei; Jin, Zhenhua

    2013-09-01

    The classical methods of compressed coded aperture (CCA) still require an optical sensor with high resolution, although the sampling rate has broken the Nyquist sampling rate already. A novel architecture of multi-shot compressed coded aperture imaging (MCCAI) using a low resolution optical sensor is proposed, which is mainly based on the 4-f imaging system, combining with two spatial light modulators (SLM) to achieve the compressive imaging goal. The first SLM employed for random convolution is placed at the frequency spectrum plane of the 4-f imaging system, while the second SLM worked as a selecting filter is positioned in front of the optical sensor. By altering the random coded pattern of the second SLM and sampling, a couple of observations can be obtained by a low resolution optical sensor easily, and these observations will be combined mathematically and used to reconstruct the high resolution image. That is to say, MCCAI aims at realizing the super resolution imaging with multiple random samplings by using a low resolution optical sensor. To improve the computational imaging performance, total variation (TV) regularization is introduced into the super resolution reconstruction model to get rid of the artifacts, and alternating direction method of multipliers (ADM) is utilized to solve the optimal result efficiently. The results show that the MCCAI architecture is suitable for super resolution computational imaging using a much lower resolution optical sensor than traditional CCA imaging methods by capturing multiple frame images.

  15. One-dimensional single-shot thermometry in flames using femtosecond-CARS line imaging.

    PubMed

    Kulatilaka, W D; Stauffer, H U; Gord, J R; Roy, S

    2011-11-01

    We report single-laser-shot one-dimensional thermometry in flames using femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) line imaging. Fs-CARS enables high-repetition-rate (1-10 kHz), nearly collision-free measurement of temperature and species concentration in reacting flows. Two high-power 800 nm beams are used as the pump and probe beams and a 983 nm beam is used as the Stokes beam for CARS signal generation from the N2Q-branch transitions at ∼2330 cm(-1). The probe beam is frequency-chirped for single-laser-shot imaging. All three laser beams are formed into sheets and crossed in a line which forms the probe region. The resulting 1D line-CARS signal at ∼675 nm is spatially and spectrally resolved and recorded as a two-dimensional (2D) image. Single-shot temperature measurements are demonstrated in flat-field flames up to temperatures exceeding 2000 K, demonstrating the potential of fs-CARS line imaging for high-repetition-rate thermometry in turbulent flames. Such measurements can provide valuable data to validate complex turbulent-combustion models as well as increase the understanding of the spatio-temporal instabilities in practical combustion devices such as modern gas-turbine combustors and augmentors.

  16. One shot, one kill: the forces delivered by archer fish shots to distant targets.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Morgan F; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2015-10-01

    Archer fishes are skillful hunters of terrestrial prey, firing jets of water that dislodge insects perched on overhead vegetation. In the current investigation, we sought an answer to the question: are distant targets impractical foraging choices? Targets far from the shooter might not be hit with sufficient force to cause them to fall. However, observations from other investigators show that archer fish fire streams of water that travel in a non-ballistic fashion, which is thought to keep on-target forces high, even to targets that are several body lengths distant from the fish. We presented targets at different distances and investigated three aspects of foraging behavior: (i) on-target forces, (ii) shot velocity, (iii) a two-target choice assay to determine if fish would show any preference for downing closer targets or more distant targets. In general, shots from our fish (Toxotes chatareus) showed a mild decrease (less than 15% on average) in on-target forces at our most distant target offered (5.8 body lengths) with respect to the closest target offered (2.3 body lengths). One individual in our investigation showed slightly, but significantly, greater on-target forces as target distance increased. Forces on the furthest targets offered were found to double that of attachment forces for 200mg insects, even for individuals whose on-target forces showed mild decreases with increases in target distance. High-speed video analysis of jet impact with the target revealed that the shot was traveling in a non-ballistic manner, even to our most distant target offered, corroborating previous suppositions that on-target forces should remain high. Fish were able to accomplish this without large changes to shot velocity, but we did find evidence that the water jets appeared to differ in the timing of their acceleration as target distance increased. Our two-target choice experiment revealed that fish show preference for downing the closer target first, even though impact

  17. Shots ESS through MET and Shot ZUCCHINI. The final TEAPOT tests, 23 March-15 May 1955. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, J.; Maag, C.; Wilkinson, M.; Rohrer, S.

    1981-11-27

    This report describes the activities of DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shots ESS, HADR, APPLE 1, WASP PRIME, HA, POST, MET, and ZUCCHINI, the latter eight events of the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons test series. Shot APPLE 2, the next to the last TEAPOT test event, is described in a separate volume. These tests were conducted from March 23 to May 15, 1955 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VI, AFSWP, AFSWC, AEC nuclear weapons development laboratories, and the Civil Effects Test Group. This volume also describes the radiological safety activities undertaken at each shot.

  18. Mumps and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Mumps and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Language: English Español (Spanish) ... schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox Diphtheria Flu (Influenza) Hepatitis ...

  19. Polio and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Polio and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Language: English Español (Spanish) ... schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox Diphtheria Flu (Influenza) Hepatitis ...

  20. Introducing one-shot work into fluctuation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Garner, Andrew J. P.; Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Vedral, Vlatko

    2015-09-01

    Two approaches to small-scale and quantum thermodynamics are fluctuation relations and one-shot statistical mechanics. Fluctuation relations (such as Crooks’ theorem and Jarzynski's equality) relate nonequilibrium behaviors to equilibrium quantities such as free energy. One-shot statistical mechanics involves statements about every run of an experiment, not just about averages over trials. We investigate the relation between the two approaches. We show that both approaches feature the same notions of work and the same notions of probability distributions over possible work values. The two approaches are alternative toolkits with which to analyze these distributions. To combine the toolkits, we show how one-shot work quantities can be defined and bounded in contexts governed by Crooks’ theorem. These bounds provide a new bridge from one-shot theory to experiments originally designed for testing fluctuation theorems.

  1. Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts in top southeast room taken from ther west - J. Weingartner & Son Cigar Factory, 414 East Walnut Street, North Wales, Montgomery County, PA

  2. 26. OVERALL SHOT OF BASEMENT, MILL NO. 1. ORIGINALLY MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. OVERALL SHOT OF BASEMENT, MILL NO. 1. ORIGINALLY MACHINE SHOP. PALLETS ON FLOOR ADDED IN LATE 20th C. FOR CLOTH STORAGE. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  3. Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163564.html Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study Finds Vaccine should be ... MONDAY, Feb. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- It's still flu season, and not too late to get your ...

  4. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  5. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  6. 9. PERSPECTIVE OF EAST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM TRACK BED OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PERSPECTIVE OF EAST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM TRACK BED OF ADJACENT LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGE. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking northwest, provides a closer image of the brick penthouse and other devices - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  8. Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies. Hepatitis B Vaccine Helps Protect Your Baby’s Future! What is hepatitis ... Control and Prevention recommend that every baby get hepatitis B vaccine at birth, before leaving the hospital. These are ...

  9. 8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY VIEW OF ABUTMENT SUPPORT INTO THE GROUND - Lost Creek Road Bridge, Spanning Sevier River at County Road 243, 2 miles east of Aurora, Aurora, Sevier County, UT

  10. 11. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) GROUP SHOT OF WORKERS POSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) GROUP SHOT OF WORKERS POSED WITH NO. 2 SHAFT-ROCKHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. NOTE THE LONE WOMAN IN THE PHOTO. C. 1895-1905. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  11. Experimental lead-shot poisoning in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.M.; Sileo, L.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Captive, crippled bald eagles unsuitable for release were fed lead shot to determine diagnostic criteria for lead poisoning. The eagles were fluoroscoped and bled periodically to determine shot retention and blood delta--aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Microscopic examination revealed renal tubular degeneration, arterial fibrinoid necrosis and myocardial necrosis. Acid-fast intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were not found in proximal convoluted tubule cells. Analyses of blood and toxicological data are not yet complete.

  12. Rapid video shot detective based on the dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing-Hui; Guo, Zong-Ming

    2009-10-01

    Video shot boundary detection is a fundamental step for the organization of large video data. The classical VSB detection is basically a sequential frame to compute frame-by-frame, however this approach is computationally very expensive for large databases .In this work we propose a dichotomy approach for video shot boundary detection. The proposed technique can improve the performance of the algorithm and reduce the calculation. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces faster detection rapid.

  13. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the SunShot Vision Study is to provide an in-depth assessment of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades. Specifically, it explores a future in which the price of solar technologies declines by about 75% between 2010 and 2020 - in line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's targets.

  14. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  15. Biomechanical Analysis of the Jump Shot in Basketball

    PubMed Central

    Struzik, Artur; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Zawadzki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player’s jumping ability. PMID:25414741

  16. Jello Shot Consumption among Underage Youths in the United States

    PubMed Central

    SIEGEL, MICHAEL; GALLOWAY, ASHLEY; ROSS, CRAIG S.; BINAKONSKY, JANE; JERNIGAN, DAVID H.

    2015-01-01

    We sought, for the first time, to identify the extent of jello shot consumption among underage youth. We conducted a study among a national sample of 1,031 youth, aged 13 to 20, using a pre-recruited internet panel maintained by GfK Knowledge Networks to assess past 30-day consumption of jello shots. Nearly one-fifth of underage youth have consumed jello shots in the past 30 days and jello shots make up an average of nearly 20% of their overall alcohol intake. Jello shot users in our sample were approximately 1.5 times more likely to binge drink, consumed approximately 1.6 times as many drinks per month, and were 1.7 times more likely to have been in a physical fight related to their alcohol use as drinkers in general. Ascertainment of jello shot use should become a standard part of youth alcohol surveillance and states should consider banning the sale of these products. PMID:27087771

  17. Kinematics analysis on the shot putting technique of back gliding of China's female shot putters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhongtao

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Shanghai female shot-putter Shou Qianwen was selected as the research object, and also the methods in the biological mechanics were used to analyze and research her movements of shot putting techniques. As a result, at the sliding step stage, the maximum swinging velocity of her left leg emerged too early, the joint between the take-off and swinging techniques was not very ideal, and the angle between the calf and the ground when the right leg departed from the ground was too large. However, at the transition step stage, the body weight velocity fluctuated too largely, and its single support time was too long. At the final exertion stage, the posture of her body before the apparatus was highly sufficient, but the exertion movement of the body was too hasty, and the hip movements were insufficient, which was reflected on that the exertion point was not prominent, the acceleration effect was insignificant, and the shooting speed was not very fast, and also the shooting angle was too low.

  18. Phase retrieval without unwrapping by single-shot dual-wavelength digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Junwei; Yao, Baoli; Zhou, Meiling; Guo, Rongli; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong; Dan, Dan; Yan, Shaohui; Peng, Tong

    2014-12-01

    A phase retrieval method by using single-shot dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed. Each single wavelength hologram is extracted from the color CCD recorded hologram at one exposure, and the unwrapped phase image of object can be reconstructed directly. Different from the traditional multiple wavelength phase unwrapping techniques, any single complex wave-fronts at different wavelengths have no need to be calculated any more. Thus, the phase retrieval is computationally fast and straightforward, and the limitations on the total optical path difference are significantly relaxed. The practicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by both simulated and experimental results.

  19. Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Kakue, Takashi; Itoh, Seiya; Xia, Peng; Tahara, Tatsuki; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2012-08-27

    Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is capable of three-dimensional measurement of a dynamically moving object with a single-shot recording. In this letter, we demonstrated a parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a single femtosecond light pulse whose central wavelength and temporal duration were 800 nm and 96 fs, respectively. As an object, we set spark discharge in atmospheric pressure air induced by applying a high voltage to between two electrodes. The instantaneous change in phase caused by the spark discharge was clearly reconstructed. The reconstructed phase image shows the change of refractive index of air was -3.7 × 10(-4).

  20. A grazing incidence x-ray streak camera for ultrafast, single-shot measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Engelhorn, K.; Cho, B.I.; Lee, H.J.; Greaves, M.; Weber, C.P.; Falcone, R.W.; Padmore, H. A.; Heimann, P.A.

    2010-02-18

    An ultrafast x-ray streak camera has been realized using a grazing incidence reflection photocathode. X-rays are incident on a gold photocathode at a grazing angle of 20 degree and photoemitted electrons are focused by a large aperture magnetic solenoid lens. The streak camera has high quantum efficiency, 600fs temporal resolution, and 6mm imaging length in the spectral direction. Its single shot capability eliminates temporal smearing due to sweep jitter, and allows recording of the ultrafast dynamics of samples that undergo non-reversible changes.

  1. Sub-Poissonian shot noise of a high internal gain injection photon detector.

    PubMed

    Memis, Omer Gokalp; Katsnelson, Alex; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Mohseni, Hooman; Yan, Minjun; Zhang, Shuang; Hossain, Tim; Jin, Niu; Adesida, Ilesanmi

    2008-08-18

    The noise performance of an infrared injection photon detector with very high internal gain was investigated at a wavelength of 1.55 mum. The devices showed sub-Poissonian shot noise with Fano factors around 0.55 at 0.7 V at room temperature. Optical to electrical conversion factors of 3000 electrons per absorbed photon were recorded at 0.7 V. The change in noise-equivalent power with respect to bias voltage was evaluated. The optical to electrical conversion factor and Fano factor were measured under increasing illumination and compared to theoretical expectations.

  2. Shot BEE, A Test of the TEAPOT Series, 22 March 1955.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-24

    Volume: Shot APPLE 2 * Multi-shot Volume: Shots ESS through MET and Shot ZUCCHINI , the Final TEAPOT Tests. All volumes addressing the test events of...I1w 1( ,I r ESS N TURK I TESLA POST 2 \\BEE A-------------,-’ ZUCCHINI AL 1 ’I IWASP WASP PRIME APPLE 2 t MOTH HORNET HA - _ _ _I HADR II 31 II I News

  3. Frequency-Domain Tomography for Single-shot, Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Intense laser pulses propagating through plasma create plasma wakefields that often evolve significantly, e.g. by expanding and contracting. However, such dynamics are known in detail only through intensive simulations. Laboratory visualization of evolving plasma wakes in the ``bubble'' regime is important for optimizing and scaling laser-plasma accelerators. Recently snap-shots of quasi-static wakes were recorded using frequency-domain holography (FDH). To visualize the wake's evolution, we have generalized FDH to frequency-domain tomography (FDT), which uses multiple probes propagating at different angles with respect to the pump pulse. Each probe records a phase streak, imprinting a partial record of the evolution of pump-created structures. We then topographically reconstruct the full evolution from all phase streaks. To prove the concept, a prototype experiment visualizing nonlinear index evolution in glass is demonstrated. Four probes propagating at 0, 0.6, 2, 14 degrees to the index ``bubble'' are angularly and temporally multiplexed to a single spectrometer to achieve cost-effective FDT. From these four phase streaks, an FDT algorithm analogous to conventional CT yields a single-shot movie of the pump's self-focusing dynamics.

  4. How to give a heparin shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... heparin, needles, syringes, alcohol wipes, medicine record, and container for used needles and syringes. If you have ... the needle and syringe in a safe hard container (sharps container). Close the container, and keep it ...

  5. Single shot thermometry using laser induced thermal grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Pubo; Guan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhenrong; Wang, Sheng; Li, Guohua; Ye, Jingfeng; Hu, Zhiyun

    2015-05-01

    With the concern of environmental protection and reducing the fossil fuel consumption, combustion processes need to be more efficient and less contaminable. Therefore, the ability to obtain important thermophysical parameters is crucial to combustion research and combustor design. Traditional surveying techniques were difficult to apply in a confined space, especially the physically intrusions of detectors can alter the combustion processes. Laser-based diagnostic techniques, like CARS, SVRS, PLIF and TDLAS, allow the in situ, non-intrusive, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of combustion parameters in hostile environments. We report here a new non-intrusive optical diagnostic technique, based on laser-induced thermal grating. Thermal gratings generated in NO2/N2 binary mixtures, arise from the nonlinear interaction between the medium and the light radiation from the interference of two pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers (532 nm). This leads to the formation of a dynamic grating through the resonant absorption and the subsequent collisional relaxation. By the temporally resolved detection of a continuous wave, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 probe laser beam (671 nm) diffracted by LITG. The temporal behavior of the signal is a function of the local temperature and other properties of gas, various parameters of the target gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal. The accurate singleshot temperature measurements were carried out at different test conditions using a stainless steel pressurized cell, data averaged on 100 laser shots were compared with simultaneously recorded thermocouple data, and the results were consistent with each other. The LITG signal is shown to grow with increasing the gas pressure and is spatially coherent, which makes the LITG thermometry technique a promising candidate in high pressure environments.

  6. Interactive exploration of surveillance video through action shot summarization and trajectory visualization.

    PubMed

    Meghdadi, Amir H; Irani, Pourang

    2013-12-01

    We propose a novel video visual analytics system for interactive exploration of surveillance video data. Our approach consists of providing analysts with various views of information related to moving objects in a video. To do this we first extract each object's movement path. We visualize each movement by (a) creating a single action shot image (a still image that coalesces multiple frames), (b) plotting its trajectory in a space-time cube and (c) displaying an overall timeline view of all the movements. The action shots provide a still view of the moving object while the path view presents movement properties such as speed and location. We also provide tools for spatial and temporal filtering based on regions of interest. This allows analysts to filter out large amounts of movement activities while the action shot representation summarizes the content of each movement. We incorporated this multi-part visual representation of moving objects in sViSIT, a tool to facilitate browsing through the video content by interactive querying and retrieval of data. Based on our interaction with security personnel who routinely interact with surveillance video data, we identified some of the most common tasks performed. This resulted in designing a user study to measure time-to-completion of the various tasks. These generally required searching for specific events of interest (targets) in videos. Fourteen different tasks were designed and a total of 120 min of surveillance video were recorded (indoor and outdoor locations recording movements of people and vehicles). The time-to-completion of these tasks were compared against a manual fast forward video browsing guided with movement detection. We demonstrate how our system can facilitate lengthy video exploration and significantly reduce browsing time to find events of interest. Reports from expert users identify positive aspects of our approach which we summarize in our recommendations for future video visual analytics systems.

  7. National Ignition Facility Shot Data Analysis Module Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S; Glenn, S; Lopez, A; Warrick, A; Beeler, R

    2007-10-03

    This document provides the guidelines for software development of modules to be included in Shot Data Analysis (SDA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). An Analysis Module is a software entity that groups a set of (typically cohesive) functions, procedures and data structures for performing an analysis task relevant to NIF shot operations. Each module must have its own unique identification (module name), clear interface specifications (data inputs and outputs), and internal documentation. It is vitally important to the NIF Program that all shot-related data be processed and analyzed in a consistent way that is reviewed by scientific and engineering experts. SDA is part of a NIF Integrated Product Team (IPT) whose goal is to provide timely and accurate reporting of shot results to NIF campaign experimentalists. Other elements of the IPT include the Campaign Management Tool (CMT) for configuring experiments, a data archive and provisioning system called CMS, a calibration and configuration database (CDMS), and a shot data visualization tool (SDV). We restrict our scope at this time to guidelines for modules written in Interactive Data Language, or IDL1. This document has sections describing example IDL modules and where to find them, how to set up a development environment, IDL programming guidelines, shared IDL procedures for general use, and revision control.

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of shot-peened metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyev, Anton I.; Veronesi, William A.

    2001-08-01

    Shot peening is a well-known method for extending the fatigue life of metal components by introducing near-surface compressive residual stresses. The capability to nondestructively evaluate near-surface residual stress would greatly aid the assurance of proper fatigue life in shot-peened components. This paper describes our work on near-surface residual stress measurement by an ultrasonic surface wave method. In this method, a variation of ultrasonic surface wave speed with shot peening intensity is measured. Since the effective wave penetration depth is inversely related to the excitation frequency, the method has the potential to provide the stress-depth profile. The paper presents results from an ultrasonic characterization study of shot peened Al-7075 and Waspaloy surfaces. Rayleigh wave velocity measurements by a V(z)-curve method were made on smooth and shot peened samples using line-focus ultrasonic transducers. Several factors were found to contribute to the surface wave velocity measurements: surface roughness, near-surface grain reorientation (texture), dislocation density increase, and residual stress. In this paper we estimate quantitatively the effects of each factor and discuss how these effects can be separated and accounted for during residual stress measurement.

  9. Feasibility of one-shot-per-crystal structure determination using Laue diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Cornaby, Sterling; Szebenyi, Doletha M. E.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Schuller, David J.; Gillilan, Richard; Hao, Quan; Bilderback, Donald H.

    2010-01-01

    Structure determination was successfully carried out using single Laue exposures from a group of lysozyme crystals. The Laue method may be a viable option for collection of one-shot-per-crystal data from microcrystals. Crystal size is an important factor in determining the number of diffraction patterns which may be obtained from a protein crystal before severe radiation damage sets in. As crystal dimensions decrease this number is reduced, eventually falling to one, at which point a complete data set must be assembled using data from multiple crystals. When only a single exposure is to be collected from each crystal, the polychromatic Laue technique may be preferable to monochromatic methods owing to its simultaneous recording of a large number of fully recorded reflections per image. To assess the feasibility of solving structures using single Laue images from multiple crystals, data were collected using a ‘pink’ beam at the CHESS D1 station from groups of lysozyme crystals with dimensions of the order of 20–30 µm mounted on MicroMesh grids. Single-shot Laue data were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and correct solutions were obtained even when as few as five crystals were used.

  10. Shot H3837: Darht's First Dual-Axis Explosive Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Jacob; McNeil, Wendy Vogan; Harsh, James; Hull, Lawrence

    2011-06-01

    Test H3837 was the first explosive shot performed in front of both flash x-ray axes at the Los Alamos Dual Axis Radiographic HydroTest (DARHT) facility. Executed in November 2009, the shot was an explosively-driven metal flyer plate in a series of experiments designed to explore equation-of-state properties of shocked materials. Imaging the initial shock wave traveling through the flyer plate, DARHT Axis II captured the range of motion from the shock front emergence in the flyer to breakout at the free surface; the Axis I pulse provided a perpendicular perspective of the shot at a time coinciding with the third pulse of Axis II. Since the days of the Manhattan Project, penetrating radiography with multiple frames from different viewing angles has remained a high-profile goal at the Laboratory. H3837 is merely the beginning of a bright future for two-axis penetrating radiography.

  11. Long-transition analysis for post shot-boundary detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Wei J.; Ngan, King N.

    2000-12-01

    With the introduction of the standard in video indexing, research in shot boundary detection has recently become popular. While new solutions for long transition detection have recently emerged, there is not much literature that focuses on what to do with the frames within the transition when they are detected. After the approximate position of the long transition is detected, the raw sequence cannot be used for segmentation and indexing due to the special effects incorporated. Here, a technique aims at extracting extra information from the transition after the existence of a long transition is confirmed. This technique consists of four stages, namely, shot boundary refinement, shot type determination, frame reconstruction for soft transition and pixel classification for hard transition. This paper gives the overview as well as performance of each stage. This technique allows detected transitions to be analyzed without human intervention.

  12. Thermal ratchets driven by Poissonian white shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernik, T.; Kula, J.; Łuczka, J.; Häautnggi, P.

    1997-04-01

    We investigate the overdamped transport of Brownian particles that are placed in spatially periodic potentials (without and with reflection symmetry) that are subjected to both Poissonian white shot noise and thermal, i.e., Gaussian, white equilibrium fluctuations. The probability current of the output process, which is shown to obey a second-order ordinary differential equation, is analyzed. The limit of strong Poissonian white shot noise is studied analytically; the resulting current is given in closed form in terms of two quadratures. For general forms of the periodic potential we present asymptotic expansions in terms of the ratio between the thermal and the shot noise intensity. Analytic results are presented for the class of piecewise linear, sawtoothlike ratchet potentials. Under specific conditions, the current exhibits a distinctive nonmonotonic dependence on such parameters as temperature and/or asymmetry of the periodic potential.

  13. Brain size and the risk of getting shot.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Erritzøe, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Hunting kills hundreds of millions of animals annually, potentially constituting an important selection pressure on hunted species. We hypothesized that hunted individuals differing from survivors by having better ability to distinguish between dangerous humans and other human beings would be at a selective advantage. We tested whether shot individual birds had smaller brains than survivors, under the assumption that individuals with larger brains had superior escape ability. We used a large database on birds from Denmark to test whether getting shot was predicted by brain mass, while controlling statistically for the potentially confounding effects of age, sex, body mass and body condition. Analyses based on all species, or only species that were hunted, while controlling for differences in sampling effort in random effects models, showed consistently that shot individuals had smaller brains than survivors.

  14. Staining in firearm barrels after experimental contact shots.

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Bauer, K; Brünig, J; Courts, C; Madea, B

    2017-04-01

    After contact shots to the head biological traces inside firearm barrels can be found. This study was conducted to simulate and to evaluate such staining. Five current handguns of four inch barrel length in the calibre .22 long rifle, 7.65mm Browning, 9mm Luger and .38 special were used to perform 24 contact shots on silicone coated, gelatine filled box models using the triple contrast method. The staining was documented by endoscopy and swabs gathered from both ends of the barrel were analysed by quantitative PCR. With the exception of the .22 revolver, all firearms showed distinct staining which decreased from the muzzle to the rear end of the barrel. The pattern was varied, showing droplets, elongated forms or stripes. In 14 of 24 shots, staining reached the chamber. The staining results were comparable to real suicide cases.

  15. Intra-shot MSE Calibration Technique For LHCD Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jinseok; Scott, Steve; Shiraiwa, Syun'ichi; Greenwald, Martin; Parker, Ronald; Wallace, Gregory

    2009-11-23

    The spurious drift in pitch angle of order several degrees measured by the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak1 over the course of an experimental run day has precluded direct utilization of independent absolute calibrations. Recently, the underlying cause of the drift has been identified as thermal stress-induced birefringence in a set of in-vessel lenses. The shot-to-shot drift can be avoided by using MSE to measure only the change in pitch angle between a reference phase and a phase of physical interest within a single plasma discharge. This intra-shot calibration technique has been applied to the Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments and the measured current profiles qualitatively demonstrate several predictions of LHCD theory such as an inverse dependence of current drive efficiency on the parallel refractive index and the presence of off-axis current drive.

  16. Superpoissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Martinez, Isidoro; Aliev, Farkhad G.; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Szczepański, Tomasz; Dugaev, Vitalii K.; Barnaś, Józef

    2014-12-08

    Organic molecules have recently revolutionized ways to create new spintronic devices. Despite intense studies, the statistics of tunneling electrons through organic barriers remains unclear. Here, we investigate conductance and shot noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) barriers a few nm thick. For junctions in the electron tunneling regime, with magnetoresistance ratios between 10% and 40%, we observe superpoissonian shot noise. The Fano factor exceeds in 1.5–2 times the maximum values reported for magnetic tunnel junctions with inorganic barriers, indicating spin dependent bunching in tunneling. We explain our main findings in terms of a model which includes tunneling through a two level (or multilevel) system, originated from interfacial bonds of the PTCDA molecules. Our results suggest that interfaces play an important role in the control of shot noise when electrons tunnel through organic barriers.

  17. Analysis of shot-to-shot variability in post-disruption runaway electron currents for diverted DIII-D discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, V. A.; Humphreys, D. A.; Kornbluth, M.

    2012-09-01

    In DIII-D experiments, rapid termination by Ar-pellet injection sometimes produces a post-termination runaway electron (RE) current plateau, but this effect is highly non-reproducible on a shot-to-shot basis, particularly for diverted target plasmas. A set of DIII-D discharges is analyzed with two MHD codes to understand the relationship between the current profile of the target plasma and the amplitude of the RE current plateau. Using the linear stability code GATO, a correlation between the radial profile of the unstable n = 1 mode just after Ar-pellet injection and the observed appearance of an RE plateau is identified. Nonlinear NIMROD simulations with RE test-particle calculations directly predict RE confinement times during the disruption. With one exception, NIMROD predicts better RE confinement for shots in which higher RE currents were observed in DIII-D. But, the variation in confinement is primarily connected to the saturated n = 1 mode amplitude and not its radial profile. Still, both sets of analyses support the hypothesis that RE deconfinement by MHD fluctuations is a major factor in the shot-to-shot variability of RE plateaus, though additional factors such as seed current amplitude cannot be ruled out.

  18. Preparation of Ultracold Atom Clouds at the Shot Noise Level.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, M; Hilliard, A J; Kristensen, M A; Pedersen, P L; Klempt, C; Arlt, J J; Sherson, J F

    2016-08-12

    We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N∼10^{6} is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty ΔN below the shot noise level, i.e., ΔNshot noise level.

  19. Current shot noise characteristics in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kalsoom, Ambreen; Song, Siyu; Li, Guiqin

    2014-09-01

    Current shot noise characteristics, away from their average current, in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices are investigated. The relations among the shot noise and the applied bias, the coupling factors, as well as the alligator clips are revealed. The regular change of the shot noise in biphenyl diamine device and irregular change of the shot noise in biphenyl dithiol device are shown as the coupling strength change from full coupling to weak coupling. It is found that the shot noise suppression in biphenyl diamine device is enhanced at the higher bias. The large differences of the shot noise suppression in the biphenyl dithiol device are revealed.

  20. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Bender, H A; Wilcox, N S

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  1. High quality single shot diffraction patterns using ultrashort megaelectron volt electron beams from a radio frequency photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Musumeci, P.; Moody, J. T.; Scoby, C. M.; Gutierrez, M. S.; Bender, H. A.; Wilcox, N. S.

    2010-01-15

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250-fs-long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the rf photoinjector off a 100-nm-thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction.

  2. High Quality Single Shot Diffraction Patterns Using Ultrashort Megaelectron Volt Electron Beams from a Radio Frequency Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    P. Musumeci, J. T. Moody, C. M. Scoby, M. S. Gutierrez, H. A. Bender, N. S. Wilcox

    2010-01-01

    Single shot diffraction patterns using a 250 fs long electron beam have been obtained at the UCLA Pegasus laboratory. High quality images with spatial resolution sufficient to distinguish closely spaced peaks in the Debye-Scherrer ring pattern have been recorded by scattering the 1.6 pC 3.5 MeV electron beam generated in the RF photoinjector off a 100 nm thick Au foil. Dark current and high emittance particles are removed from the beam before sending it onto the diffraction target using a 1 mm diameter collimating hole. These results open the door to the study of irreversible phase transformations by single shot MeV electron diffraction

  3. The analysis and modeling of the ARDEC 2.5 km/s 20-mm plasma railgun shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sink, D. A.; Chang, D. I.; Davis, A.; Colombo, G.; Hildenbrand, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The 20-mm round-bore plasma railgun was successfully fired at the ARDEC electric gun facility. The 4-m gun with copper rails and alumina composite insulators was operated using a light-gas gun injector to start the projectile, already located in the gun, moving prior to the introduction of current. Current from the EMACK homopolar generator (HPG) was commutated into the gun by an explosively-actuated opening switch. The muzzle velocity was recorded by breakwires and flash X-rays at 2.5 km/s. B-dot sensors, rail current Rogowski coils, and breech and muzzle voltage measurements provided data on the in-bore dynamics of the armature. Post-shot analysis using the ARMRAIL (ARMature Physics and RAILgun Performance Model) code successfully provided calculations reproducing all the main features of the data. Models account for the observed secondary arcs present throughout the shot and the basis for the code and physics modeling is given.

  4. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  5. "Heart Shots": A Classroom Activity to Instigate Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year…

  6. One-Shot Library Instruction and Cambourne's Theory of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuchika, Glenn Norio; Boldt, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who teach one-shot library instruction classes (one-time, one- to three-hour classes to students who are assumed to be novice researchers) are often torn between two pedagogic approaches: a "critical mass" pedagogy emphasizing a minimum amount of databases that must be introduced with little time for student searching, and a…

  7. ON THE USE OF SHOT NOISE FOR PHOTON COUNTING

    SciTech Connect

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2015-11-01

    Lieu et al. have recently claimed that it is possible to substantially improve the sensitivity of radio-astronomical observations. In essence, their proposal is to make use of the intensity of the photon shot noise as a measure of the photon arrival rate. Lieu et al. provide a detailed quantum-mechanical calculation of a proposed measurement scheme that uses two detectors and conclude that this scheme avoids the sensitivity degradation that is associated with photon bunching. If correct, this result could have a profound impact on radio astronomy. Here I present a detailed analysis of the sensitivity attainable using shot-noise measurement schemes that use either one or two detectors, and demonstrate that neither scheme can avoid the photon bunching penalty. I perform both semiclassical and fully quantum calculations of the sensitivity, obtaining consistent results, and provide a formal proof of the equivalence of these two approaches. These direct calculations are furthermore shown to be consistent with an indirect argument based on a correlation method that establishes an independent limit to the sensitivity of shot-noise measurement schemes. Furthermore, these calculations are directly applicable to the regime of interest identified by Lieu et al. Collectively, these results conclusively demonstrate that the photon-bunching sensitivity penalty applies to shot-noise measurement schemes just as it does to ordinary photon counting, in contradiction to the fundamental claim made by Lieu et al. The source of this contradiction is traced to a logical fallacy in their argument.

  8. A Shot in the Arm for Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    The unprecedented increase of measles and rising incidence of mumps, rubella, and whooping cough signal a serious breakdown in the nation's childhood immunization system. California now operates on a no-shot, no-school policy. Prohibitive costs for low income families exacerbate the problem. Uniform guidelines for preschool and day care programs…

  9. 4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARDS JERSEY CITY. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND TO THE RIGHT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  10. Suppression of shot noise and spontaneous radiation in electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-08-23

    Shot noise in the electron beam distribution is the main source of noise in high-gain FEL amplifiers, which may affect applications ranging from single- and multi-stage HGHG FELs to an FEL amplifier for coherent electron cooling. This noise also imposes a fundamental limit of about 10{sup 6} on FEL gain, after which SASE FELs saturate. There are several advantages in strongly suppressing this shot noise in the electron beam, and the corresponding spontaneous radiation. For more than a half-century, a traditional passive method has been used successfully in practical low-energy microwave electronic devices to suppress shot noise. Recently, it was proposed for this purpose in FELs. However, being passive, the method has some significant limitations and is hardly suitable for the highly inhomogeneous beams of modern high-gain FELs. I present a novel active method of suppressing, by many orders-of-magnitude, the shot noise in relativistic electron beams. I give a theoretical description of the process, and detail its fundamental limitation.

  11. Contribution of shot peening on carburized or carbonitrided parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, P.; Bristiel, P.; Barrallier, L.; Desvignes, M.; Kubler, R.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of car manufacturers is to design parts which are light and at the same time very resistant to fatigue efforts. Surface treatments are effective means to deal with this compromise. They bring surface hardness and introduce compressive residual stresses. This experimental study focuses on the influence of shot peening on parts initially treated by carburizing or carbonitriding.

  12. 80. VIEW OF VAL SET FOR LOW ANGLE SHOT WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. VIEW OF VAL SET FOR LOW ANGLE SHOT WITH LAUNCHER BRIDGE TURNED TO THE LEFT FOR A LAND BACKDROP IN CASE OF PROJECTILE RICHOCET, June 1, 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Assessment for One-Shot Library Instruction: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore a conceptual approach to assessment for one-shot library instruction. This study develops a new assessment instrument based on Carol Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP) model. The new instrument focuses on measuring and identifying changes in student readiness to do research along three…

  14. Micropaleontology of selected wells and seismic shot holes, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mickey, Michael B.; Haga, Hideyo; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides micropaleontologic data (foraminifera, pollen, spores, and microplankton) and interpretations of the rocks penetrated by 49 wells and 3,134 seismic shot holes distributed among 73 seismic lines (figs. 1, 2; table 1). All shot holes and 30 wells are located within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA); the remaining 19 wells are located adjacent to the NPRA. The biostratigraphic zonation scheme, stratigraphy, and geologic ages followed in this study are summarized in figure 3. This update brings paleontologic analyses performed at various times over several decades to a current, unified set of interpretations that benefit from the evolution of northern Alaska biostratigraphic understanding developed during the past 33-years by Mickey and Haga. For each well, paleontologic information includes microfossil distribution charts, data spreadsheets, diversity graphs, and interpretive reports describing age and environments of deposition. Three biostratigraphic well-correlation sections that relate Chukchi Sea wells to onshore northwestern NPRA wells are also included. For all analyzed seismic shot hole samples, foraminiferal age and environmental interpretations are provided; palynological interpretations are provided only for those shot hole samples collected and analyzed after 1976, a little less than half of the total number of samples.

  15. Ultrasonic measurement of residual stress in shot peened aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyev, Anton I.; Veronesi, William A.

    2001-04-01

    Shot peening is a well-known method for extending the fatigue life of metal components by introducing compressive residual stresses near their surfaces. The capability to non-destructively evaluate the near surface residual stress would greatly aid the assurance of proper fatigue life in shot-peened components. This paper addresses issues encountered in near-surface residual stress measurement by an ultrasonic surface wave method. In this method, a variation of ultrasonic surface wave speed with shot peening intensity is measured. Since the effective wave penetration depth inversely related to the excitation frequency, by making measurements at different frequencies, the method has the potential to provide the stress-depth profile. Experiments were conducted on aluminum specimens (alloy 7075-T7351) peened within the Almen peening intensity from 4A-16A. Several factors were found to contribute to the measured responses: surface roughness, near surface texture change, dislocation density increase and residual stress. In this paper, the contributions of residual stress, dislocation density and surface roughness to the overall effect are separately estimated. It is shown that the experimentally observed velocity change in shot peened samples is dominated by the effect of surface roughness while the role of residual stress is much smaller.

  16. On the Use of Shot Noise for Photon Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2015-11-01

    Lieu et al. have recently claimed that it is possible to substantially improve the sensitivity of radio-astronomical observations. In essence, their proposal is to make use of the intensity of the photon shot noise as a measure of the photon arrival rate. Lieu et al. provide a detailed quantum-mechanical calculation of a proposed measurement scheme that uses two detectors and conclude that this scheme avoids the sensitivity degradation that is associated with photon bunching. If correct, this result could have a profound impact on radio astronomy. Here I present a detailed analysis of the sensitivity attainable using shot-noise measurement schemes that use either one or two detectors, and demonstrate that neither scheme can avoid the photon bunching penalty. I perform both semiclassical and fully quantum calculations of the sensitivity, obtaining consistent results, and provide a formal proof of the equivalence of these two approaches. These direct calculations are furthermore shown to be consistent with an indirect argument based on a correlation method that establishes an independent limit to the sensitivity of shot-noise measurement schemes. Furthermore, these calculations are directly applicable to the regime of interest identified by Lieu et al. Collectively, these results conclusively demonstrate that the photon-bunching sensitivity penalty applies to shot-noise measurement schemes just as it does to ordinary photon counting, in contradiction to the fundamental claim made by Lieu et al. The source of this contradiction is traced to a logical fallacy in their argument.

  17. DOE SunShot System Integration Program. Accomplishments and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, Shannon; Ellis, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    During FY15, Sandia National Laboratories executed research and development (R&D) work on a portfolio of 16 SunShot Program Systems Integration (SI) agreements, with a total FY15 budget of $13.2 million. This document summarizes the impact of the Sandia contributions based on Sandia’s direct contributions by DOE.

  18. Lead shot incidence in sediments and waterfowl gizzards from Merrymeeting Bay, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Corr, P.O.; Spencer, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Lead shot in bottom sediments from Merrymeeting Bay, Maine, averaged 99,932 shot/ha. More shot (P < 0.05) was present in silt sediments than in sand sediments. Number 6 size shot was the most abundant in all 6 river deltas sampled. Ingested lead shot occurred in gizzards of 6 of 10 waterfowl species. Lead shot occurred in 5.9-8.1% of the black ducks (Anas rubripes) sampled during the hunting seasons of 1976-80. A comparison of 3 gizzard examination methods showed that visual examination of gizzard contents and x-ray examination of contents did not differ in accuracy, but fluoroscopic x-ray examination of intact gizzards was not satisfactory for detecting ingested shot. Projected waterfowl mortality and the effectiveness of the steel shot regulation in reducing lead deposition into the environment are discussed.

  19. Energy drink and energy shot use in the military.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mark B; Attipoe, Selasi; Jones, Donnamaria; Ledford, Christy J W; Deuster, Patricia A

    2014-10-01

    Use of energy drinks and energy shots among military personnel is controversial. High amounts of caffeine (the primary active ingredient in these products) may impact performance of military duties. The impact of caffeine overconsumption and potential subsequent side effects that might be experienced by service members with unique roles and responsibilities is a concern. Reported here are the prevalence of use, reasons for use, and side effects associated with consumption of energy drinks and energy shots among several populations of active duty personnel in the US military. A snowball survey was sent to over 10,000 active duty personnel. A total of 586 (∼6% response rate) individuals completed a 30-item electronic survey. Over half of respondents (53%) reported consuming an energy drink at least once in the past 30 days. One in five (19%) reported energy shot consumption in the prior 30 days. One in five (19%) also reported consuming an energy drink in combination with an alcoholic beverage. Age and gender were significantly associated with energy drink consumption. Young male respondents (18-29 years) reported the highest use of both energy drinks and energy shots. Among those reporting energy drink and energy shot use, the most common reasons for consumption were to improve mental alertness (61%) and to improve mental (29%) and physical (20%) endurance. Nearly two-thirds (65%) of users self-reported at least one side effect. The most commonly reported side effects included increased pulse rate/palpitations, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping. Use of energy products among military personnel is common and has the potential to impact warrior health and military readiness.

  20. [Gunshot damage inflicted by a short shot from some special-purpose arms].

    PubMed

    Gadzhieva, D B; Guzheedov, V N; Guseĭnov, O A

    2007-01-01

    Inlet damage to clothes material caused by point-blank shots from a special submachine guns Val, 9-A-91, sniper complex BCK-4 furnished with a soundless non-flame shooting devices (SNSD) was studied in experiment. Specific features of the affection and shot products distribution (shape, size, topography, accumulation of soot metals, etc.) were specified which allow judgement about guns and range of shot. How SNSD construction and shot range influence the above characteristics is shown. A relevant case is reported.

  1. High-Acquisition-Rate Single-Shot Pump-Probe Measurements Using Time-Stretching Method

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masataka; Minami, Yasuo; Johnson, Courtney L.; Salmans, Parker D.; Ellsworth, Nicholas R.; Takeda, Jun; Johnson, Jeremy A.; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances of ultrafast spectroscopy allow the capture of an entire ultrafast signal waveform in a single probe shot, which greatly reduces the measurement time and opens the door for the spectroscopy of unrepeatable phenomena. However, most single-shot detection schemes rely on two-dimensional detectors, which limit the repetition rate of the measurement and can hinder real-time visualization and manipulation of signal waveforms. Here, we demonstrate a new method to circumvent these difficulties and to greatly simplify the detection setup by using a long, single-mode optical fiber and a fast photodiode. Initially, a probe pulse is linearly chirped (the optical frequency varies linearly across the pulse in time), and the temporal profile of an ultrafast signal is then encoded in the probe spectrum. The probe pulse and encoded temporal dynamics are further chirped to nanosecond time scales using the dispersion in the optical fiber, thus, slowing down the ultrafast signal to time scales easily recorded with fast detectors and high-bandwidth electronics. We apply this method to three distinct ultrafast experiments: investigating the power dependence of the Kerr signal in LiNbO3, observing an irreversible transmission change of a phase change material, and capturing terahertz waveforms. PMID:27876881

  2. Single-shot gas-phase thermometry by time-to-frequency mapping of coherence dephasing.

    PubMed

    Yue, Orin; Bremer, Marshall T; Pestov, Dmitry; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh; Dantus, Marcos

    2012-08-09

    We demonstrate a single-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) technique for gas-phase thermometry that assesses the species-specific local gas temperature by single-shot time-to-frequency mapping of Raman-coherence dephasing. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed with air in a temperature-controlled gas cell. Impulsive excitation of molecular vibrations by an ultrashort pump/Stokes pulse is followed by multipulse probing of the 2330 cm(-1) Raman transition of N(2). This sequence of colored probe pulses, delayed in time with respect to each other and corresponding to three isolated spectral bands, imprints the coherence dephasing onto the measured CARS spectrum. For calibration purposes, the dephasing rates are recorded at various gas temperatures, and the relationship is fitted to a linear regression. The calibration data are then used to determine the gas temperature and are shown to provide better than 15 K accuracy. The described approach is insensitive to pulse energy fluctuations and can, in principle, gauge the temperature of multiple chemical species in a single laser shot, which is deemed particularly valuable for temperature profiling of reacting flows in gas-turbine combustors.

  3. High-Acquisition-Rate Single-Shot Pump-Probe Measurements Using Time-Stretching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masataka; Minami, Yasuo; Johnson, Courtney L.; Salmans, Parker D.; Ellsworth, Nicholas R.; Takeda, Jun; Johnson, Jeremy A.; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances of ultrafast spectroscopy allow the capture of an entire ultrafast signal waveform in a single probe shot, which greatly reduces the measurement time and opens the door for the spectroscopy of unrepeatable phenomena. However, most single-shot detection schemes rely on two-dimensional detectors, which limit the repetition rate of the measurement and can hinder real-time visualization and manipulation of signal waveforms. Here, we demonstrate a new method to circumvent these difficulties and to greatly simplify the detection setup by using a long, single-mode optical fiber and a fast photodiode. Initially, a probe pulse is linearly chirped (the optical frequency varies linearly across the pulse in time), and the temporal profile of an ultrafast signal is then encoded in the probe spectrum. The probe pulse and encoded temporal dynamics are further chirped to nanosecond time scales using the dispersion in the optical fiber, thus, slowing down the ultrafast signal to time scales easily recorded with fast detectors and high-bandwidth electronics. We apply this method to three distinct ultrafast experiments: investigating the power dependence of the Kerr signal in LiNbO3, observing an irreversible transmission change of a phase change material, and capturing terahertz waveforms.

  4. Invited Article: Single-shot THz detection techniques optimized for multidimensional THz spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Stephanie M.; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.; Werley, Christopher A.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2015-05-15

    Multidimensional spectroscopy at visible and infrared frequencies has opened a window into the transfer of energy and quantum coherences at ultrafast time scales. For these measurements to be performed in a manageable amount of time, one spectral axis is typically recorded in a single laser shot. An analogous rapid-scanning capability for THz measurements will unlock the multidimensional toolkit in this frequency range. Here, we first review the merits of existing single-shot THz schemes and discuss their potential in multidimensional THz spectroscopy. We then introduce improved experimental designs and noise suppression techniques for the two most promising methods: frequency-to-time encoding with linear spectral interferometry and angle-to-time encoding with dual echelons. Both methods, each using electro-optic detection in the linear regime, were able to reproduce the THz temporal waveform acquired with a traditional scanning delay line. Although spectral interferometry had mediocre performance in terms of signal-to-noise, the dual echelon method was easily implemented and achieved the same level of signal-to-noise as the scanning delay line in only 4.5% of the laser pulses otherwise required (or 22 times faster). This reduction in acquisition time will compress day-long scans to hours and hence provides a practical technique for multidimensional THz measurements.

  5. Single-Shot Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction from Randomly Oriented Ellipsoidal Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M.J.; Boutet, S.; Barty, A.; Benner, W.H.; Frank, M.; Lomb, L.; Shoeman, R.; Starodub, D.; Seibert, M.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Woods, B.; Decorwin-Martin, P.; Bajt, S.; Schulz, J.; Rohner, U.; Iwan, B.; Timneanu, N.; Marchesini, S.; Schlichting, I.; Hajdu, J.; Chapman, H.N.; /DESY /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II

    2012-04-18

    Coherent diffractive imaging of single particles using the single-shot 'diffract and destroy' approach with an x-ray free electron laser (FEL) was recently demonstrated. A high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern, representative of the object before it turns into a plasma and explodes, results from the interaction of the FEL with the particle. Iterative phase retrieval algorithms are used to reconstruct two-dimensional projection images of the object from the recorded intensities alone. Here we describe the first single-shot diffraction data set that mimics the data proposed for obtaining 3D structure from identical particles. Ellipsoidal iron oxide nanoparticles (250 nm x 50 nm) were aerosolized and injected through an aerodynamic lens stack into a soft x-ray FEL. Particle orientation was not controlled with this injection method. We observed that, at the instant the x-ray pulse interacts with the particle, a snapshot of the particle's orientation is encoded in the diffraction pattern. The results give credence to one of the technical concepts of imaging individual nanometer and subnanometer-sized objects such as single molecules or larger clusters of molecules using hard x-ray FELs and will be used to help develop robust algorithms for determining particle orientations and 3D structure.

  6. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10(-5) or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  7. A systematic examination of the bone destruction pattern of the two-shot technique

    PubMed Central

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Stoetzer, Carsten; Rana, Majeed; Zeller, Alexander; Hanke, Alexander; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The two-shot technique is an effective stopping power method. The precise mechanisms of action on the bone and soft-tissue structures of the skull; however, remain largely unclear. The aim of this study is to compare the terminal ballistics of the two-shot and single-shot techniques. Materials and Methods: 40 fresh pigs’ heads were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). Either a single shot or two shots were fired at each head with a full metal jacket or a semi-jacketed bullet. Using thin-layer computed tomography and photography, the diameter of the destruction pattern and the fractures along the bullet path were then imaged and assessed. Results: A single shot fired with a full metal jacket bullet causes minor lateral destruction along the bullet path. With two shots fired with a full metal jacket bullet, however, the maximum diameter of the bullet path is significantly greater (P < 0.05) than it is with a single shot fired with a full metal jacket bullet. In contrast, the maximum diameter with a semi-jacketed bullet is similar with the single-shot and two-shot techniques. Conclusion: With the two-shot technique, a full metal jacket bullet causes a destruction pattern that is comparable to that of a single shot fired with a semi-jacketed bullet. PMID:24812454

  8. Shot model parameters for Cygnus X-1 through phase portrait fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lochner, James C.; Swank, J. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Shot models for systems having about 1/f power density spectrum are developed by utilizing a distribution of shot durations. Parameters of the distribution are determined by fitting the power spectrum either with analytic forms for the spectrum of a shot model with a given shot profile, or with the spectrum derived from numerical realizations of trial shot models. The shot fraction is specified by fitting the phase portrait, which is a plot of intensity at a given time versus intensity at a delayed time and in principle is sensitive to different shot profiles. These techniques have been extensively applied to the X-ray variability of Cygnus X-1, using HEAO 1 A-2 and an Exosat ME observation. The power spectra suggest models having characteristic shot durations lasting from milliseconds to a few seconds, while the phase portrait fits give shot fractions of about 50 percent. Best fits to the portraits are obtained if the amplitude of the shot is a power-law function of the duration of the shot. These fits prefer shots having a symmetric exponential rise and decay. Results are interpreted in terms of a distribution of magnetic flares in the accretion disk.

  9. Ultrafast Optical Beam Deflection in a Planar Waveguide for High Dynamic Range Recording at Picosecond Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantos, C H; Heebner, J E

    2008-07-02

    We report the latest performance of an ultrafast, all-optical beam deflector based on a prism array imprinted in a planar waveguide. The deflector enables single-shot, high dynamic range optical recording with picosecond resolution.

  10. Sub-Shot Noise Power Source for Microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Mansour, Kamjou

    2011-01-01

    Low-current, high-impedance microelectronic devices can be affected by electric current shot noise more than they are affected by Nyquist noise, even at room temperature. An approach to implementing a sub-shot noise current source for powering such devices is based on direct conversion of amplitude-squeezed light to photocurrent. The phenomenon of optical squeezing allows for the optical measurements below the fundamental shot noise limit, which would be impossible in the domain of classical optics. This becomes possible by affecting the statistical properties of photons in an optical mode, which can be considered as a case of information encoding. Once encoded, the information describing the photon (or any other elementary excitations) statistics can be also transmitted. In fact, it is such information transduction from optics to an electronics circuit, via photoelectric effect, that has allowed the observation of the optical squeezing. It is very difficult, if not technically impossible, to directly measure the statistical distribution of optical photons except at extremely low light level. The photoelectric current, on the other hand, can be easily analyzed using RF spectrum analyzers. Once it was observed that the photocurrent noise generated by a tested light source in question is below the shot noise limit (e.g. produced by a coherent light beam), it was concluded that the light source in question possess the property of amplitude squeezing. The main novelty of this technology is to turn this well-known information transduction approach around. Instead of studying the statistical property of an optical mode by measuring the photoelectron statistics, an amplitude-squeezed light source and a high-efficiency linear photodiode are used to generate photocurrent with sub-Poissonian electron statistics. By powering microelectronic devices with this current source, their performance can be improved, especially their noise parameters. Therefore, a room-temperature sub-shot

  11. Effects of shot peening pressure, media type and double shot peening on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of low-alloy steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang Trung, Pham; Win Khun, Nay; Butler, David Lee

    2016-12-01

    The effects of different shot peening conditions such as pressure (from 68.9-551.6 kPa), media type (media S230 and S110) and double shot peening on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of shot peened AISI 4340 low-alloy steels, were systematically investigated. Their surface topography, hardness and roughness were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, a Vickers micro-hardness tester and surface profilometer, respectively, while the cross-sectional sub-surface structures of the as-received and shot peened samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological properties were determined by using a ball-on-disc micro-tribological tester. It was shown that shot peening pressure and media type had a significant effect on the surface roughness, hardness, microstructure, wear resistance and friction of the shot peened AISI 4340 steel samples. It also indicated that the double shot peening process was a promising treatment, not only to reduce the surface roughness of the material after undergoing the first shot peening process with large media and high intensity, but to improve the tribological properties of the shot peened material.

  12. Shot APPLE 2, A Test of the TEAPOT Series, 5 May 1955

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    volume: Shot BEE 9 Multi-shot volume: Shots ESS through MET and Shot ZUCCHINI , the Final TEAPOT ’rests. The volumes addressing the test events of...TURK "- TESLA ]2 \\ 91• POSTl -IL9 BEE ZUCCHINI APPLEl I -WS I -- ~L.. WASP S4 I7’I WASP PRIME APPLE 2 I MOTH HA ___ __ 0 HORNET HADR( I 1 31 I 1 S...roentgens, respectively. These officers were ordered not to enter contaminated areas for the one remaining shot of the series, ZUCCHINI . The other two

  13. Music video shot segmentation using independent component analysis and keyframe extraction based on image complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Wenjun; Shi, Yunyu; Li, Jun

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, Music video data is increasing at an astonishing speed. Shot segmentation and keyframe extraction constitute a fundamental unit in organizing, indexing, retrieving video content. In this paper a unified framework is proposed to detect the shot boundaries and extract the keyframe of a shot. Music video is first segmented to shots by illumination-invariant chromaticity histogram in independent component (IC) analysis feature space .Then we presents a new metric, image complexity, to extract keyframe in a shot which is computed by ICs. Experimental results show the framework is effective and has a good performance.

  14. Heavy metal concentrations of duck tissues in relation to ingestion of spent shot

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.L.; Fisher, F.M. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl from dissolution of ingested lead shot has been recognized as a major problem in wildlife management for almost a century. However, lead shot also contains considerable amounts of other metals. The aims of this study were to determine if any of the additional components of lead or steel shot were accumulated upon shot ingestion as indicated by their concentrations in bones and features, and to determine the feasibility of heavy metal analysis of feathers to assess exposure to spent shot.

  15. Gunshot location through recorded sound: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Pregliasco, Rodolfo G; Martínez, Ernesto N

    2002-11-01

    Using a video tape and three still photographs, we analyze recorded sound to attribute authorship in a fatal shooting incident. We measure the acoustic signature of the scene with four test detonations, and we discuss two methods of processing putative echoes in the audio band of the video. They allow us to locate 11 out of 17 shots, with a precision of 0.4 x 1.0 m2. Combining the location of the shots with the known positions of the participants, we arrive at the clear attribution of eight shots; three other shots (among which is the fatal one) probably issue from the same shooter, who remains unidentified within a small group of men. Our results lead to the exculpation of the main suspect. We analyze the statistical significance of the results, use Monte Carlo simulations to set an upper bound to the probability of false positives, and discuss areas of improvement of the method.

  16. One-Shot Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Liver Tumors Under General Anesthesia: Preliminary Data on Efficacy and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio, Antonio; Tarantino, Luciano; Francica, Giampiero; Mariniello, Nicola; Nuzzo, Antonio; Del Viscovo, Luca; Rotondo, Antonio

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To verify the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injection of large amounts of ethanol into large or multiple liver lesions, in a single session under general anesthesia (one-shot PEI) for percutaneous ablation of hepatic tumors. Methods: Twenty-nine patients (27 with 51 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules on cirrhosis, diameter range 1.0<+>-<+>9.0 cm; two patients with a single metastasis from the gastroenteric tract, 5.0 and 9.0 cm, respectively, in diameter) were treated with one-shot PEI. Results: The total volume of alcohol delivered per patient ranged from 16 to 210 ml. Mean ethanol volume in all patients was 49 ml. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) examination showed complete necrosis in 41 of 50 lesions. Two patients died of hypovolemic shock due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 3 and 7 days, respectively, after the interventional procedure. All the remaining patients are alive (follow-up 5<+>-<+>14 months) except one who died of liver failure 5 months after. New HCC nodules occurred in six patients within 6 months and one intralesional relapse was recorded. Conclusion: In this preliminary experience, one-shot PEI is as effective in inducing liver tumor necrosis as traditional PEI; its advantages are shorter treatment time and the capability of treating larger and multiple liver lesions.

  17. On the Path to SunShot - Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The halfway mark of the SunShot Initiative’s 2020 target date is a good time to take stock: How much progress has been made? What have we learned? What barriers and opportunities must still be addressed to ensure that solar technologies achieve cost parity in 2020 and realize their full potential in the decades beyond? To answer these questions, the Solar Energy Technology Office launched the On the Path to SunShot series in early 2015 in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and with contributions from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The reports focus on the areas of technology development, systems integration, and market enablers.

  18. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  19. Shot noise in magnetic field modulated graphene superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, Farhad

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the shot noise properties in a monolayer graphene superlattice modulated by N parallel ferromagnets deposited on a dielectric layer. It is found that for the antiparallel magnetization configuration or when magnetic field is zero the new Dirac-like point appears in graphene superlattice. The transport is almost forbidden at this new Dirac-like point, and the Fano factor reaches its maximum value 1/3. In the parallel magnetization configuration as the number of magnetic barriers increases, the shot noise increases. In this case, the transmission can be blocked by the magnetic-electric barrier and the Fano factor approaches 1, which is dramatically distinguishable from that in antiparallel alignment. The results may be helpful to control the electron transport in graphene-based electronic devices.

  20. Single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with LYSO scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Deller, A.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-08-01

    We have evaluated the application of a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) based detector to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. We compare this detector directly with a similarly configured PbWO4 scintillator, which is the usual choice for such measurements. We find that the signal to noise ratio obtained using LYSO is around three times higher than that obtained using PbWO4 for measurements of Ps excited to longer-lived (Rydberg) levels, or when they are ionized soon after production. This is due to the much higher light output for LYSO (75% and 1% of NaI for LYSO and PbWO4 respectively). We conclude that LYSO is an ideal scintillator for single-shot measurements of positronium production and excitation performed using a low-intensity pulsed positron beam.

  1. Blurry-frame detection and shot segmentation in colonoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, JungHwan; Hwang, Sae; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

    2003-12-01

    Colonoscopy is an important screening procedure for colorectal cancer. During this procedure, the endoscopist visually inspects the colon. Human inspection, however, is not without error. We hypothesize that colonoscopy videos may contain additional valuable information missed by the endoscopist. Video segmentation is the first necessary step for the content-based video analysis and retrieval to provide efficient access to the important images and video segments from a large colonoscopy video database. Based on the unique characteristics of colonoscopy videos, we introduce a new scheme to detect and remove blurry frames, and segment the videos into shots based on the contents. Our experimental results show that the average precision and recall of the proposed scheme are over 90% for the detection of non-blurry images. The proposed method of blurry frame detection and shot segmentation is extensible to the videos captured from other endoscopic procedures such as upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy.

  2. Single shot line-field optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Schill, Alexander; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Kazemi, Tina; Nair, Achuth; Hsu, Thomas; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography (EWI-OCE) is an emerging technique that can quantify local biomechanical properties of tissues. However, long acquisition times make this technique unfeasible for clinical use. Here, we demonstrate a noncontact single shot line-field OCE technique using a line-field interferometer and an air-pulse delivery system. The spatial-temporal elastic wave propagation profile was acquired in a single shot and used to quantify the elastic wave group velocity in tissue. Results on tissue-mimicking phantoms and chicken breast muscle agreed well with mechanical compression testing, demonstrating that the presented method can effectively reduce the OCE acquisition time to a few milliseconds in biological application.

  3. Single-shot incoherent digital holography using a dual-focusing lens with diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangyu; Matoba, Osamu; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    A new optical configuration of incoherent digital holography is presented to improve the quality of reconstructed images when the random polarization state of incoherent light is used. The proposed system improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the holograms by suppressing the unmodulated terms of a spatial light modulator. To generate the self-interference of a quasi-incoherent point-like source, we use a dual-focusing lens with diffraction gratings. The preliminary experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed method by reconstructing two point-like sources generated by a LED light source. When the pixel pitch of the phase-mode SLM is small enough, the off-axis hologram can be generated. The single-shot recording of the incoherent digital holography is expected.

  4. Single-shot digital holography for fast measuring optical properties of fibers.

    PubMed

    Agour, Mostafa; El-Farahaty, Keremal; Seisa, Eman; Omar, Emam; Sokkar, Taha

    2015-10-01

    We propose a fast method for measuring optical properties, e.g., the refractive index profile and birefringence, of fibers. It is based on recovering the phase distribution of light refracted by a fiber sample at the recording plane from a single-shot digital hologram. During the recovering process, an optimized approach based on the spatial carrier frequency method was utilized. The proposed approach enhances affects that arise from the limited spatial extent of the bandpass filter associated with the implementation of the spatial carrier frequency method. In contrast to the low spatial resolution of off-axis digital holograms, the method ensures the best utilization of the camera support. From the recovered phase information, the optical path difference is measured; thus, the refractive index profile, the mean refractive index, and the birefringence of isotactic polypropylene (IPP) are determined. Experimental results are given for illustration.

  5. Axially distributed sensing with a monoscopic imaging lens for single-shot distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Sandner, Marc; Kolenović, Ervin; Klattenhoff, Reiner; Kolenović, Elam; Elandaloussi, Frank; von Kopylow, Christoph; Bergmann, Ralf B

    2014-08-01

    Using the image-based optical measurement method known as axially distributed sensing (ADS), the depth information of a scene is retrieved by evaluating images recorded with a camera positioned on multiple points along a common optical axis. We describe the design of a monoscopic lens that images the scene from two different on-axis points of perspective simultaneously onto a single camera. Designed for use in a territorial surveillance video system, this lens allows for capturing 3D scene information based on ADS with a single shot. We present the physical foundations of this approach and its implementation as a compact lens system and show the usability of the system prototype, supported by performance tests.

  6. Single-shot measurements of plasmons in compressed diamond with an x-ray lasera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Zastrau, U.; Galtier, E.; MacDonald, M. J.; Gauthier, M.; Vorberger, J.; Gericke, D. O.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-05-01

    Strong plasmon resonances characteristics of electron density fluctuations have recently been observed in dynamically compressed diamond for the first time at the Linac Coherent Light Source. These experiments observe the forward scattering spectra from 8 keV x-ray pulses at record peak brightness to probe laser-compressed diamond foils at the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument. We demonstrate single-shot measurements of the x-ray scattering spectrum, which are sensitive to the temperatures and densities of the compressed samples. The inferred values from the inelastic scattering are compared to simulations, finding good agreement with the temperature and demonstrating the need to include solid state effects in the modeling of the plasmon oscillation.

  7. Single-shot measurements of plasmons in compressed diamond with an x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E. J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Galtier, E.; Gauthier, M.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Zastrau, U.; MacDonald, M. J.; Vorberger, J.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-05-15

    Strong plasmon resonances characteristics of electron density fluctuations have recently been observed in dynamically compressed diamond for the first time at the Linac Coherent Light Source. These experiments observe the forward scattering spectra from 8 keV x-ray pulses at record peak brightness to probe laser-compressed diamond foils at the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument. We demonstrate single-shot measurements of the x-ray scattering spectrum, which are sensitive to the temperatures and densities of the compressed samples. The inferred values from the inelastic scattering are compared to simulations, finding good agreement with the temperature and demonstrating the need to include solid state effects in the modeling of the plasmon oscillation.

  8. SnapShot: Nucleic acid immune sensors, part 2.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Veit

    2014-12-18

    The innate immune system has evolved sensors that can detect specific molecular fingerprints of non-self RNA or DNA. At the same time, some receptors respond to nucleic acids of both exogenous and endogenous origin, yet they are spatially segregated from endogenous nucleic acids. This SnapShot schematizes families and individual members of nucleic acid sensors with a focus on their ligands and the signaling pathways they employ.

  9. The traumatic potential of a projectile shot from a sling.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, Igor; Lankovsky, Zvi; Kalichman, Leonid; Belkin, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we analyze the energy parameters of stones of various weights and shapes shot from a sling and based on this data evaluate its traumatic potential. Four police officers proficient in the use of a sling participated in the trials. The following projectile types, shot using an overhead technique at a target 100m away were: round steel balls of different sizes and weights (24mm, 57g; 32mm, 135g; 38mm, 227g); different shaped stones weighing 100-150g and 150-200g and a golf ball (47g). Our data indicated that projectiles shot from unconventional weapons such as a sling, have serious traumatic potential for unprotected individuals and can cause blunt trauma of moderate to critical severity such as fractures of the trunk, limb, and facial skull bone, depending on the weight and shape of the projectile and the distance from the source of danger. Asymmetrically shaped projectiles weighing more than 100g were the most dangerous. Projectiles weighing more than 100g can cause bone fractures of the trunk and limbs at distances of up to 60m from the target and may cause serious head injuries to an unprotected person (Abbreviated Injury Scale 4-5) at distances up to 200m from the target. Due to the traumatic potential of projectiles shot from a sling, the police must wear full riot gear and keep at a distance of at least 60m from the source of danger in order to avoid serious injury. Furthermore, given the potential for serious head injuries, wearing a helmet with a visor is mandatory at distances up to 200m from the source of danger.

  10. Single shot cell irradiations with laser-driven protons

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, N.; Schmid, T. E.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Wilkens, J. J.; Allinger, K.; Hilz, P.; Ma, W.; Reinhardt, S.; Bin, J.; Kiefer, D.; Schreiber, J.; Drexler, G. A.; Friedl, A.

    2013-07-26

    Ion beams are relevant for radiobiological studies in basic research and for application in tumor therapy. Here we present a method to generate nanosecond proton bunches with single shot doses of up to 7 Gray by a tabletop high-power laser. Although in their infancy, laser-ion accelerators allow studying fast radiobiological processes at small-scale laboratories as exemplarily demonstrated by measurements of the relative biological effectiveness of protons in human tumor cells.

  11. Spin-dependent shot noise enhancement in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbelohde, Niels; Fricke, Christian; Hohls, Frank; Haug, Rolf J.

    2013-07-01

    The spin-dependent dynamical blockade was investigated in a lateral quantum dot in a magnetic field. Spin-polarized edge channels in the two-dimensional leads and the spatial distribution of Landau orbitals in the dot modulate the tunnel coupling of the quantum dot level spectrum. In a measurement of the electron shot noise we observe a pattern of super-Poissonian noise which is correlated to the spin-dependent competition between different transport channels.

  12. Multiple-charge-quanta shot noise in superconducting atomic contacts.

    PubMed

    Cron, R; Goffman, M F; Esteve, D; Urbina, C

    2001-04-30

    We have measured shot noise in aluminum atomic point contacts containing a small number of conduction channels of known transmissions. In the normal state, we find that the noise power is reduced from its Poissonian value and reaches the partition limit, as calculated from the transmissions. In the superconducting state, the noise reveals the large effective charge associated with each elementary transfer process, in excellent agreement with the predictions of the quantum theory of multiple Andreev reflections.

  13. Distributions of Conductance and Shot Noise and Associated Phase Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N.; Bohigas, Oriol

    2008-11-21

    For a chaotic cavity with two identical leads each supporting N channels, we compute analytically, for large N, the full distribution of the conductance and the shot noise power and show that in both cases there is a central Gaussian region flanked on both sides by non-Gaussian tails. The distribution is weakly singular at the junction of Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, a direct consequence of two phase transitions in an associated Coulomb gas problem.

  14. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones.

  15. Spin-dependent shot noise in magnetic graphene superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, Farhad

    2015-10-01

    We study the spin-dependent shot noise properties in magnetic graphene superlattice with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). The magnetic field generated by N parallel ferromagnets (FM) deposited on a dielectric layer. We consider two types of magnetic profiles: the FM stripes with magnetization parallel (P) or antiparallel (AP) perpendicular to the graphene. It is found that the shot noise of a spin state can be efficiently controlled by the number of barrier, RSOI strength and magnetic field. In the first case the Fano factor shows a peak with value approximately F = 1/3 for the both spin-up and spin-down electrons at new Dirac-like point. The position of the new Dirac point is robust against the magnetic field and RSOI. In the second case the Fano factor increases by increasing the number of barriers, and plateau of the Fano factor is formed. The results indicate that there is a strong relationship between spin-dependent shot noise and the magnitude of the spin polarization.

  16. First-time viewers' comprehension of films: bridging shot transitions.

    PubMed

    Ildirar, Sermin; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Which perceptual and cognitive prerequisites must be met in order to be able to comprehend a film is still unresolved and a controversial issue. In order to gain some insights into this issue, our field experiment investigates how first-time adult viewers extract and integrate meaningful information across film cuts. Three major types of commonalities between adjacent shots were differentiated, which may help first-time viewers with bridging the shots: pictorial, causal, and conceptual. Twenty first-time, 20 low-experienced and 20 high-experienced viewers from Turkey were shown a set of short film clips containing these three kinds of commonalities. Film clips conformed also to the principles of continuity editing. Analyses of viewers' spontaneous interpretations show that first-time viewers indeed are able to notice basic pictorial (object identity), causal (chains of activity), as well as conceptual (links between gaze direction and object attention) commonalities between shots due to their close relationship with everyday perception and cognition. However, first-time viewers' comprehension of the commonalities is to a large degree fragile, indicating the lack of a basic notion of what constitutes a film.

  17. Intraindividual movement variability within the 5 m water polo shot.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul G; Landeo, Raul; Coogan, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore movement variability of throwing arm and ball release parameters during the water polo shot and to compare variability between successful (hit) and unsuccessful (miss) outcomes. Seven injury free, subelite, females completed 10 trials of the 5 m water polo penalty shot. Intraindividual coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) values were calculated for elbow and wrist angular displacement, wrist linear velocity and ball release parameters (height, angle and velocity). Coordination variability (elbow/wrist angular displacement) was calculated as the CV% of the mean cross-correlation coefficient. Elbow and wrist displacement variability decreased to 80% of throwing time then increased toward release. Wrist linear velocity variability reduced toward release. Individual CV% values ranged between 1.6% and 23.5% (all trials), 0.4% and 20.6% (hit), and 0.4% and 27.1% (miss). Ball release height and velocity variability were low (< 12%; all trials) whereas release angle variability was high (>27%; all trials). Cross-correlation results were inconclusive. Roles of the elbow and wrist in production of stable ball release height and velocity and control of the highly variable release angle in the water polo shot are discussed and suggested for further study. Optimal levels of variability warrant future investigation.

  18. Investigation on Residual Stress Induced by Shot Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunmei; Gao, Yukui; Guo, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Fu, Lichao; Yang, Qingxiang

    2015-03-01

    The high strength steel widely used in the aviation industry was chosen in this paper. The shot peening (SP) tests with different technical parameters were carried out, and compressive residual stress (CRS) distribution along the depth was determined. The phase structures before and after SP were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Microhardness and fatigue life were measured, and the morphology of fatigue fracture was also observed. The effects of different technical parameters on CRS field were investigated, and the CRS features with the characteristic parameters were analyzed deeply to summarize the rules. The results show that the CRS field induced by SP can be expressed by four characteristic parameters: the surface CRS σsrs, the maximum CRS σmrs, the depth of maximum CRS ξm and the depth of CRS (strengthened depth) ξ0. Martensite matrix is not changed by SP, while its boundary changes ambiguous with the formation of dislocations. After SP, the microhardness of the specimen increase, and the fatigue crack source moves inwards. The SP saturated time is 1 min. With the increase of SP intensity, σsrs, σmrs, ξm, and ξ0 all increase. While with the increase of SP angle, ξ0 grows gradually. The strengthen effect behaves more obviously as the shot size increases, and the shot material with larger hardness cause higher level of CRS field. Dual SP mainly increases σsrs value.

  19. Shot-to-shot reproducibility in the emission of fast highly charged metal ions from a laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Krása, J; Velyhan, A; Margarone, D; Krouský, E; Krouský, L; Jungwirth, K; Rohlena, K; Ullschmied, J; Parys, P; Ryć, L; Wołowski, J

    2012-02-01

    The generation of fast highly charged metal ions with the use of the sub-nanosecond Prague Asterix Laser System, operated at a fundamental wavelength of 1315 nm, is reported. Particular attention is paid to shot-to-shot reproducibility in the ion emission. Au and Pd targets were exposed to intensities up to 5 × 10(16) W∕cm(2). Above the laser intensity threshold of ∼3 × 10(14) W∕cm(2) the plasma is generated in a form of irregular bursts. The maximum energy of protons constituting the leading edge of the fastest burst reaches a value up to 1 MeV. The fast ions in the following bursts have energy gradually decreasing with the increasing burst number, namely, from a value of about 0.5 MeV∕charge regardless of the atomic number and mass of the ionized species.

  20. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller I, II and Johnie Boy. Project officers report. Project 6. 6. Electromagnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.D.; Livingston, P.M.; Rutter, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    Of considerable interest from both a physical and practical viewpoint is the coupling of electromagnetic energy from a nuclear explosion into various electrical systems in the vicinity of the burst. A series of electromagnetic measurements were made on Shots Little Feller I, Little Feller II, and Johnie Boy. It is clear from the records that radiation shielding must be given closer consideration in future tests. Due to equipment failure and radiation inactivation, only the Johnie Boy dynamic current measurement and the passive peak current indicators on all three events are interpretable.

  1. Generalized shot noise model for time-reversal in multiple-scattering media allowing for arbitrary inputs and windowing

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical shot noise model to describe the output of a time-reversal experiment in a multiple-scattering medium is developed. This (non-wave equation based) model describes the following process. An arbitrary waveform is transmitted through a high-order multiple-scattering environment and recorded. The recorded signal is arbitrarily windowed and then time-reversed. The processed signal is retransmitted into the environment and the resulting signal recorded. The temporal and spatial signal and noise of this process is predicted statistically. It is found that the time when the noise is largest depends on the arbitrary windowing and this noise peak can occur at times outside the main lobe. To determine further trends, a common set of parameters is applied to the general result. It is seen that as the duration of the input function increases, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases (independent of signal bandwidth). It is also seen that longer persisting impulse responses result in increased main lobe amplitudes and SNR. Assumptions underpinning the generalized shot noise model are compared to an experimental realization of a multiple-scattering medium (a time-reversal chaotic cavity). Results from the model are compared to random number numerical simulation. PMID:19425655

  2. Study of the mechanisms of fragmentation and vibration in blasting operations. Final report. [Single, dual and 5 hole shots with delays

    SciTech Connect

    Winzer, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the frequency and amplitude of blast-induced ground vibration. One part, conducted by the Photomechanics Laboratory of the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Maryland, simulated and measured the surface displacements due to small explosive charges detonated on the surface of rock and a rock analog. The other part, conducted by Martin Marietta Laboratories, determined the effect of changing delay parameters on blast vibrations in precisely controlled small quarry blasts. The University of Maryland study measured the surface displacements due to explosive charges with holographic interferometry. the Martin Marietta study consisted of a test series of blasts in an operating quarry to determine the effect of precisely controlled delay timing on the frequency and amplitude of ground vibration. An aerial survey was conducted to produce a topographic map of the area to be studied, and reconnaissance geological mapping was carried out to determine the gross aspects of the deposit. Preliminary analysis of seismograph data indicated that dual-hole shots with short time delays generated seismograms which were indistinguishable from single-hole shot seismograms. Also, linar superposition of single-hole seismograms, appropriately delayed, would not reproduce the records generated by the multi-hole blasts. These results were not expected. Examination of the strain-gage records indicated that there was probably some interaction of strain pulses for the shorter delay shots, and that the interaction was non-linear with distance from the borehole. This non-linear interaction may be the cuase of the unexpected results. Five-hole shots show more complicated seismograms, which are a combination of the results of the two-hole shots and the local ground response.

  3. Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

  4. Start-Up of FEL Oscillator from Shot Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Fawley, W.M.

    2007-01-25

    In free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators, as inself-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FELs, the buildup of cavitypower starts from shot noise resulting from the discreteness ofelectronic charge. It is important to do the start-up analysis for thebuild-up of cavity power in order to fix the macropulse width from theelectron accelerator such that the system reaches saturation. In thispaper, we use the time-dependent simulation code GINGER [1]toperformthis analysis. We present results of this analysis for theparameters of the Compact Ultrafast TErahertz FEL (CUTE-FEL) [2]beingbuilt atRRCAT.

  5. Effects of strain on shot noise properties in graphene superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, Farhad; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the transmission and the shot noise properties through the strain-induced graphene superlattices are studied. It is found that for the zigzag direction strain the Fano factor shows a peak at new Dirac-like point and the position of the new Dirac point varies against the strain. Also, Fano factor has an oscillatory behavior with respect to strain strength and the oscillation period decreases by increasing the number of barriers. However, for the armchair direction strain the transmission can be blocked by the electric barrier and the Fano factor approaches 1, this is different from the zigzag direction strain.

  6. Shot noise, LER, and quantum efficiency of EUV photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, Robert L.; Trefonas, Peter; Lammers, Jeroen H.; Cutler, Charlotte A.; Mackevich, Joseph F.; Trefonas, Alexander; Robertson, Stewart A.

    2004-05-01

    The shot noise, line edge roughness (LER) and quantum efficiency of EUV interaction with seven resists related to EUV-2D (SP98248B) are studied. These resists were identical to EUV-2D except were prepared with seven levels of added base while keeping all other resist variables constant. These seven resists were patterned with EUV lithography, and LER was measured on 100-200 nm dense lines. Similarly, the resists were also imaged using DUV lithography and LER was determined for 300-500 nm dense lines. LER results for both wavelengths were plotted against Esize. Both curves show very similar LER behavior-the resists requiring low doses have poor LER, whereas the resists requiring high doses have good LER. One possible explanation for the observed LER response is that the added base improves LER by reacting with the photogenerated acid to control the lateral spread of acid, leading to better chemical contrast at the line edge. An alternative explanation to the observed relationship between LER and Esize is that shot-noise generated LER decreases as the number of photons absorbed at the line edge increases. We present an analytical model for the influence of shot noise based on Poisson statistics that preidicts that the LER is proportional to (Esize)-1/2. Indeed, both sets of data give straight lines when plotted this way (DUV r2 = 0.94; EUV r2 = 0.97). We decided to further evaluate this interpretation by constructing a simulation model for shot noise resulting from exposure and acid diffusion at the mask edge. In order to acquire the data for this model, we used the base titration method developed by Szmanda et al. to determine C-parameters and hence the quantum efficiency for producing photogenerated acid. This information, together with film absorptivity, allows the calculation of number and location of acid molecules generated at the mask edgte by assuming a stochastic distribution of individual photons corresponding to the aerial image function. The edge

  7. Single-shot camera position estimation by crossed grating imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-01-01

    A simple method to estimate the position of a camera device with respect to a reference plane is proposed. The method utilizes a crossed grating in the reference plane and exploits the coordinate transformation induced by the perspective projection. If the focal length is available, the position of the camera can be estimated with a single-shot. Otherwise, the focal length can be firstly estimated from few frames captured at different known displacements. The theoretical principles of the proposed method are given and the functionality of the approach is exhibited by correcting perspective-distorted images. The proposed method is computationally efficient and highly appropriate to be used in dynamic measurement systems.

  8. Single-shot phase-measuring deflectometry for cornea measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hanning; Olesch, Evelyn; Yang, Zheng; Häusler, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD) has become a standard tool to measure the topography of specular surfaces. We implemented PMD for the measurement of the human cornea topography, exploiting an earlier idea of Lingelbach et al. Two problems occur: a large angular dynamical range and a single-shot measurement are required. We solve these problems by an optimized geometry with minimal occlusion and by single sideband demodulation with a pre-distorted fringe pattern with optimal fringe period. An in vivo measurement of an astigmatic cornea displays a deviation from the medical diagnosis of only 0.15 D, which is within the medical quantization step of 0.25 D.

  9. After the First Shots: Managing Escalation in Northeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    JFQ 77, 2nd Quarter 2015 Manzo 91 After the First Shots Managing Escalation in Northeast Asia By Vincent A. Manzo T he United States has never fought...escalation will be an essential part of U.S. efforts to extend deterrence and assure its allies in Northeast Asia . Thomas Schelling’s writing on... Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  10. Single-Shot Fault-Tolerant Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombín, Héctor

    2015-07-01

    Conventional quantum error correcting codes require multiple rounds of measurements to detect errors with enough confidence in fault-tolerant scenarios. Here, I show that for suitable topological codes, a single round of local measurements is enough. This feature is generic and is related to self-correction and confinement phenomena in the corresponding quantum Hamiltonian model. Three-dimensional gauge color codes exhibit this single-shot feature, which also applies to initialization and gauge fixing. Assuming the time for efficient classical computations to be negligible, this yields a topological fault-tolerant quantum computing scheme where all elementary logical operations can be performed in constant time.

  11. Shot noise in the hybrid triple-quantum-dot interferometer coupled to superconductor and normal terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-Kang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Qing

    2014-04-01

    The shot noise of a hybrid triple-quantum-dot (TQD) interferometer has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the general shot noise formula has been derived. The oscillation behaviors of transmission coefficients and shot noise versus the Aharonov-Bohm phase ϕ exhibit asymmetric Fano resonance structure and blockade effect. Sub-Poissonian and super-Poissonian behaviors of shot noise appear in different regimes of terminal bias eVγ contributed by the Andreev reflection, and correlation of Andreev tunneling with the normal electron transport. The inverse resonance and resonance structures emerge in the shot noise and Fano factor with respect to one of the gate voltages in different regimes of eVγ. The asymmetric structure can be enhanced by modifying the energy levels and gate biases of the TQD. The self-correlation and cross-correlation of current components contribute to the enhancement and suppression of shot noise.

  12. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: Inhibition in ducks dosed with lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Lead concentration in blood and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was measured in mallard ducks dosed with one all-lead shot or one lead-iron combination shot. For 2 weeks after dosage, lead in blood of ducks given an all-lead shot was fourfold higher than in those dosed with lead-iron shot. At 3 and 4 weeks, the differences in lead residues were directly proportional to lead content of the shots. ALAD activities measured at these intervals were inversely correlated (P < 0.01) with the concentration of lead in the blood, suggesting that biochemical responses to the two types of shot were dependent upon the quantity of lead present.

  13. Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-12-01

    The capture of transient scenes at high imaging speed has been long sought by photographers, with early examples being the well known recording in 1878 of a horse in motion and the 1887 photograph of a supersonic bullet. However, not until the late twentieth century were breakthroughs achieved in demonstrating ultrahigh-speed imaging (more than 105 frames per second). In particular, the introduction of electronic imaging sensors based on the charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology revolutionized high-speed photography, enabling acquisition rates of up to 107 frames per second. Despite these sensors' widespread impact, further increasing frame rates using CCD or CMOS technology is fundamentally limited by their on-chip storage and electronic readout speed. Here we demonstrate a two-dimensional dynamic imaging technique, compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), which can capture non-repetitive time-evolving events at up to 1011 frames per second. Compared with existing ultrafast imaging techniques, CUP has the prominent advantage of measuring an x-y-t (x, y, spatial coordinates; t, time) scene with a single camera snapshot, thereby allowing observation of transient events with temporal resolution as tens of picoseconds. Furthermore, akin to traditional photography, CUP is receive-only, and so does not need the specialized active illumination required by other single-shot ultrafast imagers. As a result, CUP can image a variety of luminescent--such as fluorescent or bioluminescent--objects. Using CUP, we visualize four fundamental physical phenomena with single laser shots only: laser pulse reflection and refraction, photon racing in two media, and faster-than-light propagation of non-information (that is, motion that appears faster than the speed of light but cannot convey information). Given CUP's capability, we expect it to find widespread applications in both fundamental and applied sciences, including biomedical

  14. CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF THE FIRST GALAXIES: CRITERIA FOR ONE-SHOT ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Frebel, Anna; Bromm, Volker E-mail: vbromm@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2012-11-10

    We utilize metal-poor stars in the local, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs; L {sub tot} {<=} 10{sup 5} L {sub Sun }) to empirically constrain the formation process of the first galaxies. Since UFDs have much simpler star formation histories than the halo of the Milky Way, their stellar populations should preserve the fossil record of the first supernova (SN) explosions in their long-lived, low-mass stars. Guided by recent hydrodynamical simulations of first galaxy formation, we develop a set of stellar abundance signatures that characterize the nucleosynthetic history of such an early system if it was observed in the present-day universe. Specifically, we argue that the first galaxies are the product of chemical 'one-shot' events, where only one (long-lived) stellar generation forms after the first, Population III, SN explosions. Our abundance criteria thus constrain the strength of negative feedback effects inside the first galaxies. We compare the stellar content of UFDs with these one-shot criteria. Several systems (Ursa Major II, and also Coma Berenices, Bootes I, Leo IV, Segue 1) largely fulfill the requirements, indicating that their high-redshift predecessors did experience strong feedback effects that shut off star formation. We term the study of the entire stellar population of a dwarf galaxy for the purpose of inferring details about the nature and origin of the first galaxies 'dwarf galaxy archaeology'. This will provide clues to the connection of the first galaxies, the surviving, metal-poor dwarf galaxies, and the building blocks of the Milky Way.

  15. Effects of Laser and Shot Peening on Fatigue Crack Growth in Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Forman, Royce; Lyons, Jed

    2006-01-01

    The effects of laser, and shot peening on the fatigue life of Friction Stir Welds (FSW) have been investigated. The surface roughness resulting from various peening techniques was assessed, and the fracture surfaces microstructure was characterized. Laser peening resulted in an increase in fatigue life approximately 60%, while shot peening resulted in 10% increase when compared to the unpeened material. The surface roughness of shot peening was significantly higher compared to the base material, while specimens processed with laser peening were relatively smooth.

  16. Lead in tissues of mallard ducks dosed with two types of lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sacrificed one month after ingesting one number 4 all-lead shot or one number 4 lead-iron shot. Livers, kidneys, blood, wingbones, and eggs were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption. Necropsy of sacrificed ducks failed to reveal any of the tissue lesions usually associated with lead poisoning in waterfowl. Lead levels in ducks given all-lead shot averaged about twice those in ducks given lead-iron shot, reflecting the amount of lead in the two types of shot. Lead in the blood of ducks dosed with all-lead shot averaged 0.64 ppm, and 0.28 ppm in ducks given lead-iron shot. Lead residues in livers and kidneys of females given all-lead shot were significantly higher than in males. In both dosed groups, lead levels in wingbones of females were about 10 times those in males, and were significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid after dosage. Lead levels in contents and shells of eggs laid by hens dosed with all-lead shot were about twice those in eggs laid by hens dosed with lead-iron shot. Eggshells were found to best reflect levels of lead in the blood. Our results indicate that mallards maintained on a balanced diet and dosed with one lead shot may not accumulate extremely high lead levels in the liver and kidney. However, extremely high lead deposition may result in the bone of laying hens after ingesting sublethal amounts of lead shot as a result of mobilization of calcium from the bone during eggshell formation.

  17. A Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Approach for Video Shot Boundary Detection.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Dalton Meitei; Khelchandra, Thongam; Manglem Singh, Kh; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a shot boundary detection approach using Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic. In this, the membership functions of the fuzzy system are calculated using Genetic Algorithm by taking preobserved actual values for shot boundaries. The classification of the types of shot transitions is done by the fuzzy system. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the shot boundary detection increases with the increase in iterations or generations of the GA optimization process. The proposed system is compared to latest techniques and yields better result in terms of F1score parameter.

  18. Relative toxicity of lead and selected substitute shot types to game farm mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.

    1967-01-01

    The acute toxicity of lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot were tested in year-old male game farm mallards. Mallards (Anus platyrhynchos) were fed eight number 6 shot of each type and observed for a period of 60 days. Ducks used totaled 230 and most shot types were tested in three replicates of 8 ducks each. Mortality and losses of body weight were the criteria used for judging toxicity. Three types of plastic-coated lead shot were as toxic (93 percent) as the commercial lead shot (96 percent). The average mortality in mallards fed lead-magnesium alloy shot was less (58 percent) than that occurring in birds fed commercial lead shot. Mortality among mallards fed iron, copper, zinc-coated iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot was significantly less than in birds fed lead shot, and was not significantly greater than the conrtols.

  19. The effect of perceived streakiness on the shot-taking behaviour of basketball players.

    PubMed

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examine behavioural changes of basketball players arising from the hot-hand belief and use data of 1216 National Basketball Association games to measure the effect of cold and hot streaks on three proxies of shot difficulty. We find that the more consecutive shots players make (miss), the more difficult (easier) shots become along the three dimensions. Furthermore, most players' performance seems to improve during hot streaks because they attempt more difficult shots while no significant decrease in shooting accuracy takes place. This might explain why most previous studies could not find empirical evidence for the hot-hand belief in basketball when considering in-game field goal shooting.

  20. Post Shot Simulations of NIF Convergent Ablator Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. E.; Meezan, N. B.; Hicks, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Dewald, E. L.; Jones, O. S.; Langer, S. H.; Callahan, D. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Post shot simulations of NIF convergent ablator experiments will be described. The experiments use a streaked radiograph of a backlit capsule implosion to measure the trajectory, velocity, remaining mass, and ablator rhoR and are an important component of the U. S. National Ignition Campaign. The integrated (capsule-in-hohlraum) post shot simulations use measured target parameters, measured laser input powers, measured time-resolved backscatter, and calculated cross-beam power transfer. The integrated calculations are post-processed to provide simulations of the key diagnostics, including: 1) Dante measurements of the hohlraum x-ray flux and spectrum; 2) streaked radiographs of the imploding ablator shell; 3) wedge range filter measurements of D-He3 proton output spectra; and 4) GXD images of the imploded core. The simulated diagnostics are compared to the experimental measurements to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the design code, to enhance understanding of the experiments, and to assist in choosing parameters for subsequent steps in the path towards optimal ignition capsule tuning.

  1. Interface conditions of two-shot molded parts

    SciTech Connect

    Kisslinger, Thomas; Bruckmoser, Katharina Resch, Katharina; Lucyshyn, Thomas E-mail: guenter.langecker@unileoben.ac.at; Langecker, Guenter Ruediger E-mail: guenter.langecker@unileoben.ac.at; Holzer, Clemens

    2014-05-15

    The focus of this work is on interfaces of two-shot molded parts. It is well known that e.g. material combination, process parameters and contact area structures show significant effects on the bond strength of multi-component injection molded parts. To get information about the bond strength at various process parameter settings and material combinations a test mold with core back technology was used to produce two-component injection molded tensile test specimens. At the core back process the different materials are injected consecutively, so each component runs through the whole injection molding cycle (two-shot process). Due to this consecutive injection molding processes, a cold interface is generated. This is defined as overmolding of a second melt to a solidified polymer preform. Strong interest lies in the way the interface conditions change during the adhesion formation between the individual components. Hence the interface conditions were investigated by computed tomography and Raman spectroscopy. By analyzing these conditions the understanding of the adhesion development during the multi-component injection molding was improved.

  2. Caffeine Content in Popular Energy Drinks and Energy Shots.

    PubMed

    Attipoe, Selasi; Leggit, Jeffrey; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The use of energy beverages is high among the general population and military personnel. Previous studies have reported discrepancies between the actual amount of caffeine in products and the amount of caffeine on stated labels. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the content of caffeine listed on the labels of various energy drinks and energy shots. Top-selling energy drinks (n = 9) and energy shots (n = 5) were purchased from retail stores. Three of each of the 14 products were purchased and analyzed for caffeine content by an independent laboratory. Of the 14 products tested, 5 did not provide caffeine amounts on their facts panel-of those, 3 listed caffeine as an ingredient and 2 listed caffeine as part of a proprietary blend. The remaining 9 (of 14) products stated the amounts of caffeine on their labels, all of which were within 15% of the amount indicated on the label. In this study, although the energy beverages that indicated the amount of caffeine it contained had values within ±15% of the amount listed on the label, a potentially acceptable range, this finding is not acceptable with regard to current labeling regulations, which require added ingredients to total 100%.

  3. Single-shot adaptive measurement for quantum-enhanced metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palittpongarnpim, Pantita; Wittek, Peter; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum-enhanced metrology aims to estimate an unknown parameter such that the precision scales better than the shot-noise bound. Single-shot adaptive quantum-enhanced metrology (AQEM) is a promising approach that uses feedback to tweak the quantum process according to previous measurement outcomes. Techniques and formalism for the adaptive case are quite different from the usual non-adaptive quantum metrology approach due to the causal relationship between measurements and outcomes. We construct a formal framework for AQEM by modeling the procedure as a decision-making process, and we derive the imprecision and the Craḿer- Rao lower bound with explicit dependence on the feedback policy. We also explain the reinforcement learning approach for generating quantum control policies, which is adopted due to the optimal policy being non-trivial to devise. Applying a learning algorithm based on differential evolution enables us to attain imprecision for adaptive interferometric phase estimation, which turns out to be SQL when non-entangled particles are used in the scheme.

  4. Mid trimester abortion by one shot administration of prostaglandin.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, A C; Krishna, U R; Mhatre, V S; Purandare, V N

    1977-10-01

    268 cases in which mid trimester abortion in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy was performed by injecting prostaglandins by intra-amniotic route were studied. Details are presented of 1 study in which 100 cases had prostaglandin injected intraamniotically in 1 shot. 50 cases received 50 mg of PGF2a and 40 received 2.5 mg of 15 Methyl PGF2a, an analogue more potent and longer acting. The majority of the patients were primigravida, most of these being unmarried mothers. The average gestation period in both groups was between 17-18 weeks. The average induction onset interval was considerably shorter in PGF2a group, but its abortion time was just about 1 hour less than that of the methyl analogue. The average incidence of vomiting is about 2-folds and that of loose motionsis almost 5 times in the 15 Methyl group. 81% of the patients were followed up, and 86% of this group stopped bleeding within 10 days and the remaining within 20 days. There has not been a single incidence of post abortal infection. The disadvantages associated with the original intravenous administration of prostaglandin have been overcome by using the intra-amniotic routes. 1 of the greatest advantages of 1 shot intra-amniotic PGF2a 50 mg was a low incidence of incomplete abortion. Only 12% of cases in this group had retained placenta compared to 40-50% in the other groups.

  5. Ultraminiature one-shot Fourier-spectroscopic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shun; Qi, Wei; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nogo, Kosuke; Hosono, Satsuki; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    We propose one-shot Fourier-spectroscopic tomography as a method of ultraminiature spectroscopic imaging. The apparatus used in this technique consists solely of a glass slab with a portion of its surface polished at a certain inclination angle-a device we term a relative-inclination phase shifter-simply mounted on an infinite-distance-corrected optical imaging system. For this reason, the system may be ultraminiaturized to sizes on the order of a few tens of millimeters. Moreover, because our technique uses a near-common-path wavefront-division phase-shift interferometer and has absolutely no need for a mechanical drive unit, it is highly robust against mechanical vibrations. In addition, because the proposed technique uses Fourier-transform spectroscopy, it offers highly efficient light utilization and an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio compared to devices that incorporate distributed or hyperspectral acousto-optical tunable filters. The interferogram, which is a pattern formed by interference of waves at all wavelengths, reflects the spatial variation in the intensity of the interference depending on the magnitude of the phase shift. We first discuss the design of the phase shifter and the results of tests to validate the principles underlying one-shot Fourier-spectroscopic tomography. We then report the results of one-dimensional spectroscopic imaging using this technique.

  6. Feasibility of one-shot-per-crystal structure determination using Laue diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cornaby, Sterling; Szebenyi, Doletha M E; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Schuller, David J; Gillilan, Richard; Hao, Quan; Bilderback, Donald H

    2010-01-01

    Crystal size is an important factor in determining the number of diffraction patterns which may be obtained from a protein crystal before severe radiation damage sets in. As crystal dimensions decrease this number is reduced, eventually falling to one, at which point a complete data set must be assembled using data from multiple crystals. When only a single exposure is to be collected from each crystal, the polychromatic Laue technique may be preferable to monochromatic methods owing to its simultaneous recording of a large number of fully recorded reflections per image. To assess the feasibility of solving structures using single Laue images from multiple crystals, data were collected using a 'pink' beam at the CHESS D1 station from groups of lysozyme crystals with dimensions of the order of 20-30 microm mounted on MicroMesh grids. Single-shot Laue data were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and correct solutions were obtained even when as few as five crystals were used.

  7. Acute effects of countermovement jumping and sprinting on shot put performance.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Kyriazis, Thomas; Kavouras, Stavros A; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of countermovement jumping and sprinting on shot put performance in experienced shot putters. Ten shot putters (best performance 13.16-20.36 m) participated in the study. After a standard warm-up including jogging, stretching, and 4-6 submaximal puts, they performed 3 shot put attempts with maximum effort, separated with 1.5-minute interval. Three minutes later, they performed 3 maximal consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJs). Immediately after jumping, they performed 3 shot put attempts with maximum effort, separated with a 1.5-minute interval. One week later, they carried out a similar protocol, at similar external conditions, but they performed a bout of 20-m sprinting instead of the CMJs, to potentiate shot put performance. Muscular strength (1 repetition maximum in squat, snatch, bench press, incline bench press) and body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry) were measured during the same training period (±10 days from the jumping and sprinting protocols). Shot put performance was significantly increased after the CMJs (15.45 ± 2.36 vs. 15.85 ± 2.41 m, p = 0.0003). Similarly, shot put performance was significantly increased after sprinting (15.34 ± 2.41 vs. 15.90 ± 2.46 m, p = 0.0007). The increase in performance after sprinting was significantly higher compared with the increase after jumping (2.64 ± 1.59 vs. 3.74 ± 1.88%, p = 0.02). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that a standard warm-up protocol followed by 3 maximal bouts of shot put and either 3 consecutive countermovement jumps or a bout of 20-m sprinting induce an acute increase in shot put performance in experienced shot putters.

  8. Vp structure in the largest slip area of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake by airgun-ocean bottom seismometer surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, R.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Murai, Y.; Ito, Y.; Yakiwara, H.; Sato, T.; Shinohara, M.

    2015-12-01

    The huge coseismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake concentrated beneath the lower inner slope of the middle Japan Trench (Miyagi region) and its amount sharply diminished along the trench within a hundred kilometers (e.g., Iinuma et al., 2012). The previous 2-D seismic study in the corresponding area found a notable Vp change in the hanging wall side of the megathrust (Azuma et al., in prep.). High-Vp body, corresponding to the rigid backstop block (Tsuru et al., 2002) was identified in the Miyagi, but was absent in the northern area. The spatial extent of the high-Vp anomaly almost coincides with the large slip zone and the correlation suggests that the heterogeneous structure in the overriding plate controlled the rupture process of the M-9 mainshock. To confirm the correlation between the seismic structure and coseismic slip distribution, we conducted a wide-angle survey in 2014 around the previous survey. In analysis, we operated a traveltime inversion for the first arrivals (Fujie et al., 2000) to obtain a rough model. Then, we made a trial-and-error adjustment of the structure model based on the travel time modeling with a 2D ray tracing (Zelt and Ellis, 1988). In the modeling, we tried to identify the location of the boundary between the backstop block and the low-Vp prism, because we assume the boundary (B/P boundary) to be correlated to the border of the high-slip zone during the 2011 event. The results showed sharp Vp transition from >3.7 km/s (backstop) to <3.4 km/s (prism) representing the B/P boundary. This feature agrees with the Vp variation or the along-trench distribution of the prism clarified by the previous studies. In the several observed record sections, there are clear shadow zone of the refracted arrivals from the backstop layer. The presence of the shadow indicates that a low Vp layer underlies the backstop, which is consistent with the previous reflection profiling made across the trench system. The low Vp prism is located

  9. Microscopic understanding of spin current probed by shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Tomonori

    The spin currents is one of key issue in the spintronics field and the generation and detection of those have been intensively studied by using various materials. The analysis of experiments, however, relies on phenomenological parameters such as spin relaxation length and spin flip time. The microscopic nature of the spin current such as energy distribution and energy relaxation mechanism, has not yet well understood. To establish a better microscopic understanding of spin currents, I focused on the shot noise measurement which is well established technique in the field of mesoscopic physics [Y. M. Blanter and M. B üttiker, Phys. Rep. 336, 1 (2000).]. Although there are many theoretically works about shot noise in the presence of spin currents, for example detection of spin accumulation [J. Meair, P. Stano, and P. Jacquod, Phys. Rev. B 84 (2011).], estimation of spin flip currents, and so on, these predictions have never been experimentally confirmed. In this context, we reported the first experimental detention of shot noise in the presence of the spin accumulation in a (Ga,Mn)As/tunnel barrier/n-GaAs based lateral spin valve device [T. Arakawa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 016601 (2015).]. Together with this result, we found however that the effective temperature of the spin current drastically increases due to the spin injection process. This heating of electron system could be a big problem to realize future spin current devices by using quantum coherence, because the effective temperature rise directly related to the destruction of the coherence of the spin current. Therefore, then we focused on the mechanism of this heating and the energy relaxation in a diffusive channel. By measuring current noise and the DC offset voltage in the usual non-local spin valve signal as a function of the spin diffusion channel length, we clarified that the electron-electron interaction length, which is the characteristic length for the relaxation of the electron system, is

  10. Mask model calibration for MPC applications utilizing shot dose assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Mishra, Kushlendra; Bürgel, Christian; Standiford, Keith; Chua, Gek Soon

    2014-10-01

    Shrinking feature sizes and the need for tighter CD (Critical Dimension) control require the introduction of new technologies in mask making processes. One of those methods is the dose assignment of individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers to compensate CD non-linearity effects and improve dose edge slope. Using increased dose levels only for most critical features, generally only for the smallest CDs on a mask, the change in mask write time is minimal while the increase in image quality can be significant. However, this technology requires accurate modeling of the mask effects, especially the CD/dose dependencies. This paper describes a mask model calibration flow for Mask Process Correction (MPC) applications with shot dose assignment. The first step in the calibration flow is the selection of appropriate test structures. For this work, a combination of linespace patterns as well as a series of contact patterns are used for calibration. Features sizes vary from 34 nm up to several micrometers in order to capture a wide range of CDs and pattern densities. After mask measurements are completed the results are carefully analyzed and measurements very close to the process window limitation and outliers are removed from the data set. One key finding in this study is that by including patterns exposed at various dose levels the simulated contours of the calibrated model very well match the SEM contours even if the calibration was based entirely on gauge based CD values. In the calibration example shown in this paper, only 1D line and space measurements as well as 1D contact measurements are used for calibration. However, those measurements include patterns exposed at dose levels between 75% and 150% of the nominal dose. The best model achieved in this study uses 2 e-beam kernels and 4 kernels for the simulation of development and etch effects. The model error RMS on a large range of CD down to 34 nm line CD is 0.71 nm. The calibrated model is then

  11. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  12. Effects of Laser Peening, and Shot Peening, on Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Hackel, Lloyd; Rankin, Jon; Truong, Chanh; Walter, Matt

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the effects of laser peening and shot peening on friction stir welding is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Friction Stir Welding (FSW); 3) Microstructure; 4) Laser & Shot Peening; 5) Residual Stresses; 6) Tensile Behavior; 7) Fatigue Life & Surface Roughness; 8) Crack Growth; and 9) Benefits.

  13. Shot noise startup of the 6 nm SASE FEL at the TESLA test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, P.; Fawley, W. M.

    1996-02-01

    We present here the results of an extensive simulation activity for the TESLA SASE FEL. We have used the program GINGER to determine the FEL saturation length and the power fluctuations from shot to shot. The spectral properties of the output power and the correlation functions are investigated and compared with available theoretical models.

  14. Things May Not Always Be as They Seem: The Set Shot in AFL Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter; Lockwood, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate how the difficulty of a "set shot" at goal varies with position on the field. By "set shot" they mean a player kicking for goal following a mark or free kick. The analysis begins by defining the "angle of opportunity" as a measure of difficulty for kicks at a given distance and angle from goal, where the…

  15. Investigations of shot reproducibility for the SMP diode at 4.5 MV.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, Marlon D.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond Edward; Lare, Gregory A.; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Rafael; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank Lee; Welch, Dale Robert; Cordova, Steve Ray; Gallegos, M.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Nielsen, Daniel Scott; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Renk, Timothy Jerome; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy Jay; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2013-11-01

    In experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator, the SMP diode exhibits sig- ni cant shot-to-shot variability. Speci cally, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. To remove knob emission as a source, only data from a shot series conducted with a 4.5-MV peak voltage are considered. The scope of this report is limited to sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as power ow emission and trajectory changes, variations in pulsed power, dustbin and transmission line alignment, and di erent knob shapes. We nd no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we nd that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance pro les. This result forms the basis of a follow-on study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics. 3

  16. Shot reproducibility of the self-magnetic-pinch diode at 4.5Â MV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, M. Dale; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Lare, Greg; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Robert; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank L.; Welch, Dale R.; Cordova, Steve; Gallegos, Manuel L.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Nielsen, Dan; Renk, Timothy J.; Romero, Tobias; Webb, Timothy J.; Ziska, Derek

    2014-05-01

    In experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' RITS-6 accelerator, the self-magnetic-pinch diode exhibits significant shot-to-shot variability. Specifically, for identical hardware operated at the same voltage, some shots exhibit a catastrophic drop in diode impedance. A study is underway to identify sources of shot-to-shot variations which correlate with diode impedance collapse. The scope of this report is limited to data collected at 4.5-MV peak voltage and sources of variability which occur away from the diode, such as sheath electron emission and trajectories, variations in pulsed power, load and transmission line alignment, and different field shapers. We find no changes in the transmission line hardware, alignment, or hardware preparation methods which correlate with impedance collapse. However, in classifying good versus poor shots, we find that there is not a continuous spectrum of diode impedance behavior but that the good and poor shots can be grouped into two distinct impedance profiles. In poor shots, the sheath current in the load region falls from 16%-30% of the total current to less than 10%. This result will form the basis of a follow-up study focusing on the variability resulting from diode physics.

  17. Generality of the Matching Law as a Descriptor of Shot Selection in Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alferink, Larry A.; Critchfield, Thomas S.; Hitt, Jennifer L.; Higgins, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a small sample of highly successful teams, past studies suggested that shot selection (two- vs. three-point field goals) in basketball corresponds to predictions of the generalized matching law. We examined the generality of this finding by evaluating shot selection of college (Study 1) and professional (Study 3) players. The matching law…

  18. Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goda, K.; Jalali, B.

    2013-02-01

    Dispersive Fourier transformation is an emerging measurement technique that overcomes the speed limitations of traditional optical instruments and enables fast continuous single-shot measurements in optical sensing, spectroscopy and imaging. Using chromatic dispersion, dispersive Fourier transformation maps the spectrum of an optical pulse to a temporal waveform whose intensity mimics the spectrum, thus allowing a single-pixel photodetector to capture the spectrum at a scan rate significantly beyond what is possible with conventional space-domain spectrometers. Over the past decade, this method has brought us a new class of real-time instruments that permit the capture of rare events such as optical rogue waves and rare cancer cells in blood, which would otherwise be missed using conventional instruments. In this Review, we discuss the principle of dispersive Fourier transformation and its implementation across a wide range of diverse applications.

  19. Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit

    DOE PAGES

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-09

    Plasmonic sensors are important detectors of biochemical trace compounds, but those that utilize optical readout are approaching their absolute limits of detection as defined by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in both differential intensity and phase readout. However, the use of more general minimum uncertainty states in the form of squeezed light can push the noise floor in these sensors below the shot noise limit (SNL) in one analysis variable at the expense of another. Here, we demonstrate a quantum plasmonic sensor whose noise floor is reduced below the SNL in order to perform index of refraction measurements with sensitivities unobtainablemore » with classical plasmonic sensors. The increased signal-to-noise ratio can result in faster detection of analyte concentrations that were previously lost in the noise. As a result, these benefits are the hallmarks of a sensor exploiting quantum readout fields in order to manipulate the limits of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.« less

  20. Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit

    SciTech Connect

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-09

    Plasmonic sensors are important detectors of biochemical trace compounds, but those that utilize optical readout are approaching their absolute limits of detection as defined by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in both differential intensity and phase readout. However, the use of more general minimum uncertainty states in the form of squeezed light can push the noise floor in these sensors below the shot noise limit (SNL) in one analysis variable at the expense of another. Here, we demonstrate a quantum plasmonic sensor whose noise floor is reduced below the SNL in order to perform index of refraction measurements with sensitivities unobtainable with classical plasmonic sensors. The increased signal-to-noise ratio can result in faster detection of analyte concentrations that were previously lost in the noise. As a result, these benefits are the hallmarks of a sensor exploiting quantum readout fields in order to manipulate the limits of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  1. Single-shot ultrafast tomographic imaging by spectral multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlis, N. H.; Axley, A.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-10-01

    Computed tomography has profoundly impacted science, medicine and technology by using projection measurements scanned over multiple angles to permit cross-sectional imaging of an object. The application of computed tomography to moving or dynamically varying objects, however, has been limited by the temporal resolution of the technique, which is set by the time required to complete the scan. For objects that vary on ultrafast timescales, traditional scanning methods are not an option. Here we present a non-scanning method capable of resolving structure on femtosecond timescales by using spectral multiplexing of a single laser beam to perform tomographic imaging over a continuous range of angles simultaneously. We use this technique to demonstrate the first single-shot ultrafast computed tomography reconstructions and obtain previously inaccessible structure and position information for laser-induced plasma filaments. This development enables real-time tomographic imaging for ultrafast science, and offers a potential solution to the challenging problem of imaging through scattering surfaces.

  2. Shot report, Holo-17-Holo-22 Rex-9

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, C.; Whipkey, R.; Vance, P.

    1990-10-25

    We report on a series of holographic shots using explosives to generate ejecta from lead. These experiments covered a range of geometries including point initiation and plane wave initiation for the H.E., and using a gas-fill in the cavity where the ejecta was produced. The final experiment, Rex-9 was a Fabry-Perot experiment at Site 300 which provided the velocity history of the lead surface for the purpose of normalizing the code being used to calculate the position of the lead surface in these experiments. The focus of this report is on the experimental technique rather than on the size measurements. We want to insure that the advances in mechanical design and experimental technique that were made during these experiments are preserved in future experiments. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Single-shot ultrafast tomographic imaging by spectral multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Matlis, N H; Axley, A; Leemans, W P

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography has profoundly impacted science, medicine and technology by using projection measurements scanned over multiple angles to permit cross-sectional imaging of an object. The application of computed tomography to moving or dynamically varying objects, however, has been limited by the temporal resolution of the technique, which is set by the time required to complete the scan. For objects that vary on ultrafast timescales, traditional scanning methods are not an option. Here we present a non-scanning method capable of resolving structure on femtosecond timescales by using spectral multiplexing of a single laser beam to perform tomographic imaging over a continuous range of angles simultaneously. We use this technique to demonstrate the first single-shot ultrafast computed tomography reconstructions and obtain previously inaccessible structure and position information for laser-induced plasma filaments. This development enables real-time tomographic imaging for ultrafast science, and offers a potential solution to the challenging problem of imaging through scattering surfaces.

  4. Nonadiabatic holonomic gates realized by a single-shot implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G. F.; Liu, C. L.; Zhao, P. Z.; Tong, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation has received increasing attention due to its robustness against control errors. However, all the previous schemes have to use at least two sequentially implemented gates to realize a general one-qubit gate. In this paper we put forward a scheme by which one can directly realize an arbitrary holonomic one-qubit gate with a single-shot implementation, avoiding the extra work of combining two gates into one. Based on a three-level model driven by laser pulses, we show that any single-qubit holonomic gate can be realized by varying the detuning, amplitude, and phase of lasers. Our scheme is compatible with previously proposed nonadiabatic holonomic two-qubit gates, combining with which the arbitrary holonomic one-qubit gates can play universal nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation. We also investigate the effects of some unavoidable realistic errors on our scheme.

  5. An upper limit on ultraviolet shot noise from Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duthie, J. G.; Mcmillan, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid photometry of Cygnus X-1 through an ultraviolet filter centered on 0.35 micron has been obtained at 100-ms sampling intervals. The autocorrelation function of these data has been examined for shot noise analogous to the behavior of the X-ray light curve. The ultraviolet data are entirely consistent with white noise. Considering randomly occurring ultraviolet shots with the same duration (0.5 s) and average rate (1 per sec) as the X-ray shots, a 3-sigma upper limit on the ratio of optical to X-ray energies per shot is estimated to be 0.13, before the ultraviolet light is attenuated by interstellar dust. This limit is then generalized for shots of arbitrary duration and rate.

  6. Shot noise limit of sensitivity of chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Kozawa, Takahiro; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2015-11-01

    With the improvement of resolution, the shot noise effect becomes a serious concern in the lithography used for high-volume production of semiconductor devices. In this study, the shot noise limit of the sensitivity of chemically amplified resists was investigated from the viewpoint of sensitivity enhancement, assuming extreme ultraviolet lithography. The latent images of line-and-space patterns with 11 nm half-pitch were calculated using a Monte Carlo method. The effect of secondary electron blur was eliminated to clarify the shot noise limit of line edge roughness (LER). When the requirement for line width roughness (LWR) was assumed to be 10% critical dimension (CD), the shot noise limit of sensitivity was >100 mJ cm-2. For the 20% CD LWR, the shot noise limits of sensitivity for the 10, 20, and 30 wt % acid generator concentrations were 20, 9, and 7 mJ cm-2, respectively.

  7. Acceptance test procedure, 241-SY-101/241-C-106 shot loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure is for the 241-SY-101/241-C-106 Shot Loading System. The procedure will test the components of the Shot Loading System and its capability of adequately loading shot into the annular space of the Container. The loaded shot will provide shielding as required for transporting and storage of a contaminated pump after removal from the tank. This test serves as verification that the SLS is acceptable for use in the pump removal operations for Tanks 241-SY-101, 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. The pump removal operation for these three tanks will be performed by two different organizations with different equipment, but the Shot Loading System will be compatible between the two operations.

  8. The application for controlled shot peening for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.

    1995-12-31

    Shot peening is a cold working process where spherical media called shot bombards the surface of a part. Each piece of shot acts as a tiny peening hammer imparting to the surface a small dimple. In the process, the surface fibers of the material are yielded in tension. Below the surface, the fibers try to restore the surface to its original shape thereby producing a hemisphere of cold worked material highly stressed in compression. Complete overlapping dimples develop an even layer of residual compressive stress. SCC is a progressive fracture mechanism that is caused by the simultaneous interaction of a corrodent and a sustained tensile stress. The tensile stresses necessary for SCC are static and they may be residual and/or applied. Compressive residual stresses such as those induced by controlled shot peening can be used to prevent or delay SCC. This paper will deal with the theory, applications and controls of the shot peening process.

  9. A Study on the Defensive Stance and Position of Handball Goalkeepers: Facing a Forward Jump Shot Made from 9 Meters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Suk

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the defensive stance and calculate an optimal defense position for goalkeepers while blocking forward jump shots made from a distance of 9 m. Nine men's handball matches were recorded and 78 video clips were selected for analysis. These are the top class goalkeepers, which included players from the national team and reserve team of Korea. The goalkeeper's actual defensive position was significantly different from instructional suggestions; the width of both feet of the goalkeeper was approximately 2.5 times the width of the shoulders, and the hands were at waist height. The goalkeeper's actual defense position was about 1.10 (± 0.3) m from the goal line and also significantly different than instructional material (0.75 m). The optimal defense position, which was calculated from the goalkeeper's actual movement, was 1.44 m from the goal line, because the ratio of goalkeeper's defensive area in relation to the total area to be defended is highest at this point. In summary, we recommended that handball goalkeepers move forward, about a half step (0.34 m), when defending a forward jump shot made from 9 m, and instructional material should be modified according to the findings from this study.

  10. Comparative electromyography analysis of the upper extremity between inexperienced and elite water polo players during an overhead shot.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, Mostafa; Esfehani, Mohamad Mahdi; Hosseini, Hossein Asghar; Alikhajeh, Yaser; Shultz, Sarah P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle activity patterns between inexperienced and experienced water polo players while taking an overhead shot. The study was carried out with a group of 12 water polo players and an inexperienced group of 10 healthy participants. Signals were recorded by surface electromyography from six different muscles. The average and standard deviation of the normalized electrical activity, time to peak, time broadness, and muscle sequencing during the overhead shot were determined for each muscle in both groups and compared with each other. In water polo players, the normalized electrical activities of triceps brachii, pectoralis major, and wrist flexors were greater than other muscles, while in the inexperienced group the triceps brachii specifically played an important role. There was minimal activation of the middle deltoid and biceps brachii in water polo players. Increased times to peak and time broadness of muscles were found in the inexperienced group compared to experienced water polo players; this difference may be explained by different neuromuscular proprioception. Only experienced water polo players activated the observed muscles in a specific sequence, from proximal to distal. Therefore, coaches should emphasize smooth and quick transitions from proximal to distal segments, with less importance placed on individual muscle strengthening.

  11. Single-shot high-resolution heterodyne detection of millimeter wave superradiance in Rydberg-Rydberg transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, David; Yelin, Susanne; Barnum, Timothy; Zhou, Yan; Coy, Steven; Field, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Millimeter wave (mm-wave) superradiance has been directly detected on a shot-by-shot basis in a neon buffer gas cooled beam of barium atoms. Rydberg-Rydberg transitions are well suited for the study of superradiance due to both the large transition dipole moments and long wavelengths associated with Δn = 1 transitions. We trigger the superradiant evolution of an initially 100% inverted system of Rydberg atoms (n = 30) with a weak mm-wave trigger pulse that is well-characterized in both spatial intensity distribution and phase. The resultant mm-wave emission is recorded in a heterodyne detection scheme with high resolution in both the time (20 ps) and frequency (250 kHz) domains. We observe that the width and emission delay of the time-domain intensity can be well described by a mean-field theory, but that the frequency-domain effects are not even qualitatively reproduced. In particular, a density-dependent broadening, frequency chirp, and line shift are observed. Comparisons to a two-atom master equation theoretical model will be discussed.

  12. Subsurface Completion Report for Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Echelard, Tim

    2006-09-01

    another pit. In addition to the mud pits, the hot mix plant was also remediated. Ongoing monitoring data does not indicate that radionuclides are currently seeping into the marine environment. Additionally, the groundwater modeling results indicate no seepage is expected for tens to thousands of years. If seepage does occur in the future, however, the rich, diverse ecosystems around the island could be at risk, as well as people eating foods from the area. An independent science study was conducted by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) in accordance with the Amchitka Independent Science Plan (2003). The study report was published on August 1, 2005. The CRESP study states ''our geophysical and biological analyses did not find evidence of risk from radionuclides from the consumption of marine foods, nor indication of any current radionuclide contaminated migration into the marine environment from the Amchitka test shots''. The study also found evidence supporting the groundwater modeling conclusions of very slow contaminant transport (CRESP, 2005). While no further action is recommended for the subsurface of the Amchitka Site, long-term stewardship of Amchitka Island will be instituted and will continue into the future. This will include institutional controls management and enforcement, post-completion monitoring, performance of five-year reviews, public participation, and records management. Long-term stewardship will be the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The Department of Energy is recommending completion of the investigation phase of the Amchitka Sites. The recommended remedy for the Amchitka Site is No Further Action with Long-Term Monitoring and Surveillance. The future long-term stewardship actions will be governed by a Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. This Plan is currently being developed with input from the State, landowner, and other interested or affected

  13. AN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF LEAD SHOT EXPOSURE IN NON-WATERFOWL AVIAN SPECIES: UPLAND GAME BIRDS AND RAPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing concern that birds in terrestrial ecosystems may be exposed to spent lead shot. Evidence exists that upland birds, particularly mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), ingest spent lead shot and that raptors ingest lead shot by consuming wounded game. Mortality, ne...

  14. 2D-Omnidirectional Hard-X-Ray Scattering Sensitivity in a Single Shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagias, Matias; Wang, Zhentian; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    X-ray scattering imaging can provide complementary information to conventional absorption based radiographic imaging about the unresolved microstructures of a sample. The scattering signal can be accessed with various methods based on coherent illumination, which span from self-imaging to speckle scanning. The directional sensitivity of the existing real space imaging methods is limited to a few directions on the imaging plane and requires scanning of the optical components, or the rotation of either the sample or the imaging setup, in order to cover the full range of possible scattering directions. In this Letter the authors propose a new method that allows the simultaneous acquisition of scattering images in all possible directions in a single shot. This is achieved by a specialized phase grating and a detector with sufficient spatial resolution to record the generated interference fringe. The structural length scale sensitivity of the system can be tuned by varying its geometry for a fixed grating design. Taking into account ongoing developments in the field of compact x-ray sources that allow high brightness and sufficient spatial coherence, the applicability of omnidirectional scattering imaging in industrial and medical settings is boosted significantly.

  15. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  16. Improving scene detection by using gradual shot transitions as cues from film grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersohn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The types of shot transitions used by film editors in video are not randomly chosen. Cuts, dissolves, fades, and wipes are devices in film grammar used to structure video. In this work knowledge of film grammar is used to improve scene detection algorithms. Three improvements to known scene detection algorithms are proposed: (1) The selection of key-frames for shot similarity measurement should take the position of gradual shot transitions into account. (2) Gradual shot transitions have a separating effect. It is shown how this local cue can be used to improve the global structuring into logical units. (3) Gradual shot transitions also have a merging effect upon shots in their temporal proximity. It is shown how coherence values and shot similarity values used during scene detection have to be modified to exploit this fact. The proposed improvements can be used together with a variety of scene detection approaches. Experimental results with time adaptive grouping indicate that considerable improvements in terms of precision and recall are achieved.

  17. Effect of shot peening on surface fatigue life of carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Surface fatigue tests were conducted on two groups of AISI 9310 spur gears. Both groups were manufactured with standard ground tooth surfaces, with the second group subjected to an additional shot peening process on the gear tooth flanks. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.5 in.). Test conditions were a gear temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 billion N/sq m (248,000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The shot peened gears exhibited pitting fatigue lives 1.6 times the life of standard gears without shot peening. Residual stress measurements and analysis indicate that the longer fatigue life is the result of the higher compressive stress produced by the shot peening. The life for the shot peened gear was calculated to be 1.5 times that for the plain gear by using the measured residual stress difference for the standard and shot peened gears. The measured residual stress for the shot peened gears was much higher than that for the standard gears.

  18. Time Domain Studies of X-Ray Shot Noise in Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Focke, Warren; Wai, Lawrence L.; Swank, Jean H.; /NASA, Goddard

    2005-07-27

    We investigate the variability of Cygnus X-1 in the context of shot noise models, and employ a peak detection algorithm to select individual shots. For a long observation of the low, hard state, the distribution of time intervals between shots is found to be consistent with a purely random process, contrary to previous claims in the literature. The detected shots are fit to several model templates and found to have a broad range of shapes. The fitted shots have a distribution of timescales from below 10 milliseconds to above 1 second. The coherence of the cross spectrum of light curves of these data in different energy bands is also studied. The observed high coherence implies that the transfer function between low and high energy variability is uniform. The uniformity of the transfer function implies that the observed distribution of shot widths cannot have been acquired through Compton scattering. Our results in combination with other results in the literature suggest that shot luminosities are correlated with one another. We discuss how our experimental methodology relates to non-linear models of variability.

  19. Influence of Shot Peening on Surface Characteristics of High-Speed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yasunori; Fukaura, Kenzo

    High-speed steels are generally used for the cutting of other hard materials. These are hard materials, and can be used at high temperatures. Therefore, some of them are used for warm metal forming such as forging. However, in the tools used in hot working, an excellent hot hardness and long-life fatigue are strongly required. In the present study, the influence of shot peening on the surface characteristics of high-speed steels was investigated. Shot peening imparts compressive residual stresses on the metal surface, thus improving the fatigue life of the machine parts. In the experiment, the shot peening treatment was performed using an air-type shot peening machine. The shots made of cemented carbide were used. The workpieces were two types, W-type and Mo-type alloys. Surface roughness, compressive residual stress, and hardness of the peened workpieces were measured. It was found that shot peening using the hard shot media was effective in improving the surface characteristics of high-speed steels.

  20. Subjective State, Blood Pressure, and Behavioral Control Changes Produced by an "Energy Shot"

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Ossege, Julianne; Maloney, Sarah F; Bardgett, Mark E; Brown, Clifford J

    2014-06-01

    Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy(®)) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products.

  1. General shot refinement technique on fracturing of curvilinear shape for VSB mask writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Takuya; Takahashi, Nobuyasu; Hamaji, Masakazu; Park, Jisoong; Lee, Sukho; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-10-01

    The increasing complexity of RET solutions has increased the shot count for advanced photomasks. In particular, the introduction of the inverse lithography technique (ILT) brings a significant increase in mask complexity and conventional fracturing algorithms generate many more shots because they are not optimized for curvilinear shapes. Several methods have been proposed to reduce shot count for ILT photomasks. One of the stronger approaches is model-based fracturing, which utilizes precise dose control, shot overlaps and many other techniques. However, it requires much more computation resources and upgrades to the EB mask writer to support user-level dose modulation and shot overlaps. We proposed an efficient algorithm to fracture curvy shapes into VSB shots5 which was based on geometry processing. The algorithm achieved better EPE and reasonable process time compared with a conventional fracturing algorithm but its fracturing quality can be degraded for the pattern which has relatively rough contour though it is curvy ILT pattern. In this paper, we present a couple of general techniques to refine a set of VSB shots to reduce edge placement error (EPE) to an original curvy contour with their experimental results.

  2. Using persuasive messages to encourage hunters to support regulation of lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Penning, William; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Lead shot from hunting adds the toxic metal to environments worldwide. The United States banned lead shot for hunting waterfowl in 1991 and 26 states have lead shot restrictions beyond those mandated for waterfowl hunting. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) was interested in studying hunter attitudes about expanded restrictions on the use of lead shot for hunting small game to understand what communication strategies might increase public support for potential restrictions on lead shot. We mailed messages about lead shot, including 1,200 control messages and 400 of each of 9 treatment messages, and surveys to 4,800 resident small game hunters. We compared attitudes and intentions related to a possible ban among control and treatment groups. Compared to the control message, all treatment messages elicited more positive attitudes and intentions to support a ban. A basic factual message, messages with references to Ducks Unlimited, and a first-person narrative message generated the strongest support for a ban. Results also demonstrated a substantial relationship between the use of lead shot and response to persuasive messages supporting a ban.

  3. Shot Segmentation for Binocular Stereoscopic Video Based on Spatial-Temporal Feature Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Feng-feng

    2016-12-01

    Shot segmentation is the key to content-based analysis, index and retrieval of binocular stereoscopic video. To solve the problem of low accuracy of stereoscopic video shot segmentation in which the segmentation method of 2D video is used to segment monocular video sequence, and the disadvantages of some stereoscopic video shot segmentation methods, a shot segmentation method for binocular stereoscopic video based on spatial-temporal feature clustering (STFC) is proposed. In the method, the features of color and brightness of left video frames in temporal domain as well as the depth feature acquired by matching of left and right frames in spatial domain is extracted. The feature differences between frames are calculated and quantified. Then the clustering of feature differences in three-dimensional space is executed, and the optimization and iteration of the classes are implemented to achieve the division of shot boundary. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problems of error and omission, especially the inaccuracy of smooth shot detection in binocular stereo video shot segmentation when compared with the latest existing algorithm. The higher accuracy of segmentation can be achieved.

  4. Comparison of PA imaging by narrow beam scanning and one-shot broad beam excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jinjun; Wei, Chen-Wei; Huang, Lingyun; Pelivanov, I. M.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Current systems designed for deep photoacoustic (PA) imaging typically use a low repetition rate, high power pulsed laser to provide a ns-scale pulse illuminating a large tissue volume. Acoustic signals recorded on each laser firing can be used to reconstruct a complete 2-D (3-D) image of sources of heat release within that region. Using broad-beam excitation, the maximum frame rate of the imaging system is restricted by the pulse repetition rate of the laser. An alternate illumination approach is proposed based on fast scanning by a low energy (~ 1 mJ) high repetition rate (up to a few kHz) narrow laser beam (~1 mm) along the tissue surface over a region of interest. A final PA image is produced from the summation of individual PA images reconstructed at each laser beam position. This concept can take advantage of high repetition rate fiber lasers to create PA images with much higher frame rates than current systems, enabling true real-time integration of photoacoustics with ultrasound imaging. As an initial proof of concept, we compare conventional broad beam illumination to a scanned beam approach in a simple model system. Two transparent teflon tubes with diameters of 1.6 mm and 0.8 mm were filled with ink having an absorption coefficient of 5 cm-1. These tubes were buried inside chicken breast tissue acting as an optical scattering medium. They were separated by 3 mm or 10 mm to test spatial and contrast resolution for the two scan formats. The excitation wavelength was 700 nm. The excitation source is a traditional OPO pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with doubler. Photoacoustic images were reconstructed using signals from a small, scanned PVDF transducer acting as an acoustic array. Two different illumination schemes were compared: one was 15 mm x 10 mm in cross section and acted as the broad beam; the other was 5 mm x 2 mm in cross section (15 times smaller than the broad beam case) and was scanned over an area equivalent to broad beam illumination

  5. Reprint of : Shot noise fluctuations in disordered graphene nanoribbons near the Dirac point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopar, Víctor A.

    2016-08-01

    Random fluctuations of the shot-noise power in disordered graphene nanoribbons are studied. In particular, we calculate the distribution of the shot noise of nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that the shot noise statistics is different for each type of these two graphene structures, which is a consequence of the presence of different electron localizations: while in zigzag nanoribbons electronic edge states are Anderson localized, in armchair nanoribbons edge states are absent, but electrons are anomalously localized. Our analytical results are verified by tight binding numerical simulations with random hopping elements, i.e., off diagonal disorder, which preserves the symmetry of the graphene sublattices.

  6. Shot noise fluctuations in disordered graphene nanoribbons near the Dirac point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopar, Víctor A.

    2016-03-01

    Random fluctuations of the shot-noise power in disordered graphene nanoribbons are studied. In particular, we calculate the distribution of the shot noise of nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that the shot noise statistics is different for each type of these two graphene structures, which is a consequence of the presence of different electron localizations: while in zigzag nanoribbons electronic edge states are Anderson localized, in armchair nanoribbons edge states are absent, but electrons are anomalously localized. Our analytical results are verified by tight binding numerical simulations with random hopping elements, i.e., off diagonal disorder, which preserves the symmetry of the graphene sublattices.

  7. Shot peening for Ti-6Al-4V alloy compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, Gerald A.

    1987-01-01

    A text program was conducted to determine the effects of certain shot-peening parameters on the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V alloys as well as the effect of a demarcation line on a test specimen. This demarcation line, caused by an abrupt change from untreated surface to shot-peened surface, was thought to have caused the failure of several blades in a multistage compressor at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The demarcation line had no detrimental effect upon bending fatigue specimens tested at room temperature. Procedures for shot peening Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades are recommended for future applications.

  8. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  9. Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.

  10. SINGLE-SHOT TURBO SPIN ECHO PULSE SEQUENCE FINDINGS IN DOGS WITH AND WITHOUT PROGRESSIVE MYELOMALACIA.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Lindsey J; Jeffery, Nick D; Miles, Kristina; Riedesel, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Progressive myelomalacia is an uncommon type of ischemic, hemorrhagic spinal cord infarction. Diagnosis can be difficult, but prompt recognition is important. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid signal attenuation on magnetic resonance (MR) images would be more extensive in dogs that developed progressive myelomalacia vs. control dogs. A retrospective analytic cohort study was designed. Dogs were included if they presented for acute paraplegia and loss of deep pain perception and had undergone MR imaging using both sagittal single-shot turbo spin echo (SSTSE) and standard sagittal T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2W) pulse sequences. Dogs were divided into progressive myelomalacia and control groups for comparisons. All MR examinations were evaluated by three reviewers blinded to patient outcome. Length of cerebrospinal fluid attenuation was recorded as a ratio to the length of the L2 vertebral body in SSTSE and T2W sequences (CSF:L2SSTSE and CSF:L2T2 , respectively). Length of intramedullary spinal cord hyperintensity was recorded as a ratio to the length of the L2 vertebral body in T2W sequences. A total of 21 dogs were included (five in the progressive myelomalacia group and 16 in the control group). The mean CSF:L2SSTSE attenuation value was significantly higher in dogs that developed progressive myelomalacia (CSF:L2SSTSE = 10.7) compared to controls (CSF:L2SSTSE = 5.4; P = 0.015). A cut off ratio of attenuation >7.4 provided optimal differentiation between groups in this study. Findings supported the conclusion that dogs with CSF:L2SSTSE ≤ 7.4 are unlikely to develop progressive myelomalacia while dogs with CSF:L2SSTSE > 7.4 are indeterminate for progressive myelomalacia.

  11. Flight Data Analysis of HyShot 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Neal E.; Smart, Michael K.; Paull, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The development of scramjet propulsion for alternative launch and payload delivery capabilities has comprised largely of ground experiments for the last 40 years. With the goal of validating the use of short duration ground test facilities, the University of Queensland, supported by a large international contingency, devised a ballistic re-entry vehicle experiment called HyShot to achieve supersonic combustion in flight above Mach 7.5. It consisted of a double wedge intake and two back-to-back constant area combustors; one supplied with hydrogen fuel at an equivalence ratio of 0.33 and the other un-fueled. Following a first launch failure on October 30th 2001, the University of Queensland conducted a successful second launch on July 30th, 2002. Post-flight data analysis of the second launch confirmed the presence of supersonic combustion during the approximately 3 second test window at altitudes between 35 and 29 km. Reasonable correlation between flight and some pre-flight shock tunnel tests was observed.

  12. [Thoracic and abdominal and limb wounds by gun shot].

    PubMed

    Naomi, Akira; Oyamatsu, Yoshinori; Narita, Kunio; Nakayama, Masato

    2015-02-01

    In Japan, we are permitted to own fire arms only for hunting and clay pigeon shooting, but gunshot wound victims have neen rarely seen due to the strict laws against owing guns, and the lack of related crimes. Therefore, surgeons should be familiar with ballistics, practical gunshot wound management, and the possibility of delayed lead poisoning ssociated with bullet residue. A 69-year-old man was brought to our hospital because he was accidentally shot by his companion's shotgun during hunting. On admission, although he had stable vital sign and multiple gunshot wounds on his right forearm and femur, chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) revealed a few of bullets and its flagments on his back, into spleen and pericardium. Following local debridment after removal of the bullets in his right forearm and femur at an emergency room, broken heart muscle and diaphragm were repaired and hematoma in the anterior mediastinum was removed at the operating room. The patient was discharged on the 25th post-operative day and his post-operative course was uneventful. In case of gunshot injuries, in addition to prompt diagnosis and evaluation of organ injuries, careful follow up for possible delayed lead poisoning is important.

  13. Single-shot retinal imaging with AO spectral OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an adaptive optics (AO) spectral OCT retina camera that acquires with unprecedented 3D resolution (2.9 μm lateral; 5.5 μm axial) single shot B-scans of the living human retina. The camera centers on a Michelson interferometer that consists of a superluminescent diode for line illuminating the subject's retinal; voice coil translator for controlling the optical path length of the reference channel; and an imaging spectrometer that is cascaded with a 12-bit area CCD array. The imaging spectrometer was designed with negligible off-axis aberrations and was constructed from stock optical components. AO was integrated into the detector channel of the interferometer and dynamically compensated for most of the ocular aberration across a 6 mm pupil. Short bursts of B-scans, with 100 Ascans each, were successfully acquired at 1 msec intervals. Camera sensitivity was found sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. Individual outer segments of photoreceptors at different retinal eccentricities were observed in vivo. Periodicity of the outer segments matched cone spacing as measured from AO flood illuminated images of the same patches of retina.

  14. "Heart Shots": a classroom activity to instigate active learning.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year undergraduate students (n = 105) at the end of a block (teaching unit). Students were divided into 10 groups each having 10-11 students. They were requested to make a video/PowerPoint presentation about the application of cardiovascular principles to real-life situations. The presentation was required to be of only pictures/photos and no text material, with a maximum duration of 7 min. More than 95% of students considered that the activity helped them to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations and understand the relevance of physiology in medicine and to revise the topic. More than 90% of students agreed that the activity helped them to apply their creativity in improving their knowledge and to establish a link between concepts rather than learning them as isolated facts. Based on the feedback, we conclude that the activity was student centered and that it facilitated learning.

  15. High quality single shot ultrafast MeV electron diffraction from a photocathode radio-frequency gun

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Feichao; Liu, Shengguang; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao Zhang, Jie; Cao, Jianming

    2014-08-15

    A compact ultrafast electron diffractometer, consisting of an s-band 1.6 cell photocathode radio-frequency gun, a multi-function changeable sample chamber, and a sensitive relativistic electron detector, was built at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. High-quality single-shot transmission electron diffraction patterns have been recorded by scattering 2.5 MeV electrons off single crystalline gold and polycrystalline aluminum samples. The high quality diffraction pattern indicates an excellent spatial resolution, with the ratio of the diffraction ring radius over the ring rms width beyond 10. The electron pulse width is estimated to be about 300 fs. The high temporal and spatial resolution may open new opportunities in various areas of sciences.

  16. A single-shot, multiwavelength electro-optic data-acquisition system for inertial confinement fusion applications (invited).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, W R; Zhao, C; Ji, L; Roides, R G; Miller, K; Beeman, B

    2012-10-01

    Electro-optic data-acquisition systems encode the output from voltage-history diagnostics onto optical signals. The optical signals can propagate long distances over fiber-optic links without degrading the bandwidth of the encoded signal while protecting the recording electronics from overvoltage damage. The sinusoidal response and tolerance to high-input voltages of the Mach-Zehnder modulator used for the encoding leads to the additional advantage of a high dynamic range and a reduced need for manually swapping attenuators. We have demonstrated a single-shot, electro-optic data-acquisition system with a 600:1 dynamic range. This system provides optical isolation and a bandwidth of 6 GHz. The prototype system uses multiple optical wavelengths to allow for the multiplexing of up to eight signals onto one photodetector.

  17. Improved quantitative phase imaging in lensless microscopy by single-shot multi-wavelength illumination using a fast convergence algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Martín; Picazo-Bueno, José Angel; García, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2015-08-10

    We report on a novel algorithm for high-resolution quantitative phase imaging in a new concept of lensless holographic microscope based on single-shot multi-wavelength illumination. This new microscope layout, reported by Noom et al. along the past year and named by us as MISHELF (initials incoming from Multi-Illumination Single-Holographic-Exposure Lensless Fresnel) microscopy, rises from the simultaneous illumination and recording of multiple diffraction patterns in the Fresnel domain. In combination with a novel and fast iterative phase retrieval algorithm, MISHELF microscopy is capable of high-resolution (micron range) phase-retrieved (twin image elimination) biological imaging of dynamic events. In this contribution, MISHELF microscopy is demonstrated through qualitative concept description, algorithm implementation, and experimental validation using both a synthetic object (resolution test target) and a biological sample (swine sperm sample) for the case of three (RGB) illumination wavelengths. The proposed method becomes in an alternative instrument improving the capabilities of existing lensless microscopes.

  18. A single-shot, multiwavelength electro-optic data-acquisition system for inertial confinement fusion applications (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W. R.; Zhao, C.; Ji, L.; Roides, R. G.; Miller, K.; Beeman, B.

    2012-10-15

    Electro-optic data-acquisition systems encode the output from voltage-history diagnostics onto optical signals. The optical signals can propagate long distances over fiber-optic links without degrading the bandwidth of the encoded signal while protecting the recording electronics from overvoltage damage. The sinusoidal response and tolerance to high-input voltages of the Mach-Zehnder modulator used for the encoding leads to the additional advantage of a high dynamic range and a reduced need for manually swapping attenuators. We have demonstrated a single-shot, electro-optic data-acquisition system with a 600:1 dynamic range. This system provides optical isolation and a bandwidth of 6 GHz. The prototype system uses multiple optical wavelengths to allow for the multiplexing of up to eight signals onto one photodetector.

  19. High quality single shot ultrafast MeV electron diffraction from a photocathode radio-frequency gun.

    PubMed

    Fu, Feichao; Liu, Shengguang; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Jianming

    2014-08-01

    A compact ultrafast electron diffractometer, consisting of an s-band 1.6 cell photocathode radio-frequency gun, a multi-function changeable sample chamber, and a sensitive relativistic electron detector, was built at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. High-quality single-shot transmission electron diffraction patterns have been recorded by scattering 2.5 MeV electrons off single crystalline gold and polycrystalline aluminum samples. The high quality diffraction pattern indicates an excellent spatial resolution, with the ratio of the diffraction ring radius over the ring rms width beyond 10. The electron pulse width is estimated to be about 300 fs. The high temporal and spatial resolution may open new opportunities in various areas of sciences.

  20. Single-shot, volumetrically illuminated, three-dimensional, tomographic laser-induced-fluorescence imaging in a gaseous free jet.

    PubMed

    Halls, Benjamin R; Thul, Daniel J; Michaelis, Dirk; Roy, Sukesh; Meyer, Terrence R; Gord, James R

    2016-05-02

    Single-shot, tomographic imaging of the three-dimensional concentration field is demonstrated in a turbulent gaseous free jet in co-flow using volumetrically illuminated laser-induced fluorescence. The fourth-harmonic output of an Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm is formed into a collimated 15 × 20 mm2 beam to excite the ground singlet state of acetone seeded into the central jet. Subsequent fluorescence is collected along eight lines of sight for tomographic reconstruction using a combination of stereoscopes optically coupled to four two-stage intensified CMOS cameras. The performance of the imaging system is evaluated and shown to be sufficient for recording instantaneous three-dimensional features with high signal-to-noise (130:1) and nominal spatial resolution of 0.6-1.5 mm at x/D = 7-15.5.

  1. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. Steroid Shots Offer No Long-Term Relief for Low-Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164172.html Steroid Shots Offer No Long-Term Relief for Low- ... back pain affects millions of Americans. Many try steroid injections to ease their discomfort, but researchers now ...

  3. Ultrafast single-shot measurement of optical Kerr effect based on supercontinuum pulse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Shenye; Yi, Tao; Wu, Xingzhi; Song, Yinglin; Zhang, Ben; Zhong, Quanjie

    2016-04-01

    We present an ultrafast single-shot measurement method for the optical Kerr effect based on a polarization gating technique. The advantages of this single-shot technique are demonstrated via a 26-ps chirped supercontinuum pulse used to measure the optical Kerr effect for three transparent organic liquids. The single-shot measurement results agree well with those of the time-resolved optical Kerr gate method, as regards both time and intensity. This method facilitates real-time observation of ultrafast optical Kerr responses of samples and simultaneous high-time-resolution data acquisition at ∼260 fs. We demonstrate that the single-shot measurement method is potentially a powerful tool for investigating the optical Kerr effects of unstable samples, and for application to high-power laser systems.

  4. Photon-Assisted Shot Noise in Graphene in the Terahertz Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Serkovic-Loli, L. N.; Roulleau, P.; Glattli, D. C.

    2016-06-01

    When subjected to electromagnetic radiation, the fluctuation of the electronic current across a quantum conductor increases. This additional noise, called photon-assisted shot noise, arises from the generation and subsequent partition of electron-hole pairs in the conductor. The physics of photon-assisted shot noise has been thoroughly investigated at microwave frequencies up to 20 GHz, and its robustness suggests that it could be extended to the terahertz (THz) range. Here, we present measurements of the quantum shot noise generated in a graphene nanoribbon subjected to a THz radiation. Our results show signatures of photon-assisted shot noise, further demonstrating that hallmark time-dependant quantum transport phenomena can be transposed to the THz range.

  5. SunShot Initiative: Making Solar Energy Affordable for All Americans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Through SunShot, DOE supports efforts by private companies, universities, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, making solar energy affordable for more American families and businesses.

  6. Validation of V-SS-PARSE for single-shot flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jin; Bolding, Mark; Twieg, Donald B

    2007-04-01

    As a variant of Single-Shot Parameter Assessment by Retrieval from Signal Encoding, Velocity Single-Shot Parameter Assessment by Retrieval from Signal Encoding, a single-shot imaging method, has been developed to realize fast and straightforward flow quantification by solving inverse problems. A robust signal model, including its local magnetization and its phase evolution during signaling (resulting in a more precise representation of the sampled signal) is described here. Magnitude, velocity, relaxation rate and frequency information can be retrieved without any extra reference image acquisitions, as demonstrated by phantom studies. In the presence of stationary background, retrieved magnitude maps and velocity maps show results comparable to those obtained by phase-contrast methods (r>.99, P=.005), even with brief single-shot 70-ms acquisition.

  7. Study to determine peening stress profile of rod peened aluminum structural alloys versus shot peened material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosas, R. E.; Calfin, B. G.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to determine the peening stress profiles of rod peened aluminum structural alloys versus shot peened material to define the effective depth of the compressed surface layer.

  8. Sub-atom shot noise Faraday imaging of ultracold atom clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, M. A.; Gajdacz, M.; Pedersen, P. L.; Klempt, C.; Sherson, J. F.; Arlt, J. J.; Hilliard, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that a dispersive imaging technique based on the Faraday effect can measure the atom number in a large, ultracold atom cloud with a precision below the atom shot noise level. The minimally destructive character of the technique allows us to take multiple images of the same cloud, which enables sub-atom shot noise measurement precision of the atom number and allows for an in situ determination of the measurement precision. We have developed a noise model that quantitatively describes the noise contributions due to photon shot noise in the detected light and the noise associated with single atom loss. This model contains no free parameters and is calculated through an analysis of the fluctuations in the acquired images. For clouds containing N∼ 5× {10}6 atoms, we achieve a precision more than a factor of two below the atom shot noise level.

  9. Character-Size Optimization for Reducing the Number of EB Shots of MCC Lithographic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Makoto

    We propose a character size optimization technique to reduce the number of EB shots of multi-column-cell (MCC) lithographic systems in which transistor patterns are projected with multiple column cells in parallel. Each and every column cell is capable of projecting patterns with character projection (CP) and variable shaped beam (VSB) methods. Seeking the optimal character size of characters contributes to minimizing the number of EB shots and reducing the fabrication cost for ICs. Experimental results show that the character size optimization achieved 70.6% less EB shots in the best case with an available electron beam (EB) size. Our technique also achieved 40.6% less EB shots in the best case than a conventional character sizing technique.

  10. Identification of temporal factors related to shot performance for indoor recurve archery.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Andrew J; Wiedlack, Johanna; Heller, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal phases of the archery shot cycle that distinguish the arrows distance from centre, in an attempt to understand critical factors that affect performance. Fifteen archers of varying ability each performed 30 shots at 18 m. Fourteen potential predictor variables were measured for statistical modelling by stepwise multiple linear regression. The results show that pre-shot time (pre-performance routine), follow-through time (post-performance routine), aiming time, speed of the arrow and the %variation in clicker-release time, account for 7.7% of the variation in predicting shot performance. The results have implications for practice demonstrating factors that coaches should focus on to develop their athletes. Further work on pre-, but more importantly, post-performance routines are needed generally within sport research as they are lacking and have been shown to be important contributing factors in a number of sports.

  11. Optimization of mask shot count using MB-MDP and lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Gek Soon; Wang, Wei Long; Choi, Byoung IL; Zou, Yi; Tabery, Cyrus; Bork, Ingo; Nguyen, Tam; Fujimura, Aki

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain manageable process windows, mask shapes at the 20nm technology node and below become so complex that mask write times reach 40 hours or might not be writeable at all since the extrapolated write time reaches 80 hours. The recently introduced Model Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) technique is able to reduce shot count and therefore mask write time by using overlapping shots. Depending on the amount of shot count reduction the contour of the mask shapes is changed leading to the question how the mask contour influences wafer performance. This paper investigates the tradeoff between mask shot count reduction using MB-MDP and wafer performance using lithography simulation. A typical Source-Mask-Optimization (SMO) result for a 20nm technology will be used as an example.

  12. 67. Credit PG&E. Shot along length of powerhouse; exciters in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Credit PG&E. Shot along length of powerhouse; exciters in the left foreground, 2000 kVA generator on right. Photo taken 10 November 1927. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  13. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    In winter, pen-reared and wild black ducks (Anas rubripes), and game farm and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), maintained on pelleted feed, were sham-dosed or given one number 4 lead shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional lead shot. This dosing regimen also was repeated in summer using pen-reared black ducks and game farm mallards. Based upon mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and protoporphyrin concentration, black ducks and mallards were found to be equally tolerant to lead shot. However, captive wild ducks were more sensitive than their domesticated counterparts, as evidenced by greater mortality and weight loss following lead shot administration. This difference may be related to stress associated with captivity and unnatural diet.

  14. Practical quantum random number generator based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yong; Tian, Liang; Zou, Hongxin

    2010-06-01

    The shot noise of vacuum states is a kind of quantum noise and is totally random. In this paper a nondeterministic random number generation scheme based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states is presented and experimentally demonstrated. We use a homodyne detector to measure the shot noise of vacuum states. Considering that the frequency bandwidth of our detector is limited, we derive the optimal sampling rate so that sampling points have the least correlation with each other. We also choose a method to extract random numbers from sampling values, and prove that the influence of classical noise can be avoided with this method so that the detector does not have to be shot-noise limited. The random numbers generated with this scheme have passed ent and diehard tests.

  15. Flu Shot May Curb Respiratory Infections in People with Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shot May Curb Respiratory Infections in People With Heart Failure Doctors should consider high-dose vaccine for those ... HealthDay News) -- Flu and pneumonia vaccines may reduce heart failure patients' risk of dangerous respiratory infections, a new ...

  16. A dynamic finite element simulation of the shot-peening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zion, Howard Lewis

    The process of shot peening has been widely used for more than 70 years to improve fatigue life as well as corrosion and wear resistance in metallic components. The basic mechanism involves repetitive stretching and unloading of the surface by bombarding it with small spherical shot media so that a uniform residual compressive stress is eventually created. Historically the implementation of shot-peering has relied on empiricism for its control and only recently have there been attempts to develop a better analytical understanding of the mechanics of the process. High-strength steel is often the material of choice for certain aircraft components, such as aircraft landing gear, that must be able to withstand infrequent occurrences of very high limit loads in addition to more frequent applications of fatigue loads of much lower amplitude. In order to obtain reasonable fatigue life it is essential that these components be shot-peered with the utmost quality assurance. High-strength steel (300M) represents a somewhat unique material, in this regard, due to its very high yield and ultimate strengths, thereby translating directly into a surface that is extremely hard. The mechanics of shot-peered 300M were investigated analytically using a 2D axisymmetric finite element model to consider material and process variation during a single shot impact. This investigation demonstrated that elasto-plastic representation of the shot particle was essential to achieving accurate results for shot that was nominally either 15% harder or softer than the 300M target. This contrasted previous finite element investigations of the shot-peered high-strength steel that utilized a rigid particle. It was also demonstrated that the effect of process variation on residual stress state response could be well characterized by a linear combination of shot diameter and velocity, target thickness and the presence of friction or lack thereof along with their first-order interactions using a

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF POST ACTIVATION POTENTIATION ON SHOT PUT PERFORMANCE OF COLLEGIATE THROWERS.

    PubMed

    Judge, Lawrence W; Bellar, David; Craig, Bruce; Gilreath, Erin; Cappos, Scott; Thrasher, Ashley

    2013-08-12

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the acute effects of heavy and light implements on subsequent overhead back (OHB) shot put performance with a competition weight shot put. The present investigation was designed test the efficacy of heavy implements for potentiating subsequent OHB performance. Participants included 41 athletes (20.9±1.18yrs.) from two NCAA Division I schools in the Midwestern United States (n=23 male, n=18 female). Mean distance for OHB throw with a competition shot put was examined post treatment (control, light shot put warm up, heavy shot put warm up) via Repeated Measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni corrected post hoc analysis. Responses post-treatment on the 10 cm Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale (VAS) were examined via repeated measures ANOVA and demonstrated a significant main effect for treatment on VAS fatigue (F=16.463, p=0.001). The heavy shot put warm-up resulted in the greatest mean performance over the course of the three attempts (14.39m±1.82) followed by the light shot put warm up (14.18m±1.68) and the control (14.15m±1.70). Results of the repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant main effect for treatment in regard to average distance (F=6.276, p=0.003). Post hoc testing suggested that the heavy shot put warm-up resulted in significantly better mean OHB performance than either the light shot put warm-up (t=2.983, p=0.0048, ES=0.472, Power=0.901) or the control shot put warm-up (t=3.349, p=0.0018, ES=0.513, Power= 0.939). Subsequent analysis examined the relationship between reported fatigue accrued during the overweight shot put warm-up and the change in performance on the OHB throw when compared to the control condition. Analysis revealed that subjects who reported higher levels of VAS fatigue did not perform as well after the overweight treatment (p=0.0274).

  18. Influence of Postactivation Potentiation on Shot Put Performance of Collegiate Throwers.

    PubMed

    Judge, Lawrence W; Bellar, David M; Craig, Bruce W; Gilreath, Erin L; Cappos, Scott A; Thrasher, Ashley B

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the acute effects of heavy and light implements on subsequent overhead back (OHB) shot put performance with a competition weight shot put. This investigation was designed to test the efficacy of heavy implements for potentiating subsequent OHB performance. Participants included 41 athletes (20.9 ± 1.18 years.) from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I schools in the Midwestern United States (n = 23 male and n = 18 female). Mean distance for OHB throw with a competition shot put was examined after treatment (control, light shot put warm-up, and heavy shot put warm-up) through repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Bonferroni-corrected post hoc analysis. Responses after treatment on the 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) fatigue were examined through repeated-measures ANOVA and demonstrated a significant main effect for treatment on VAS fatigue (F = 16.463; p = 0.001). The heavy shot put warm-up resulted in the greatest mean performance over the course of the 3 attempts (14.39 ± 1.82 m) followed by the light shot put warm-up (14.18 ± 1.68 m) and the control (14.15 ± 1.70 m). Results of the repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant main effect for treatment in regard to average distance (F = 6.276; p = 0.003). Post hoc testing suggested that the heavy shot put warm-up resulted in significantly better mean OHB performance than either the light shot put warm-up (t = 2.983; p = 0.0048; ES = 0.472; power = 0.901) or the control shot put warm-up (t = 3.349; p = 0.0018; effect size [ES] = 0.513; power = 0.939). Subsequent analysis examined the relationship between reported fatigue accrued during the overweight shot put warm-up and the change in performance on the OHB throw when compared to the control condition. Analysis revealed that subjects who reported higher levels of VAS fatigue did not perform as well after the overweight treatment (p = 0.0274).

  19. Observation of Shot Noise Suppression at Optical Wavelengths in a Relativistic Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-19

    Control of collective properties of relativistic particles is increasingly important in modern accelerators. In particular, shot noise affects accelerator performance by driving instabilities or by competing with coherent processes. We present experimental observations of shot noise suppression in a relativistic beam at the Linac Coherent Light Source. By adjusting the dispersive strength of a chicane, we observe a decrease in the optical transition radiation emitted from a downstream foil. We show agreement between the experimental results, theoretical models, and 3D particle simulations.

  20. Simulation on Residual Stress of Shot Peening Based on a Symmetrical Cell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Cheng; HU, Jiacheng; GU, Zhenbiao; XU, Yangjian; WANG, Xiaogui

    2017-03-01

    The symmetrical cell model is widely used to study the residual stress induced by shot peening. However, the correlation between the predicted residual stresses and the shot peening coverage, which is a big challenge for the researchers of the symmetrical cell model, is still not established. Based on the dynamic stresses and the residual stresses outputted from the symmetrical cell model, the residual stresses corresponding to full coverage are evaluated by normal distribution analysis. The predicted nodal dynamic stresses with respect to four corner points indicate that the equi-biaxial stress state exists only for the first shot impact. Along with the increase of shot number, the interactions of multiple shot impacts make the fluctuation of the nodal dynamic stresses about an almost identical value more and more obvious. The mean values and standard deviations of the residual stresses gradually tend to be stable with the increase of the number of shot peening series. The mean values at each corner point are almost the same after the third peening series, which means that an equi-biaxial stress state corresponding to the full coverage of shot peening is achieved. Therefore, the mean values of the nodal residual stresses with respect to a specific transverse cross-section below the peened surface can be used to correlate the measured data by X-ray. The predicted residual stress profile agrees with the experimental results very well under 200% peening coverage. An effective correlation method is proposed for the nodal residual stresses predicted by the symmetrical cell model and the shot peening coverage.

  1. Measurement of Sub-Shot-Noise Correlations of Spatial Fluctuations in the Photon-Counting Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Jean-Luc; Devaux, Fabrice; Furfaro, Luca; Lantz, Eric

    2008-12-01

    We have measured sub-shot-noise quantum correlations of spatial fluctuations in the far-field image of the parametric fluorescence created in a type I beta-barium-borate nonlinear crystal. Imaging is performed at very low light level (0.15 photons per pixel) with an electron multiplying charge coupled device camera. Experimental results overcome the standard quantum limit shot-noise level without subtraction of the variance of the detection noise.

  2. Shots WASP through HORNET. The first five TEAPOT tests, 18 February-12 March 1955. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, C.; Ponton, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Rohrer, S.

    1981-11-26

    This report describes the activities of DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shots WASP, MOTH, TURK, and HORNET, the first five events of the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons test series. The tests were conducted from February 18 to March 12, 1955 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VI, AFSWP, AFSWC, AEC nuclear weapons development laboratory test groups, and the Civil Effects Test Group. This volume also describes the radiological safety activities undertaken at each of these five shots.

  3. Shot Noise of the Conductance through a Superconducting Barrier in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mi; Zhu, Rui

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the conductance and shot noise properties of quasiparticle-transport through a superconducting barrier in graphene. Based on the Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk (BTK) formulation, the theory to investigate the transport properties in the superconductive graphene is developed. In comparison, we considered the two cases that are the transport in the presence and absence of the specular Andreev reflection. It is shown that the conductance and shot noise exhibit essentially different features in the two cases. It is found that the shot noise is suppressed as a result of more tunneling channels contributing to the transport when the superconducting gate is applied. The dependence of the shot noise behavior on the potential strength and the width of the superconducting barrier differs in the two cases. In the presence of the specular Andreev reflection, the shot noise spectrum is more sensitive to the potential strength and the width of the superconducting barrier. In both of the two cases, total transmission occurs at a certain parameter setting, which contributes greatly to the conductance and suppresses the shot noise at the same time.

  4. Shot-Noise in a Quantum Dot as a Spin-current Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, F. M.; Penteado, P. H.; Merchant, C. A.; Markovic, N.; Egues, J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Shot-noise is an unavoidable non-equilibrium current fluctuation that arises from the granularity of the electron charge. In the present work, we investigate shot-noise for the recently proposed spin diode system (1,2). This consists of a quantum dot coupled to two metallic leads, one nonmagnetic (NM) and another ferromagnetic (FM). In the Coulomb blockade regime this system displays a spin-diode effect (1,2), which has recently been probed in a carbon nanotube based quantum dot (2). Our calculation shows that the shot-noise provides a robust signature for this spin-polarization rectification effect. In the bias range for which the current polarization is zero the shot-noise is super-Poissonian. In contrast, for voltages such that the current is spin polarized, the shot-noise becomes sub-Poissonian. Hence shot noise can provide an interesting additional tool to probe spin-polarized transport in these systems. We shall also discuss recent experimental progress in this direction (3). (1) F. M. Souza, J. C. Egues, and A. P. Jauho, Phys. Rev. B 75, 165303 (2007). (2) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 156601 (2008). (3) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 07C711 (2009).

  5. Effect of shot peening on the oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglanli, Abdullah Cahit; Doleker, Kadir Mert; Demirel, Bilal; Turk, Ahmet; Varol, Remzi

    2015-11-01

    A conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is made up of a multilayered coating system that comprises a metallic bond coat including oxidation-resistant MCrAlY and a thermally insulating ceramic top coat including yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this study, in order to improve the oxidation behavior in conventionally produced TBC systems, shot peening process is applied for modification of surface layer structure of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) bond coats. The oxidation behavior of TBCs, produced by the APS process and subjected to shot peening, was investigated. Oxidation tests were performed under isothermal conditions at 1000 °C for different time periods. The coatings produced by the APS process include high porosity and oxide content due to atmospheric production conditions as well as exposure to very high temperature. In this study, the coatings, produced by the APS process, subsequently subjected to shot-peening, were compared with the ones which were not shot peened. Following the application of the shot peening process, a dense structure is obtained due to the plastic deformation effect in the metallic bond coating structure at a certain distance from the surface. To this end, the effects of the shot-peening on the high temperature oxidation behavior of the coatings are investigated and evaluated.

  6. Heavy metals in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) from Italian wetlands: The problem of ingestion of lead shot

    SciTech Connect

    Ancora, Stefania Bianchi, Nicola; Leonzio, Claudio; Renzoni, Aristeo

    2008-06-15

    Waterbirds are exposed to many contaminants, including lead from ingestion of shot and fishing sinkers. Lead poisoning had never been reported in flamingos wintering in Italian wetlands. Our investigation stems from a case of four flamingos found dead in Tuscany in 2002 with numerous lead shot in their gizzards. We therefore considered other specimens found dead in different Italian wetlands. Many lead shot found in gizzards and lead tissue concentrations confirmed the hypothesis of lead poisoning in two of the seven specimens analysed: concentrations in liver, kidney, and bone were 361.3, 265.09, and 43.31 {mu}g/g d.w., respectively. Lead organotropism was typical of acute poisoning. Cadmium and mercury were also determined, and found to be in line with what little data are available on this species in the literature. Although Italy recently endorsed the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) prohibiting use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands, our results reveal a first case of lead shot poisoning in flamingos wintering in Italian wetlands. This evidence sounds a further warning of the problem of spent lead shot in countries where hunting in wetlands is not strictly regulated.

  7. Relative toxicity of lead and five proposed substitute shot types to pen-reared mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grandy, J.W.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.

    1968-01-01

    A 30-day toxicity test was made to determine the relative toxicity of lead, a tin-lead alloy, zinc, nickel, teflon-coated steel, and tin, all in shot form, to pen-reared mallard drakes. All of the 15 ducks dosed \\vith lead died. Twenty-seven percent of 15 dosed with alloy, and 20 percent of 15 dosed with zinc also died. Ten of the remaining zinc-dosed ducks showed signs of distress, including losses of muscular control and body weight. There were no deaths among 15 ducks dosed with nickel, 15 dosed with teflon-coated steel, and 15 dosed with tin. Seventy-three percent of those dosed with nickel shot eliininated all shot before the end of the 30-day period. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of mallards dosed with commercial lead shot, or with tin-lead alloy shot, but not in the kidneys of birds given nickel, tin, or teflon-coated steel shot. Atypical, pale, acid-fast bodies were found in kidneys of 1 of 15 birds dosed with zinc. An iron-containing pigment, which stained positive with the Prussian blue technique, was present in variable amounts in almost all livers. Zinc-dosed ducks that died or were killed while still showing signs of zinc intoxication had higher iron levels in the liver than ducks that had recovered from zinc intoxication.

  8. Heavy metals in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) from Italian wetlands: the problem of ingestion of lead shot.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Stefania; Bianchi, Nicola; Leonzio, Claudio; Renzoni, Aristeo

    2008-06-01

    Waterbirds are exposed to many contaminants, including lead from ingestion of shot and fishing sinkers. Lead poisoning had never been reported in flamingos wintering in Italian wetlands. Our investigation stems from a case of four flamingos found dead in Tuscany in 2002 with numerous lead shot in their gizzards. We therefore considered other specimens found dead in different Italian wetlands. Many lead shot found in gizzards and lead tissue concentrations confirmed the hypothesis of lead poisoning in two of the seven specimens analysed: concentrations in liver, kidney, and bone were 361.3, 265.09, and 43.31mug/g d.w., respectively. Lead organotropism was typical of acute poisoning. Cadmium and mercury were also determined, and found to be in line with what little data are available on this species in the literature. Although Italy recently endorsed the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) prohibiting use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands, our results reveal a first case of lead shot poisoning in flamingos wintering in Italian wetlands. This evidence sounds a further warning of the problem of spent lead shot in countries where hunting in wetlands is not strictly regulated.

  9. Modulation measuring profilometry with cross grating projection and single shot for dynamic 3D shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingteng; Su, Xianyu; Cao, Yiping; You, Zhisheng; Zhong, Min

    2016-12-01

    In order to determine Dynamic 3-D shape with vertical measurement mode, a fast modulation measuring profilometry (MMP) with a cross grating projection and single shot is proposed. Unlike the previous methods, in our current projection system, one cross grating is projected by a special projection lens consisting of a common projection lens and a cylindrical lens. Due to the characteristics of cylindrical lens, the image of the vertical component and the horizontal component of the cross grating is separated in the image space, and the measuring range is just the space between the two image planes. Through a beam splitter, the CCD camera can coaxially capture the fringe pattern of the cross grating modulated by the testing object's shape. In one fringe pattern, by applying Fourier transform, filtering and inverse Fourier transform, the modulation corresponding to the vertical and horizontal components of the cross grating can be obtained respectively. Then the 3-D shape of the object can be reconstructed according to the mapping relationship between modulation and height, which was established by calibration process in advance. So the 3-D shape information can be recorded at the same speed of the frame rate of the CCD camera. This paper gives the principle of the proposed method and the set-up for measuring experiment and system calibration. The 3-D shape of a still object and a dynamic process of liquid vortex were measured and reconstructed in the experiments, and the results proved the method's feasibility. The advantage of the proposed method is that only one fringe pattern is needed to extract the modulation distribution and to reconstruct the 3-D shape of the object. Therefore, the proposed method can achieve high speed measurement and vertical measurement without shadow and occlusion. It can be used in the dynamic 3-D shape measurement and vibration analysis.

  10. Experimental study of blood lead kinetics in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) exposed to ingested lead shot.

    PubMed

    Hammerton, K M; Jayasinghe, N; Jeffree, R A; Lim, R P

    2003-10-01

    A previous study of lead (Pb) contamination in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Kakadu National Park, Australia, found elevated Pb levels in bone and flesh from individuals caught in habitats where hunting with lead ammunition had occurred. Lead shot was suspected as the potential source of Pb in these animals. An investigation was designed to determine if crocodiles are capable of retaining and dissolving lead shot in their stomachs and absorbing the ionic Pb into the blood. Four of the six juvenile crocodiles (C. porosus) used in the experiment were fed an initial dose of five or ten lead shot each. Most of the lead shot were retained in the stomach over the 20-week experimental period, as confirmed by stomach lavage and radiography of the stomach region. From 13 to 30% of the original weight of individual lead shot had been eroded in that time. In vitro experiments confirmed that lead shot could be dissolved under conditions simulating those known for the crocodilian stomach. Blood Pb concentrations increased by an order of magnitude within a week after dosing three crocodiles with five lead shot each, and then attained steady-state equilibrium 5-20 weeks after dosing, with blood Pb steady-state levels ranging from 278 to 363 microg/dL. The blood Pb concentration-time curves in these crocodiles followed a one-compartment model with first-order loss kinetics that yielded an apparent biological half-life for Pb in blood of about 3.4 days. Throughout the experiment, the crocodiles remained in apparent good physical condition and displayed no clinical signs of Pb toxicosis. These observations, together with the very high blood Pb levels that were sustained for several months, suggest that crocodilians may possess a relatively high degree of resistance to Pb toxicity.

  11. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    .9 Whittier Narrows earthquakes. The project also succeeded in determining the depths and seismic-velocity distributions of several sedimentary basins, including the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley, and Antelope Valley. These results advanced our ability to understand and assess earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region. In order to facilitate permitting and planning for the data collection phase of SSIP, in June of 2009 we set off calibration shots and recorded the seismic data with a variety of instruments at varying distances. We also exposed sections of buried clay drainage pipe near the shot points to determine the effect of seismic energy on the pipes. Clay drainage pipes are used by the irrigation districts in both the Coachella and Imperial Valleys to prevent ponding and remove salts and irrigation water. This report chronicles the calibration project. We present new near-source velocity data that are used to test the regression curves that were determined for the LARSE project. These curves are used to create setback tables to determine explosive charge size and for placement of shot points. We also found that our shots did not damage the irrigation pipes and that the ODEX drilling system did well in the clay rich soils of the Imperial Valley.

  12. Phase noise in pulsed Doppler lidar and limitations on achievable single-shot velocity accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnicholl, P.; Alejandro, S.

    1992-01-01

    The smaller sampling volumes afforded by Doppler lidars compared to radars allows for spatial resolutions at and below some sheer and turbulence wind structure scale sizes. This has brought new emphasis on achieving the optimum product of wind velocity and range resolutions. Several recent studies have considered the effects of amplitude noise, reduction algorithms, and possible hardware related signal artifacts on obtainable velocity accuracy. We discuss here the limitation on this accuracy resulting from the incoherent nature and finite temporal extent of backscatter from aerosols. For a lidar return from a hard (or slab) target, the phase of the intermediate frequency (IF) signal is random and the total return energy fluctuates from shot to shot due to speckle; however, the offset from the transmitted frequency is determinable with an accuracy subject only to instrumental effects and the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the noise being determined by the LO power in the shot noise limited regime. This is not the case for a return from a media extending over a range on the order of or greater than the spatial extent of the transmitted pulse, such as from atmospheric aerosols. In this case, the phase of the IF signal will exhibit a temporal random walk like behavior. It will be uncorrelated over times greater than the pulse duration as the transmitted pulse samples non-overlapping volumes of scattering centers. Frequency analysis of the IF signal in a window similar to the transmitted pulse envelope will therefore show shot-to-shot frequency deviations on the order of the inverse pulse duration reflecting the random phase rate variations. Like speckle, these deviations arise from the incoherent nature of the scattering process and diminish if the IF signal is averaged over times greater than a single range resolution cell (here the pulse duration). Apart from limiting the high SNR performance of a Doppler lidar, this shot-to-shot variance in velocity estimates has a

  13. EVALUATION OF PROMPT DOSE ENVIRONMENT IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY DURING D-D AND THD SHOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S

    2009-04-28

    Evaluation of the prompt dose environment expected in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) during Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) and Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD) shots have been completed. D-D shots resulting in the production of an annual fusion yield of up to 2.4 kJ (200 shots with 10{sup 13} neutrons per shot) are considered. During the THD shot campaign, shots generating a total of 2 x 10{sup 14} neutrons per shot are also planned. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate prompt dose values inside the facility as well as at different locations outside the facility shield walls. The Target Chamber shielding, along with Target Bay and Switchyard walls, roofs, and shield doors (when needed) will reduce dose levels in occupied areas to acceptable values during these shot campaigns. The calculated dose values inside occupied areas are small, estimated at 25 and 85 {micro}rem per shot during the D-D and THD shots, respectively. Dose values outside the facility are insignificant. The nearest building to the NIF facility where co-located workers may reside is at a distance of about 100 m from the Target Chamber Center (TCC). The dose in such a building is estimated at a fraction of a ?rem during a D-D or a THD shot. Dose at the nearest site boundary location (350 m from TCC), is caused by skyshine and to a lesser extent by direct radiation. The maximum off-site dose during any of the shots considered is less than 10 nano rem.

  14. Shot sequencing based on biological equivalent dose considerations for multiple isocenter Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Lee, Letitia; Barani, Igor; Hwang, Andrew; Fogh, Shannon; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2011-11-01

    Rapid delivery of multiple shots or isocenters is one of the hallmarks of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In this study, we investigated whether the temporal order of shots delivered with Gamma Knife Perfexion would significantly influence the biological equivalent dose for complex multi-isocenter treatments. Twenty single-target cases were selected for analysis. For each case, 3D dose matrices of individual shots were extracted and single-fraction equivalent uniform dose (sEUD) values were determined for all possible shot delivery sequences, corresponding to different patterns of temporal dose delivery within the target. We found significant variations in the sEUD values among these sequences exceeding 15% for certain cases. However, the sequences for the actual treatment delivery were found to agree (<3%) and to correlate (R2 = 0.98) excellently with the sequences yielding the maximum sEUD values for all studied cases. This result is applicable for both fast and slow growing tumors with α/β values of 2 to 20 according to the linear-quadratic model. In conclusion, despite large potential variations in different shot sequences for multi-isocenter Gamma Knife treatments, current clinical delivery sequences exhibited consistent biological target dosing that approached that maximally achievable for all studied cases.

  15. Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang

    2014-08-06

    We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green's function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ϵ(M) increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions.

  16. Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ɛM increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions.

  17. Explore Efficient Local Features from RGB-D Data for One-Shot Learning Gesture Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jun; Guo, Guodong; Li, Stan Z

    2016-08-01

    Availability of handy RGB-D sensors has brought about a surge of gesture recognition research and applications. Among various approaches, one shot learning approach is advantageous because it requires minimum amount of data. Here, we provide a thorough review about one-shot learning gesture recognition from RGB-D data and propose a novel spatiotemporal feature extracted from RGB-D data, namely mixed features around sparse keypoints (MFSK). In the review, we analyze the challenges that we are facing, and point out some future research directions which may enlighten researchers in this field. The proposed MFSK feature is robust and invariant to scale, rotation and partial occlusions. To alleviate the insufficiency of one shot training samples, we augment the training samples by artificially synthesizing versions of various temporal scales, which is beneficial for coping with gestures performed at varying speed. We evaluate the proposed method on the Chalearn gesture dataset (CGD). The results show that our approach outperforms all currently published approaches on the challenging data of CGD, such as translated, scaled and occluded subsets. When applied to the RGB-D datasets that are not one-shot (e.g., the Cornell Activity Dataset-60 and MSR Daily Activity 3D dataset), the proposed feature also produces very promising results under leave-one-out cross validation or one-shot learning.

  18. Optimal Shot Peening Treatments to Maximize the Fatigue Life of Quenched and Tempered Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llaneza, V.; Belzunce, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    The search for the optimal Almen intensity to use in shot peening treatments to maximize the fatigue life of industrial steel components involves many different variables and physical phenomena. In this paper, the optimal peening intensity of different steel grades obtained from an AISI 4340 steel through heat treatments has been determined. Six different steel grades were subjected to shot peening treatments, which were performed under full coverage, but employing diverse Almen intensities, shot sizes and air pressures. The role of the mechanical properties of the treated steel and the applied Almen intensity on the shot peening effects were studied to understand the results obtained by means of rotating bending fatigue tests. Each steel has a specific Almen intensity value able to optimize its fatigue life, thereby allowing an optimal balance between the positive and negative effects induced by shot peening. This value, or range of values, is dependent on the mechanical properties of the treated steel, increasing with increasing steel properties up to a certain point and then decreasing for stronger steels. In these cases, over peening treatments produce sufficiently large surface defects to induce relaxation of the surface residual stress and facilitate the initiation of surface fatigue cracks.

  19. Single-shot divergence measurements of a laser-generated relativistic electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, F.; Baton, S. D.; Koenig, M.; Chen, C. D.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; McLean, H. S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Beg, F. N.; Higginson, D. P.; Murphy, C. W.; Sawada, H.; Westover, B.; Yabuuchi, T.; Akli, K. U.; Giraldez, E.

    2010-11-15

    The relativistic electron transport induced by an ultraintense picosecond laser is experimentally investigated using an x-ray two-dimensional imaging system. Previous studies of the electron beam divergence [R. B. Stephens et al. Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004), for instance] were based on an x-ray imaging of a fluorescence layer buried at different depths in the target along the propagation axis. This technique required several shots to be able to deduce the divergence of the beam. Other experiments produced single-shot images in a one-dimensional geometry. The present paper describes a new target design producing a single-shot, two-dimensional image of the electrons propagating in the target. Several characteristics of the electron beam are extracted and discussed and Monte Carlo simulations provide a good understanding of the observed beam shape. The proposed design has proven to be efficient, reliable, and promising for further similar studies.

  20. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  1. Why a noninteracting model works for shot noise in fractional charge experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, D. E.; Heiblum, Moty

    2017-03-01

    A fractional quasiparticle charge is a manifestation of strong interactions in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Nevertheless, shot noise of quasiparticles is well described by a formula, derived for noninteracting charges. We explain the success of that formula by proving that in the limits of strong and weak backscattering it holds irrespectively of microscopic details in weakly and strongly interacting systems alike. The derivation relies only on principles of statistical mechanics. We also derive an approximate model-independent formula for shot noise in the regime of intermediate backscattering. The equation is numerically close to the standard "noninteracting" fitting formula but suggests a different physical interpretation of the experimental results. We verify our theoretical predictions with a shot-noise experiment at the filling factor 3 /5 .

  2. Single shot transverse emittance measurement from OTR screens in a drift transport section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Delerue, N.; Bartolini, R.

    2011-07-01

    Single shot transverse emittance measurement is essential to assess the beam quality and performance of new generation light sources such as linac based X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) or laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LPWA). To this end, we have developed a single shot transverse emittance measurement using at least 3 screens inserted in the beam at the same time, measuring the beam size at different positions in a drift space in one single shot. In this paper, we firstly present the theoretical aspects to perform the measurement. We secondly show experimental results obtained at Diamond for a 3 GeV electron beam in the transfer line from the Booster to the Storage Ring, using this thin OTR screens method. Finally, we discuss the results showing the strength of the measurement in comparison with more standard and established emittance measurement, like the quadrupole scan method.

  3. Single-shot electro-optic sampling of coherent transition radiation at the A0 Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Piot, P.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Future collider applications and present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. Potential applications in shot-to-shot, non-interceptive diagnostics continue to be pursued for live beam monitoring of collider and pump-probe experiments. Related to our developing work with electro-optic imaging, we present results on single-shot electro-optic sampling of the coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the A0 photoinjector.

  4. Shot noise startup of the 6 NM SASE FEL at the Tesla Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pierini, P.; Fawley, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    We present here an analysis of the shot noise startup of the 6 nm SASE FEI proposal at the TESLA Test Facility in DESY The statistical of the saturation length and output power due to the intrinsic randomness of the noise startup are investigated with the use of the 2D time dependent code GINGER, that takes into account propagation effects and models shot noise. We then provide estimates for the spectral contents and linewidth of the emitted radiation and describe its spiking characteristics. The output radiation will develop superradiant spikes seeded by the shot noise in the electron beam, which can entrance the average emitted power at the expense of some spectral broadening.

  5. Shot noise in magnetic tunneling structures with two-level quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepański, T.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barnaś, J.; Martinez, I.; Cascales, J. P.; Hong, J.-Y.; Lin, M.-T.; Aliev, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze shot noise in a magnetic tunnel junction with a two-level quantum dot attached to the magnetic electrodes. The considerations are limited to the case when some transport channels are suppressed at low temperatures. Coupling of the two dot's levels to the electrodes are assumed to be generally different and also spin dependent. To calculate the shot noise we apply the approach based on the full counting statistics. The approach is used to account for experimental data obtained in magnetic tunnel junctions with organic barriers. The experimentally observed Fano factors correspond to the super-Poissonian statistics, and also depend on relative orientation of the electrodes' magnetic moments. We have also calculated the corresponding spin shot noise, which is associated with fluctuations of spin current.

  6. A Shot Number Based Approach to Performance Analysis in Table Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuto; Yamada, Koshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The current study proposes a novel approach that improves the conventional performance analysis in table tennis by introducing the concept of frequency, or the number of shots, of each shot number. The improvements over the conventional method are as follows: better accuracy of the evaluation of skills and tactics of players, additional insights into scoring and returning skills and ease of understanding the results with a single criterion. The performance analysis of matches played at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was conducted using the proposed method. The results showed some effects of the shot number and gender differences in table tennis. Furthermore, comparisons were made between Chinese players and players from other countries, what threw light on the skills and tactics of the Chinese players. The present findings demonstrate that the proposed method provides useful information and has some advantages over the conventional method. PMID:28210334

  7. Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hong-Kang Zou, Wei-Ke; Chen, Qiao

    2014-09-07

    We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.

  8. High-Fidelity Single-Shot Toffoli Gate via Quantum Control.

    PubMed

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C

    2015-05-22

    A single-shot Toffoli, or controlled-controlled-not, gate is desirable for classical and quantum information processing. The Toffoli gate alone is universal for reversible computing and, accompanied by the Hadamard gate, forms a universal gate set for quantum computing. The Toffoli gate is also a key ingredient for (nontopological) quantum error correction. Currently Toffoli gates are achieved by decomposing into sequentially implemented single- and two-qubit gates, which require much longer times and yields lower overall fidelities compared to a single-shot implementation. We develop a quantum-control procedure to construct a single-shot Toffoli gate for three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems such that the fidelity is 99.9% and is as fast as an entangling two-qubit gate under the same realistic conditions. The gate is achieved by a nongreedy quantum control procedure using our enhanced version of the differential evolution algorithm.

  9. Retention of Compressive Residual Stresses Introduced by Shot Peening in a Powder Metal Disk Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Danetti, Andrew; Draper, Susan L.; Locci, Ivan E.; Telesman, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue lives of disk superalloys can be increased by shot peening their surfaces, to induce compressive residual stresses near the surface that impede cracking there. As disk application temperatures increase for improved efficiency, the persistence of these beneficial stresses could be impaired, especially with continued fatigue cycling. The objective of this work was to study the retention of residual stresses introduced by shot peening, when subjected to fatigue and high temperatures. Fatigue specimens of powder metallurgy processed nickel-base disk superalloy ME3 were prepared with consistent processing and heat treatment. They were then shot peened using varied conditions. Strain-controlled fatigue cycles were run at room temperature and 704 C, to allow re-assessment of residual stresses.

  10. Analysis of activated air following high yield shots in the NIF

    DOE PAGES

    Khater, Hesham; Brereton, Sandra

    2015-07-24

    During the ignition experimental campaign, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield (up to 20 MJ or 7.1 x 1018 neutrons per shot) and a maximum annual yield of 1200 MJ. A detailed MCNP model of the Target Bay (TB) and the two switchyards (SY) has been developed to estimate the post-shot radiation environment inside the facility. During D-T shots, a pulse of 14.1 MeV neutrons streaming outside the Target Chamber (TC) will activate the air present inside the TB and the argon gas inside the laser tubes. Smaller levels of activity aremore » also generated in the SY air and in the argon portion of the SY laser beam path. The activated TB air will be mixed with fresh air from the Operations Support Building (OSB) before release through the stack. Flow of activated air from the Target Bay is controlled by the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. 16N (T1/2 = 7.13 s) dominates the radiation levels during the first minute following the shot. It is expected that 16N will decay away during the confinement time before releasing the TB air through the stack. The other major contributors are 13N (T1/2 = 9.97 min) and 41Ar (T1/2 = 1.83 h). In general a low dose rate of < 1 μSv/h is expected near the stack during the first few hours following a 20 MJ shot. Here, the amount of activated Target Bay air released through the stack is very small and does not pose significant hazard to personnel or the environment. In the mean time, due to a very small leakage rate out of the laser tubes, the activated argon gas decays within the tubes and any resulting release to the environment is insignificant.« less

  11. Prebiotic effect of fruit and vegetable shots containing Jerusalem artichoke inulin: a human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, P; Gaudier, E; Bingham, M; van Bruggen, P; Tuohy, K M; Gibson, G R

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of fruit and vegetable shots containing inulin derived from Jerusalem artichoke (JA). A three-arm parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was carried out with sixty-six healthy human volunteers (thirty-three men and thirty-three women, age range: 18-50 years). Subjects were randomised into three groups (n 22) assigned to consume either the test shots, pear-carrot-sea buckthorn (PCS) or plum-pear-beetroot (PPB), containing JA inulin (5 g/d) or the placebo. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was used to monitor populations of total bacteria, bacteroides, bifidobacteria, Clostridium perfringens/histolyticum subgroup, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Atopobium spp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and propionibacteria. Bifidobacteria levels were significantly higher on consumption of both the PCS and PPB shots (10.0 (sd 0.24) and 9.8 (sd 0.22) log10 cells/g faeces, respectively) compared with placebo (9.3 (sd 0.42) log10 cells/g faeces) (P < 0.0001). A small though significant increase in Lactobacillus/Enterococcus group was also observed for both the PCS and PPB shots (8.3 (sd 0.49) and 8.3 (sd 0.36) log10 cells/g faeces, respectively) compared with placebo (8.1 (sd 0.37) log10 cells/g faeces) (P = 0.042). Other bacterial groups and faecal SCFA concentrations remained unaffected. No extremities were seen in the adverse events, medication or bowel habits. A slight significant increase in flatulence was reported in the subjects consuming the PCS and PPB shots compared with placebo, but overall flatulence levels remained mild. A very high level of compliance (>90 %) to the product was observed. The present study confirms the prebiotic efficacy of fruit and vegetable shots containing JA inulin.

  12. Effects of nontoxic shot regulations on lead accumulation in ducks and American woodcock in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A L; Scheuhammer, A M; Chan, H M

    2005-04-01

    Prior to the first nontoxic shot zones being established in Canada, a nationwide survey of lead (Pb) concentrations in wing bones of hatch year (HY) dabbling and diving ducks determined the incidence of elevated Pb exposure in waterfowl in different parts of the country (Scheuhammer and Dickson 1996). The main objectives of the present study were (1) to compare these previously collected data with the incidence of elevated Pb accumulation in the same species several years after the establishment of a national regulation in 1997 prohibiting the use of Pb shot for waterfowl hunting; and (2) to survey waterfowl hunters to determine reported levels of compliance with the nontoxic shot regulation. Average bone-Pb concentrations in dabbling ducks (mallards [Anas platyrhyncos] and American black ducks [Anas rubripes] combined) decreased significantly between 1989+1990 and 2000 (11 microg/g vs. 4.8 microg/g, respectively [p < 0.01]). Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) showed a similar decrease in mean bone-Pb concentrations, from 28 microg/g to 10 microg/g (p < 0.01). These declines in bone-Pb concentration were consistent with the results of a large anonymous hunter survey, which indicated a high level of reported compliance (>80%) with the nontoxic shot regulation among waterfowl hunters residing in Ontario and British Columbia. Conversely, American woodcock (Scolopax minor), an important upland game species not affected by the nontoxic shot regulation, showed no decrease in mean bone-Pb concentration since the national regulation came into effect (19 microg/g in 1995 vs. 21 microg/g in 2000). A majority (70%) of waterfowl hunters in British Columbia and Ontario who also hunt upland game birds report continued (legal) use of Pb shot for upland game bird hunting.

  13. Algorithm for loading shot noise microbunching in multi-dimensional, free-electron laser simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William M.

    2002-03-25

    We discuss the underlying reasoning behind and the details of the numerical algorithm used in the GINGER free-electron laser(FEL) simulation code to load the initial shot noise microbunching on the electron beam. In particular, we point out that there are some additional subtleties which must be followed for multi-dimensional codes which are not necessary for one-dimensional formulations. Moreover, requiring that the higher harmonics of the microbunching also be properly initialized with the correct statistics leads to additional complexities. We present some numerical results including the predicted incoherent, spontaneous emission as tests of the shot noise algorithm's correctness.

  14. Algorithm for loading shot noise microbunching in multidimensional, free-electron laser simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawley, William M.

    2002-07-01

    We discuss the underlying reasoning behind and the details of the numerical algorithm used in the GINGER free-electron laser simulation code to load the initial shot noise microbunching on the electron beam. In particular, we point out that there are some additional subtleties which must be followed for multidimensional codes which are not necessary for one-dimensional formulations. Moreover, requiring that the higher harmonics of the microbunching also be properly initialized with the correct statistics leads to additional complexities. We present some numerical results including the predicted incoherent, spontaneous emission as tests of the shot noise algorithm's correctness.

  15. Mean first passage times of processes driven by white shot noise.

    PubMed

    Laio, F; Porporato, A; Ridolfi, L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I

    2001-03-01

    We consider mean first passage times in systems driven by white shot noise with exponentially distributed jump heights. Simple interpretable results are obtained and the linkage between those results and the steady-state probability density function of the process is presented. The virtual waiting-time or Takács process (constant losses) and the shot noise process with linear losses are analyzed in depth, along with a more complex process with useful implications for the modeling of the soil moisture dynamics in hydrology.

  16. On the physical reality of the millisecond bursts in Cygnus X-1 - Bursts and shot noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Sutherland, P. G.

    1978-01-01

    The method of data analysis used to interpret the millisecond temporal structure of Cyg X-1 is discussed. In particular, the effects produced by the shot-noise variability of this source, which occurs on time scales of about 0.5 s, are examined. Taking into account the recent discovery that only about 30% of the flux may be in the shots, it is found that spurious 'millisecond bursts' will be detected. A comparison of the properties of these bursts with currently published experimental data is performed.

  17. Effect of Electron-Phonon Scattering on Shot Noise in Nanoscale Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chang; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the effect of electron-phonon inelastic scattering on shot noise in nanoscale junctions in the regime of quasiballistic transport. We predict that when the local thermal energy of the junction is larger than its lowest vibrational mode energy eVc, the inelastic contribution to shot noise (conductance) increases (decreases) with bias as V (V). The corresponding Fano factor thus increases as V. We also show that the inelastic contribution to the Fano factor saturates with increasing thermal current exchanged between the junction and the bulk electrodes to a value which, for V≫Vc, is independent of bias. These predictions can be readily tested experimentally.

  18. Single-shot self-interference incoherent digital holography using off-axis configuration

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a single-shot incoherent holographic imaging technique that adopts self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) with slight tilt of the plane mirror in the optical configuration. The limited temporal coherence length of the illumination leads the guide-star hologram of the proposed system to have a Gaussian envelope of elliptical ring shape. The observation shows that the reconstruction by cross correlation with the guide-star hologram achieves better quality than the usual propagation methods. Experimentally, we verify that the hologram and 3D reconstruction can be implemented incoherently with the proposed single-shot off-axis SIDH. PMID:24281544

  19. [The chemical action of gun powder gases on biological tissues in a point-blank shot].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L; Isakov, V D; Babakhanian, R V; Karnasevich, Iu A

    1992-01-01

    Chemical effect of gun powder gas on the biologic tissues manifests by red-brown staining of the tissues, mainly at the expense of methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin. Scarlet staining of the tissues at the edges of gun-shot wounds is not a specific marker of a shot made from a short distance; it may emerge several hours after wounding at the expense of hydroxy-hemoglobin and is not at all related to the chemical effect of gun powder gas. The conditions conducive to scarlet staining are an open wound permitting free oxygenation by air oxygen and hemoglobin transfer from the injured red cells into blood plasma and adjacent tissues.

  20. Shot noise at the quantum point contact in InGaAs heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Shuji; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku

    2013-12-04

    We study the shot noise at a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in an InGaAs/InGaAsP heterostructure, whose conductance can be electrically tuned by the gate voltages. Shot noise suppression is observed at the conductance plateau of N(2e{sup 2}/h) (N = 4,5,and 6), which indicates the coherent quantized channel formation in the QPC. The electron heating effect generated at the QPC explains the deviation of the observed Fano factor from the theory.

  1. Effects of lead shot ingestion on selected cells of the mallard immune system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The immunologic effects of lead were measured in game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that ingested lead shot while foraging naturally, mallards intubated with lead shot, and unexposed controls. Circulating white blood cells (WBC) declined significantly in male mallards exposed to lead by either natural ingestion or intubation, but not females. Spleen plaque-forming cell (SPFC) counts were significantly lower in mallards intubated with lead pellets compared to controls. Declines in WBC and SPFC means with increasing tissue lead concentrations provide further evidence that lead exposure reduced immunologic cell numbers. Hormonal activity and diet may have influenced the immunologic effects of lead exposure in this study.

  2. Single Shot Polarization Characterization of XUV FEL Pulses from Crossed Polarized Undulators

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Buck, J.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Gauthier, D.; Giannessi, L.; Glaser, L.; Huang, Z.; Ilchen, M.; Lambert, G.; Lutman, A. A.; Mahieu, B.; Penco, G.; Spezzani, C.; Viefhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization control is a key feature of light generated by short-wavelength free-electron lasers. In this work, we report the first experimental characterization of the polarization properties of an extreme ultraviolet high gain free-electron laser operated with crossed polarized undulators. We investigate the average degree of polarization and the shot-to-shot stability and we analyze aspects such as existing possibilities for controlling and switching the polarization state of the emitted light. The results are in agreement with predictions based on Gaussian beams propagation. PMID:26314764

  3. Residual Stress Reversal in Highly Strained Shot Peened Structural Elements. Degree awarded by Florida Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, William S.; Throckmorton, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to further the understanding of a crack initiation problem in a highly strained pressure containment housing. Finite Element Analysis methods were used to model the behavior of shot peened materials undergoing plastic deformation. Analytical results are in agreement with laboratory tensile tests that simulated the actual housing load conditions. These results further validate the original investigation finding that the shot peened residual stress had reversed, changing from compressive to tensile, and demonstrate that analytical finite element methods can be used to predict this behavior.

  4. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  5. Detection of amplitude modulation with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the shot-noise limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Min; Wu, Ling-An; Kimble, H. J.

    1988-06-01

    An improvement in precision beyond the limit set by the vacuum-state or zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field is reported for the detection of amplitude modulation encoded on a weak signal beam. The improvement is achieved by employing the squeezed light from an optical parametric oscillator to reduce the level of fluctuations below the shot-noise limit. An increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5 dB relative to the shot-noise limit is demonstrated.

  6. Single shot polarization characterization of XUV FEL pulses from crossed polarized undulators

    DOE PAGES

    Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Buck, J.; ...

    2015-08-28

    Polarization control is a key feature of light generated by short-wavelength free-electron lasers. In this work, we report the first experimental characterization of the polarization properties of an extreme ultraviolet high gain free-electron laser operated with crossed polarized undulators. We research the average degree of polarization and the shot-to-shot stability and we analyze aspects such as existing possibilities for controlling and switching the polarization state of the emitted light. The results are in agreement with predictions based on Gaussian beams propagation.

  7. Annular pupil filter under shot-noise condition for linear and non linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ronzitti, Emiliano; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Caorsi, Valentina; Diaspro, Alberto

    2009-04-13

    The imaging performances of multiphoton excitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy are herby considered: in typical experimental imaging conditions, a small finite amount of photon reaches the detector giving shot-noise fluctuations which affects the signal acquired. A significant detriment in the high frequencies transmission capability is obtained. In order to partially recover the high frequencies information lost, the insertion of a pupil plane filter in the microscope illumination light pathway on the objective lens is proposed. We demonstrate high-frequency and resolution enhancement in the case of linear and non linear fluorescence microscope approach under shot-noise condition.

  8. Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy with Chinese one-shot tract dilation technique based on stimulated diuresis: A report of 67 cases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Liang, Hua-Geng; Yang, Xiong; Hai, Bo; Wang, Liang; Xing, Yi-Fei; Ju, Wen; Zeng, Fu-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Wen-Cheng

    2016-12-01

    The safety and effectiveness of a novel Chinese one-shot dilation technique based on stimulated diuresis for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) were investigated. After the feasibility of the Chinese one-shot dilation based on stimulated diuresis was verified by an animal study, this technique was applied in the clinical practice. A total of 67 patients in our department underwent the modified PCNL from July 2014 to June 2015. After the renal infundibulum was distended by stimulated diuresis, the kidney was punctured under the ultrasonographic guidance via the fornix of the target calyx. The working channel was dilated using a special designed pencil-shaped fascial dilator. The successful access rate, nephrostomy tract creation time, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin values and serum creatinine concentrations, stone-free rate and complications were recorded and analyzed. The renal infundibulum was successfully distended in all of the patients by the diuresis treatment. Under the ultrasonographic guidance, the successful access rate was 100% and the mean tract creation time was 2.0 min (range: 1.5-5.0 min). The stone-free rate right after surgery was 91.0%. Although the postoperative hemoglobin was significantly reduced (P<0.01), transfusion was not clinically necessary. There was no significant difference in serum creatinine concentrations before and after operation (P>0.05). No severe complication occurred during or after the PCNL. It was suggested that this Chinese one-shot dilation technique based on stimulated diuresis is an efficient and safe innovation for PCNL, and is even helpful for those patients with non-dilated pelvicaliceal systems.

  9. Successful Capture, Extraction and Identification of Hypervelocity CM2 Meteorite Fragments Shot by Light-Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C.; Westphal, A. J.; Dominguez, G.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report the successful capture, extraction and identification of two fragments of a CM2 meteorite (ALH83100) into lowdensity aerogel. The shot was carried out at the AVGR at NASAARC. A mixture of powdered ALH83100 and borosilicate glass microspheres was shot at 4.55.0 km/sec into 50 mg cm silicate aerogel.

  10. Further Analysis of the Matching Law to Describe Two-and Three-Point Shot Allocation by Professional Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanowich, Paul; Bourret, Jason; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2007-01-01

    The matching law was used to analyze whether the proportion of shots taken from two- or three-point range would match the proportional reinforcement rates produced by those shots when the reinforcement rate of three-point shooting was changed. Rule changes in 1994 and 1997 altered the distance of the three-point line in the National Basketball…

  11. MineSeis -- A MATLAB GUI program to calculate synthetic seismograms from a linear, multi-shot blast source model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling ground motions from multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts is important to the understanding of their source characteristics such as spectrum modulation. MineSeis is a MATLAB{reg_sign} (a computer language) Graphical User Interface (GUI) program developed for the effective modeling of these multi-shot mining explosions. The program provides a convenient and interactive tool for modeling studies. Multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts are modeled as the time-delayed linear superposition of identical single shot sources in the program. These single shots are in turn modeled as the combination of an isotropic explosion source and a spall source. Mueller and Murphy`s (1971) model for underground nuclear explosions is used as the explosion source model. A modification of Anandakrishnan et al.`s (1997) spall model is developed as the spall source model. Delays both due to the delay-firing and due to the single-shot location differences are taken into account in calculating the time delays of the superposition. Both synthetic and observed single-shot seismograms can be used to construct the superpositions. The program uses MATLAB GUI for input and output to facilitate user interaction with the program. With user provided source and path parameters, the program calculates and displays the source time functions, the single shot synthetic seismograms and the superimposed synthetic seismograms. In addition, the program provides tools so that the user can manipulate the results, such as filtering, zooming and creating hard copies.

  12. [Forensic medical characteristics of the damages to the human clothes caused by blowgun shots of various types of darts].

    PubMed

    Makarov, I Yu; Baibarza, N V; Lorents, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present experimental study was to determine certain regular features of the damages to the human clothes caused by blowgun shots of various types of darts and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the formation of the damages. The study revealed the objective morphological features of the damages inflicted by various types of darts shot from the blowguns of two calibers.

  13. 76 FR 58108 - Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended...

  14. After the Shots... What to Do If Your Child Has Discomfort

    MedlinePlus

    ... since getting vaccinated. What should I do? After vaccination, children may be fussy because of pain or fever. ... ... #P4015 (7/14) after the shots: what to do if your child has discomfort – page 2 Medicines and Dosages to ...

  15. 77 FR 58114 - SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... installation cost of rooftop solar energy systems. DATES: Registration opened on September 12, 2012, and will... about the SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop competition rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . Teams that wish to enter the competition can register at...

  16. Neural Computations Mediating One-Shot Learning in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wan; O’Doherty, John P.; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Incremental learning, in which new knowledge is acquired gradually through trial and error, can be distinguished from one-shot learning, in which the brain learns rapidly from only a single pairing of a stimulus and a consequence. Very little is known about how the brain transitions between these two fundamentally different forms of learning. Here we test a computational hypothesis that uncertainty about the causal relationship between a stimulus and an outcome induces rapid changes in the rate of learning, which in turn mediates the transition between incremental and one-shot learning. By using a novel behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from human volunteers, we found evidence implicating the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in this process. The hippocampus was selectively “switched” on when one-shot learning was predicted to occur, while the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was found to encode uncertainty about the causal association, exhibiting increased coupling with the hippocampus for high-learning rates, suggesting this region may act as a “switch,” turning on and off one-shot learning as required. PMID:25919291

  17. The Conversational Framework and the ISE "Basketball Shot" Video Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Vincent; Crotty, Yvonne; Farren, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Inspiring Science Education (ISE) (http://www.inspiringscience.eu/) is an EU funded initiative that seeks to further the use of inquiry-based science learning (IBSL) through the medium of ICT in the classroom. The Basketball Shot is a scenario (lesson plan) that involves the use of video capture to help the student investigate the concepts of…

  18. Beating the Bunker: The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Golf Bunker Shot Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dave; Wright, Caroline J.; Cantwell, Cara

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physical practice with PETTLEP-based (Physical, Environment, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective; Holmes & Collins, 2001) imagery and PETTLEP + physical practice interventions on golf bunker shot performance. Thirty-two male county- or international-level golfers were assigned to one…

  19. Visual one-shot learning as an 'anti-camouflage device': a novel morphing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Mogi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    Once people perceive what is in the hidden figure such as Dallenbach's cow and Dalmatian, they seldom seem to come back to the previous state when they were ignorant of the answer. This special type of learning process can be accomplished in a short time, with the effect of learning lasting for a long time (visual one-shot learning). Although it is an intriguing cognitive phenomenon, the lack of the control of difficulty of stimuli presented has been a problem in research. Here we propose a novel paradigm to create new hidden figures systematically by using a morphing technique. Through gradual changes from a blurred and binarized two-tone image to a blurred grayscale image of the original photograph including objects in a natural scene, spontaneous one-shot learning can occur at a certain stage of morphing when a sufficient amount of information is restored to the degraded image. A negative correlation between confidence levels and reaction times is observed, giving support to the fluency theory of one-shot learning. The correlation between confidence ratings and correct recognition rates indicates that participants had an accurate introspective ability (metacognition). The learning effect could be tested later by verifying whether or not the target object was recognized quicker in the second exposure. The present method opens a way for a systematic production of "good" hidden figures, which can be used to demystify the nature of visual one-shot learning.

  20. Multi-Billion Shot, High-Fluence Exposure of Cr(4+): YAG Passive Q-Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Afzal, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) employing a diode pumped, Q-Switched, ND:YAG laser operating at 40 Hz repetition rate. To meet the five-year mission lifetime goal, a single transmitter would accumulate over 6.3 billion shots. Cr(4+):YAG is a promising candidate material for passively Q-switching the laser. Historically, the performance of saturable absorbers has degraded over long-duration usage. To measure the multi-billion shot performance of Cr(4+):YAG, a passively Q-switched GLAS-like oscillator was tested at an accelerated repetition rate of 500 Hz. The intracavity fluence was calculated to be approximately 2.5 J/cm(exp 2). The laser was monitored autonomously for 165 days. There was no evidence of change in the material optical properties during the 7.2 billion shot test.. All observed changes in laser operation could be attributed to pump laser diode aging. This is the first demonstration of multi-billion shot exposure testing of Cr(4+):YAG in this pulse energy regime

  1. X-ray Diffraction as a Means to Assess Fatigue Performance of Shot-Peened Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    titanium 6 - 4 fatigue data exhibited similar trends to the 9310 steel material. Low shot- peening intensities (4A and 8A) improved fatigue performance... 6 Figure 4 ...7 Figure 4 . Residual stress and diffraction peak width data from the beta-STOA titanium 6Al-4V disks. attributed to the hardness of the

  2. A practical globalization of one-shot optimization for optimal design of tokamak divertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blommaert, Maarten; Dekeyser, Wouter; Baelmans, Martine; Gauger, Nicolas R.; Reiter, Detlev

    2017-01-01

    In past studies, nested optimization methods were successfully applied to design of the magnetic divertor configuration in nuclear fusion reactors. In this paper, so-called one-shot optimization methods are pursued. Due to convergence issues, a globalization strategy for the one-shot solver is sought. Whereas Griewank introduced a globalization strategy using a doubly augmented Lagrangian function that includes primal and adjoint residuals, its practical usability is limited by the necessity of second order derivatives and expensive line search iterations. In this paper, a practical alternative is offered that avoids these drawbacks by using a regular augmented Lagrangian merit function that penalizes only state residuals. Additionally, robust rank-two Hessian estimation is achieved by adaptation of Powell's damped BFGS update rule. The application of the novel one-shot approach to magnetic divertor design is considered in detail. For this purpose, the approach is adapted to be complementary with practical in parts adjoint sensitivities. Using the globalization strategy, stable convergence of the one-shot approach is achieved.

  3. Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) haemovigilance and progress is improving transfusion safety

    PubMed Central

    Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B; Cohen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) UK confidential haemovigilance reporting scheme began in 1996. Over the 16 years of reporting, the evidence gathered has prompted changes in transfusion practice from the selection and management of donors to changes in hospital practice, particularly better education and training. However, half or more reports relate to errors in the transfusion process despite the introduction of several measures to improve practice. Transfusion in the UK is very safe: 2·9 million components were issued in 2012, and very few deaths are related to transfusion. The risk of death from transfusion as estimated from SHOT data in 2012 is 1 in 322 580 components issued and for major morbidity, 1 in 21 413 components issued; the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection is much lower. Acute transfusion reactions and transfusion-associated circulatory overload carry the highest risk for morbidity and death. The high rate of participation in SHOT by National Health Service organizations, 99·5%, is encouraging. Despite the very useful information gained about transfusion reactions, the main risks remain human factors. The recommendations on reduction of errors through a ‘back to basics’ approach from the first annual SHOT report remain absolutely relevant today. PMID:24032719

  4. Host boring preferences of the tea shot-hole borer Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The non-native shot-hole borer, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), was discovered in Florida’s avocado production area in Homestead in 2010. It is a highly polyphagous ambrosia beetle that carries Fusarium fungal symbionts. In susceptible host trees, the fung...

  5. SunShot: Making Solar Energy Cost-Competitive Throughout the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative is designed to re-establish American technological leadership, strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race, and help America obtain a secure energy future. This fact sheet highlights the achievements of the initiative since 2010.

  6. A simple digitizer technique for determining the effective center of spoke shots.

    PubMed

    Biggs, P J

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for computing the effective center of an x-ray spoke shot pattern and determining its separation from a given reference point, such as the mechanical isocenter. This method is as quick as, but more accurate than, the standard technique of using a ruler.

  7. Single shot Hugoniot of cyclohexane using a spatially resolved laser driven shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolme, C. A.; McGrane, S. D.; Moore, D. S.; Whitley, V. H.; Funk, D. J.

    2008-11-01

    To develop a more efficient method of determining pressure dependent material response to shock loading, we used the spatial energy distribution of a shock generating laser beam to create a range of nearly one-dimensional stresses in a single laser shot. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry was used to measure the Hugoniot and shocked refractive index of cyclohexane subject to this shock loading.

  8. Spreadsheet Application Showing the Proper Elevation Angle, Points of Shot and Impact of a Projectile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the formula for the elevation angle at which a projectile has to be fired in a vacuum from a general position to hit a target at a given distance. A spreadsheet application that models the trajectory is presented, and the problem of finding the points of shot and impact of a projectile moving in a vacuum if three points of the…

  9. Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2000-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent shotgun pellets has been recognized as an important disease of North American waterfowl since Bellrose's (1959) research >40 years ago. Nation-wide regulations banning the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting were established in 1991. We compared the prevalence of lead exposure in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering on 2 areas in Tennessee before (1986-88) and after the ban (1997-99) to assess the effect of the ban on lead shot on this species. Prevalence of elevated blood lead in black ducks declined by 44% from before (11.7% prevalence) to after (6.5% prevalence) the implementation of non-toxic shot. The reduction in lead exposure was pronounced in adult black ducks (from 14.3% to 5.3%). However, prevalence in lead exposure remained similar in juvenile black ducks (from 8.2% to 8.3%). Additional evidence from lead ingestion and lead poisoning mortality events also indicates that lead exposure has declined in waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. We believe that lead ingestion will continue to decline, despite the persistence of lead shot in some wetlands. The impact of reduced lead exposure on waterfowl populations needs to be assessed.

  10. A fully model-based MPC solution including VSB shot dose assignment and shape correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Reddy, Murali; Durvasula, Bhardwaj

    2015-10-01

    The value of using multiple dose levels for individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers has been demonstrated earlier [1][2]. The main advantage of modulating dose on a per shot basis is the fact that higher dose levels can be used selectively for critical features while other areas of the mask with non-critical feature types can be exposed at lower dose levels. This reduces the amount of backscattering and mask write time penalty compared to a global overdose-undersize approach. While dose assignment to certain polygons or parts of polygons (VSB shots) can easily be accomplished via DRC rules on layers with limited shape variations like contact or VIA layers, it can be challenging to come up with consistent rules for layers consisting of a very broad range of shapes, generally found on metal layers. This work introduces a method for fully model-based modulation of shot dose for VSB machines supporting between two and eight dose levels and demonstrates results achieved with this method.

  11. Multiple Solutions of a Problem: Find the Best Point of the Shot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelenskiy, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of "Australian Senior Mathematics Journal" there has been published an interesting article by Galbraith and Lockwood (2010). In that article the problem of finding the most favorable points for a shot at goal in Australian football is considered from different points of view. A similar problem was considered by…

  12. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  13. Improved design and durability of aluminum die casting horizontal shot sleeves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birceanu, Sebastian

    The design and performance of shot sleeves is critical in meeting the engineering requirements of aluminum die cast parts. Improvement in shot sleeve materials have a major impact on dimensional stability, reproducibility and quality of the product. This investigation was undertaken in order to improve the life of aluminum die casting horizontal shot sleeves. Preliminary pin tests were run to evaluate the soldering, wash-out and thermal fatigue behavior of commercially available materials and coatings. An experimental rig was designed and constructed for shot sleeve configuration evaluation. Fabrication and testing of experimental shot sleeves was based upon preliminary results and manufacturing costs. Three shot sleeve designs and materials were compared to a reference nitrided H13 sleeve. Nitrided H13 is the preferred material for aluminum die casting shot sleeves because of wear resistance, strength and relative good soldering and wash-out resistance. The study was directed towards damage evaluation on the area under the pouring hole. This area is the most susceptible to damage because of high temperatures and impingement of molten aluminum. The results of this study showed that tungsten and molybdenum had the least amount of soldering and wash-out damage, and the best thermal fatigue resistance. Low solubility in molten aluminum and stability of intermetallic layers are main factors that determine the soldering and wash-out behavior. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient directly influence thermal fatigue behavior. TiAlN nanolayered coating was chosen as the material with the best damage resistance among several commercial PVD coatings, because of relatively large thickness and simple deposition conditions. The results show that molybdenum thermal sprayed coating provided the best protection against damage under the pouring hole. Improved bonding is however required for life extension of the coating. TiAlN PVD coating applied on H13 nitrided

  14. Using rule-based shot dose assignment in model-based MPC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Wang, Lin; Müller, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Shrinking feature sizes and the need for tighter CD (Critical Dimension) control require the introduction of new technologies in mask making processes. One of those methods is the dose assignment of individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers to compensate CD non-linearity effects and improve dose edge slope. Using increased dose levels only for most critical features, generally only for the smallest CDs on a mask, the change in mask write time is minimal while the increase in image quality can be significant. This paper describes a method combining rule-based shot dose assignment with model-based shot size correction. This combination proves to be very efficient in correcting mask linearity errors while also improving dose edge slope of small features. Shot dose assignment is based on tables assigning certain dose levels to a range of feature sizes. The dose to feature size assignment is derived from mask measurements in such a way that shape corrections are kept to a minimum. For example, if a 50nm drawn line on mask results in a 45nm chrome line using nominal dose, a dose level is chosen which is closest to getting the line back on target. Since CD non-linearity is different for lines, line-ends and contacts, different tables are generated for the different shape categories. The actual dose assignment is done via DRC rules in a pre-processing step before executing the shape correction in the MPC engine. Dose assignment to line ends can be restricted to critical line/space dimensions since it might not be required for all line ends. In addition, adding dose assignment to a wide range of line ends might increase shot count which is undesirable. The dose assignment algorithm is very flexible and can be adjusted based on the type of layer and the best balance between accuracy and shot count. These methods can be optimized for the number of dose levels available for specific mask writers. The MPC engine now needs to be able to handle different dose

  15. Effect of embedded shot on trace element concentrations in livers of Anseriformes species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, In-Kyu; Oh, Jong-Min

    2016-12-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in the liver of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n=15), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, n=4) and spot-billed ducks (Anas poecilorhyncha, n=13) found dead in Gimpo, Korea. All mallards and eight spot-billed ducks had embedded lead shot. Embedded shot could be affected elevated trace element concentrations on geese and ducks. Element concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), aluminum (Al), copper (Cr), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) differed among species and white-fronted geese without embedded shot had the lowest concentrations for all elements (geomean 0.36, 0.43, 0.07, 1.46, 7.60, 2.61 and 13.5µg/g dw, respectively). Cadmium in four (3.27-7.77µg/g dw) of 32 individuals and Pb in eight (5.07-9.72µg/g dw) of 32 individuals exceeded a tentative threshold effect level of Cd (>3.0µg/g dw) and Pb (>5.0µg/g dw) for birds; all geese and ducks for Cr (0.07-0.43µg/g dw) were within the background level (<4.0µg/g dw). All trace element concentrations were much greater in waterfowl species with embedded shot than without shot. Essential trace elements such as Cr, Al (geomean 1.46-37.3µg/g dw), Cu (7.60-57.1µg/g dw), Mn (2.61-27.6µg/g dw) and Zn (13.5-176µg/g dw) were within the normal range and were probably maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms.

  16. One-shot deep-UV pulsed-laser-induced photomodification of hollow metal nanoparticles for high-density data storage on flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dehui; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Wang, Lon A; Chen, Yung-Pin

    2010-01-26

    In this paper, we report a new optical data storage method: photomodification of hollow gold nanoparticle (HGN) monolayers induced by one-shot deep-ultraviolet (DUV) KrF laser recording. As far as we are aware, this study is the first to apply HGNs in optical data storage and also the first to use a recording light source for the metal nanoparticles (NPs) that is not a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength. The short wavelength of the recording DUV laser improved the optical resolution dramatically. We prepared HGNs exhibiting two absorbance regions: an SPR peak in the near-infrared (NIR) region and an intrinsic material extinction in the DUV region. A single pulse from a KrF laser heated the HGNs and transformed them from hollow structures to smaller solid spheres. This change in morphology for the HGNs was accompanied by a significant blue shift of the SPR peak. Employing this approach, we demonstrated its patterning ability with a resolving power of a half-micrometer (using a phase mask) and developed a readout method (using a blue-ray laser microscope). Moreover, we prepared large-area, uniform patterns of monolayer HGNs on various substrates (glass slides, silicon wafers, flexible plates). If this spectral recording technique could be applied onto thin flexible tapes, the recorded data density would increase significantly relative to that of current rigid discs (e.g., compact discs).

  17. A seismic field test with a Low-level Acoustic Combustion Source and Pseudo-Noise codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askeland, Bjørn; Ruud, Bent Ole; Hobæk, Halvor; Mjelde, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The Low-level Acoustic Combustion Source (LACS) which can fire its pulses at a high rate, has been tested successfully as a seismic marine source on shallow ice-age sediments in Byfjorden at Bergen, Norway. Pseudo-Noise pulsed signals with spiky autocorrelation functions were used to detect the sediments. Each transmitted sequence lasted 10 s and contained 43 pulses. While correlation gave a blurry result, deconvolution between the near-field recordings and the streamer recordings gave a clear seismic section. Compared to the section acquired with single air-gun shots along the same profile, the LACS gave a more clear presentation of the sediments and basement.

  18. Fluorescence imaging of microbe-containing particles shot from a two-stage Light-gas gun into an aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Tabata, Makoto; Okudaira, Kyoko; Imai, Eichi; Yano, Hajime; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yabuta, Hikaru; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    We have proposed an experiment (the Tanpopo mission) to capture microbes on the Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station. An ultra low-density silica aerogel will be exposed to space for more than 1 year. After retrieving the aerogel, particle tracks and particles found in it will be visualized by fluorescence microscopy after staining it with a DNA-specific fluorescence dye. In preparation for this study, we simulated particle trapping in an aerogel so that methods could be developed to visualize the particles and their tracks. During the Tanpopo mission, particles that have an orbital velocity of ~8 km/s are expected to collide with the aerogel. To simulate these collisions, we shot Deinococcus radiodurans-containing Lucentite particles into the aerogel from a two-stage light-gas gun (acceleration 4.2 km/s). The shapes of the captured particles, and their tracks and entrance holes were recorded with a microscope/camera system for further analysis. The size distribution of the captured particles was smaller than the original distribution, suggesting that the particles had fragmented. We were able to distinguish between microbial DNA and inorganic compounds after staining the aerogel with the DNA-specific fluorescence dye SYBR green I as the fluorescence of the stained DNA and the autofluorescence of the inorganic particles decay at different rates. The developed methods are suitable to determine if microbes exist at the International Space Station altitude.

  19. Shot-noise Limited Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy for Detection of Nitric Oxide Isotopes in Breath, Urine, and Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin; Nikodem, Michal; Zhang, Eric; Cikach, Frank; Barnes, Jarrod; Comhair, Suzy; Dweik, Raed A.; Kao, Christina; Wysocki, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of NO and/or its metabolites in the various body compartments has transformed our understanding of biology. The inability of the current NO measurement methods to account for naturally occurring and experimental NO isotopes, however, has prevented the scientific community from fully understating NO metabolism in vivo. Here we present a mid-IR Faraday rotation spectrometer (FRS) for detection of NO isotopes. The instrument utilizes a novel dual modulation/demodulation (DM) FRS method which exhibits noise performance at only 2 times the fundamental quantum shot-noise level and provides the record sensitivity in its class. This is achieved with a system that is fully autonomous, robust, transportable, and does not require cryogenic cooling. The DM-FRS enables continuous monitoring of nitric oxide isotopes with the detection limits of 3.72 ppbv/Hz1/2 to14NO and 0.53 ppbv/Hz1/2 to15NO using only 45 cm active optical path. This DM-FRS measurement method can be used to improve the performance of conventional FRS sensors targeting other radical species. The feasibility of the instrument to perform measurements relevant to studies of NO metabolism in humans is demonstrated.

  20. Single-shot-capable fast multichannel Fourier transform interferometer based on a microfabricated 3D multimirror array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, H. O.; Heussler, S. P.; Kalaiselvi, S. M. P.

    2012-06-01

    We present a Fourier transform interferometer that is capable to record single short pulses and fast continuous transient spectra. This is achieved by spatially parallel instead of time serial processing by means of a micro/nanomanufactured multimirror array and a pixellated detector camera. The multimirror array is produced in excellent optical quality from poly(methyl methacrylate) by means of deep X-ray gray level lithography including multiple moving masks followed by sputter deposition of the gold reflecting surfaces. The crucial components such as the multimirror array and the pixellated camera are part of a straightforward optical system similar to a Czerny-Turner mount. Results demonstrate single shot measurements down to 320 μs, only limited by the camera shutter and the infrared source, and the time evolution of the absorption spectrum of an evaporating acetone layer that shows spectral changes during the first few seconds. While the spectral range of the multichannel Fourier transform interferometer (MC FTIR) as reported extends from near to mid infrared, multimirror arrays can be produced for spectra from visible to far infrared. Thus, the potential performance depends mostly on availability of detectors. The minimum pulse duration is determined by that photon number in the pulse which yields a sufficient signal to noise ratio, whereas the maximum acquisition rate of continuous transients is given by the frame rate of the detector.

  1. Mortality and hematology associated with the ingestion of one number four lead shot in black ducks, Anas rubripes

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.

    1988-02-01

    The black duck (anas rubripes) is a dabbling duck endemic to North America. Since population surveys of this species began in the early 1950's, numbers have declined steadily at the rate of approximately 1.5% a year. In 1980 the North American population was estimated to be only 42% of that recorded in 1952. Several reasons have been suggested for this decline. One environmental contaminant that may be contributing to the decline is spent lead gunshot. The ingestion of gunshot by waterfowl is well documented and is thought to kill an estimated 1.6-3.8 million waterfowl each year in North America. There has been little research concerning the toxicity of lead gunshot to the black duck and the present significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in this species. This study reports the results of an experiment in which captive black ducks were dosed with one number four lead shot. Mortality rates and hematological effects are discussed in relation to lead toxicity.

  2. Single-shot Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved reflectivity of a shocked TATB-based explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Philippe; Saint-Amans, Charles; Doucet, Michel; de Resseguier, Thibaut

    2015-06-01

    Single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiments under shockwave loading were performed in order to get information on the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a TATB-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects on the H-bonding network present in TATB. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Time-resolved reflectivity measurements under shock compression seem to indicate that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  3. Irreversible transformation of ferromagnetic ordered stripe domains in single-shot infrared-pump/resonant-x-ray-scattering-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeard, Nicolas; Schaffert, Stefan; López-Flores, Víctor; Jaouen, Nicolas; Geilhufe, Jan; Günther, Christian M.; Schneider, Michael; Graves, Catherine; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Scherz, Andreas; Baumier, Cédric; Delaunay, Renaud; Fortuna, Franck; Tortarolo, Marina; Tudu, Bharati; Krupin, Oleg; Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joe; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J.; Lüning, Jan; Eisebitt, Stefan; Boeglin, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of a magnetic domain structure upon excitation by an intense, femtosecond infrared (IR) laser pulse has been investigated using single-shot based time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering at the x-ray free electron laser LCLS. A well-ordered stripe domain pattern as present in a thin CoPd alloy film has been used as a prototype magnetic domain structure for this study. The fluence of the IR laser pump pulse was sufficient to lead to an almost complete quenching of the magnetization within the ultrafast demagnetization process taking place within the first few hundreds of femtoseconds following the IR laser pump pulse excitation. On longer time scales this excitation gave rise to subsequent irreversible transformations of the magnetic domain structure. Under our specific experimental conditions, it took about 2 ns before the magnetization started to recover. After about 5 ns the previously ordered stripe domain structure had evolved into a disordered labyrinth domain structure. Surprisingly, we observe after about 7 ns the occurrence of a partially ordered stripe domain structure reoriented into a novel direction. It is this domain structure in which the sample's magnetization stabilizes as revealed by scattering patterns recorded long after the initial pump-probe cycle. Using micromagnetic simulations we can explain this observation based on changes of the magnetic anisotropy going along with heat dissipation in the film.

  4. Shot-noise Limited Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy for Detection of Nitric Oxide Isotopes in Breath, Urine, and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Nikodem, Michal; Zhang, Eric; Cikach, Frank; Barnes, Jarrod; Comhair, Suzy; Dweik, Raed A.; Kao, Christina; Wysocki, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of NO and/or its metabolites in the various body compartments has transformed our understanding of biology. The inability of the current NO measurement methods to account for naturally occurring and experimental NO isotopes, however, has prevented the scientific community from fully understating NO metabolism in vivo. Here we present a mid-IR Faraday rotation spectrometer (FRS) for detection of NO isotopes. The instrument utilizes a novel dual modulation/demodulation (DM) FRS method which exhibits noise performance at only 2 times the fundamental quantum shot-noise level and provides the record sensitivity in its class. This is achieved with a system that is fully autonomous, robust, transportable, and does not require cryogenic cooling. The DM-FRS enables continuous monitoring of nitric oxide isotopes with the detection limits of 3.72 ppbv/Hz1/2 to14NO and 0.53 ppbv/Hz1/2 to15NO using only 45 cm active optical path. This DM-FRS measurement method can be used to improve the performance of conventional FRS sensors targeting other radical species. The feasibility of the instrument to perform measurements relevant to studies of NO metabolism in humans is demonstrated. PMID:25767064

  5. Relationship of surface changes to metal leaching from tungsten composite shot exposed to three different soil types.

    PubMed

    Felt, Deborah; Larson, Steven; Griggs, Chris; Nestler, Catherine; Wynter, Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Physical changes that occur on the surface of fired shots due to firing and impact with soil may increase the dissolution of muniton metals. Increased metal dissolution could potentially increase metal transport and leaching, affecting metal concentrations in surface and groundwater. This research describes the relationship between the surface changes on fired tungsten-nickel-iron (94% W:2% Ni:4% Fe) composite shots and metals leaching from those shots. Tungsten composite shot was fired into, and aged in, three soil types (Silty Sand, Sandy Clay, and Silt) in mesoscale rainfall lysimeters to simulate live-fire conditions and subsequent interactions between the metals of the composite and soil. Leachate, runoff, and soil samples were collected from the lysimeters and analyzed for metal content. The shots were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate surface changes. SEM results indicated that a soil's particle size distribution initially affected the amount of metal that was sheared from the surface of the fired W-composite shots. Shearing was greatest in soils with larger soil particles (sand and gravel); shearing was least in soils composed of small soil particles (fines). Increased metallic shearing from the shot's surface was associated with increased W dissolution, compared to controls, following a simulated 1 year soil aging.

  6. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  7. Analysis of activated air following high yield shots in the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Hesham; Brereton, Sandra

    2015-07-24

    During the ignition experimental campaign, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield (up to 20 MJ or 7.1 x 1018 neutrons per shot) and a maximum annual yield of 1200 MJ. A detailed MCNP model of the Target Bay (TB) and the two switchyards (SY) has been developed to estimate the post-shot radiation environment inside the facility. During D-T shots, a pulse of 14.1 MeV neutrons streaming outside the Target Chamber (TC) will activate the air present inside the TB and the argon gas inside the laser tubes. Smaller levels of activity are also generated in the SY air and in the argon portion of the SY laser beam path. The activated TB air will be mixed with fresh air from the Operations Support Building (OSB) before release through the stack. Flow of activated air from the Target Bay is controlled by the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. 16N (T1/2 = 7.13 s) dominates the radiation levels during the first minute following the shot. It is expected that 16N will decay away during the confinement time before releasing the TB air through the stack. The other major contributors are 13N (T1/2 = 9.97 min) and 41Ar (T1/2 = 1.83 h). In general a low dose rate of < 1 μSv/h is expected near the stack during the first few hours following a 20 MJ shot. Here, the amount of activated Target Bay air released through the stack is very small and does not pose significant hazard to personnel or the environment. In the mean time, due to a very small leakage rate out of the laser tubes, the activated argon gas decays within the tubes and any resulting release to the environment is insignificant.

  8. [The composition and characteristics of the spread of the shot products from a gas-barrel weapon].

    PubMed

    Isakov, V D; Babakhanian, R V; Kuznetsov, Iu D; Sigalov, F A

    1998-01-01

    Chemical composition and diffusion of additional factors of a shot from barrel gun supplied with a standard chemical cartridge are studied. Experimental shots from gas pistols of three designs were made. During shots from gas barrel guns the victim is exposed to additional factors characteristic of both fire arms and gas barrel guns, namely, fragments of plastic cartridge container and pads, magnesium particles, and lacquer powder. The characteristics of the short range zone for gas barrel guns correspond to those of short barrel fire arms.

  9. Lead concentrations in tissues of marsh birds: relationship of feeding habits and grit preference to spent shot ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.L.; Fisher, F.M. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    The toxic effects of lead shot ingestion on waterfowl are well documented. During the summer of 1982, a random sample of marsh birds from the upper Texas coast indicated a relatively high incidence of shot ingestion in several species. In addition, lead and arsenic levels in bones of these species were correlated with the presence of ingested shot. This paper addresses possible reasons why some species are affected and others are not, in particular the relationship between feeding habits and size of grit which is found in the gizzards of each species.

  10. Direct comparison of shot-to-shot noise performance of all normal dispersion and anomalous dispersion supercontinuum pumped with sub-picosecond pulse fiber-based laser.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Mariusz; Soboń, Grzegorz; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Abramski, Krzysztof M; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2016-01-13

    Coherence of supercontinuum sources is critical for applications involving characterization of ultrafast or rarely occurring phenomena. With the demonstrated spectral coverage of supercontinuum extending from near-infrared to over 10 μm in a single nonlinear fiber, there has been a clear push for the bandwidth rather than for attempting to optimize the dynamic properties of the generated spectrum. In this work we provide an experimental assessment of the shot-to-shot noise performance of supercontinuum generation in two types of soft glass photonic crystal fibers. Phase coherence and intensity fluctuations are compared for the cases of an anomalous dispersion-pumped fiber and an all-normal dispersion fiber. With the use of the dispersive Fourier transformation method, we demonstrate that a factor of 100 improvement in signal-to-noise ratio is achieved in the normal-dispersion over anomalous dispersion-pumped fiber for 390 fs long pump pulses. A double-clad design of the photonic lattice of the fiber is further postulated to enable a pump-related seeding mechanism of normal-dispersion supercontinuum broadening under sub-picosecond pumping, which is otherwise known for similar noise characteristics as modulation instability driven, soliton-based spectra.

  11. Direct comparison of shot-to-shot noise performance of all normal dispersion and anomalous dispersion supercontinuum pumped with sub-picosecond pulse fiber-based laser

    PubMed Central

    Klimczak, Mariusz; Soboń, Grzegorz; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Abramski, Krzysztof M.; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Coherence of supercontinuum sources is critical for applications involving characterization of ultrafast or rarely occurring phenomena. With the demonstrated spectral coverage of supercontinuum extending from near-infrared to over 10 μm in a single nonlinear fiber, there has been a clear push for the bandwidth rather than for attempting to optimize the dynamic properties of the generated spectrum. In this work we provide an experimental assessment of the shot-to-shot noise performance of supercontinuum generation in two types of soft glass photonic crystal fibers. Phase coherence and intensity fluctuations are compared for the cases of an anomalous dispersion-pumped fiber and an all-normal dispersion fiber. With the use of the dispersive Fourier transformation method, we demonstrate that a factor of 100 improvement in signal-to-noise ratio is achieved in the normal-dispersion over anomalous dispersion-pumped fiber for 390 fs long pump pulses. A double-clad design of the photonic lattice of the fiber is further postulated to enable a pump-related seeding mechanism of normal-dispersion supercontinuum broadening under sub-picosecond pumping, which is otherwise known for similar noise characteristics as modulation instability driven, soliton-based spectra. PMID:26759188

  12. Effects of creep damage, shot peening, and case hardening on magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sipahi, L.B. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA . Inst. for Physical Research and Technology)

    1994-11-01

    The micromagnetic emissions, commonly known as Barkhausen noise, are very sensitive to variations in the microstructure and sub-surface stress states of magnetic materials. Steel pipelines at power plants often have creep damage due to microstructural changes in their service life. Early detection of this damage will prevent costly failures. There is also an increasing demand to characterize the sub-surface stress states in structural materials such as high strength materials used in landing gear components in the aerospace industry. Shot peening is used to improve the fatigue strength of these components by the introduction of residual compressive stresses to the surface. Because the magnitude of Barkhausen noise varies with the magnitude of compressive stress, these noise measurements can be used for in-situ evaluation of the effectiveness of the shot peening process. Furthermore, surface modification such as case hardened magnetic samples can be easily observed using micromagnetic Barkhausen noise (MBE) to determine further modification needs.

  13. Single-Shot Rotational Raman Thermometry for Turbulent Flames Using a Low-Resolution Bandwidth Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2007-01-01

    An alternative optical thermometry technique that utilizes the low-resolution (order 10(exp 1)/cm) pure-rotational spontaneous Raman scattering of air is developed to aid single-shot multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion studies. Temperature measurements are realized by correlating the measured envelope bandwidth of the pure-rotational manifold of the N2/O2 spectrum with a theoretical prediction of a species-weighted bandwidth. By coupling this thermometry technique with conventional vibrational Raman scattering for species determination, we demonstrate quantitative spatially resolved, single-shot measurements of the temperature and fuel/oxidizer concentrations in a high-pressure turbulent Cf4-air flame. Our technique provides not only an effective means of validating other temperature measurement methods, but also serves as a secondary thermometry technique in cases where the anti-Stokes vibrational N2 Raman signals are too low for a conventional vibrational temperature analysis.

  14. Strong quantum memory at resonant Fermi edges revealed by shot noise.

    PubMed

    Ubbelohde, N; Roszak, K; Hohls, F; Maire, N; Haug, R J; Novotný, T

    2012-01-01

    Studies of non-equilibrium current fluctuations enable assessing correlations involved in quantum transport through nanoscale conductors. They provide additional information to the mean current on charge statistics and the presence of coherence, dissipation, disorder, or entanglement. Shot noise, being a temporal integral of the current autocorrelation function, reveals dynamical information. In particular, it detects presence of non-Markovian dynamics, i.e., memory, within open systems, which has been subject of many current theoretical studies. We report on low-temperature shot noise measurements of electronic transport through InAs quantum dots in the Fermi-edge singularity regime and show that it exhibits strong memory effects caused by quantum correlations between the dot and fermionic reservoirs. Our work, apart from addressing noise in archetypical strongly correlated system of prime interest, discloses generic quantum dynamical mechanism occurring at interacting resonant Fermi edges.

  15. Single-shot photonic time-intensity integration based on a time-spectrum convolution system.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Antonio; Ashrafi, Reza; Li, Ming; LaRochelle, Sophie; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2012-04-15

    Real-time and single-shot ultra-fast photonic time-intensity integration of arbitrary temporal waveforms is proposed and demonstrated. The intensity-integration concept is based on a time-spectrum convolution system, where the use of a multi-wavelength laser with a flat envelope, employed as the incoherent broadband source, enables single-shot operation. The experimental implementation is based on optical intensity modulation of the multi-wavelength laser with the input waveform, followed by linear dispersion. In particular, photonic temporal intensity integration with a processing bandwidth of 36.8 GHz over an integration time window of 1.24 ns is verified by experimentally measuring the integration of an ultra-short microwave pulse and an arbitrary microwave waveform.

  16. A high-capacity model for one shot association learning in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Einarsson, Hafsteinn; Lengler, Johannes; Steger, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-capacity model for one-shot association learning (hetero-associative memory) in sparse networks. We assume that basic patterns are pre-learned in networks and associations between two patterns are presented only once and have to be learned immediately. The model is a combination of an Amit-Fusi like network sparsely connected to a Willshaw type network. The learning procedure is palimpsest and comes from earlier work on one-shot pattern learning. However, in our setup we can enhance the capacity of the network by iterative retrieval. This yields a model for sparse brain-like networks in which populations of a few thousand neurons are capable of learning hundreds of associations even if they are presented only once. The analysis of the model is based on a novel result by Janson et al. on bootstrap percolation in random graphs. PMID:25426060

  17. Single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in pulsed high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, G. Timothy; Katayama, Ikufumi; Katsutani, Fumiya; Allred, James J.; Horowitz, Jeffrey A.; Sullivan, David M.; Zhang, Qi; Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Woods, Gary L.; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Jun; Kono, Junichiro

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a single-shot terahertz time-domain spectrometer to perform optical-pump/terahertz-probe experiments in pulsed, high magnetic fields up to 30 T. The single-shot detection scheme for measuring a terahertz waveform incorporates a reflective echelon to create time-delayed beamlets across the intensity profile of the optical gate beam before it spatially and temporally overlaps with the terahertz radiation in a ZnTe detection crystal. After imaging the gate beam onto a camera, we can retrieve the terahertz time-domain waveform by analyzing the resulting image. To demonstrate the utility of our technique, we measured cyclotron resonance absorption of optically excited carriers in the terahertz frequency range in intrinsic silicon at high magnetic fields, with results that agree well with published values.

  18. Ultrafast single-shot imaging of laser-produced plasmas via spatial division and routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeola, Sarang; Kuk, Donghoon; Kim, Ki-Yong

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a single-shot imaging camera, which can capture ultrafast events occurring on femtosecond and picosecond time scales. The working principle of this camera relies on spatial division and routing of femtosecond laser pulses. Here we have employed simple optics such as mirrors to produce multiple, time-delayed laser pulses and to project time-evolving images onto separate standard cameras. This spatial division and routing method has been tested with a femtosecond amplified laser in visualizing the evolution of laser-induced ionization in air and ablation in solids in single-shots. The number of frames is currently limited to 4 but can be increased further to N x N by using 3D printed optics for spatial division and routing. Work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Award No. 1351455.

  19. Single-shot and phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using a 2-D grating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Kyoung J; Kim, Beop-Min; Choi, Youngwoon

    2016-05-02

    We demonstrate digital holographic microscopy that, while being based on phase-shifting interferometry, is capable of single-shot measurements. A two-dimensional (2-D) diffraction grating placed in a Fourier plane of a standard in-line holographic phase microscope generates multiple copies of a sample image on a camera sensor. The identical image copies are spatially separated with different overall phase shifts according to the diffraction orders. The overall phase shifts are adjusted by controlling the lateral position of the grating. These phase shifts are then set to be multiples of π/2. Interferograms composed of four image copies combined with a parallel reference beam are acquired in a single shot. The interferograms are processed through a phase-shifting algorithm to produce a single complex image. By taking advantage of the higher sampling capacity of the in-line holography, we can increase the imaging information density by a factor of 3 without compromising the imaging acquisition speed.

  20. Single-shot dual-wavelength phase unwrapping in parallel phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yonghee; Ito, Yasunori; Tahara, Tatsuki; Inoue, Junichi; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Matoba, Osamu

    2014-04-15

    We propose a single-shot phase-unwrapping method using two wavelengths in parallel phase-shifting digital holography (PPSDH). The proposed method enables one to solve the phase ambiguity problem in PPSDH. We conducted an experiment of the proposed method using two lasers whose wavelengths are 473 and 532 nm. An object having about 1.9 μm step, which is 7.1 times larger than the half wavelength of one of the lasers (266 nm), was fabricated by using vapor deposition of aluminum. Single-shot measurement of the height of the object was successfully demonstrated, and the validity of the proposed method was verified.

  1. Shot-Noise Evidence of Fractional Quasiparticle Creation in a Local Fractional Quantum Hall State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa

    2015-02-01

    We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T1(1 -T1) over a wide range of T1 , where T1 is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.

  2. Did a "lucky shot" sink the submarine H.L. Hunley?

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Warder, Henry; Bass, Cameron R Dale

    2017-01-01

    The H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to be successful in combat, sinking the Union vessel Housatonic outside Charleston Harbor in 1864 during the Civil War. However, despite marking a milestone in military history, little is known about this vessel or why it sank. One popular theory is the "lucky shot" theory: the hypothesis that small arms fire from the crew of the Housatonic may have sufficiently damaged the submarine to sink it. However, ballistic experiments with cast iron samples, analysis of historical experiments firing Civil War-era projectiles at cast iron samples, and calculation of the tidal currents and sinking trajectory of the submarine indicate that this theory is not likely. Based on our results, the "lucky shot" theory does not explain the sinking of the world's first successful combat submarine.

  3. Shot and Patronin polarise microtubules to direct membrane traffic and biogenesis of microvilli in epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Ichha; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Diaz de la Loza, Maria del Carmen; Fletcher, Georgina C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In epithelial tissues, polarisation of microtubules and actin microvilli occurs along the apical-basal axis of each cell, yet how these cytoskeletal polarisation events are coordinated remains unclear. Here, we examine the hierarchy of events during cytoskeletal polarisation in Drosophila melanogaster epithelia. Core apical-basal polarity determinants polarise the spectrin cytoskeleton to recruit the microtubule-binding proteins Patronin (CAMSAP1, CAMSAP2 and CAMPSAP3 in humans) and Shortstop [Shot; MACF1 and BPAG1 (also known as DST) in humans] to the apical membrane domain. Patronin and Shot then act to polarise microtubules along the apical-basal axis to enable apical transport of Rab11 endosomes by the Nuf–Dynein microtubule motor complex. Finally, Rab11 endosomes are transferred to the MyoV (also known as Didum in Drosophila) actin motor to deliver the key microvillar determinant Cadherin 99C to the apical membrane to organise the biogenesis of actin microvilli. PMID:27231092

  4. Computed tomography with single-shot dual-energy sandwich detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Youn, Hanbean; Kim, Daecheon; Kim, Dong Woon; Jeon, Hosang; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Single-shot dual-energy sandwich detector can produce sharp images because of subtraction of images from two sub-detector layers, which have different thick x-ray converters, of the sandwich detector. Inspired by this observation, the authors have developed a microtomography system with the sandwich detector in pursuit of high-resolution bone-enhanced small-animal imaging. The preliminary results show that the bone-enhanced images reconstructed with the subtracted projection data are better in visibility of bone details than the conventionally reconstructed images. In addition, the bone-enhanced images obtained from the sandwich detector are relatively immune to the artifacts caused by photon starvation. The microtomography with the single-shot dual-energy sandwich detector will be useful for the high-resolution bone imaging.

  5. Single-shot hyperspectral coherent Raman planar imaging in the range 0-4200 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a technique for ultrabroadband planar coherent Raman spectroscopy that enables wideband chemically selective mapping of molecular partition functions in the gas-phase within a single-laser-shot. A spectral region spanning 0-4200 cm-1 is excited simultaneously, in principle allowing for coherent planar imaging of most all fundamental Raman-active modes. This unique instantaneous and spatially correlated assessment enables multiplexed studies of transient dynamical systems in a two-dimensional (2D) field. Here, we demonstrate single-laser-shot high temperature diagnostics of H2, with spatially resolved 2D measurement of transitions of both the pure-rotational H2 S-branch and the vibrational H2 Q-branch, analyzing the temperature contour of a reacting fuel-species as it evolves at a flame-front.

  6. Evaluation of Surface Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Welds Due to Laser and Shot Peening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Rivero, Iris V.; Lyons, Jed

    2007-01-01

    The effects of laser, and shot peening on the residual stresses in Friction Stir Welds (FSW) has been investigated. The surface residual stresses were measured at five different locations across the weld in order to produce an adequate residual stress profile. The residual stresses before and after sectioning the coupon from the welded plate were also measured, and the effect of coupon size on the residual stress relaxation was determined and characterized. Measurements indicate that residual stresses were not uniform along the welded plate, and large variation in stress magnitude could be exhibited at various locations along the FSW plate. Sectioning resulted in significant residual stress relaxation in the longitudinal direction attributed to the large change in dimensions in this direction. Overall, Laser and shot peening resulted in a significant reduction in tensile residual stresses at the surface of the specimens.

  7. Increased osteoblast function in vitro and in vivo through surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongyuan; Hu, Beibei; Tang, Chu; Wu, Yunpeng; Sun, Pengfei; Zhang, Xianlong; Jia, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Surface topography has significant influence on good and fast osseointegration of biomedical implants. In this work, ultrasonic shot peening was conducted to modify titanium to produce nanograined (NG) surface. Its ability to induce new bone formation was evaluated using an in vivo animal model. We demonstrated that the NG surface enhanced osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in in vitro experiments compared to coarse-grained titanium surface. Push-out test, histological observations, fluorescent labeling, and histomorphometrical analysis consistently indicated that the NG surfaces developed have the higher osseointegration than coarse-grained surfaces. Those results suggest that ultrasonic shot peening has the potential for future use as a surface modification method in biomedical application. PMID:26229463

  8. Strong quantum memory at resonant Fermi edges revealed by shot noise

    PubMed Central

    Ubbelohde, N.; Roszak, K.; Hohls, F.; Maire, N.; Haug, R. J.; Novotný, T.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of non-equilibrium current fluctuations enable assessing correlations involved in quantum transport through nanoscale conductors. They provide additional information to the mean current on charge statistics and the presence of coherence, dissipation, disorder, or entanglement. Shot noise, being a temporal integral of the current autocorrelation function, reveals dynamical information. In particular, it detects presence of non-Markovian dynamics, i.e., memory, within open systems, which has been subject of many current theoretical studies. We report on low-temperature shot noise measurements of electronic transport through InAs quantum dots in the Fermi-edge singularity regime and show that it exhibits strong memory effects caused by quantum correlations between the dot and fermionic reservoirs. Our work, apart from addressing noise in archetypical strongly correlated system of prime interest, discloses generic quantum dynamical mechanism occurring at interacting resonant Fermi edges. PMID:22530093

  9. Single-shot low coherence pointwise measuring interferometer with potential for in-line inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, R.; Krauter, J.; Körner, K.; Gronle, M.; Osten, W.

    2017-02-01

    Low-coherence-interferometry (LCI) is a well-known optical metrology technique which offers high resolution and a low measurement uncertainty. For the inspection of dynamic and fast processes, single-shot point sensors can show their full capability. Therefore, a new approach of an interferometer is presented, allowing an single-shot acquisition of a LCI signal. The presented concept is based on tilted wavefronts to generate a spatial modulated interferogram. Using a three faceted mirror (TFM) in the reference path, a virtual field point is generated leading to a tilted planar reference wavefront in the pupil plane of the telecentric objective lens. Three mirror surfaces, which are diamond milled out of a monolithic copper cube, are applied to guarantee a stable TFM geometry, resulting in an invariant reference field point position.

  10. Frequency-domain single-shot optical frequency comb tomography using VIPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaoka, Takumi; Shioda, Tatsutoshi

    2016-03-01

    Novel two-dimensional single-shot imaging optical system based on Frequency-domain interferometry using a virtually imaged phased array is proposed. The VIPA simultaneously outputs incoherent optical frequency combs (OFCs) whose teeth interval are scanned as a function of its output angle. Teeth intervals of the OFCs only in a reference are spatially swept by using of a VIPA whose advantage compared to an optical resonator. Thus, the single-shot imaging system can be realized with the FSR scanned frequency-domain OFC interference monitored by CCD. This system enable high speed 2-dimensional tomographic image without mechanical moving part. And the axial measurement range is not limited by using multi-order interference that is generated by OFCs interferometry. We will present the operation principle with its confirmed results in terms of both simulation and experiment.

  11. Shot noise limited detection of OH using the technique of laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakalyar, D. M.; Davis, L. I., Jr.; Guo, C.; James, J. V.; Kakos, S.; Morris, P. T.; Wang, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Nearly shot-noise limited detection of OH using the technique of laser-induced fluorescence is reported. A LIDAR configuration is used to excite fluorescence in a large volume and a narrow-bandwidth interference filter provides spectral discrimination. This arrangement alleviates the effect of ozone interference and facilitates image processing at relatively close distances. The detection limit is determined mainly by the shot-noise of the solar background. Ground-based measurements in Dearborn indicate a detection limit of better than 1 x 10 to the 6th power OH/cubic cm over a forty-minute acquisition period. Under favorable conditions, a comparable detection limit was also observed for airborne measurements.

  12. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officers report. Project 1. 4. Shock photography

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, P.; Dieter, C.F.

    1985-09-01

    The objective of this project was to measure the shock position as a function of time from which shock velocities and pressures in limited regions could be calculated, and any asymmetric growth both along along and above the surface could be detected. An outgrowth of the fireball along the surface was observed, and it was attributed to surface heating. The rate of growth along the surface was asymmetric. The growth along the 113 deg azimuth was markedly greater than in any of the other directions measured. Contrary to previous experience with surface shots, the peak pressures obtained above ground zero were less than those obtained along the surface at the same distances. there is some evidence to suggest that the focusing noted on previous shots did not occur or was very much reduced. Scaled Small Boy peak pressure-distance data are in agreement with the composite surface-burst pressure-distance curve.

  13. Shot Peening and Thermal Stress Relaxation in 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Enwei; Chen, Guoxing; Tan, Ziming; Wu, Shuhui

    2015-11-01

    Shot peening is an effective process to enhance the fatigue performance of turbine blades. In this study, the effect of peening pressures was discussed in terms of the residual stress distribution and the surface morphology. Shot peening processes were designed at varying pressures on a 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel. The profiles of hardness and residual stress were characterized in the cross section. The thermal stress relaxation was further carried out to evaluate the stability of the compressive residual stress under service temperatures of turbine blades. Results show that a maximum stress depth is obtained with peening pressure of 0.40 MPa, and the residual stress can be maintained up to 400 °C, which ensures the service in low-pressure turbine blades.

  14. Broadband pump-probe imaging spectroscopy applicable to ultrafast single-shot events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yasuo; Yamaki, Hiromoto; Katayama, Ikufumi; Takeda, Jun

    2014-02-01

    We propose a scheme for frequency-resolved single-shot spectroscopy with an echelon mirror. The echelon mirror is employed to generate spatially encoded time delays for the white-light continuum probe beam; it produces a temporal step of 66 fs and an overall time delay of 33 ps. We demonstrate broadband pump-probe imaging spectroscopy and present time-frequency two-dimensional images of the transient absorption of β-carotene between 420 and 630 nm with single-shot detection. The results show that this technique is a powerful tool for observing the ultrafast, broadband transient dynamics of materials that exhibit irreversible reactions or deterioration by laser pulse irradiation.

  15. On the Path to SunShot: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Financing Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Bolinger, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This report analyzes solar financing strategies and their role in achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot goals. Financing is critical to solar deployment, because the costs of solar technologies are paid up front, while their benefits are realized over decades. Solar financing has been shaped by government solar incentives, particularly federal tax incentives, which have spawned complex tax-equity structures that monetize tax benefits for project sponsors who otherwise could not use them efficiently. Although these structures have helped expand solar deployment, they are relatively costly and inefficient. This has spurred solar stakeholders to develop lower-cost financing solutions such as securitization of solar project portfolios, solar-specific loan products, and methods for incorporating residential solar's value into home values. To move solar further toward an unsubsidized SunShot future, additional financial innovation must occur. Development of a larger, more mature U.S. solar industry will likely increase financial transparency and investor confidence, which in turn will enable simpler, lower-cost financing methods. Utility-scale solar might be financed more like conventional generation assets are today, non-residential solar might be financed more like a new roof, and residential solar might be financed more like an expensive appliance. Assuming a constant, SunShot-level installed photovoltaic (PV) system price, such financing innovations could reduce PV's levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by an estimated 25%-50% compared with historical financing approaches. These results suggest that financing can adapt to changing conditions and might ease the transition away from a reliance on tax incentives while driving solar's LCOE toward the SunShot goals.

  16. Biomechanical Comparison of Three Perceived Effort Set Shots in Team Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Hillary A; Gascon, Sarah S; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2017-01-01

    Plummer, HA, Gascon, SS, and Oliver, GD. Biomechanical comparison of three perceived effort set shots in team handball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 80-87, 2017-Shoulder injuries are prevalent in the sport of team handball; however, no guidelines currently exist in the implementation of an interval throwing protocol for players returning from an upper extremity injury. These guidelines exist for the sport of baseball, but team handball may present additional challenges due to greater ball mass that must be accounted for. The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic differences in the team handball set shot at 50, 75, and 100% effort which are common throwing intensities in throwing protocols. Eleven male team handball players (23.09 ± 3.05 years; 185.12 ± 8.33 cm; 89.65 ± 12.17 kg) volunteered. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to collect kinematic data at the pelvis, trunk, scapula, and shoulder. Kinematic differences at the shoulder, trunk, and pelvis were observed across effort levels throughout the set shot with most occurring at ball release and maximum internal rotation. Significant differences in ball speed were observed between all 3 effort level shots (p < 0.001). Team handball players are able to gauge the effort at which they shoot; however, it cannot be assumed that these speeds will be at a certain percentage of their maximum. The results of this study provide valuable evidence that can be used to prepare a team handball player to return to throwing activities.

  17. Software for Real-Time Analysis of Subsonic Test Shot Accuracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    used the C++ programming language, the Open Source Computer Vision ( OpenCV ®) software library, and Microsoft Windows® Application Programming...video for comparison through OpenCV image analysis tools. Based on the comparison, the software then computed the coordinates of each shot relative to...DWB researchers wanted to use the Open Source Computer Vision ( OpenCV ) software library for capturing and analyzing frames of video. OpenCV contains

  18. Shot-noise at a Fermi-edge singularity: Non-Markovian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ubbelohde, N.; Maire, N.; Haug, R. J.; Roszak, K.; Hohls, F.; Novotný, T.

    2013-12-04

    For an InAs quantum dot we study the current shot noise at a Fermi-edge singularity in low temperature cross-correlation measurements. In the regime of the interaction effect the strong suppression of noise observed at zero magnetic field and the sequence of enhancement and suppression in magnetic field go beyond a Markovian master equation model. Qualitative and quantitative agreement can however be achieved by a generalized master equation model taking non-Markovian dynamics into account.

  19. Experimental Violation of Bell-like Inequalities By Electronic Shot Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgues, Jean-Charles; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    We report measurements of the correlations between electromagnetic field quadratures at two frequencies f1=7 GHz and f1=7.5 GHz of the radiation emitted by a tunnel junction placed at very low temperature and excited at frequency f1+f2. We demonstrate the existence of two-mode squeezing and violation of a Bell-like inequality, thereby proving the existence of entanglement in the quantum shot noise radiated by the tunnel junction.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in feathers of ruffed grouse shot by Virginia hunters

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, P.F.; Oderwaid, R.G.; Dietrick, T.J.; Coggin, J.L.

    1980-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination is a continuing problem for populations of wild animals and in environmental management. Those species which inhabit relatively undisturbed environments and are nonmigratory probably present the best opportunities to obtain background concentrations of heavy metals under present day conditions. Work on one such species-the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopava) has been reported earlier. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, silver and copper in ruffed grouse (Bonassa umbellus) shot by hunters in Virginia were analyzed.

  1. Molecular origins of conduction channels observed in shot-noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gemma C; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Frauenheim, Thomas; Di Carlo, Aldo; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Hush, Noel S

    2006-11-01

    Measurements of shot noise from single molecules have indicated the presence of various conduction channels. We present three descriptions of these channels in molecular terms showing that the number of conduction channels is limited by bottlenecks in the molecule and that the channels can be linked to transmission through different junction states. We introduce molecular-conductance orbitals, which allow the transmission to be separated into contributions from individual orbitals and contributions from interference between pairs of orbitals.

  2. Single-Shot H(2) Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Ignition and Combustion under Pressure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    accurate thermometry. intensity -determination in an unreferenced fashion reveals fluctuations of 30Z, with con- tributions from YAG and dye laser...background gas, flow rates through the pres- sure cell, YAG laser fluence, and dye laser spectral width are critical factors in the development of a...and Detection Optics 4 Detection of CARS; Data Acquisition Logic 5 Test Procedures 5 Results and Discussion 7 Triggerable, Single-Shot CARS

  3. Operation Plumbbob. Program 2. Neutron and gamma radiation from Shot Laplace

    SciTech Connect

    Chiment, J.A.; Goetz, J.L.; Facer, G.C.

    1984-10-31

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine, for Shot Laplace, a 1.22-kt device fired late in Operation Plumbbob: (1) intensity and decay of the neuron-induced gammafield; (2) neutron flux and spectra as a function of distance; (3) neutron flux as a function of soil depth with certain selected detectors; and (4) neutron dose and initial gamma dose as a function of distance.

  4. Response of American black ducks to dietary uranium: A proposed substitute for lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, Susan D.; Sileo, Louis

    1983-01-01

    Lead (Pb) shot has been associated with mortality in waterfowl (Trainer and Hunt 1965, Anderson 1975, Stout and Cornwell 1976) and other avian species (Benson et al. 1974, Kaiser et al. 1980, Pattee et al. 1981). Bellrose (1959) indicated that between 2 and 3% of waterfowl populations may be lost yearly to lead poisoning. Incidence of lead shot in waterfowl and estimates of mortality from lead poisoning have decreased slightly (Trost 1980) or not at all (Longcore et al 1982) in local areas since 1976, when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designated certain wetland areas in 32 states as steel shot zones. Studies in specific areas do not give a complete national picture, but do point to remaining problems. Steel shotshells are more expensive than Pb shotshells when purchased in a retail outlet; they cannot be used in all guns and have not been well received by some hunters who question their performance on ducks and geese (Humburg et al 1982).

  5. Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Hashisaka, Masayuki Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji

    2014-05-15

    We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.

  6. A notational analysis of shot characteristics in top-level table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Malagoli Lanzoni, Ivan; Di Michele, Rocco; Merni, Franco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse selected shot characteristics in top-level table tennis matches, with a special focus on comparing the playing style of Asian and European players. Ten men's matches played by 20 top-ranked players (14 Asians and 6 Europeans) were analysed. The indicators examined were the area of ball bouncing for serves (n =918), and the stroke type, footwork type and shot outcome for other shots (n=3692). The interrelationships between variables were analysed using chi-squared tests, log-linear modelling and multiple correspondence analysis. A strong association was found between strokes and footwork types, with most stroke types executed each after specific footwork types. Furthermore, a clear tendency to have a positive, negative or neutral outcome was observed for each stroke type. When compared to Europeans, Asians used more frequently the most aggressive strokes and footwork types, confirming anecdotal claims on their particularly offensive playing style. Asians showed also a better serving effectiveness, often sending the ball in those areas of the table from which a counterattack is difficult to make. In summary, this study gives a systematic description of highly relevant technical and tactical characteristics in top-level table tennis, thus providing valuable information for coaches and performance analysts.

  7. Effect of Decarburization on the Residual Stresses Produced by Shot Peening in Automotive Leaf Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Rosa, Claudia E. Flores; Trejo, Martin Herrera; Román, Manuel Castro; López, Eddy Alfaro

    2016-07-01

    The shot peening is used in the leaf springs manufacturing process for producing a compressive residual stress field (CRSF) at and near the surface that improves the fatigue resistance. The resulting CRSF is influenced by the surface ferrite thickness associated with the decarburization. Hence, this work aims to extend the knowledge on the influence of the decarburization on the CRSF for the given shot peening conditions. A study on the laboratory scale was conducted for an SAE 5160 steel grade used in the automotive industry. Next, specimens with different decarburization depths were treated using industrial shot peening, and the resulting CRSF was characterized. The CRSF was found to be influenced by the decarburization depth. It is assumed that the elastic deformation mechanism is predominant at low decarburization depths, followed by a zone in which both the elastic and plastic deformation have competing mechanisms that contribute to the CRSF, and at higher decarburization depths, the dominant mechanism is plastic deformation. The values for σsrs and σmcrs decrease as the decarburized depth increases, and suitable CRSFs were obtained below a decarburization depth of 120 µm in industrial leaves. Furthermore, the prediction based on expressions correlating the measured variables was good in these leaves.

  8. On channels with positive quantum zero-error capacity having vanishing n-shot capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2015-08-01

    We show that unbounded number of channel uses may be necessary for perfect transmission of quantum information. For any n, we explicitly construct low-dimensional quantum channels (input dimension 4, Choi rank 2 or 4) whose quantum zero-error capacity is positive, but the corresponding n-shot capacity is zero. We give estimates for quantum zero-error capacity of such channels as a function of n and show that these channels can be chosen in any small vicinity (in the -norm) of a classical-quantum channel. Mathematically, this property means appearance of an ideal (noiseless) subchannel only in sufficiently large tensor power of a channel. Our approach (using special continuous deformation of a maximal commutative -subalgebra of ) also gives low-dimensional examples of the superactivation of 1-shot quantum zero-error capacity. Finally, we consider multi-dimensional construction which increases the estimate for quantum zero-error capacity of channels having vanishing n-shot capacity.

  9. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-21

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system.

  10. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jäckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-01

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  11. [Development of automatic analyses for star-shot images using computed radiography (CR)].

    PubMed

    Kawata, Hidemichi; Ohkura, Sunao; Ono, Hiroshi; Fukudome, Yoshifumi; Kawamura, Seiji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2006-12-20

    Recent progress in radiation therapy has been greatly enhanced in many facilities by the development of new machines for treatment, improved computer technology for radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPs), increased accuracy of radiation therapy such as stereotactic irradiation, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Quality control (QC) of the isocenter, which has consisted of gantry rotation and limiting the radiation field, is important for greater accuracy of these radiation therapy technologies. Star-shot analyses using computed radiography (CR) for evaluation of the isocenter were employed in this study. Devices to support CR were created, and a method of automatically analyzing images obtained by the star-shot technique, which calculated the error (distance) from the isocenter and the incident beam angle, were developed. In terms of the accuracy of our method, the average maximum error was 0.33 mm (less than 2 pixels: 0.35 mm), the average absolute error and incident beam angle errors were 0.3 mm and 0.4 degrees at maximum and at one standard deviation (SD), respectively. In this study, the processing times were 16 sec at minimum, 152 sec at maximum, 18 sec at most frequencies, and 23.6 sec on average. In conclusion, it was considered that our newly developed method for analyzing star-shot images using CR enabled immediate, quantitative evaluation of the isocenter.

  12. Influence of plasma molybdenizing and shot-peening on fretting damage behavior of titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chang-bin; Liu, Dao-xin; Tang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Qin, Lin; Liu, Cheng-song

    2016-12-01

    Effect of plasma molybdenizing and shot-peening on fretting wear and fretting fatigue behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloy was investigated. The plasma molybdenized layer composed of a dense molybdenum deposition layer and a Mo-Ti solid-solution layer can increase surface hardness by 2.8 times and cause its volume loss by fretting wear to decrease to 1/14 compared with that of the substrate. Plasma molybdenized treatment results in a significant decrease in resistance of the substrate to fretting fatigue. It is ascribed that the molybdenized layer with high hardness yields a low toughness, and its high surface roughness leads to a micro-notched effect. However, proper combination plasma molybdenizing and subsequent shot-peening may enhance the simultaneous fretting fatigue and fretting wear resistance of Ti6Al4V significantly, which can decrease the fretting wear volume loss to 1/27, and may increase the fretting fatigue life by more than 69 times. A synergistic improvement in fretting fatigue of the titanium alloy by combining surface alloying with shot-peening can be achieved. The results indicate that a beneficial residual compressive stress distribution, high surface hardness with suitable hardness gradient distribution, good apparent toughness, relatively low surface roughness, and excellent surface integrity are achieved.

  13. Multi-step shot noise spectrum induced by a local large spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Peng-Bin; Shi, Yun-Long; Sun, Zhu; Nie, Yi-Hang

    2015-12-01

    We use non-equilibrium Green’s function method to analyze the shot noise spectrum of artificial single molecular magnets (ASMM) model in the strong spin-orbit coupling limit in sequential tunneling regime, mainly focusing on the effects of local large spin. In the linear response regime, the shot noise shows 2S + 1 peaks and is strongly spin-dependent. In the nonlinear response regime, one can observe 2S + 1 steps in shot noise and Fano factor. In these steps one can see the significant enhancement effect due to the spin-dependent multi-channel process of local large spin, which reduces electron correlations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11504210, 11504211, 11504212, 11274207, 11274208, 11174115, and 11325417), the Key Program of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 212018), the Scientific and Technological Project of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015031002-2), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant Nos. 2013011007-2 and 2013021010-5), and the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China.

  14. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Ana; Nelson, James H; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-08-20

    The United States Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has set cost-reduction targets of $1/watt for central-station solar technologies. We use SWITCH, a high-resolution electricity system planning model, to study the implications of achieving these targets for technology deployment and electricity costs in western North America, focusing on scenarios limiting carbon emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that achieving the SunShot target for solar photovoltaics would allow this technology to provide more than a third of electric power in the region, displacing natural gas in the medium term and reducing the need for nuclear and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, which face technological and cost uncertainties, by 2050. We demonstrate that a diverse portfolio of technological options can help integrate high levels of solar generation successfully and cost-effectively. The deployment of GW-scale storage plays a central role in facilitating solar deployment and the availability of flexible loads could increase the solar penetration level further. In the scenarios investigated, achieving the SunShot target can substantially mitigate the cost of implementing a carbon cap, decreasing power costs by up to 14% and saving up to $20 billion ($2010) annually by 2050 relative to scenarios with Reference solar costs.

  15. Fast video shot boundary detection based on SVD and pattern matching.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Shi, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Video shot boundary detection (SBD) is the first and essential step for content-based video management and structural analysis. Great efforts have been paid to develop SBD algorithms for years. However, the high computational cost in the SBD becomes a block for further applications such as video indexing, browsing, retrieval, and representation. Motivated by the requirement of the real-time interactive applications, a unified fast SBD scheme is proposed in this paper. We adopted a candidate segment selection and singular value decomposition (SVD) to speed up the SBD. Initially, the positions of the shot boundaries and lengths of gradual transitions are predicted using adaptive thresholds and most non-boundary frames are discarded at the same time. Only the candidate segments that may contain the shot boundaries are preserved for further detection. Then, for all frames in each candidate segment, their color histograms in the hue-saturation-value) space are extracted, forming a frame-feature matrix. The SVD is then performed on the frame-feature matrices of all candidate segments to reduce the feature dimension. The refined feature vector of each frame in the candidate segments is obtained as a new metric for boundary detection. Finally, cut and gradual transitions are identified using our pattern matching method based on a new similarity measurement. Experiments on TRECVID 2001 test data and other video materials show that the proposed scheme can achieve a high detection speed and excellent accuracy compared with recent SBD schemes.

  16. Golf in the Wind: Exploring the Effect of Wind on the Accuracy of Golf Shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoobian, Neda; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Golf play is highly dependent on the weather conditions with wind being the most significant factor in the unpredictability of the ball landing position. The direction and strength of the wind alters the aerodynamic forces on a ball in flight, and consequently its speed, distance and direction of travel. The fact that local wind conditions on any particular hole change over times-scales ranging all the way from a few seconds to minutes, hours and days introduces an element of variability in the ball trajectory that is not understood. Any such analysis is complicated by the effect of the local terrestrial and vegetation topology, as well as the inherent complexity of golf-ball aerodynamics. In the current study, we use computational modeling to examine the unpredictability of the shots under different wind conditions over Hole-12 at the Augusta National Golf Club, where the Masters Golf Tournament takes place every year. Despite this being the shortest hole on the course, the presence of complex vegetation canopy around this hole introduces a spatial and temporal variability in wind conditions that evokes uncertainty and even fear among professional golfers. We use our model to examine the effect of wind direction and wind-speed on the accuracy of the golf shots at this hole and use the simulations to determine the key aerodynamic factors that affect the accuracy of the shot.

  17. A Computationally Efficient Filter for Reducing Shot Noise in Low S/N Data

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mami; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Functional multineuron calcium imaging (fMCI) provides a useful experimental platform to simultaneously capture the spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity from a large cell population in situ. However, fMCI often suffers from low signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). The main factor that causes the low S/N is shot noise that arises from photon detectors. Here, we propose a new denoising procedure, termed the Okada filter, which is designed to reduce shot noise under low S/N conditions, such as fMCI. The core idea of the Okada filter is to replace the fluorescence intensity value of a given frame time with the average of two values at the preceding and following frames unless the focused value is the median among these three values. This process is iterated serially throughout a time-series vector. In fMCI data of hippocampal neurons, the Okada filter rapidly reduces background noise and significantly improves the S/N. The Okada filter is also applicable for reducing shot noise in electrophysiological data and photographs. Finally, the Okada filter can be described using a single continuous differentiable equation based on the logistic function and is thus mathematically tractable. PMID:27304217

  18. SHOT, a SHOX-related homeobox gene, is implicated in craniofacial, brain, heart, and limb development.

    PubMed

    Blaschke, R J; Monaghan, A P; Schiller, S; Schechinger, B; Rao, E; Padilla-Nash, H; Ried, T; Rappold, G A

    1998-03-03

    Deletion of the SHOX region on the human sex chromosomes has been shown to result in idiopathic short stature and proposed to play a role in the short stature associated with Turner syndrome. We have identified a human paired-related homeobox gene, SHOT, by virtue of its homology to the human SHOX and mouse OG-12 genes. Two different isoforms were isolated, SHOTa and SHOTb, which have identical homeodomains and share a C-terminal 14-amino acid residue motif characteristic for craniofacially expressed homeodomain proteins. Differences between SHOTa and b reside within the N termini and an alternatively spliced exon in the C termini. In situ hybridization of the mouse equivalent, OG-12, on sections from staged mouse embryos detected highly restricted transcripts in the developing sinus venosus (aorta), female genitalia, diencephalon, mes- and myelencephalon, nasal capsula, palate, eyelid, and in the limbs. SHOT was mapped to human chromosome 3q25-q26 and OG-12 within a syntenic region on chromosome 3. Based on the localization and expression pattern of its mouse homologue during embryonic development, SHOT represents a candidate for the Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

  19. Shot-Noise Limited Single-Molecule FRET Histograms: Comparison between Theory and Experiments†

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Eyal; Michalet, Xavier; Hamadani, Kambiz M.; Laurence, Ted A.; Neuhauser, Daniel; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple approach and present a straightforward numerical algorithm to compute the best fit shot-noise limited proximity ratio histogram (PRH) in single-molecule fluorescence resonant energy transfer diffusion experiments. The key ingredient is the use of the experimental burst size distribution, as obtained after burst search through the photon data streams. We show how the use of an alternated laser excitation scheme and a correspondingly optimized burst search algorithm eliminates several potential artifacts affecting the calculation of the best fit shot-noise limited PRH. This algorithm is tested extensively on simulations and simple experimental systems. We find that dsDNA data exhibit a wider PRH than expected from shot noise only and hypothetically account for it by assuming a small Gaussian distribution of distances with an average standard deviation of 1.6 Å. Finally, we briefly mention the results of a future publication and illustrate them with a simple two-state model system (DNA hairpin), for which the kinetic transition rates between the open and closed conformations are extracted. PMID:17078646

  20. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    PubMed

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetiuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  1. Heuristics guide the implementation of social preferences in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma experiments.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Valerio; Jordan, Jillian J; Rand, David G

    2014-10-28

    Cooperation in one-shot anonymous interactions is a widely documented aspect of human behaviour. Here we shed light on the motivations behind this behaviour by experimentally exploring cooperation in a one-shot continuous-strategy Prisoner's Dilemma (i.e. one-shot two-player Public Goods Game). We examine the distribution of cooperation amounts, and how that distribution varies based on the benefit-to-cost ratio of cooperation (b/c). Interestingly, we find a trimodal distribution at all b/c values investigated. Increasing b/c decreases the fraction of participants engaging in zero cooperation and increases the fraction engaging in maximal cooperation, suggesting a role for efficiency concerns. However, a substantial fraction of participants consistently engage in 50% cooperation regardless of b/c. The presence of these persistent 50% cooperators is surprising, and not easily explained by standard models of social preferences. We present evidence that this behaviour is a result of social preferences guided by simple decision heuristics, rather than the rational examination of payoffs assumed by most social preference models. We also find a strong correlation between play in the Prisoner's Dilemma and in a subsequent Dictator Game, confirming previous findings suggesting a common prosocial motivation underlying altruism and cooperation.

  2. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  3. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sütterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jäckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-01

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  4. Broadband Single-Shot Electron Spectrometer for GeV-Class Laser Plasma Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Wan, W.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Laser-plasma-based accelerators can provide electrons over a broad energy range and/or with large momentum spread. The electron beam energy distribution can be controlled via accurate control of laser and plasma properties, and beams with energies ranging from'0.5 to 1000 MeV have been observed. Measuring these energy distributions in a single shot requires the use of a diagnostic with large momentum acceptance and, ideally, sufficient resolution to accurately measure energy spread in the case of narrow energy spread. Such a broadband single-shot electron magnetic spectrometer for GeV-class laser-plasma-based accelerators has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A detailed description of the hardware and the design concept is presented, as well as a performance evaluation of the spectrometer. The spectrometer covered electron beam energies raging from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, and enabled the simultaneous measurement of the laser properties at the exit of the accelerator through the use of a sufficiently large pole gap. Based on measured field maps and 3rd-order transport analysis, a few percent-level resolution and determination of the absolute energy were achieved over the entire energy range. Laser-plasma-based accelerator experiments demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer as a diagnostic and its suitability for such a broadband electron source.

  5. 30 CFR 77.1909 - Explosives and blasting; use of permissible explosives and shot-firing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1909 Explosives and... permissible explosives and permissible shot-firing units shall be used in sinking shafts and slopes....

  6. 30 CFR 77.1909 - Explosives and blasting; use of permissible explosives and shot-firing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1909 Explosives and... permissible explosives and permissible shot-firing units shall be used in sinking shafts and slopes....

  7. The effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack growth properties of D6AC steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1973-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that the shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. The analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions are presented.

  8. Shot noise cross-correlation functions and cross spectra - Implications for models of QPO X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Elsner, R. F.; Bussard, R. W.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and cross spectra expected for quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) shot noise models are calculated under various assumptions, and the results are compared to observations. Effects due to possible coherence of the QPO oscillations are included. General formulas for the cross spectrum, the cross-phase spectrum, and the time-delay spectrum for QPO shot models are calculated and discussed. It is shown that the CCFs, cross spectra, and power spectra observed for Cyg X-e2 imply that the spectrum of the shots evolves with time, with important implications for the interpretation of these functions as well as of observed average energy spectra. The possible origins for the observed hard lags are discussed, and some physical difficulties for the Comptonization model are described. Classes of physical models for QPO sources are briefly addressed, and it is concluded that models involving shot formation at the surface of neutron stars are favored by observation.

  9. SunShot Vision Study: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Potential for U.S. Solar Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The SunShot Vision Study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades.

  10. Writing user selectable data on the extended header of seismic recordings made on the Texas Instruments DFS-V

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A circuit has been developed to allow the writing of up to 192 digits of user-selectable data on a portion of tape called extended header, which is always available for use before each DFS-V seismic record is written. Such data could include navigation information, air gun and streamer depth and shot times.

  11. Shots SUGAR and UNCLE, the Final Tests of the BUSTER-JANGLE Series 19 November - 29 November 1951.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-23

    survey (22). 2.3 RADIOLOGICA : PROTECTION AT SHOT SUGAR-4 The primary purpose of the radiological protection proce- dures developed for members of...characteristics of the one detonation, DOD * personnel activities in the training and scientific projects, and the radiological protection procedures. *The...Activities .. . . . 49 2.3 Radiological Protection at Shot SUGAR. .. ...... 51 2.3.1 Desert Rock Radiological Protection 2.3.2 Test Organization

  12. Effect of Shot Peening on the High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of High-Strength Cast Iron with Nodular Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benam, Amir Sadighzadeh

    2017-01-01

    The effect of shot peening treatment on high-cycle fatigue of high-strength cast iron with globular graphite is studied. The fatigue curves are plotted, the microhardness and the surface roughness are measured. An analysis of fracture surfaces is performed, and the thickness of the hardened layer is determined. The shot peening is shown to affect favorably the fatigue resistance of the iron but to worsen the condition of the surface.

  13. Enhanced osteoblast proliferation and corrosion resistance of commercially pure titanium through surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening and stress relieving.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Shitu; Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, Bijay P; Pandey, Rajiv; Narayanan, Shankar; Wani, Mohan R; Singh, Vakil

    2014-07-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of a novel process of surface modification, surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening, on osteoblast proliferation and corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c p-Ti) in simulated body fluid. A mechanically polished disc of c p-Ti was subjected to ultrasonic shot peening with stainless steel balls to create nanostructure at the surface. A nanostructure (<20 nm) with inhomogeneous distribution was revealed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. There was an increase of approximately 10% in cell proliferation, but there was drastic fall in corrosion resistance. Corrosion rate was increased by 327% in the shot peened condition. In order to examine the role of residual stresses associated with the shot peened surface on these aspects, a part of the shot peened specimen was annealed at 400°C for 1 hour. A marked influence of annealing treatment was observed on surface structure, cell proliferation, and corrosion resistance. Surface nanostructure was much more prominent, with increased number density and sharper grain boundaries; cell proliferation was enhanced to approximately 50% and corrosion rate was reduced by 86.2% and 41% as compared with that of the shot peened and the as received conditions, respectively. The highly significant improvement in cell proliferation, resulting from annealing of the shot peened specimen, was attributed to increased volume fraction of stabilized nanostructure, stress recovery, and crystallization of the oxide film. Increase in corrosion resistance from annealing of shot peened material was related to more effective passivation. Thus, the surface of c p-Ti, modified by this novel process, possessed a unique quality of enhancing cell proliferation as well as the corrosion resistance and could be highly effective in reducing treatment time of patients adopting dental and orthopedic implants of titanium and its alloys.

  14. Single-Shot Laser Ablation Split-Stream (SS-LASS) Analysis Depth Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Stearns, M. A.; Viete, D. R.; Cottle, J. M.; Hacker, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ablation depth profiling of geochronometers—such as zircon, monazite, titanite and rutile—has become popular in recent years as a tool to both determine date vs. depth or trace-element (TE) composition vs. depth; the former allows the dating of thin rims and, potentially, inversion of Pb-loss profiles for thermal histories, whereas the latter can yield insight into changes in PTX or mineral parageneses and inversion of trace-element profiles for thermal histories. In this study, we combine both techniques, enabling simultaneous acquisition of U-Th/Pb isotopic ratios and trace-element compositions, by joining a 193 nm excimer laser to a multi-collector ICP-MS and single-collector ICP-MS. The simultaneous acquisition allows direct shot-by-shot linkage between time and petrology, expanding our ability to understand the evolution of complex geologic systems. We construct each depth profile by capturing the analyte with a succession of individual laser pulses (each ~100 nm deep) . This has two main advantages over a typical time-dependent analysis of a multi-shot routine composed of tens to hundreds of shots and a several μm deep hole. 1) The reference material is analyzed between each shot for a more-accurate standardization of each aliquot of ablated material. 2) There is no mixing of material ablated from successive laser pulses during transmission to the ICP. The method is limited by count rate, which depends on spot size, excavation rate, instrument sensitivity, etc., and, for single-collector ICP, the switching time, which limits the number of elements that can be analyzed and their total counts. We explore the latter theoretically and experimentally to provide insight on both the ideal number of elements to measure and the dwell time in any given sample. Examples of the utility of SS-LASS include the comparison of apparent Pb loss to diffusion profiles of trace elements in rims of metamorphic rutile and titanite, as well as the determination of the

  15. Detection of hidden shot balls in a gas-cooled turbine blade with an NRT gadolinium tagging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, TaeJoo; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Jeong Uk

    2009-06-01

    This report provides a preliminary insight into the benefits and effectiveness of neutron radiography in identifying alien materials, namely shot balls hidden in a turbine blade that are otherwise undetected using other methods. The detection of 0.2-mm-diameter shot balls in gas-cooled turbine blades is possible for thermal neutron radiography. A tagging processing is more useful for a distinctive image of newer turbine blades. Areas of concern for the tagging process include the solution concentration and the possibility of a slight washing of the blades. The location of the shot balls within the turbine blades tagged with Gd((2%, 5%)+water) was shown. Shot balls were placed externally on a turbine blade (F100-700, F100-200) surface in order to check for a dead zone from a surface examination. The image is produced from neutron radiography after a 5 min exposure time. When the blade is tagged with 2% and 5% Gd with slight washing, the shot can also be effectively seen on the SR-45 film. Shot balls are more obvious on a neutron image SR-45 film than an image plate or a DR film.

  16. Shot count reduction for non-Manhattan geometries: concurrent optimization of data fracture and mask writer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinque, Russell; Komagata, Tadashi; Kiuchi, Taiichi; Browning, Clyde; Schiavone, Patrick; Petroni, Paolo; Martin, Luc; Quaglio, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    VSB mask writers, which create patterns using a combination of rectangles and 45 degree triangles, are ill-suited to non- Manhattan geometries. This issue is particularly acute for layouts which contain a large fraction of curvilinear "offangle" patterns such as photonic or DRAM designs. Unable to faithfully reproduce the "off-angle" structures, traditional VSB mask writers approximate the desired design using abutted rectangular shots or small shapes to smooth out line edge roughness. Fidelity to the original pattern comes at a cost of increased shot count and reduced throughput. Aselta has developed a novel fracture algorithm to dramatically reduce the shot count of such designs. Using a traditional VSB pattern generator, the new algorithm provides significant shot count reduction. When combined with a modified JBX-3200MV VSB, the shot count is reduced while maintaining the same level of fidelity. The data preparation software tool has also the capability of trading off a more accurate level of fidelity with an even more reduced shot count. The paper will first describe the basic principles of the fracturing algorithm and e-beam writer hardware configuration then demonstrate the advantage of the method on a variety of patterns.

  17. Use of SoloShot autodestruct syringes compared with disposable syringes, in a national immunization campaign in Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C. M.; Sutanto, A.; Suradana, I. G.

    1999-01-01

    Autodestruct syringes can reduce the improper reuse of syringes, which present a significant risk in the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in developing countries, especially during immunization campaigns owing to the high number of injections given per session. SoloShot is an autodestruct syringe, distributed by UNICEF, which has been shown to be safer and easier to use than standard syringes. This study analyses the accuracy and dose-efficiency of SoloShot, compared with disposable syringes, during a national tetanus toxoid immunization campaign on the Indonesian island of Lombok. Observation and dose measurements revealed that SoloShot syringes delivered more precise and consistent doses and 15% more doses per vial than disposable syringes. Vaccine savings may partially be offset by the higher price of SoloShot. Vaccinators preferred SoloShot, describing it as easier to use, faster, and more accurate than the disposable syringe. The study indicates that SoloShot is highly appropriate for use in immunization campaigns by reducing vaccine wastage and improving injection safety. PMID:10063658

  18. Full report of laser doppler velocimetry (Het-V) data, results , and analysis for pRad shot 0632

    SciTech Connect

    Tupa, Dale; Tainter, Amy Marie

    2016-06-21

    This was a collaborative shot with AWE investigators Paul Willis-Patel, David Bell, Seth Grant, David Tarr, and James Richley. The shot was assembled in Los Alamos, after which David Bell set up the probe holder and finalized the alignment. The probe holder location and configuration was modified from previous years to make room for the laser illuminated visible imaging diagnostic. The LANL pRad PDV team was Dale Tupa, Amy Tainter, and Patrick Medina. This shot had three PDV probes: one aimed at the center, one aimed at a feature, one aimed at the reverse side of the shot. The shot also had 9 points of a spectroscopy diagnostic. The pRad team helped set up and field the spectroscopy, but did not help with any data analysis. (The support documentation for the PDV results includes a timing map for the spectroscopy.) Please direct questions on the velocimetry to Dale Tupa or Amy Tainter. The shot radiographs were classified, but the data from the optical diagnostics are not.

  19. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode

    DOE PAGES

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; ...

    2012-11-05

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as wellmore » as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. Kβ1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. Furthermore, the technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II.« less

  20. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hellmich, Julia; Glockner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G.; Schafer, Donald W.; Sellberg, Jonas; Kenney, Christopher; Herbst, Ryan; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Latimer, Matthew J.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Glatzel, Pieter; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

    2012-11-05

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. Kβ1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. Furthermore, the technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II.