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Sample records for airgun source totaling

  1. First assessment of effects of air-gun seismic shooting on marine resources in the central Adriatic sea

    SciTech Connect

    La Bella, G.; Cannata, S.; Froglia, C.

    1996-11-01

    A series of investigations were carried out to test the effects of air-gun seismic shooting on main fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea during summer 1995. The energy source used for the trial was formed by one air-gun array made up by two sub-arrays consisting in 8 air-guns each developing a total volume of c.a. 2500 i{sup 3} at 2000 psi with an amplitude of 60 bar/m. The interval between two was of 25 s. The intensity was of 210 dB re 1 mPa-m/Hz. Acoustical and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the surveyed areas to correlate fishery and behavior observations with sound pattern of the energization. Main results were: (1) Analysis of trawl catch data evidenced no significant changes before and after the air-gun seismic profiling. (2) Echosurvey relative estimate of pelagic biomass, performed simultaneously to trawling operations, failed to evidence any significant change in the pelagic biomass subsequent to the seismic shooting. (3) Small differences were observed in the trammel net catch composition, but one single set of pre-post fishing operations could be done in the study period. (4) Similar density estimate were obtained from dredge surveys performed by an hydraulic dredger before and after air-gun seismic profiling over a clam bed in 14 in depth. (5) Video recording of captive fish, kept into cages moored on the sea bottom at 12 in depth, evidenced a Behavioral response to the approach of the sound source; but no lethal event was recorded on captive sea-bass immediately after the seismic shooting. (6) Biochemical and histological analysis were performed to verify if it is to be related to the captive condition or is somewhat consequent to the air-gun energization. These results confirm that no relevant effects are induced on fishery resources by seismic air-gun shooting.

  2. Subcaliber discarding sabot airgun projectiles.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekeß, Holger; Herbst, Jörg; Staats, Hans-Georg; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Nguyen, Thanh Tien; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-03-01

    Medical literature abounds with reports on injuries and fatalities caused by airgun projectiles. While round balls or diabolo pellets have been the standard projectiles for airguns for decades, today, there are a large number of different airgun projectiles available. A very uncommon--and until now unique--discarding sabot airgun projectile (Sussex Sabo Bullet) was introduced into the market in the 1980s. The projectile, available in 0.177 (4.5 mm) and 0.22 (5.5 mm) caliber, consists of a plastic sabot cup surrounding a subcaliber copper-coated lead projectile in typical bullet shape. Following the typical principle of a discarding sabot projectile, the lightweight sabot is supposed to quickly loose velocity and to fall to the ground downrange while the bullet continues on target. These sabot-loaded projectiles are of special forensic interest due to their non-traceability and ballistic parameters. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to investigate the ballistic performance of these sabot airgun projectiles by high-speed video analyses and by measurement of the kinetic parameters of the projectile parts by a transient recording system as well as observing their physical features after being fired. While the sabot principle worked properly in high-energy airguns (E > 17 J), separation of the core projectile from the sabot cup was also observed when discharged in low-energy airguns (E < 7.5 J). While the velocity of the discarded Sussex Sabo core projectile was very close to the velocity of a diabolo-type reference projectile (RWS Meisterkugel), energy density was up to 60 % higher. To conclude, this work is the first study to demonstrate the regular function of this uncommon type of airgun projectile. PMID:24263305

  3. Seismic airgun sounds recorded on moored hydrophones near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, D. K.; Nieukirk, S. L.; Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J. H.; Fox, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    Sounds of seismic airguns were detected in two years of data collected from large, remote areas near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR). From February 1999-February 2001, six autonomous hydrophones were moored near the MAR between 15-35 N and 33-50 W, and six more were moored in the EPR between 8 N - 8 S and 95-110 W. Continuous acoustic data recovered from both arrays were examined for sounds associated with seismic airgun activity. This was done using an automatic detection algorithm designed to identify repetitive sounds in the 20-60 Hz band. Airgun impulses occurred every 10-20 s and were recorded frequently on all hydrophones. In the Atlantic, airgun activity peaked in the summer months, and airgun impulses were detected in nearly 100% of the hours examined; Pacific seasonal trends were less obvious. Because of the high source level of the airgun signals, it was possible to estimate the locations of ships conducting seismic surveys despite their great distance, often over 3,000 km from our array. In the Atlantic, we located seismic vessels, presumably commercial, working off the coast of Nova Scotia during summer, and off western Africa and northeast Brazil in spring, summer,and fall. During summer 1999, research airguns were recorded on the MAR near 26 N 50 W. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the predominant source of airgun sounds was seismic vessels in the nearshore waters of southern Ecuador and northern Peru. All of the areas in which intense airgun activity was detected include important habitat for marine mammals; one area included habitat of the critically endangered northern right whale. Sounds from airguns appear to be a major contributor to the sound field in the Atlantic and parts of the Pacific Ocean, and may be of concern given the recent interest in ocean noise and its effects on marine mammals. Acoustic pressure levels of earthquakes are also investigated, and received levels in some common marine mammal habitats are

  4. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  5. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  6. Airgun injuries in New Zealand, 1979-92.

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. D.; Norton, R. N.; Alsop, J. C.; Marshall, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of serious airgun injury in New Zealand. METHODS: Cases were selected from the New Zealand Health Information Service's hospital inpatient morbidity data files for the period 1979 to 1992 inclusive. RESULTS: There were 718 airgun related injuries resulting in 1.56 injuries/100,000 population/year. Males and 10-14 year olds had higher than average rates of injury. The majority of the incidents were unintentional. There has been a marked decline in injury rates since 1989. CONCLUSIONS: Airgun injuries, while not as serious as powder firearm injuries, account for a significant personal and societal burden. The results suggest that strategies aimed at controlling these injuries, especially those pertaining to children, are in need of review. PMID:9346072

  7. Quantitative measures of air-gun pulses recorded on sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using acoustic tags during controlled exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Johnson, M; Miller, P J O; Aguilar Soto, N; Lynch, J; Tyack, P

    2006-10-01

    The widespread use of powerful, low-frequency air-gun pulses for seismic seabed exploration has raised concern about their potential negative effects on marine wildlife. Here, we quantify the sound exposure levels recorded on acoustic tags attached to eight sperm whales at ranges between 1.4 and 12.6 km from controlled air-gun array sources operated in the Gulf of Mexico. Due to multipath propagation, the animals were exposed to multiple sound pulses during each firing of the array with received levels of analyzed pulses falling between 131-167 dB re. 1 microPa (pp) [111-147 dB re. 1 microPa (rms) and 100-135 dB re. 1 microPa2 s] after compensation for hearing sensitivity using the M-weighting. Received levels varied widely with range and depth of the exposed animal precluding reliable estimation of exposure zones based on simple geometric spreading laws. When whales were close to the surface, the first arrivals of air-gun pulses contained most energy between 0.3 and 3 kHz, a frequency range well beyond the normal frequencies of interest in seismic exploration. Therefore air-gun arrays can generate significant sound energy at frequencies many octaves higher than the frequencies of interest for seismic exploration, which increases concern of the potential impact on odontocetes with poor low frequency hearing. PMID:17069331

  8. ["Piggyback" shot: ballistic parameters of two simultaneously discharged airgun pellets].

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekess, Holger C; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Green and Good reported an uncommon case of homicide committed with an air rifle in 1982 (Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 3: 361-365). The fatal wound was unusual in that two airgun pellets were loaded in so-called "piggyback" fashion into a single shot air rifle. Lack of further information on the ballistic characteristics of two airgun pellets as opposed to one conventionally loaded projectile led to this investigation. The mean kinetic energy (E) of the two pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion was E = 3.6 J and E = 3.4 J, respectively. In comparison, average kinetic energy values of E = 12.5 J were calculated for conventionally discharged single diabolo pellets. Test shots into ballistic soap confirmed the findings of a single entrance wound as reported by Green and Good. While the ballistic background of pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion could be clarified, the reason behind this mode of shooting remains unclear. PMID:24855739

  9. 3D Tomographic Imaging of the Crustal Velocity Structure beneath the Marmara Sea using Air-gun and Earthquake Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarancioglu, Adil; Kocaoglu, Argun H.; Ozalaybey, Serdar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the local seismicity and obtain a detailed three-dimensional crustal velocity structure beneath the Marmara Sea in an area surrounding the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) by tomographic inversion using both controlled-source (air-gun) and earthquake data. The tomographic inversion is carried out by using the local earthquake tomography code SIMUL2000. Two sets of seismological data, collected in 2006 (EOSMARMARA experiment) and 2001 (SEISMARMARA experiment), are re-processed and used in this study. A total of 441 high quality earthquakes and 452 air-gun shots recorded by a total of 53 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are selected for the simultaneous inversion for velocity and hypocentral parameters. The OBS location and time-drift errors are identified from air-gun shot records by a grid search method and required corrections are made on the travel time data. The initial (reference) velocity model and earthquake locations required for the three dimensional tomographic inversion are derived from the one-dimensional velocity model obtained by using the VELEST algorithm in which a subset of earthquakes are selected such that phase readings were made by at least five stations and maximum azimuthal gap was 180o. The inversion results are checked for initial model dependence and the effect of damping factor. The reliability of the results is also evaluated in terms of derivative-weighted-sum, resolution-diagonal-elements values and checkerboard tests. The hypocenter locations of the local earthquakes have been remarkably improved by the three-dimensional velocity model obtained from the tomographic inversion. The three-dimensional velocity model shows that the Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik Basins are characterized generally by lower Vp (3.0 - 3.5 km/s) values and most of the earthquakes across these regions are located at the depths of 10 to 17 km, about 5 km deeper than those obtained from the one-dimensional reference

  10. Gulf of Mexico low-frequency ocean soundscape impacted by airguns.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Sean M; Hall, Jesse M; Thayre, Bruce J; Hildebrand, John A

    2016-07-01

    The ocean soundscape of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has not been well-studied, although it is an important habitat for marine mammals, including sperm and beaked whales, many dolphin species, and a potentially endangered baleen whale species. The GOM is also home to high levels of hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, heavily used commercial shipping ports, and significant fishery industry activity, all of which are known contributors to oceanic noise. From 2010-2013, the soundscape of three deep and two shallow water sites in the GOM were monitored over 10 - 1000 Hz. Average sound pressure spectrum levels were high, >90 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz at <40 Hz for the deep water sites and were associated with noise from seismic exploration airguns. More moderate sound pressure levels, <55 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz at >700 Hz, were present at a shallow water site in the northeastern Gulf, removed from the zone of industrial development and bathymetrically shielded from deep water anthropogenic sound sources. During passage of a high wind event (Hurricane Isaac, 2012), sound pressure levels above 200 Hz increased with wind speed, but at low frequencies (<100 Hz) sound pressure levels decreased owing to absence of noise from airguns. PMID:27475143

  11. High-speed photography of the bubble generated by an airgun

    SciTech Connect

    Langhammer, J.; Landroe, M.

    1996-01-01

    High-speed photography has been used visually to study the shape, surface, turbulence and behavior of an underwater oscillating bubble generated by an airgun. The source wa a BOLT airgun with a chamber volume of 1.6 cu.in., placed in a 0.85 m{sup 3} tank at 0.5 m depth. Near-field signatures were also recorded in order to compare the instant photographs of the oscillating bubble with the pressure field recorded about 25 cm from the gun. Estimations of the bubble-wall velocity and bubble radius estimated from high-speed film sequences are also presented, and are compared with modeled results. The deviation between the modeled and measured bubble radii was at most 9%. In order to check the capacity for transmission of light through the bubble, a concentrated laser beam was used as illumination. The authors found that the air bubble is a strong scattering medium of laser light, hence the bubble is opaque.

  12. Tracking velocity changes from ambient noise and repeating airgun shots in Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, M. F.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Perez, N. M.; Ibanez, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Green's functions can be recovered through the cross correlation of ambient seismic noise. These Green's functions can be used to image the subsurface or for monitoring geological settings where we expect rapid seismic velocity changes (e.g. volcanoes, reservoirs). The criterion for the successful recovery of the Green's functions is that the wavefields used for the cross correlation are diffuse. This assumption is fulfilled if either the noise sources are uniformly distributed around the receivers or the scattering in the medium is high enough to mitigate any source directivity. The locations of the noise sources are usually unknown and they change with time. Therefore, apparent changes in seismic wave velocity can be observed which are caused by temporal and spatial changes in the noise source location.In order to investigate these apparent changes in the Green's functions we undertook an experiment in Tenerife. The experiment was running for 3 months. A small airgun, with exactly known source position, was used as an active source. It was shooting every 15 minutes and several seismic stations laterally and vertically distributed around the airgun recorded the active shots. Coincident to the active shots seismic noise was recorded. Therefore apparent velocity changes measured through the cross correlation of noise can be compared to velocity changes recovered from the repetitive shots. This gives us the opportunity to distinguish between apparent changes due to changes in the noise sources and real velocity changes in the medium. In addition barometric pressure, temperature, rain fall and humidity were recorded in order to avoid misinterpretation of the velocity changes caused by weather fluctuations.

  13. Airgun inter-pulse noise field during a seismic survey in an Arctic ultra shallow marine environment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shane; Vignola, Joseph; Judge, John; Turo, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration using seismic airguns generates intense underwater pulses that could cause marine mammal hearing impairment and/or behavioral disturbances. However, few studies have investigated the resulting multipath propagation and reverberation from airgun pulses. This research uses continuous acoustic recordings collected in the Arctic during a low-level open-water shallow marine seismic survey, to measure noise levels between airgun pulses. Two methods were used to quantify noise levels during these inter-pulse intervals. The first, based on calculating the root-mean-square sound pressure level in various sub-intervals, is referred to as the increment computation method, and the second, which employs the Hilbert transform to calculate instantaneous acoustic amplitudes, is referred to as the Hilbert transform method. Analyses using both methods yield similar results, showing that the inter-pulse sound field exceeds ambient noise levels by as much as 9 dB during relatively quiet conditions. Inter-pulse noise levels are also related to the source distance, probably due to the higher reverberant conditions of the very shallow water environment. These methods can be used to quantify acoustic environment impacts from anthropogenic transient noises (e.g., seismic pulses, impact pile driving, and sonar pings) and to address potential acoustic masking affecting marine mammals. PMID:26723302

  14. Seismic structure of uppermost mantle and crust beneath West Philippine Basin and Kyusyu-Palau ridge by seafloor borehole seismometer, OBS and airgun experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arisaka, M.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Kaiho, Y.; Araki, E.; Nakahigashi, K.; Ito, M.; Shiobara, H.; Suehiro, K.; Kanazawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    The western Pacific area including the Philippine Sea plate is characterized by many island-arc and trench systems and back-arc basins, which are estimated to correspond to subduction of oceanic plates. The Philippine Sea plate is divided into two regions by the Kyushu-Palau Ridge running from north to south. There are the Shikoku basin and the Parece-Vela basin in the eastern part, and the West Philippine basin exists in the western part. It is important to study an uppermost mantle and crustal seismic structure of the Philippine Sea plate to consider the formation process and to estimate the development process of an island-arc and trench system. In addition, the borehole broadband seismic station (WP-1) was installed in the easternmost part of the West Philippine basin in 2001 and is in operation. To obtain the seismic structure is also important for analyses of the data retrieved from the WP-1. We conducted seismic surveys with ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), the WP-1 and controlled sources to obtain the seismic crustal structure around the WP-1 observatory March 2002, October 2002 and May 2003 using the R/V KAIREI, JAMSTEC. The total length of the profile parallel to the ridge (NS line) is about 100 km. The profile perpendicular to the ridge (EW line) has approximately 120 km long in total and crosses the ridge and the WP-1 borehole seismometer. As the controlled sources, we used a GI gun (3 liters) and Bolt 1500LL type (1500cu.in.) airguns. Number and kind of airguns differed in each experiment. Total 12 OBSs were deployed at an average interval of 10km(NS line) and 15km (EW line) for the experiments. A seismic velocity model for shallow structure is derived from using a tau-p inversion of individual OBS records. A deep structure beneath the profile is estimated by using a two-dimensional ray tracing method. The preliminary results for the NS line are obtained. P-wave velocity of the sedimentary layer is 2.7 km/s and the thickness is about 500 m. These

  15. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

  16. Hydroacoustic measurements of the behavioral response of arctic riverine fishes to seismic airguns.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, John K; Gyselman, Eric C

    2009-09-01

    Seismic surveys for hydrocarbon exploration in the Mackenzie River involve the use of airguns. Airguns produce a repetitive, intense, low-frequency sound that has the potential to cause physiological damage and behavioral changes in fishes. Some of these impacts have been documented in marine environments but few studies have been conducted in freshwater systems where the confining nature of the environment produces a different acoustic regime and could constrain possible fish response. In the current study, hydroacoustic surveys are conducted in the presence of airgun firing in the Mackenzie River to determine if fish behavior can mitigate or enhance the potential impact of this sound. It is shown that fish behavioral characteristics measured in this study are generally not changed by the presence of airgun noise. The most likely mechanism to facilitate a severe physiological effect in fishes from a mobile airgun firing is a herding response in front of the airgun, resulting in prolonged exposure to the noise. Analysis of tracked fish directional movement does not indicate that herding behavior occurs. Consequently, no evidence is found to indicate that fishes in this study would sustain severe physiological damage from this airgun seismic survey. PMID:19739773

  17. Fraunhofer Diffraction Effects on Total Power for a Planckian Source

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Eric L.

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing diffraction effects on total power in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by a circular lens or aperture is derived. The result for Fraunhofer diffraction of monochromatic radiation is well known, and this work reports the result for radiation from a Planckian source. The result obtained is valid at all temperatures.

  18. Techniques to Assess and Mitigate the Environmental Risk Posed by use of Airguns: Recent Advances from Academic Research Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. J.; Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; King, R.

    2006-05-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the ways in which marine mammals might react to noise, the biological significance of reactions, and the effectiveness of planning and real-time mitigation techniques. A planning tool commonly used to assess environmental risk of acoustic activities uses simulations to predict acoustic exposures received by animals, and translates exposure to response using a dose-response function to yield an estimate of the undesired impact on a population. Recent advances show promise to convert this planning tool into a real-time mitigation tool, using Bayesian statistical methods. In this approach, being developed for use by the British Navy, the environmental risk simulation is updated continuously during field operations. The distribution of exposure, set initially based on animal density, is updated in real-time using animal sensing data or environmental data known to correlate with the absence or presence of marine mammals. This conditional probability of animal presence should therefore be more accurate than prior probabilities used during planning, which enables a more accurate and quantitative assessment of both the impact of activities and reduction of impact via mitigation decisions. Two key areas of uncertainty in addition to animal presence/absence are 1.) how biologically-relevant behaviours are affected by exposure to noise, and 2.) whether animals avoid loud noise sources, which is the basis of ramp-up as a mitigation tool. With support from MMS and industry partners, we assessed foraging behaviour and avoidance movements of 8 tagged sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico during experimental exposure to airguns. The whale that was approached most closely prolonged a surface resting bout hours longer than typical, but resumed foraging immediately after the airguns ceased, suggesting avoidance of deep diving necessary for foraging near active airguns. Behavioral indices of foraging rate (echolocation buzzes produced during prey

  19. Bayesian environmental inversion of airgun modal dispersion using a single hydrophone in the Chukchi Sea.

    PubMed

    Warner, Graham A; Dosso, Stan E; Dettmer, Jan; Hannay, David E

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents estimated water-column and seabed parameters and uncertainties for a shallow-water site in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, from trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion of the dispersion of water-column acoustic modes. Pulse waveforms were recorded at a single ocean-bottom hydrophone from a small, ship-towed airgun array during a seismic survey. A warping dispersion time-frequency analysis is used to extract relative mode arrival times as a function of frequency for source-receiver ranges of 3 and 4 km which are inverted for the water sound-speed profile (SSP) and subbottom geoacoustic properties. The SSP is modeled using an unknown number of sound-speed/depth nodes. The subbottom is modeled using an unknown number of homogeneous layers with unknown thickness, sound speed, and density, overlying a halfspace. A reversible-jump Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm samples the model parameterization in terms of the number of water-column nodes and subbottom interfaces that can be resolved by the data. The estimated SSP agrees well with a measured profile, and seafloor sound speed is consistent with an independent headwave arrival-time analysis. Environmental properties are required to model sound propagation in the Chukchi Sea for estimating sound exposure levels and environmental research associated with marine mammal localization. PMID:26093393

  20. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  1. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner's syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  2. Estimation of relative site effect, coda Q and scattering strength from the records obtained by a large airgun experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira

    1991-05-01

    By using a large-capacity marine airgun, we carried out a seismic refraction experiment around the Bandai volcanic area, in the southern part of Tohoku, NE Japan. The analysis of the observed waveform data from the airgun shots shows that the coda wave amplitude is independent of hypocentral distance after a lapse time of about 9 s at any observation site with epicentral distance < 30 km. This fact indicates that most of the coda wave energy, after this lapse time, is distributed homogeneously in the medium beneath the observation sites. It is found that the coda wave amplitude correlates well with the amplitude of the direct P wave of a distant earthquake. The relative site amplification of coda wave amplitude is nearly the same as that of the direct P wave amplitude. Based on this observation, relative site amplification factors can be evaluated by using the coda wave amplitude at each observation site. The inverse coda Q values ( Qc-1) estimated from the time decays of coda wave amplitudes are about 4.6 × 10 -3, 2.1 × 10 -3 and 1.5 × 10 -3 at 5, 10 and 20 Hz, respectively. The frequency dependence of Qc-1 is expressed by a power of frequency in Hz ( Q c-1 ∝ ƒ n), where the power n is found to be about -0.8. In the earlier part of the lapse time, the coda wave energy concentrates around the seismic source, which indicates that the scattering effect is very strong in the study area. The shapes of waveform envelopes at 5, 10 and 20 Hz show that the forward scattering factor is stronger at higher frequency than that at lower frequency.

  3. Effects of Airgun Sounds on Bowhead Whale Calling Rates: Evidence for Two Behavioral Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Susanna B.; Nations, Christopher S.; McDonald, Trent L.; Thode, Aaron M.; Mathias, Delphine; Kim, Katherine H.; Greene, Charles R.; Macrander, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    In proximity to seismic operations, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) decrease their calling rates. Here, we investigate the transition from normal calling behavior to decreased calling and identify two threshold levels of received sound from airgun pulses at which calling behavior changes. Data were collected in August–October 2007–2010, during the westward autumn migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Up to 40 directional acoustic recorders (DASARs) were deployed at five sites offshore of the Alaskan North Slope. Using triangulation, whale calls localized within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and tallied every 10 minutes each season, so that the detected call rate could be interpreted as the actual call production rate. Moreover, airgun pulses were identified on each DASAR, analyzed, and a cumulative sound exposure level was computed for each 10-min period each season (CSEL10-min). A Poisson regression model was used to examine the relationship between the received CSEL10-min from airguns and the number of detected bowhead calls. Calling rates increased as soon as airgun pulses were detectable, compared to calling rates in the absence of airgun pulses. After the initial increase, calling rates leveled off at a received CSEL10-min of ~94 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the lower threshold). In contrast, once CSEL10-min exceeded ~127 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the upper threshold), whale calling rates began decreasing, and when CSEL10-min values were above ~160 dB re 1 μPa2-s, the whales were virtually silent. PMID:26039218

  4. Transient Gene Expression in Maize, Rice, and Wheat Cells Using an Airgun Apparatus 1

    PubMed Central

    Oard, James H.; Paige, David F.; Simmonds, John A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    An airgun apparatus has been constructed for transient gene expression studies of monocots. This device utilizes compressed air from a commercial airgun to propel macroprojectile and DNA-coated tungsten particles. The β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to monitor transient expression in three distinct cell types of maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). The highest level of GUS activity in cultured maize cells was observed when distance between stopping plate and target cells was adjusted to 4.3 centimeters. Efficiency of transformation was estimated to be 4.4 × 10−3. In a partial vacuum of 700 millimeters Hg, velocity of macroprojectile was measured at 520 meters per second with a 6% reduction in velocity at atmospheric pressure. A polyethylene film placed in the breech before firing contributed to a 12% increase in muzzle velocity. A 700 millimeters Hg level of vacuum was necessary for maximum number of transfornants. GUS expression was also detected in wheat leaf base tissue of microdissected shoot apices. High levels of transient gene expression were also observed in hard, compact embryogenic callus of rice. These results show that the airgun apparatus is a convenient, safe, and low-cost device for rapid transient gene expression studies in cereals. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667278

  5. The simulation of far-field wavelets using frequency-domain air-gun array near-field wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian-Guo; Deng, Yong; Tong, Xin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Air-gun arrays are used in marine-seismic exploration. Far-field wavelets in subsurface media represent the stacking of single air-gun ideal wavelets. We derived single air-gun ideal wavelets using near-field wavelets recorded from near-field geophones and then synthesized them into far-field wavelets. This is critical for processing wavelets in marineseismic exploration. For this purpose, several algorithms are currently used to decompose and synthesize wavelets in the time domain. If the traveltime of single air-gun wavelets is not an integral multiple of the sampling interval, the complex and error-prone resampling of the seismic signals using the time-domain method is necessary. Based on the relation between the frequency-domain phase and the time-domain time delay, we propose a method that first transforms the real near-field wavelet to the frequency domain via Fourier transforms; then, it decomposes it and composes the wavelet spectrum in the frequency domain, and then back transforms it to the time domain. Thus, the resampling problem is avoided and single air-gun wavelets and far-field wavelets can be reliably derived. The effect of ghost reflections is also considered, while decomposing the wavelet and removing the ghost reflections. Modeling and real data processing were used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. Total and infectious Cryptosporidium oocyst and total Giardia cyst concentrations from distinct agricultural and urban contamination sources in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Généreux, Mylène; Mailly, Jacinthe; Servais, Pierre; Côté, Caroline; Michaud, Aubert; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cyst concentrations are frequently used for assessing drinking water safety. The widely used USEPA Method 1623 provides total counts of (oo)cysts, but may not be accurate for human health risk characterization, since it does not provide infectivity information. The total counts and infectious fraction of Cryptosporidium oocysts and the total counts of Giardia cysts were assessed in major fecal pollution sources. Fresh calf and cow feces, their manure, and the discharge point were sampled in a small rural sub-watershed (n = 20, 21, 10, 10). Median concentrations for total (oo)cysts were higher in calves (333 oocysts g(-1); 111 cysts g(-1)) than in cows (52 oocysts g(-1); 7 cysts g(-1)). Infectious oocysts were found in 17 (7%) of the samples and none were found in manure or at the discharge point. Urban sources were sampled in the influent and effluent (n = 19, 18) of two wastewater treatment plants. Peak concentrations were 533 oocysts L(-1) and 9,010 cysts L(-1) for influents and 89 oocysts L(-1) and 472 cysts L(-1) for effluents. Infectious oocyst fractions varied from below the detection limit to 7-22% in the effluent and influent respectively. These infectious fractions are significantly lower than those currently used for quantitative microbial risk assessment estimates. PMID:22361710

  7. Airgun shot wound to the orbit with retention of pellet. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Paweł; Dziedzic, Dariusz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Shot wounds become a growing clinical concern in the civilian setting, due to increasing popularity of air guns among minors. We present a pediatric case of a shot wound to the orbit with sparing of the eyeball and retention of airgun pellet in the retrobulbar space. The pellet was removed 3 months after injury via lateral orbitotomy. Pathophysiology and ballistics of shot wounds are briefly reviewed and current views on the management strategy of shot wounds with retained projectile are discussed. PMID:27591065

  8. Differential dose contributions on total dose distribution of 125I brachytherapy source

    PubMed Central

    Camgöz, B.; Yeğin, G.; Kumru, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    This work provides an improvement of the approach using Monte Carlo simulation for the Amersham Model 6711 125I brachytherapy seed source, which is well known by many theoretical and experimental studies. The source which has simple geometry was researched with respect to criteria of AAPM Tg-43 Report. The approach offered by this study involves determination of differential dose contributions that come from virtual partitions of a massive radioactive element of the studied source to a total dose at analytical calculation point. Some brachytherapy seeds contain multi-radioactive elements so the dose at any point is a total of separate doses from each element. It is momentous to know well the angular and radial dose distributions around the source that is located in cancerous tissue for clinical treatments. Interior geometry of a source is effective on dose characteristics of a distribution. Dose information of inner geometrical structure of a brachytherapy source cannot be acquired by experimental methods because of limits of physical material and geometry in the healthy tissue, so Monte Carlo simulation is a required approach of the study. EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation software was used. In the design of a simulation, the radioactive source was divided into 10 rings, partitioned but not separate from each other. All differential sources were simulated for dose calculation, and the shape of dose distribution was determined comparatively distribution of a single-complete source. In this work anisotropy function was examined also mathematically. PMID:24376927

  9. Response of laminated composite plates to low-speed impact by airgun-propelled and dropped-weight impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Chunchu B.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed to determine the transient response of simply supported, rectangular laminated composite plates subjected to impact loads from airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors. A first-order shear-deformation theory has been included in the analysis to represent properly any local short-wavelength transient bending response. The impact force has been modeled as a locally distributed load with a cosine-cosine distribution. A double Fourier series expansion and the Timoshenko small increment method have been used to determine the contact force, out-of-plane deflections, and inplane strains and stresses at any plate location due to an impact force at any plate location. The results of experimental and analytical studies are compared for quasi-isotropic laminates. The results indicate the importance of including transverse shear deformation effects in the analysis for predicting the response of laminated plates subjected to both airgun-propelled and dropped-weight impactors. The results also indicate that plate boundary conditions influence the axial strains more significantly than the contact force for a dropped-weight impactor. The results of parametric studies identify a scaling approach based on impactor momentum that suggests an explanation for the differences in the responses of plates impacted by airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors.

  10. Assessing total exposures to gasoline vapor using the source exposure model.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, S A; Shah, J J

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in source apportionment modeling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) include receptor modeling (RM) applications to "total" (indoor and outdoor) exposure assessment for source of VOC. Source fingerprints are available for major VOC sources such as gasoline vapor, automobile exhaust, refinery emissions, cleaning solvent vapors, printing inks, and waste-water treatment facilities. The relative proportion of each VOC species in the source fingerprint enables the RM method, through a least squares analysis, to identify each source's presence and quantify its contribution to ambient air concentrations. Sampling periods and locations may be selected to represent microenvironmental exposures. Receptor modeling has direct applicability to determining the relative contribution of gasoline vapors to VOC exposures in the general population. PMID:1504631

  11. Derivation of total filtration thickness for diagnostic x-ray source assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Michiharu; Katoh, Yoh

    2016-08-01

    The method defined by the IEC 60522 for determining the inherent filtration of an x-ray source device is applicable only for a limited range of tube voltage. Because the users cannot legally remove the x-ray movable diaphragm of the x-ray source device, total filtration, which is the sum of the additional filtration diaphragm movable for specific filtration and x-ray, cannot be measured. We develop a method for simply obtaining the total filtration for different tube voltage values. Total filtration can be estimated from a ratio R‧ of the air kerma Kx+T\\prime , which is measured with an Al plate with thickness T, and Kx\\prime measured without an Al plate. The conditions of the target material of the x-ray source device are then entered into the Report 78 Spectrum Processor to calculate the air kerma K x and K x+T for Al thicknesses x and (x  +  T), respectively, to obtain R. The minimum value of x, which is the difference between the R and R‧, is the total filtration of the x-ray source device. The total filtration calculated using the industrial x-ray source device was within  ±1% in the 40–120 kV range. This method can calculate the total filtration using air kerma measurements with and without the Al plate. Therefore, the load on the x-ray tube can be reduced, and preparation of multiple Al plates is not necessary. Furthermore, for the 40–120 kV tube voltage range, the user can easily measure the total filtration.

  12. Derivation of total filtration thickness for diagnostic x-ray source assembly.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Michiharu; Katoh, Yoh

    2016-08-21

    The method defined by the IEC 60522 for determining the inherent filtration of an x-ray source device is applicable only for a limited range of tube voltage. Because the users cannot legally remove the x-ray movable diaphragm of the x-ray source device, total filtration, which is the sum of the additional filtration diaphragm movable for specific filtration and x-ray, cannot be measured. We develop a method for simply obtaining the total filtration for different tube voltage values. Total filtration can be estimated from a ratio R' of the air kerma [Formula: see text], which is measured with an Al plate with thickness T, and [Formula: see text] measured without an Al plate. The conditions of the target material of the x-ray source device are then entered into the Report 78 Spectrum Processor to calculate the air kerma K x and K x+T for Al thicknesses x and (x  +  T), respectively, to obtain R. The minimum value of x, which is the difference between the R and R', is the total filtration of the x-ray source device. The total filtration calculated using the industrial x-ray source device was within  ±1% in the 40-120 kV range. This method can calculate the total filtration using air kerma measurements with and without the Al plate. Therefore, the load on the x-ray tube can be reduced, and preparation of multiple Al plates is not necessary. Furthermore, for the 40-120 kV tube voltage range, the user can easily measure the total filtration. PMID:27444803

  13. Low-frequency whale and seismic airgun sounds recorded in the mid-Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Mellinger, David K.; Dziak, Robert P.; Fox, Christopher G.

    2004-04-01

    Beginning in February 1999, an array of six autonomous hydrophones was moored near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (35 °N-15 °N, 50 °W-33 °W). Two years of data were reviewed for whale vocalizations by visually examining spectrograms. Four distinct sounds were detected that are believed to be of biological origin: (1) a two-part low-frequency moan at roughly 18 Hz lasting 25 s which has previously been attributed to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus); (2) series of short pulses approximately 18 s apart centered at 22 Hz, which are likely produced by fin whales (B. physalus); (3) series of short, pulsive sounds at 30 Hz and above and approximately 1 s apart that resemble sounds attributed to minke whales (B. acutorostrata); and (4) downswept, pulsive sounds above 30 Hz that are likely from baleen whales. Vocalizations were detected most often in the winter, and blue- and fin whale sounds were detected most often on the northern hydrophones. Sounds from seismic airguns were recorded frequently, particularly during summer, from locations over 3000 km from this array. Whales were detected by these hydrophones despite its location in a very remote part of the Atlantic Ocean that has traditionally been difficult to survey.

  14. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jackson A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John; Young, John V.; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  15. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Gross, Jackson A; Carlson, Thomas J; Skalski, John; Young, John V; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  16. Great lakes eutrophication: the effect of point source control of total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Chapra, S C; Robertson, A

    1977-06-24

    A mathematical model of the Great Lakes total phosphorus budgets indicates that a 1 milligram per liter effluent restriction for point sources would result in significant improvement in the trophic status of most of the system. However, because large areas of their drainage basins are devoted to agriculture or are urbanized, western Lake Erie, lower Green Bay, and Saginaw Bay may require non-point source controls to effect significant improvements in their trophic status. PMID:17776924

  17. Upper limits on the total cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anjos, R.C.; De Souza, V.; Supanitsky, A.D. E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, upper limits on the total luminosity of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) E > 10{sup 18} eV) are determined for five individual sources. The upper limit on the integral flux of GeV--TeV gamma-rays is used to extract the upper limit on the total UHECR luminosity of individual sources. The correlation between upper limit on the integral GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux and upper limit on the UHECR luminosity is established through the cascading process that takes place during propagation of the cosmic rays in the background radiation fields, as explained in reference [1]. Twenty-eight sources measured by FERMI-LAT, VERITAS and MAGIC observatories have been studied. The measured upper limit on the GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux is restrictive enough to allow the calculation of an upper limit on the total UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of five sources. The upper limit on the UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of these sources is shown for several assumptions on the emission mechanism. For all studied sources an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy proton luminosity is also set.

  18. Swell effect correction for the high-resolution marine seismic data acquired using an airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Wonsik; Kim, Byoung-yeop; Cheong, Snons; Kim, Young-Jun

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution marine seismic surveys are used for the imaging of the detailed subsurface geological structure in engineering and marine geological survey. When the sea state gets worse, the quality of the seismic data become worse due to the sea swell. We corrected the swell effect to enhance the quality of seismic data. To remove the swell effect, we picked the sea bottom location automatically, averaged the picked sea bottom times of the adjacent traces and corrected the differences between the calculated and averaged sea bottom location. To make high quality seismic section, we used high-resolution marine 8-channel airgun seismic data acquired off Yeosu, Korea. The energy source was a 30 in3 airgun and the receiver was a 40 m long 8 channel streamer cable with a group interval of 5 m. The offset distance between the source and the first channel was 20 m. The shot interval was 2 seconds corresponding to ~5 m in distance, assuming ship's speed 5 knots. The data were digitally recorded with a sample interval of 0.1 ms and a record length of 1 s. The processing sequence includes basic processing procedures such as gain recovery, deconvolution, frequency filtering, CMP sorting, NMO correction, swell effect correction and stacking. To select sea bottom location for the swell effect correction, we pick maximum amplitude within the expected range including sea bottom location and find the first location at which the amplitude is larger than the threshold that is 40% of the maximum amplitude. We averaged these two-way travel times of sea bottom and corrected the differences. The range of the swell effect correction was -0.5 ~ 0.4 ms. After correction the continuity of reflectors were improved and high quality of the seismic data was produced. This study is a part of a Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), a National Research Laboratory (NRL) project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), and

  19. Uniformity and standardization of single and opposing cobalt 60 sources for total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.; Thomas, E.D.

    1980-02-01

    The use of total body irradiation (TBI), chemotherapy, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in the management of relapsing leukemia has been established with dual source cobalt irradiation. In many facilities in order to reproduce the clinical results with single source irradiation, dosimetry must be compared under situations of varying configurations in order to standardize TBI techniques. Once intercomparison is achieved by on site dosimetric evaluation, recommendations are made for patient position, length of exposure in different positions and average thickness and beam data used to calculate absorbed dose. Homogeneity of single and opposing cobalt sources is also compared.

  20. METHOD 25 - DETERMINATION OF TOTAL GASEOUS NON-METHANE ORGANIC EMISSIONS AS CARBON FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 3.17 describes the procedures and specifications for determining volatile organic compounds as total gaseous non-methane organics from stationary sources. n emission sample is withdrawn from the stack at a constant rate through a heated filter and a chilled condensate tra...

  1. AUTOMATIC INTERFACING SYSTEM FOR SAMPLING TOTAL MERCURY IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An interfacing system to sample total mercury emissions in source streams and suitably condition, dilute, and transport the sample to a mercury measuring instrument was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system consists of three components: a conditioner, a diluter, and a pump...

  2. Enhancing fecal coliform total maximum daily load models through bacterial source tracking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, K.E.; Moyer, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

  3. Total luminous flux measurement for flexible surface sources with an integrating sphere photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hsueh-Ling; Liu, Wen-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Applying an integrating sphere photometer for total luminous flux measurement is a widely used method. However, the measurement accuracy depends on the spatial uniformity of the integrating sphere, especially when the test sample has a different light distribution from that of the standard source. Therefore, spatial correction is needed to eliminate the effect caused by non-uniformity. To reduce the inconvenience of spatial correction but retain the measurement accuracy, a new type of working standard is designed for flexible and curved surface sources. Applying this new type standard source, the measurement deviation due to different orientations is reduced by an order of magnitude compared with using a naked incandescent lamp as the standard source.

  4. Biological Significance of Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals: Examples Using an Acoustic Recording tag to Define Acoustic Exposure of Sperm Whales, Physeter catodon, Exposed to Airgun Sounds in Controlled Exposure Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; Miller, P. J.; Lynch, J.

    2006-05-01

    the array with received levels of analyzed pulses falling between 131-167 dB re. 1μPa (pp) [111-147 dB re. 1μPa (rms) & 100-135 dB re. 1μPa2s]. The acoustic energy produced by airguns centers in the 50-250 Hz band, with spectral levels about 40 dB lower at 1 kHz for the on-axis signature. However, some arrivals recorded near the surface in 2002 had energy predominantly above 500Hz. A surface duct in the 2002 sound speed profile had a cutoff frequency calculated at 250 Hz. Poor propagation below this cutoff and efficient propagation above it helps to explain this effect. Our empirical measurements demonstrate that airguns expose animals to significant sound energy above 500Hz, which increases concern about the potential impact on toothed whales with poor low frequency hearing. The measurements are consistent with ray trace and parabolic equation propagation models, which can predict the relative timing of the multipath arrivals. The results indicate that on-axis source levels and simple spreading assumptions alone cannot predict airgun pulse propagation and the extent of exposure zones.

  5. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  6. Simulated retrievals of methane total columns in support of future satellite missions: an error sources analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checa-Garcia, Ramiro; Alkemade, Frans; Boudon, Vincent; Fischerkeller, Constanze; Hahne, Philipp; Tran, Ha; Landgraf, Jochen; Butz, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Measuring atmospheric composition is a central objective for monitoring climate change and understanding human impact on the environment. In particular, quantifying natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases is a primary target of future Earth observing satellite missions. To this end, upcoming satellites are designed to measure carbon dioxide and/or methane total columns with high accuracy. Here, our research focuses on investigating and quantifying the main error sources of methane total column retrievals from satellites collecting solar backscatter absorption spectra in the shortwave infrared spectral range. Since errors as small as fractions of a percent can jeopardize the concentration estimates, our study in particular aims at supporting the best selection of instrument properties of new sensors such as Sentinel-5. To achieve this goal we performed retrieval simulations for a detailed ensemble of synthetic scenarios covering typical geophysical scenes that any future satellite would encounter. The ensemble is based on a range of microphysical aerosol and cirrus properties, Lambertian surface reflection properties and seasonal variations. The use of synthetic scenarios provides insight into the partitioning of several error sources such as forward model approximations, instrument properties, imperfect spectroscopy. Finally, our assessment will point out the most critical aspects to be considered in the design of future satellite missions and their support studies.

  7. Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after exposure to seismic airgun stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lucke, Klaus; Siebert, Ursula; Lepper, Paul A; Blanchet, Marie-Anne

    2009-06-01

    An auditory study was conducted to derive data on temporary threshold shift (TTS) induced by single impulses. This information should serve as basis for the definition of noise exposure criteria for harbor porpoises. The measurements of TTS were conducted on a harbor porpoise by measuring the auditory evoked potentials in response to amplitude-modulated sounds. After obtaining baseline hearing data the animal was exposed to single airgun stimuli at increasing received levels. Immediately after each exposure the animal's hearing threshold was tested for significant changes. The received levels of the airgun impulses were increased until TTS was reached. At 4 kHz the predefined TTS criterion was exceeded at a received sound pressure level of 199.7 dB(pk-pk) re 1 microPa and a sound exposure level (SEL) of 164.3 dB re 1 microPa(2) s. The animal consistently showed aversive behavioral reactions at received sound pressure levels above 174 dB(pk-pk) re 1 microPa or a SEL of 145 dB re 1 microPa(2) s. Elevated levels of baseline hearing sensitivity indicate potentially masked acoustic thresholds. Therefore, the resulting TTS levels should be considered masked temporary threshold shift (MTTS) levels. The MTTS levels are lower than for any other cetacean species tested so far. PMID:19507987

  8. Total Nitrogen Sources of the Three Gorges Reservoir--A Spatio-Temporal Approach.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunping; Wang, Lijing; Zheng, Binghui; Holbach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of nutrient concentrations, loads, and their distribution from upstream tributaries is important for the management of large lakes and reservoirs. The Three Gorges Dam was built on the Yangtze River in China, the world's third longest river, and impounded the famous Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we analyzed total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and inflow data from 2003 till 2010 for the main upstream tributaries of the TGR that contribute about 82% of the TGR's total inflow. We used time series analysis for seasonal decomposition of TN concentrations and used non-parametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Walli H, Mann-Whitney U) as well as base flow segmentation to analyze significant spatial and temporal patterns of TN pollution input into the TGR. Our results show that TN concentrations had significant spatial heterogeneity across the study area (Tuo River> Yangtze River> Wu River> Min River> Jialing River>Jinsha River). Furthermore, we derived apparent seasonal changes in three out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR rivers (Kruskal-Walli H ρ = 0.009, 0.030 and 0.029 for Tuo River, Jinsha River and Min River in sequence). TN pollution from non-point sources in the upstream tributaries accounted for 68.9% of the total TN input into the TGR. Non-point source pollution of TN revealed increasing trends for 4 out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR. Land use/cover and soil type were identified as the dominant driving factors for the spatial distribution of TN. Intensifying agriculture and increasing urbanization in the upstream catchments of the TGR were the main driving factors for non-point source pollution of TN increase from 2003 till 2010. Land use and land cover management as well as chemical fertilizer use restriction were needed to overcome the threats of increasing TN pollution. PMID:26510158

  9. Total Nitrogen Sources of the Three Gorges Reservoir — A Spatio-Temporal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunping; Wang, Lijing; Zheng, Binghui; Holbach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of nutrient concentrations, loads, and their distribution from upstream tributaries is important for the management of large lakes and reservoirs. The Three Gorges Dam was built on the Yangtze River in China, the world’s third longest river, and impounded the famous Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we analyzed total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and inflow data from 2003 till 2010 for the main upstream tributaries of the TGR that contribute about 82% of the TGR’s total inflow. We used time series analysis for seasonal decomposition of TN concentrations and used non-parametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Walli H, Mann-Whitney U) as well as base flow segmentation to analyze significant spatial and temporal patterns of TN pollution input into the TGR. Our results show that TN concentrations had significant spatial heterogeneity across the study area (Tuo River> Yangtze River> Wu River> Min River> Jialing River>Jinsha River). Furthermore, we derived apparent seasonal changes in three out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR rivers (Kruskal-Walli H ρ = 0.009, 0.030 and 0.029 for Tuo River, Jinsha River and Min River in sequence). TN pollution from non-point sources in the upstream tributaries accounted for 68.9% of the total TN input into the TGR. Non-point source pollution of TN revealed increasing trends for 4 out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR. Land use/cover and soil type were identified as the dominant driving factors for the spatial distribution of TN. Intensifying agriculture and increasing urbanization in the upstream catchments of the TGR were the main driving factors for non-point source pollution of TN increase from 2003 till 2010. Land use and land cover management as well as chemical fertilizer use restriction were needed to overcome the threats of increasing TN pollution. PMID:26510158

  10. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  11. Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For

  12. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45/sup 0/ above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented.

  13. Using at-sea experiments to study the effects of airguns on the foraging behavior of sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. J. O.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; Biassoni, N.; Quero, M.; Tyack, P. L.

    2009-07-01

    Acoustic exposure and behavior of 8 sperm whales were recorded with acoustic and movement-recording tags before, during and after 5 separate 1-2 h controlled sound exposures of industry-provided airgun arrays. None of the 8 whales changed behavioral state (7 foraging, 1 resting) following the start of ramp-up at distances of 7-13 km, or full array exposures at 1-13 km. The most closely approached whale rested throughout exposure but started a foraging dive shortly after the airguns ceased, possibly indicating a delay in foraging during exposure. Using visual tracking and dead-reckoning of tagged animals, we found that their direction-of-movement was random with respect to the airguns, but correlated with their direction-of-movement just prior to the start of exposure, indicating that the tested whales did not show horizontal avoidance of the airguns. Oscillations in pitch generated by swimming movements during foraging dives were on average 6% lower during exposure than during the immediately following post-exposure period, with all 7 foraging whales exhibiting less pitching ( p=0.014). Buzz rates, a proxy for attempts to capture prey, were 19% lower during exposure but given natural variation in buzz rates and the small numbers of whales, this effect was not statistically significant ( P=0.141). Though additional studies are strongly recommended, these initial results indicate that sperm whales in the highly exposed Gulf of Mexico habitat do not exhibit avoidance reactions to airguns, but suggest they are affected at ranges well beyond those currently regulated due to more subtle effects on their foraging behavior.

  14. Sources and sinks of filtered total mercury and concentrations of total mercury of solids and of filtered methylmercury, Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington, 2007-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Noble, Marlene A.; Wagner, Richard J.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Moran, Patrick W.; DeWild, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of filtered total mercury in the marine water of Sinclair Inlet originates from salt water flowing from Puget Sound. About 420 grams of filtered total mercury are added to Sinclair Inlet each year from atmospheric, terrestrial, and sedimentary sources, which has increased filtered total mercury concentrations in Sinclair Inlet (0.33 nanograms per liter) to concentrations greater than those of the Puget Sound (0.2 nanograms per liter). The category with the largest loading of filtered total mercury to Sinclair Inlet included diffusion of porewaters from marine sediment to the water column of Sinclair Inlet and discharge through the largest stormwater drain on the Bremerton naval complex, Bremerton, Washington. However, few data are available to estimate porewater and stormwater releases with any certainty. The release from the stormwater drain does not originate from overland flow of stormwater. Rather total mercury on soils is extracted by the chloride ions in seawater as the stormwater is drained and adjacent soils are flushed with seawater by tidal pumping. Filtered total mercury released by an unknown freshwater mechanism also was observed in the stormwater flowing through this drain. Direct atmospheric deposition on the Sinclair Inlet, freshwater discharge from creek and stormwater basins draining into Sinclair Inlet, and saline discharges from the dry dock sumps of the naval complex are included in the next largest loading category of sources of filtered total mercury. Individual discharges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and from the industrial steam plant of the naval complex constituted the loading category with the third largest loadings. Stormwater discharge from the shipyard portion of the naval complex and groundwater discharge from the base are included in the loading category with the smallest loading of filtered total mercury. Presently, the origins of the solids depositing to the sediment of Sinclair Inlet are uncertain, and

  15. A SUMMARY OF TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FLORA AND FAUNA NEAR CONTAMINANT SOURCES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes total mercury concentrations for environmental media collected from near-coastal areas including those impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were ...

  16. A nitrogen source in spring in the surface mixed-layer of the Baltic Sea: Evidence from total nitrogen and total phosphorus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, A.; Schneider, B.

    2015-08-01

    The combined mass balance for total nitrogen (TN: concentrations of organic + inorganic nitrogen compounds) and total phosphorus (TP: concentrations of organic + inorganic phosphorus compounds) at 12 stations in the Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2013 clearly indicated the existence of a significant nitrogen source in the surface mixed layer in May of up to 86 mmol m- 2 month- 1 at the Baltic Proper stations. The analysis is based on monthly changes in TN with reference to the concentrations in April, and taking into account the atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds and the sedimentation of particulate organic nitrogen. The nitrogen source is closely linked to the consumption of excess phosphate and thus to the production of organic matter in the surface mixed-layer. Processes such as early nitrogen fixation and nitrogen transport by migrating plankton organisms are discussed as possible causes for the nitrogen input into the surface mixed layer in May. The long-term mean of the nitrogen source amounted to 55 mmol m- 2 in the Baltic Proper corresponding to a regional nitrogen input of 83 kt. We also obtained data for the mid-summer nitrogen fixation of 141 mmol m- 2 which corresponds to an input of 202 kt.

  17. Improved estimates of filtered total mercury loadings and total mercury concentrations of solids from potential sources to Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Conn, Kathleen E.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations examined sources and sinks of mercury to Sinclair Inlet based on historic and new data. This included an evaluation of mercury concentrations from various sources and mercury loadings from industrial discharges and groundwater flowing from the Bremerton naval complex to Sinclair Inlet. This report provides new data from four potential sources of mercury to Sinclair Inlet: (1) filtered and particulate total mercury concentrations of creek water during the wet season, (2) filtered and particulate total mercury releases from the Navy steam plant following changes in the water softening process and discharge operations, (3) release of mercury from soils to groundwater in two landfill areas at the Bremerton naval complex, and (4) total mercury concentrations of solids in dry dock sumps that were not affected by bias from sequential sampling. The previous estimate of the loading of filtered total mercury from Sinclair Inlet creeks was based solely on dry season samples. Concentrations of filtered total mercury in creek samples collected during wet weather were significantly higher than dry weather concentrations, which increased the estimated loading of filtered total mercury from creek basins from 27.1 to 78.1 grams per year. Changes in the concentrations and loading of filtered and particulate total mercury in the effluent of the steam plant were investigated after the water softening process was changed from ion-exchange to reverse osmosis and the discharge of stack blow-down wash began to be diverted to the municipal water-treatment plant. These changes reduced the concentrations of filtered and particulate total mercury from the steam plant of the Bremerton naval complex, which resulted in reduced loadings of filtered total mercury from 5.9 to 0.15 grams per year. Previous investigations identified three fill areas on the Bremerton naval complex, of which the western fill area is thought to be the largest source of mercury on the base

  18. Archaeosomes made of Halorubrum tebenquichense total polar lipids: a new source of adjuvancy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Raul O; Higa, Leticia H; Cutrullis, Romina A; Bilen, Marcos; Morelli, Irma; Roncaglia, Diana I; Corral, Ricardo S; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia B; Romero, Eder L

    2009-01-01

    Background Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles prepared from total polar lipids (TPL) extracted from selected genera and species from the Archaea domain, elicit both antibody and cell-mediated immunity to the entrapped antigen, as well as efficient cross priming of exogenous antigens, evoking a profound memory response. Screening for unexplored Archaea genus as new sources of adjuvancy, here we report the presence of two new Halorubrum tebenquichense strains isolated from grey crystals (GC) and black mood (BM) strata from a littoral Argentinean Patagonia salt flat. Cytotoxicity, intracellular transit and immune response induced by two subcutaneous (sc) administrations (days 0 and 21) with BSA entrapped in ARC made of TPL either form BM (ARC-BM) and from GC (ARC-GC) at 2% w/w (BSA/lipids), to C3H/HeN mice (25 μg BSA, 1.3 mg of archaeal lipids per mouse) and boosted on day 180 with 25 μg of bare BSA, were determined. Results DNA G+C content (59.5 and 61.7% mol BM and GC, respectively), 16S rDNA sequentiation, DNA-DNA hybridization, arbitrarily primed fingerprint assay and biochemical data confirmed that BM and GC isolates were two non-previously described strains of H. tebenquichense. Both multilamellar ARC mean size were 564 ± 22 nm, with -50 mV zeta-potential, and were not cytotoxic on Vero cells up to 1 mg/ml and up to 0.1 mg/ml of lipids on J-774 macrophages (XTT method). ARC inner aqueous content remained inside the phago-lysosomal system of J-774 cells beyond the first incubation hour at 37°C, as revealed by pyranine loaded in ARC. Upon subcutaneous immunization of C3H/HeN mice, BSA entrapped in ARC-BM or ARC-GC elicited a strong and sustained primary antibody response, as well as improved specific humoral immunity after boosting with the bare antigen. Both IgG1 and IgG2a enhanced antibody titers could be demonstrated in long-term (200 days) recall suggesting induction of a mixed Th1/Th2 response. Conclusion We herein report the finding of new H. tebenquichense

  19. Comparison of the Total Costs of Renewable and Conventional Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gejguš, Mirko; Aschbacher, Christine; Sablik, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources can be characterised as inexhaustible. The question is to what extent they are available and the complementary limit issue is technology. Renewable energy sources are theoretically available to the whole world, but their limit factor is more or less the volatility of storage.

  20. The influence of source periodicity on formation of large scale spottiness of the total deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrynyk, O.; Chernysh, R.; Hrytsyuk, Y.

    2010-09-01

    In this work we have studied the formation of a large-scale spot-like structure of the cumulative deposition pattern at the regional scale (linear size of 105-106 m or larger) due to a powerful elevated source. Only one possible cause of spottiness at the regional scale, namely the diurnal cycle of the vertical turbulent mixing intensity in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), has been taken into account in this study. Based on numerical and analytical solutions of model diffusion problems (using the K-theory approximation) we have studied how the nonstationarity/periodicity of a source acting for a limited time interval, tk, affects the formation of spottiness. The source periodicity was specified in the form of a simple harmonic function (cosine) for source strength, Q=f(t). The main focus of our study was on the case when the source lifetime is longer than the characteristic time of the periodic change of the ABL structure, i.e. tk >T (in this case the spottiness does not appear when the source is stationary, Q=const). The results of our modeling demonstrate that under the condition Q=f(t) there may exist a resonant mode, which can cause spottiness when tk >T. The resonant mode (strengthening of the periodic action of the spottiness formation mechanism) exists when the periods of the source strength and the vertical turbulent mixing intensity are approximately equal, while the phases of their oscillations are opposite.

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart G of... - Process Vents-Coefficients for Total Resource Effectiveness for Existing Source Nonhalogenated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process Vents-Coefficients for Total Resource Effectiveness for Existing Source Nonhalogenated and Halogenated Vent Streams 1 Table 1 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  2. Geometrical and total efficiencies of CdZnTe rectangular parallelepiped detector using arbitrary positioned point, plane, and volumetric sources.

    PubMed

    Hamzawy, A; Badawi, Mohamed S; Thabet, Abouzeid A; Gouda, Mona M; El-Khatib, Ahmed M; Abbas, Mahmoud I

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-ray detectors are widely used in many fields like environmental measurements, medicine, space science, and industry, where the detector geometrical, total, photopeak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratio could be required. The calculation of the detector efficiency depends mainly on the value of the geometrical efficiency, which depends on the solid angle subtended by the source-detector system. The present work introduces a direct analytical method to calculate the geometrical and total efficiencies of CdZnTe gamma-ray detector using off-axis isotropic radiating γ-ray [point, disk, and cylindrical] sources. To test the validity of the present work, the results are compared with some published data and also to prove how much it is important to determine the efficiency of difficult gamma-ray detection arrangement. PMID:26931896

  3. Geometrical and total efficiencies of CdZnTe rectangular parallelepiped detector using arbitrary positioned point, plane, and volumetric sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzawy, A.; Badawi, Mohamed S.; Thabet, Abouzeid A.; Gouda, Mona M.; El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Abbas, Mahmoud I.

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-ray detectors are widely used in many fields like environmental measurements, medicine, space science, and industry, where the detector geometrical, total, photopeak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratio could be required. The calculation of the detector efficiency depends mainly on the value of the geometrical efficiency, which depends on the solid angle subtended by the source-detector system. The present work introduces a direct analytical method to calculate the geometrical and total efficiencies of CdZnTe gamma-ray detector using off-axis isotropic radiating γ-ray [point, disk, and cylindrical] sources. To test the validity of the present work, the results are compared with some published data and also to prove how much it is important to determine the efficiency of difficult gamma-ray detection arrangement.

  4. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. PMID:24530103

  5. Total synthesis and structural revision of mycalol, an anticancer natural product from the marine source.

    PubMed

    Seetharamsingh, B; Rajamohanan, P R; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2015-04-01

    The total synthesis of an anticancer (anaplastic thyroid) natural lipid mycalol has been accomplished for the first time. Synthesis of originally proposed structure necessitated the revision of structure in which the position of acetate group moved from C20 to C19 and a change in stereochemistry of the glycerol unit. PMID:25763453

  6. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  7. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  8. MODE IDENTIFICATION OF AN ARCH DAM BY A DYNAMIC AIR-GUN TEST.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Fedock, Joseph J.; Fletcher, Jon B.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen natural frequencies of a concrete arch dam (Monticello Dam near Sacramento, California) have been identified by using a dynamic testing method which employs an air gun firing in the reservoir as the excitation source. These vibrations modes are determined from the peak responses in the Fourier amplitude spectra of the free-vibration data recorded at three crest locations using three-component geophones. Comparisons of the first five natural frequencies with results obtained by forced vibration tests using rotating mass shakers show good agreement. The next eight higher-frequency modes, not previously identified, are determined from data of the present tests.

  9. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  10. External total alkalinity loads versus internal generation: The influence of nonriverine alkalinity sources in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Wällstedt, Teresia; Humborg, Christoph; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we first present updated riverine total alkalinity (TA) loads to the various Baltic Sea sub-basins, based on monthly measurements in 82 of the major rivers that represent 85% of the total runoff. Simulations in the coupled physical-biogeochemical BALTSEM (BAltic sea Long-Term large Scale Eutrophication Model) model show that these river loads together with North Sea water inflows are not sufficient to reproduce observed TA concentrations in the system, demonstrating the large influence from internal sources. Budget calculations indicate that the required internal TA generation must be similar to river loads in magnitude. The nonriverine source in the system amounts to about 2.4 mmol m-2 d-1 on average. We argue here that the majority of this source is related to denitrification together with unresolved sediment processes such as burial of reduced sulfur and/or silicate weathering. This hypothesis is supported by studies on sediment processes on a global scale and also by data from sediment cores in the Baltic Sea. In a model simulation with all internal TA sources and sinks switched on, the net absorption of atmospheric CO2 increased by 0.78 mol C m-2 yr-1 compared to a simulation where TA was treated as a passive tracer. Our results clearly illustrate how pelagic TA sources together with anaerobic mineralization in coastal sediments generate a significant carbon sink along the aquatic continuum, mitigating CO2 evasions from coastal and estuarine systems.

  11. Main Sources and Doses of Space Radiation during Mars Missions and Total Radiation Risk for Cosmonauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrikas, Victor; Aleksandr, Shafirkin; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav

    This work contains calculation data of generalized doses and dose equivalents in critical organs and tissues of cosmonauts produces by galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar cosmic rays (SCR) and the Earth’s radiation belts (ERB) that will impact crewmembers during a flight to Mars, while staying in the landing module and on the Martian surface, and during the return to Earth. Also calculated total radiation risk values during whole life of cosmonauts after the flight are presented. Radiation risk (RR) calculations are performed on the basis of a radiobiological model of radiation damage to living organisms, while taking into account reparation processes acting during continuous long-term exposure at various dose rates and under acute recurrent radiation impact. The calculations of RR are performed for crewmembers of various ages implementing a flight to Mars over 2 - 3 years in maximum and minimum of the solar cycle. The total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic RR and possible life-span shortening are estimated on the basis of a model of the radiation death probability for mammals. This model takes into account the decrease in compensatory reserve of an organism as well as the increase in mortality rate and descent of the subsequent lifetime of the cosmonaut. The analyzed dose distributions in the shielding and body areas are applied to making model calculations of tissue equivalent spherical and anthropomorphic phantoms.

  12. Estimating Uncertainty in Long Term Total Ozone Records from Multiple Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, Stacey M.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Kramarova, Natalya; McPeters, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Total ozone measurements derived from the TOMS and SBUV backscattered solar UV instrument series cover the period from late 1978 to the present. As the SBUV series of instruments comes to an end, we look to the 10 years of data from the AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and two years of data from the Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite to continue the record. When combining these records to construct a single long-term data set for analysis we must estimate the uncertainty in the record resulting from potential biases and drifts in the individual measurement records. In this study we present a Monte Carlo analysis used to estimate uncertainties in the Merged Ozone Dataset (MOD), constructed from the Version 8.6 SBUV2 series of instruments. We extend this analysis to incorporate OMI and OMPS total ozone data into the record and investigate the impact of multiple overlapping measurements on the estimated error. We also present an updated column ozone trend analysis and compare the size of statistical error (error from variability not explained by our linear regression model) to that from instrument uncertainty.

  13. From the source to the user, understanding a total water approach to fluoride treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredo, K. A.; O'Garra, T.

    2014-12-01

    India is a large user of groundwater resources and one of the countries most impacted by fluoride; the rural areas, where 90% of drinking water is sourced from fluoride-contaminated groundwater, are particularly vulnerable. Since fluorosis has no cure, prevention is key, and defluoridation treatment is a primary mitigation approach. Despite the successful development of defluoridation treatments and technologies worldwide, these solutions encounter a range of operational barriers (e.g. lack of economic and chemical resources, scarcity of skilled operators) and uptake is hindered by a lack of user understanding and participation in the development of community treatment options. Preliminary research highlights that plants typically fail after the first three years of installation, we are investigating why and how to overcome this barrier. Monitoring fluoride concentrations, operations, and user attitudes at several defluoridation plants in Maharashtra, we assess the overall success of these installed technologies. The research considers: (1) the fluctuations in source concentrations with respect to climate and changing water use patterns, (2) treatment with regards to performance, operation, and maintenance of implemented technologies to meet fluoride standards, and (3) user understanding, acceptability and uptake of defluoridation technology. This presentation highlights the operational and behavioral barriers to sustainable defluoridation in India.

  14. Estimating the acoustic exposure of marine mammals to seismic sources of the R/V Maurice Langseth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, A.; Richardson, W.; Carr, S.; Spaulding, R.; Ellison, W.

    2006-05-01

    As part of the planning process for proposed R/V Maurice Langseth academic marine seismic survey operations, our team is preparing estimates of the acoustic exposure of marine mammals to seismic sources (e.g., airguns). Seven sites around the world have been selected for detailed analysis. This procedure integrates several new aspects. (1) The Acoustic Integration Model - (AIM) will be used to model the four-dimensional movement of marine mammals potentially found in each modeling area in relation to movement of the Langseth. It is critical that the movement and diving behavior of the simulated animals be considered because acoustic propagation through the marine environment has considerable vertical structure. (2) The Marine Operations Noise Model (MONM), a two-step acoustic source and propagation model, is employed to predict the noise field around the ship. The first portion of MONM creates the beam pattern for the relevant airgun array considering the interactions of the individual airgun elements. The second step predicts the range-, azimuth-, and depth-dependent propagation loss and combines it with the directional source level to calculate the three dimensional received sound field. This is calculated with an enhanced version of the RAM PE model, which more completely considers the geoacoustic properties and propagation paths of the substrate. (3) The range, bearing, and depth of each simulated animal, as provided by AIM, are convolved with the received level data from MONM. This is done for each transmission of the source array, allowing for movement of the vessel and simulated animals. (4) From this, an exposure history of each simulated animal for the entire cruise track can be calculated. This exposure history can be used to estimate the RMS received level of the strongest received pulse for each simulated animal, as needed to meet current U.S. regulatory requirements. (5) The exposure history can also be integrated to calculate the total acoustic energy

  15. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Is the internet a reliable source of information for patients seeking total ankle replacement?

    PubMed

    Elliott, Andrew D; Bartel, Annette F P; Simonson, Devin; Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    The modern patient population relies on the Internet to provide knowledge about medical procedures. However, a gap between established medical guidelines and the information provided on the Internet exists. Because of the general poor quality of the medical information available on the Internet and the increasing popularity of total ankle replacement (TAR) with its known potential serious complications, we undertook the present study to evaluate the information on TAR available to the general public through the Internet and to determine the quality of information according to authorship type and site certification status. Three common search engines were used to identify a total of 105 websites. The TAR information quality was rated as "excellent," "high," "moderate," "low," or "unacceptable." The sites were evaluated for authorship or sponsorship, content, and other criteria. The data were analyzed as a complete set, as a comparison among authorship types (academic, private, industry, or other), and by certification status. Websites with scores of excellent or high were 35% of the sites reviewed, and 48% were ranked as poor or unacceptable. Of the authorship types, the highest quality authorship was for the industry and other sites, which rated high or excellent 46% of the time. Eight percent of the sites evaluated were certified; however, certification status was not associated with improved information quality. Our study has demonstrated a low quality of TAR information available across all website types, regardless of authorship type. We suggest a partnership between professional organizations and physicians to ensure that provider websites reflect the current indications and contraindications of TAR to enhance patient education. PMID:25746768

  17. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in an industrial complex in South Korea: impacts from local sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yong-Seok; Jeong, Seung-Pyo; Holsen, Thomas M.; Han, Young-Ji; Choi, Eunhwa; Park, Eun Ha; Kim, Tae Young; Eum, Hee-Sang; Park, Dae Gun; Kim, Eunhye; Kim, Soontae; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Jaewon; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were measured every 5 min in Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, during summer (17-23 August 2012), fall (9-17 October 2012), winter (22-29 January 2013), and spring (26 March-3 April 2013) to (1) characterize the hourly and seasonal variations of atmospheric TGM concentrations; (2) identify the relationships between TGM and co-pollutants; and (3) identify likely source directions and locations of TGM using the conditional probability function (CPF), conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and total potential source contribution function (TPSCF). The TGM concentration was statistically significantly highest in fall (6.7 ± 6.4 ng m-3), followed by spring (4.8 ± 4.0 ng m-3), winter (4.5 ± 3.2 ng m-3) and summer (3.8 ± 3.9 ng m-3). There was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between the TGM concentration and ambient air temperature (r = -0.08, p<0.05). Although the daytime temperature (14.7 ± 10.0 °C) was statistically significantly higher than that in the nighttime (13.0 ± 9.8 °C) (p<0.05), the daytime TGM concentration (5.3 ± 4.7 ng m-3) was statistically significantly higher than that in the nighttime (4.7 ± 4.7 ng m-3) (p<0.01), possibly due to local emissions related to industrial activities and activation of local surface emission sources. The observed ΔTGM / ΔCO was significantly lower than that of Asian long-range transport, but similar to that of local sources in Korea and in US industrial events, suggesting that local sources are more important than those of long-range transport. CPF, CBPF and TPSCF indicated that the main sources of TGM were iron and manufacturing facilities, the hazardous waste incinerators and the coastal areas.

  18. Bisphenol a: how the most relevant exposure sources contribute to total consumer exposure.

    PubMed

    von Goetz, Natalie; Wormuth, Matthias; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2010-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical that is found in human urine throughout industrial societies around the globe. Consumer exposure pathways to BPA include packaged food, household dust, air, and dental fillings. To date, information on the relative contribution of the different pathways to total consumer exposure is lacking, but is key for managing substance-associated risks. We investigated the relative contributions of the pathways known to be most relevant for nine different consumer groups. Our results suggest that the most important pathways for infants and children are the use of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles and for adults and teenagers the consumption of canned food. Dental surgery can also considerably contribute over a short time directly after the surgery. For infants fed with PC baby bottles with mean dose rates of 0.8 microg/kg(bw)/d the highest exposure dose rate was calculated. This dose rate is far below the tolerable daily intake of 50 microg/kg(bw)/d. However, it is of the same order of magnitude as recently reported concentrations that caused low-dose health effects in rodents. We find a pattern of falling exposure levels with rising age that is supported by urinary concentrations of BPA available for selected consumer groups. Similarly, the exposure levels we predict are confirmed by the levels reported in these studies. PMID:20136739

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of loads and sources of total and dissolved Phosphorus in a set of rivers (Western France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-04-01

    In intensive agricultural regions with important livestock farming, long-term land application of Phosphorus (P) both as chemical fertilizer and animal wastes, have resulted in elevated P contents in soils. Since we know that high P concentrations in rivers is of major concern, few studies have been done at to assess the spatiotemporal variability of P loads in rivers and apportionment of point and nonpoint source in total loads. Here we focus on Brittany (Western France) where even though P is a great issue in terms of human and drinking water safety (cyano-toxins), environmental protection and economic costs for Brittany with regards to the periodic proliferations of cyanobacteria that occur every year in this region, no regional-scale systematic study has been carried out so far. We selected a set of small rivers (stream order 3-5) with homogeneous agriculture and granitic catchment. By gathering data from three water quality monitoring networks, covering more than 100 measurements stations, we provide a regional-scale quantification of the spatiotemporal variability of dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) interannual loads from 1992 to 2012. Build on mean P load in low flows and statistical significance tests, we developed a new indicator, called 'low flow P load' (LFP-load), which allows us to determine the importance of domestic and industrial P sources in total P load and to assess their spatiotemporal variability compared to agricultural sources. The calculation and the map representation of DP and TP interannual load variations allow identification of the greatest and lowest P contributory catchments over the study period and the way P loads of Brittany rivers have evolved through time. Both mean DP and TP loads have been divided by more than two over the last 20 years. Mean LFDP-load decreased by more than 60% and mean LFTP-load by more than 45% on average over the same period showing that this marked temporal decrease in total load is largely due to the

  20. Observations of total RONO2 over the boreal forest: NOx sinks and HNO3 sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, E. C.; Min, K.-E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Apel, E.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wisthaler, A.; Cohen, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    In contrast with the textbook view of remote chemistry where HNO3 formation is the primary sink of nitrogen oxides, recent theoretical analyses show that formation of RONO2 (ΣANs) from isoprene and other terpene precursors is the primary net chemical loss of nitrogen oxides over the remote continents where the concentration of nitrogen oxides is low. This then increases the prominence of questions concerning the chemical lifetime and ultimate fate of ΣANs. We present observations of nitrogen oxides and organic molecules collected over the Canadian boreal forest during the summer which show that ΣANs account for ~20% of total oxidized nitrogen and that their instantaneous production rate is larger than that of HNO3. This confirms the primary role of reactions producing ΣANs as a control over the lifetime of NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in remote, continental environments. However, HNO3 is generally present in larger concentrations than ΣANs indicating that the atmospheric lifetime of ΣANs is shorter than the HNO3 lifetime. We investigate a range of proposed loss mechanisms that would explain the inferred lifetime of ΣANs finding that in combination with deposition, two processes are consistent with the observations: (1) rapid ozonolysis of isoprene nitrates where at least ~40% of the ozonolysis products release NOx from the carbon backbone and/or (2) hydrolysis of particulate organic nitrates with HNO3 as a product. Implications of these ideas for our understanding of NOx and NOy budget in remote and rural locations are discussed.

  1. Observations of total RONO2 over the boreal forest: NOx sinks and HNO3 sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, E. C.; Min, K.-E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Apel, E.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wisthaler, A.; Cohen, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with the textbook view of remote chemistry where HNO3 formation is the primary sink of nitrogen oxides, recent theoretical analyses show that formation of RONO2 (ΣANs) from isoprene and other terpene precursors is the primary net chemical loss of nitrogen oxides over the remote continents where the concentration of nitrogen oxides is low. This then increases the prominence of questions concerning the chemical lifetime and ultimate fate of ΣANs. We present observations of nitrogen oxides and organic molecules collected over the Canadian boreal forest during the summer that show that ΣANs account for ~ 20% of total oxidized nitrogen and that their instantaneous production rate is larger than that of HNO3. This confirms the primary role of reactions producing ΣANs as a control over the lifetime of NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in remote, continental environments. However, HNO3 is generally present in larger concentrations than ΣANs indicating that the atmospheric lifetime of ΣANs is shorter than the HNO3 lifetime. We investigate a range of proposed loss mechanisms that would explain the inferred lifetime of ΣANs finding that in combination with deposition, two processes are consistent with the observations: (1) rapid ozonolysis of isoprene nitrates where at least ~ 40% of the ozonolysis products release NOx from the carbon backbone and/or (2) hydrolysis of particulate organic nitrates with HNO3 as a product. Implications of these ideas for our understanding of NOx and NOy budget in remote and rural locations are discussed.

  2. Geology of the Continental Margin Beneath Santa Monica Bay, Southern California, from Small-Airgun, Seismic-Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Normark, W. R.; Bohannon, R. G.; Sliter, R. W.; Calvert, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    Small-airgun, multichannel-seismic-reflection (MCS) data collected in Santa Monica Bay reveal the geologic structure of the continental shelf and of the adjacent basin slope and deep-water basins. The Palos Verdes fault under the northern, shallow part of the bay cannot be identified in seismic-reflection data, even though many studies suggest its presence. This fault neither offsets the seafloor nor cuts through an undeformed sediment apron. Other major faults, such as the east-west Dume fault under the northern part of Santa Monica Bay, show evidence for recent activity. Tomographic-velocity data, derived from arrivals along the LARSE, deep-crustal MCS streamer, show that metamorphic rocks, probably the Catalina schist, underlie Santa Monica Bay and the deep-water Santa Monica basin to the south. The Santa Monica canyon marks a significant change in deformation of the lower slope of the Santa Monica Basin. North and northwest of this canyon, the slope is underlain by a little-deformed sediment apron; the main apron structures are two anticlines that extend toward Point Dume and are cored by reverse or thrust faults. Southeast of the canyon, lower-slope rocks are deformed by a complex zone of strike-slip, normal and reverse faults. The San Pedro bathymetric escarpment rises abruptly along the southeast side of Santa Monica Canyon. Structures underpinning this escarpment steepen progressively southeastward; they cut downward into basement rocks, and merge with the San Pedro Basin fault zone, which is nearly vertical and possibly strike-slip. The escarpment and its attendant structures extend for 60 km along the margin, separating the continental shelf from the mid-bathyal Santa Monica and San Pedro basins. The Santa Monica Basin, the more extensive of the two, contains about 1.5 km of turbidite fill that is deformed only near the northern basin margin. Data from ODP site 1015 indicate that this fill is most likely no older than Quaternary, and possibly no older

  3. A summary of total mercury concentrations in flora and fauna near common contaminant sources in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M; Chancy, C

    2008-02-01

    Total mercury concentrations are summarized for environmental media and biota collected from near-coastal areas, several impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were collected during 1993-2002 from targeted areas affected by point and non-point source contaminants. Mean concentrations in water and sediment were 0.02 (+/-1 standard deviation=0.06) microg l(-1) and 96.3 (230.8) ng g(-1) dry wt, respectively. Mean total mercury concentrations in fish, blue crabs, brackish clams and mussels were significantly greater than those in sediment, seagrass, colonized periphyton and oysters. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry wt) averaged 23.1 (two seagrass species), 220.1 (oysters), 287.8 (colonized periphyton), 604.0 (four species of freshwater mussels), 772.4 (brackish clam), 857.9 (blue crabs) and 933.1 (nine fish species). Spatial, intraspecific and interspecific variability in results limited most generalizations concerning the relative mercury contributions of different stressor types. However, concentrations were significantly greater for some biota collected from areas receiving wastewater discharges and golf course runoff (fish), agricultural runoff (oysters) and urban stormwater runoff (colonized periphyton and sediment). Marine water quality criteria and proposed sediment quality guidelines were exceeded in 1-12% of total samples. At least one seafood consumption guideline, criteria or screening value were exceeded in edible tissues of blue crabs (6% total samples) and nine fish species (8-33% total samples) but all residues were less than the US Federal Drug Administration action limit of 1.0 ppm and the few reported toxic effect concentrations available for the targeted biota. PMID:17980902

  4. Investigating the impact of local urban sources on total atmospheric mercury wet deposition in Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynam, Mary M.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Barres, James A.; Landis, Matthew S.; Kamal, Ali S.

    2016-02-01

    Event-based precipitation samples were collected at a downtown industrial and a predominantly upwind rural location in the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area from July 2009 through December 2010 to investigate the potential local total mercury (Hg) wet deposition enhancement in a region with a high concentration of coal combustion sources. Total Hg wet deposition for the 18-month period was 6.8 μg m-2 (n = 81) at the rural site and 10.7 μg m-2 (n = 98) at the urban site demonstrating a significant (p = 0.046) 37% enhancement in deposition between the two sites. Large deposition events (>0.2 μg m-2) occurred predominantly from May through October (n = 16 (urban), n = 10 (rural)) and represented from 2 to 8% of total 18-month deposition per event. At the downtown urban site, the average Hg precipitation concentration was 53% higher for these large deposition events. Concurrently measured precipitation events delivered in aggregate 2.4 times more total Hg wet deposition to the urban site compared to the rural site. Hg rainfall concentrations for concurrent events with similar precipitation depth were 2-4 times higher at the urban site and suggest scavenging of local Hg emissions. Further evaluation of these events revealed 83% more total Hg deposition at the urban site from January to December 2010 compared to July to December 2009, while there was 26% more at the rural site during these same time periods. The larger increase in deposition at the urban site in 2010 may be evidence of increased local emissions from sources that were known to be offline during this study period because of an economic recession.

  5. Processes and sources controlling total gaseous mercury and uraban air quality in Syracuse, NY and Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Casey B.

    Investigations of air quality were performed in Nanjing, China during 2011 and Syracuse, NY during 2013. The regional background of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) was estimated at 2.2 ng m-3. Global heterogeneity of free tropospheric TGM was hypothesized from background episodes. Emissions of TGM were underestimated up to 80% in the region. Additionally, high levels of TGM were attributed to local sources, transport, and the monsoon. An air quality station measuring CO, CO2, TGM, and O 3 was built on the campus of SUNY ESF. The one hour peak mixing ratios of CO were estimated to have declined by 59% over 2000- 2013, more than EPA estimated 53%. Regional transport of O3 increased peak mixing ratios. TGM was influenced by local sources. Finally, Lake Ontario is hypothesized to facilitate transport of trace gas species based on the diel cycles of TGM, CO, and H2O.

  6. Irradiance formations of on-axis Lambertian pointlike sources in polygonal total-internal-reflection straight light pipes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Kai; Wang, Meng-Hua; Chern, Jyh-Long

    2007-09-01

    Different geometric shapes of light pipes cause different irradiance distributions. We analytically explore the irradiance distributions of on-axis Lambertian pointlike sources in polygonal total-internal-reflection (TIR) straight light pipes. It is analytically shown that the irradiance of pentagonal light pipes concentrates on the center of the exit plane. Numerical verifications are also provided, and experimental explorations with different shapes of acrylic light pipes are carried out for comparison. We also analyze the influence of light-pipe length on distribution uniformity and deduce the smallest uniform-mixing length/circumradius ratios for polygonal light pipes. PMID:17767244

  7. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Akhtar, U. S.

    2009-11-01

    Windsor (Ontario) - the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg) sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor. TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48 ng/m3) and winter (2.17 ng/m3), compared to spring (1.88 ng/m3) and fall (1.76 ng/m3). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province) to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24-61° N and 51-143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface reemissions, on intra-annual variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high reemission from surfaces due to higher temperatures contributed to high concentrations in the summer. In the

  8. Estimation of Nonpoint-Source Loads of Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous, and Total Suspended Solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River Basins, Michigan, by Use of the PLOAD Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syed, Atiq U.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project partners planned a 3-year assessment study of the surface water in the Lake St. Clair drainage basins in Michigan. This study included water-quality monitoring and analysis, collection of discrete (grab) and automatic water-quality samples, moni-toring of bacteria, and the creation of a database to store all relevant data collected from past and future field-data-collec-tion programs. In cooperation with the Lake St. Clair Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed nonpoint-source loads of nutrients and total suspended solids in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins. The principal tool for the assess-ment study was the USEPA's PLOAD model, a simplified GIS-based numerical program that generates gross estimates of pollutant loads. In this study, annual loads were computed for each watershed using the USEPA's Simple Method, which is based on scientific studies showing a correlation between different land-use types and loading rates. The two land-use data sets used in the study (representing 1992 and 2001) show a maximum of 0.02-percent change in any of the 15 land use categories between the two timeframes. This small change in land use is reflected in the PLOAD results of the study area between the two time periods. PLOAD model results for the 2001 land-use data include total-nitrogen loads from the Black, Belle, and Pine River basins of approximately 495,599 lb/yr, 156,561 lb/yr, and 121,212 lb/yr, respectively; total-phosphorus loads of 80,777 lb/yr, 25,493 lb/yr, and 19,655 lb/yr, respectively; and total-sus-pended-solids loads of 5,613,282 lb/yr, 1,831,045 lb/yr, and 1,480,352 lb/yr, respectively. The subbasins in the Black, Belle, and Pine River basin with comparatively high loads are characterized by comparatively high percentages of industrial, commercial, transportation, or residential land use. The results from the PLOAD model provide useful information about the approximate average annual loading

  9. Total and Differential Phylloquinone (Vitamin K₁) Intakes of Preterm Infants from All Sources during the Neonatal Period.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paul; Mitchell, Simon J; Shearer, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    All newborns require phylloquinone after birth to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Babies born prematurely may be at particular risk of deficiency without adequate supplementation during infancy. The main sources of phylloquinone in preterm babies during the neonatal period are the prophylactic dose of phylloquinone given at birth, and that derived from parenteral and/or enteral feeding. This observational study formed part of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial that examined the vitamin K status of preterm infants after random allocation to one of three phylloquinone prophylactic regimens at birth (0.5 or 0.2 mg intramuscularly or 0.2 mg intravenously). In this nutritional sub-study we quantified the proportional and total phylloquinone intakes of preterm infants within the neonatal period from all sources. Almost all infants had average daily phylloquinone intakes that were in excess of the currently recommended amounts. In infants who did not receive parenteral nutrition, the bolus dose of phylloquinone given at birth was the major source of phylloquinone intake, whereas in infants who received parenteral nutrition, the intake from the parenteral preparation exceeded that from the bolus dose by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Our study supports the concern of others that preterm infants who receive current parenteral nutrition formulations may be receiving excessive vitamin K. PMID:26426042

  10. Total and Differential Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1) Intakes of Preterm Infants from All Sources during the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Paul; Mitchell, Simon J.; Shearer, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    All newborns require phylloquinone after birth to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Babies born prematurely may be at particular risk of deficiency without adequate supplementation during infancy. The main sources of phylloquinone in preterm babies during the neonatal period are the prophylactic dose of phylloquinone given at birth, and that derived from parenteral and/or enteral feeding. This observational study formed part of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial that examined the vitamin K status of preterm infants after random allocation to one of three phylloquinone prophylactic regimens at birth (0.5 or 0.2 mg intramuscularly or 0.2 mg intravenously). In this nutritional sub-study we quantified the proportional and total phylloquinone intakes of preterm infants within the neonatal period from all sources. Almost all infants had average daily phylloquinone intakes that were in excess of the currently recommended amounts. In infants who did not receive parenteral nutrition, the bolus dose of phylloquinone given at birth was the major source of phylloquinone intake, whereas in infants who received parenteral nutrition, the intake from the parenteral preparation exceeded that from the bolus dose by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Our study supports the concern of others that preterm infants who receive current parenteral nutrition formulations may be receiving excessive vitamin K. PMID:26426042

  11. Calibration of R/V Marcus G. Langseth Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J.; Tolstoy, M.; Webb, S.; Doermann, L.; Bohenstihl, D.; Nooner, S.; Crone, T.; Holmes, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    NSF-owned Research Vessel Marcus G. Langseth is operated by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, providing the tools for full-scale marine seismic surveys to the academic community. Since inauguration of science operations, Langseth has successfully supported 2D and 3D seismic operations, including offshore- onshore and OBS refraction profiling A significant component of Langseths equipage is the seismic source, comprising four identical linear subarrays which can be combined in a number of configurations according to the needs of each scientific mission. To ensure a full understanding of the acoustic levels of these sources and in order to mitigate their possible impact upon marine life through accurate determination of safety radii, an extensive program of acoustic calibration was carried out in 2007 and 2008, during Langseths shakedown exercises. A total of 14000+ airgun array discharges were recorded in three separate locations with water depths varying from 1750 to 45 meters and at source-receiver offsets between near-zero and 17 km. The quantity of data recorded allows significant quantitative analysis of the sound levels produced by the Langseth seismic sources. A variety of acoustic metrics will be presented and compared, including peak levels and energy-based measures such as RMS, Energy Flux Density and its equivalent, Sound Exposure Level. It is clearly seen that water depth exerts a fundamental control on received sound levels, but also that these effects can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.

  12. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (< 0.7 μm). Similar trends were observed with most of the heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with total suspended particles and surface soils in Kunming, China: distribution, possible sources, and cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Ren, Dong; Sun, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoman; Huang, Bin; Chen, Rong; Lin, Chan; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations, distribution, possible sources, and cancer risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in total suspended particles (TSPs) and surface soils collected from the same sampling spots were compared in Kunming, China. The total PAH concentrations were 9.35-75.01 ng/m(3) and 101.64-693.30 ng/g dry weight (d.w.), respectively, in TSPs and surface soils. Fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), chrysene (CHR), and phenanthrene (PHE) were the abundant compounds in TSP samples, and phenanthrene (PHE), fluorene (FLO), fluoranthene (FLA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) were the abundant compounds in surface soil samples. The spatial distribution of PAHs in TSPs is closely related to the surrounding environment, which varied significantly as a result of variations in source emission and changes in meteorology. However, the spatial distribution of PAHs in surface soils is supposed to correlate with a city's urbanization history, and high levels of PAHs were always observed in industry district, or central or old district of city. Based on the diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA), vehicle emissions (especially diesel-powered vehicles) and coal and wood combustion were the main sources of PAHs in TSPs, and the combustion of wood and coal, and spills of unburnt petroleum were the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) for the TSPs and surface soil samples were 0.16-2.57 ng/m(3) and 11.44-116.03 ng/g d.w., respectively. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) exposed to particulate PAHs ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-3) indicating high potential of carcinogenic risk, and the ILCR exposed to soil PAHs was from 10(-7) to 10(-6) indicating virtual safety. These presented results showed that particle-bound PAHs had higher potential carcinogenic ability for human than soil PAHs. And, the values of cancer risk for children were always higher than for adults, which

  14. Investigation of the Makeup, Source, and Removal Strategies for Total Organic Carbon in the Oxygen Generation System Recirculation Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Joyce; Roy, Robert J.; Van Keuren, Steve; Wilson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been producing oxygen for crew respiration via water electrolysis. As water is consumed in the OGS recirculating water loop, make-up water is furnished by the ISS potable water bus. A rise in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was observed beginning in February, 2011, which continues through the present date. Increasing TOC is of concern because the organic constituents responsible for the TOC were unknown and had not been identified; hence their impacts on the operation of the electrolytic cell stack components and on microorganism growth rates and types are unknown. Identification of the compounds responsible for the TOC increase, their sources, and estimates of their loadings in the OGA as well as possible mitigation strategies are presented.

  15. Relative contribution of lead from anthropogenic sources to the total human lead exposure in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1986-08-01

    The paper evaluates human exposure to lead at a baseline level for persons living in non-urban communities away from stationary or mobile sources of lead, eating typical diets, and engaging in no lead-related occupational or avocational activities. Relative contributions of atmospheric and metallic lead are evaluated for each exposure pathway. For this baseline situation, perhaps 40 to 55% of the total human exposure to lead is of atmospheric origin. Beyond the baseline level, additional exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational, smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g., pica, smoking, drinking, and various hobbies), with variations for age, sex, or socioeconomic status. Although quantification of these factors is uncertain, they provide guidelines in determining relative exposures under differing environmental conditions. The added exposure factors can also be partitioned into atmospheric, metallic, and pigment lead.

  16. Total occupational exposure during characterisation, conditioning and securing of radioactive sealed sources: a new dosimetric concept using active electronic dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Prlić, Ivica; Mihić, Marija Surić; Marović, Gordana; Mestrović, Tomislav

    2009-03-01

    Radiation dosimetry in protection against ionising radiation involves research of all possible pathways through which natural or man-made radioactive materials can contaminate a habitat and actually harm its biota. It also takes into account natural and artificial (man-made) electromagnetic ionizing radiation (gamma and x radiation). This article presents a dosimetric study assessing exposure to man-made ionising radiation of local environment and total occupational exposure of two professional workers involved in characterisation, conditioning, and securing of unused radioactive sealed sources. The purpose of the study was to validate a new active electronic dosimeter (AED) of type ALARA OD and to develop a new monitoring method by tracing the external occupational exposure over real time. This method is used to continuously measure and record external radiation doses and, which is a novelty, establish dose rates receiving pattern as a function of real time. Occupational whole body dosimetric results obtained with AED were compared with results obtained with passive dosimetry (film badge and thermoluminiscence). Air, dust, and silicon sand samples were analysed by gamma-spectrometry to estimate internal exposure of the two workers to 222Rn due to inhalation or ingestion of dust and sand in indoor air. In order to establish total occupational exposure, control radon measurement was performed in the immediate environment and the external Hazard index (Hex) was calculated. PMID:19329376

  17. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    PubMed

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants. PMID:27107952

  18. R/V EWING seismic source array calibrations: 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J.; Webb, S.; Tolstoy, M.; Rawson, M.; Holmes, C.; Bohnenstiehl, D.; Chapp, E.

    2003-12-01

    In the Northern Gulf of Mexico, May, 2003, an NSF-funded effort was carried out to obtain calibrated measurements of the various airgun arrays deployed by R/V EWING during its seismic surveys. The motivations for this were several: to ground-truth the modeling upon which safety radii for marine mammal mitigation are established; to obtain broadband digitized signals which will accurately define the full spectral content of airgun signatures; to investigate the effects of seafloor interactions and their contribution to the acoustic noise levels from seismic sources. For this purpose, a digital, remotely telemetering spar buoy was designed and assembled; affording interactive control over the choice of two hydrophone channels, four fixed gain settings and four digitizing rates [6,250 - 50,000 Hz.] Three deployments were planned: a deep-water site, suitable for comparison of actual signals with modeled results; a shallow-water [25 - 50m] site where the effects of bottom interaction would be strongest; and a continental-slope site, which represents the favored habitat of many cetacean species. Methodology was developed which enabled the sequential discharge of four subarrays of 6, 10, 12 and 20 airguns. A separate run was made with two "GI" airguns, the favored high resolution survey source. An Incidental Harassment Authorization and a Biological Opinion, including an Incidental Take Statement were issued for the project by National Marine Fisheries, and a suite of marine mammal observation and mitigation procedures was followed. The deep and shallow water sites were occupied, and some 440 airgun signals were recorded. The slope site work was cancelled due to weather too poor for accurate marine mammal observation, but calibration was subsequently carried out with an exploration industry source vessel in a similar environment. Preliminary results indicate that the mitigation modeling is accurate, though somewhat conservative; that the radiated energy from airgun arrays

  19. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

  20. Daily modelling of total electron content with ionosonde observation to the benefit of the open source users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamara, Gulyaeva; Poustovalova, Ljubov; Stanislawska, Iwona

    It is clearly beneficial if the open source databases and models are available free for the users. However a newcomer needs a guidance concerning reliability/consistency of a suitable model and database. Such guidance is provided by the International Standardization Organization which has published Technical Specification, ISO TS16457 on "The Earth's ionosphere model: international reference ionosphere (IRI) model and extensions to the plasmasphere", 2009. One of the ISO TS16457 options is IRI-IZMIRAN ionosphere-plasmasphere model. This model is applied currently to generate vertical total electron content, TEC, at the altitude range [80:20,000] km at (http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/). This approach uses solar activ-ity and geomagnetic activity driving the ionosphere-plasmasphere model, and the integration of electron density profile fitted to ionosonde observation of the F2 layer peak density and height. The paper provides validation of proposed technique and comparisons with GPS-TEC observations and topside ionospheric electron density extrapolation technique providing the ionospheric TEC.

  1. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6-4.3%), repeatability (4-9%), reproducibility (9-11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as straightforward

  2. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment. PMID:26846239

  3. Using SPARROW to Model Total Nitrogen Sources, and Transport in Rivers and Streams of California and Adjacent States, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, D.; Domagalski, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Sources and factors affecting the transport of total nitrogen are being evaluated for a study area that covers most of California and some areas in Oregon and Nevada, by using the SPARROW model (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Mass loads of total nitrogen calculated for monitoring sites at stream gauging stations are regressed against land-use factors affecting nitrogen transport, including fertilizer use, recharge, atmospheric deposition, stream characteristics, and other factors to understand how total nitrogen is transported under average conditions. SPARROW models have been used successfully in other parts of the country to understand how nutrients are transported, and how management strategies can be formulated, such as with Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessments. Fertilizer use, atmospheric deposition, and climatic data were obtained for 2002, and loads for that year were calculated for monitored streams and point sources (mostly from wastewater treatment plants). The stream loads were calculated by using the adjusted maximum likelihood estimation method (AMLE). River discharge and nitrogen concentrations were de-trended in these calculations in order eliminate the effect of temporal changes on stream load. Effluent discharge information as well as total nitrogen concentrations from point sources were obtained from USEPA databases and from facility records. The model indicates that atmospheric deposition and fertilizer use account for a large percentage of the total nitrogen load in many of the larger watersheds throughout the study area. Point sources, on the other hand, are generally localized around large cities, are considered insignificant sources, and account for a small percentage of the total nitrogen loads throughout the study area.

  4. Estimating locations and total magnetization vectors of compact magnetic sources from scalar, vector, or tensor magnetic measurements through combined Helbig and Euler analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, J.D.; Nabighian, M.N.; Smith, D.V.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Helbig method for estimating total magnetization directions of compact sources from magnetic vector components is extended so that tensor magnetic gradient components can be used instead. Depths of the compact sources can be estimated using the Euler equation, and their dipole moment magnitudes can be estimated using a least squares fit to the vector component or tensor gradient component data. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Method for experimental determination of the contribution of individual sources to total noise. [using bandpass filter for signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubichev, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multiple noise sources generating signals in a mechanical device are analyzed by considering the medium transmitting the sound as linear, and by using a band filter with bandpass for synchronous detection and signal transformation.

  6. A source-depth separation filter: Using the Euler method on the derivatives of total intensity magnetic anomaly data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ravat, D.; Kirkham, K.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given on the benefits of applying the Euler method on derivatives of anomalies to enhance the location of shallow and deep sources. Used properly, the method is suitable for characterizing sources from all potential-field data and/or their derivative, as long as the data can be regarded mathematically as "continuous". Furthermore, the reasons why the use of the Euler method on derivatives of anomalies is particularly helpful in the analysis and interpretation of shallow features are explained.

  7. Food sources of total energy and nutrients among U.S. infants and toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0...

  8. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart G of... - Process Vents-Coefficients for Total Resource Effectiveness for New Source Nonhalogenated and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process Vents-Coefficients for Total Resource Effectiveness for New Source Nonhalogenated and Halogenated Vent Streams 2 Table 2 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  10. Method 415.3, Rev. 1.2: Determination of Total Organic Carbon and Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm in Source Water and Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA) in source waters and drinking waters. The DOC and UVA determinations are used in the calculation of the Specific UV Absorbance (S...

  11. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  12. Effects of carbon source and light intensity on the growth and total lipid production of three microalgae under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Gim, Geun Ho; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Moon Jong; Kim, Pyung Il; Kim, Si Wouk

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to enhance the growth and total lipid production of three microalgal species, Isochrysis galbana LB987, Nannochloropsis oculata CCAP849/1, and Dunaliella salina, which are capable of accumulating high content of lipid in cells. Low nitrogen concentration under photoautotrophic conditions stimulated total lipid production, but a decreasing total lipid content and an increasing biomass were observed with increasing nitrogen concentration. Among the different carbon sources tested for heterotrophic cultivation, glucose improved the growth of all three strains. The optimal glucose concentration for growth of I. galbana LB987 and N. oculata CCAP849/1 was 0.02 M, and that of D. salina was 0.05 M. Enhanced growth occurred when they were cultivated under heterotrophic or mixotrophic conditions compared with photoautotrophic conditions. Meanwhile, high total lipid accumulation in cells occurred when they were cultivated under photoautotrophic or mixotrophic conditions. During mixotrophic cultivation, biomass production was not affected significantly by light intensity; however, both chlorophyll concentration and total lipid content increased dramatically with increasing light intensity up to 150 µmol/m(2)/s. The amount and composition ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in cells were different from each other depending on both species and light intensity. The highest accumulation of total fatty acid (C16-C18) among the three strains was found from cells of N. oculata CCAP849/1, which indicates that this species can be used as a source for production of biodiesel. PMID:26856592

  13. Investigating the impact of local urban sources on total atmospheric mercury wet deposition in Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Event-based precipitation samples were collected at a downtown industrial and a predominantly upwind rural location in the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area from July 2009 through December 2010 to investigate the potential local total mercury (Hg) wet deposition enhancement in a ...

  14. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 2.3: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF TOTAL HYDROCARBONS FROM SOURCES BY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a recommended operating procedure (ROP) prepared for use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). he described method is applicable to the continuous measurement of total hydrocarbons (THCs), also known as tot...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart G of... - Process Vents-Coefficients for Total Resource Effectiveness for Existing Source Nonhalogenated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coefficients a b c d Nonhalogenated Flare 1.935 3.660×10−1 −7.687×10−3 −7.333×10−4 Thermal Incinerator 0... Resource Effectiveness for Existing Source Nonhalogenated and Halogenated Vent Streams 1 Table 1 to Subpart... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing...

  16. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF LEAD FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES TO THE TOTAL HUMAN LEAD EXPOSURE IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper evaluates human exposure to lead at a baseline level for persons living in non-urban communities away from stationary or mobile sources of lead, eating typical diets, and engaging in no lead-related occupational or avocational activities. Relative contributions of atmos...

  17. Modeling air quality during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CPRAQS) using the UCD/CIT source-oriented air quality model - Part III. Regional source apportionment of secondary and total airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Lu, Jin; Kleeman, Michael

    A comprehensive air quality modeling project was carried out to simulate regional source contributions to secondary and total (=primary + secondary) airborne particle concentrations in California's Central Valley. A three-week stagnation episode lasting from December 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001, was chosen for study using the air quality and meteorological data collected during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). The UCD/CIT mechanistic air quality model was used with explicit decomposition of the gas phase reaction chemistry to track source contributions to secondary PM. Inert artificial tracers were used with an internal mixture representation to track source contributions to primary PM. Both primary and secondary source apportionment calculations were performed for 15 size fractions ranging from 0.01 to 10 μm particle diameters. Primary and secondary source contributions were resolved for fugitive dust, road dust, diesel engines, catalyst equipped gasoline engines, non-catalyst equipped gasoline engines, wood burning, food cooking, high sulfur fuel combustion, and other anthropogenic sources. Diesel engines were identified as the largest source of secondary nitrate in central California during the study episode, accounting for approximately 40% of the total PM 2.5 nitrate. Catalyst equipped gasoline engines were also significant, contributing approximately 20% of the total secondary PM 2.5 nitrate. Agricultural sources were the dominant source of secondary ammonium ion. Sharp gradients of PM concentrations were predicted around major urban areas. The relative source contributions to PM 2.5 from each source category in urban areas differ from those in rural areas, due to the dominance of primary OC in urban locations and secondary nitrate in the rural areas. The source contributions to ultra-fine particle mass PM 0.1 also show clear urban/rural differences. Wood smoke was found to be the major source of PM 0.1 in urban areas while

  18. Fruit and vegetable intakes, sources and contribution to total diet in very young children (1-4 years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Laura; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2016-06-01

    Although the importance of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes in the prevention of chronic diseases is well established, there are limited data on intakes in very young children. This study estimates F&V intakes and sources and the contribution to the total diet using data from the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative sample (n 500) of Irish children aged 1-4 years. A 4-d weighed food record was used to collect food intake data. Of 1652 food codes consumed, 740 had a fruit/vegetable component. The percentage of edible fruits and/or vegetables in each food code was calculated. Intakes (g/d), sources (g/d) and the contribution of F&V to the weight of the total diet (%) were estimated, split by age. All children consumed F&V. Intakes of total fruits, in particular fruit juice, increased with age. The contribution to total fruit intake was discrete fruits (47-56 % range across age), 100 % fruit juice, smoothies and pureés (32-45 %) as well as fruits in composite dishes (7-13 %). Total vegetable intake comprised of discrete vegetables (48-62 % range across age) and vegetables in composite dishes (38-52 %). F&V contributed on average 20 % (15 % fruit; 5 % vegetables) to the weight of the total diet and was <10 % in sixty-one children (12 %). F&V contributed 50 % of vitamin C, 53 % of carotene, 34 % of dietary fibre and 42 % of non-milk sugar intakes from the total diet. F&V are important components of the diet of Irish pre-school children; however, some aspects of F&V intake patterns could be improved in this age group. PMID:27102717

  19. Centroid Position as a Function of Total Counts in a Windowed CMOS Image of a Point Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R E; Olivier, S; Riot, V; Hanold, B J; Figer, D F

    2010-05-27

    We obtained 960,200 22-by-22-pixel windowed images of a pinhole spot using the Teledyne H2RG CMOS detector with un-cooled SIDECAR readout. We performed an analysis to determine the precision we might expect in the position error signals to a telescope's guider system. We find that, under non-optimized operating conditions, the error in the computed centroid is strongly dependent on the total counts in the point image only below a certain threshold, approximately 50,000 photo-electrons. The LSST guider camera specification currently requires a 0.04 arcsecond error at 10 Hertz. Given the performance measured here, this specification can be delivered with a single star at 14th to 18th magnitude, depending on the passband.

  20. Sources of variability in quantitative levels of alcohol use in a total community: sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Edward, A M; Schork, M A; Harburg, E; Moll, P P; Burns, T L; Ozgoren, F

    1986-03-01

    This article describes the transformation of reported alcohol consumption into a quantitative variable, Standardized Alcohol Intake (SAI), which is used to investigate various sociodemographic and psychosocial factors as correlates of alcohol use in a total community sample (N = 1672), in Tecumseh, Michigan. Statistically significant relations were obtained between alcohol usage and marital status, education, smoking status, and church attendance with the latter accounting for the 15% of the variability in drinking. On measures of personality, SAI was positively and significantly associated with level of activity, sociability, impulsivity, and extraversion. For drinkers, their attitudes toward drinking and changes in mood varied significantly in relation to the amount consumed. These findings are important and necessary for the appropriate control of these correlates in the future study of familial aggregation of SAI in the Tecumseh community. PMID:3957546

  1. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Campbell, Karen J.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers. PMID:26287236

  2. Sources of Differences in On-Orbital Total Solar Irradiance Measurements and Description of a Proposed Laboratory Intercomparison

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J. J; Johnson, B. C; Rice, J. P; Shirley, E. L; Barnes, R. A

    2008-01-01

    There is a 5 W/m2 (about 0.35 %) difference between current on-orbit Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) measurements. On 18–20 July 2005, a workshop was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland that focused on understanding possible reasons for this difference, through an examination of the instrument designs, calibration approaches, and appropriate measurement equations. The instruments studied in that workshop included the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor III (ACRIM III) on the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor SATellite (ACRIMSAT), the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). Presentations for each instrument included descriptions of its design, its measurement equation and uncertainty budget, and the methods used to assess on-orbit degradation. The workshop also included a session on satellite- and ground-based instrument comparisons and a session on laboratory-based comparisons and the application of new laboratory comparison techniques. The workshop has led to investigations of the effects of diffraction and of aperture area measurements on the differences between instruments. In addition, a laboratory-based instrument comparison is proposed that uses optical power measurements (with lasers that underfill the apertures of the TSI instruments), irradiance measurements (with lasers that overfill the apertures of the TSI instrument), and a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer as a standard for comparing the instruments. A summary of the workshop and an overview of the proposed research efforts are presented here. PMID:27096120

  3. Sources of Differences in On-Orbit Total Solar Irradiance Measurements and Description of Proposed Laboratory Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J.J.; Johnson, B. C.; Rice, J. P.; Shirley, E. L.; Barnes, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a 5 W/sq m (about 0.35 %) difference between current on-orbit Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) measurements. On 18-20 July 2005, a workshop was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland that focused on understanding possible reasons for this difference, through an examination of the instrument designs, calibration approaches, and appropriate measurement equations. The instruments studied in that workshop included the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor III (ACRIM III) on the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor SATellite (ACRIMSAT), the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). Presentations for each instrument included descriptions of its design, its measurement equation and uncertainty budget, and the methods used to assess on-orbit degradation. The workshop also included a session on satellite- and ground-based instrument comparisons and a session on laboratory-based comparisons and the application of new laboratory comparison techniques. The workshop has led to investigations of the effects of diffraction and of aperture area measurements on the differences between instruments. In addition, a laboratory-based instrument comparison is proposed that uses optical power measurements (with lasers that underEll the apertures of the TSI instruments), irradiance measurements (with lasers that overfill the apertures of the TSI instrument), and a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer as a standard for comparing the instruments. A summary of the workshop and an overview of the proposed research efforts are presented here.

  4. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

  5. Lake Nam Co (Tibet, China) - a suitable target for a deep drilling project as confirmed by a preliminary airgun seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Daut, G.; Wenau, S.; Gernhardt, F.; Wang, J.; Schwenk, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Nam Co, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at the intersection of the Westerlies and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, is well suited to study the monsoonal regime over different time scales. High-resolution and continuous sedimentary records from the Tibetan Plateau are still rare and only few reach back to the Last Glacial Maximum. For Nam Co, numerous multiproxy studies unravel the regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental history for the past 24,000 years. These promising results demonstrate the potential of Lake Nam Co as a geoarchive, but nature, thickness and geologic time of the sediment fill have not yet been determined. Therefore the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and the Universities of Bremen and Jena jointly carried out an airgun multichannel seismic survey at Nam Co in June/July 2014. As main equipment, a micro GI Gun(2 x 0.1 L) was used in conjunction with a 64 m long seismic streamer (32 channels/2 m spacing) to achieve deep signal penetration, to confirm a thick sediment infill and to prove the suitability for deep coring of several hundred meters. Although only few lines could be shot due to technical and weather issues, several lines particularly from the deepest part of the lake provide new insight. Preliminary data processing and interpretation reveal a well layered sediment cover of >700 m in the center of the lake. Seismic facies appears to vary in a cyclic manner, indicating a coupling to climatically-driven changes in lake level and sediment delivery. From a comparison with the Holocene/Late Glacial sedimentary and seismic record, several similar units could be imaged. Furthermore, rapid sedimentation is confirmed from the continuous cover of growth faults and doming, and continuous sedimentation throughout glacial/interglacial cycles appears likely due to the absence of erosional unconformities. By tentatively assigning these units to marine isotope stages, different seismostratigraphies can

  6. Total-body protein turnover in parenterally fed neonates: effects of energy source studied by using [15N]glycine and [1-13C]leucine.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, P; Beesley, J; Sauer, P; Van Aerde, J; Canagarayar, U; Renner, J; McVey, M; Wesson, D; Swyer, P

    1989-12-01

    The effects of nonprotein energy source (ie, glucose only vs glucose and lipid) on nitrogen retention and total-body protein turnover were studied in 20 parenterally fed newborn infants. All infants received approximately 3 g amino acids and 80-90 kcal.kg body wt.d. Total-body protein synthesis was estimated by using three constant-infusion, end-product methods: enrichment of urinary urea and ammonia in response to a [15N]glycine label and exhaled carbon dioxide enrichment in response to a [1-13C]leucine label. No differences were seen in nitrogen retention between the two energy sources. The estimate of total-body protein turnover obtained from the 13C label was similar to that obtained with the [15N]urea label. No differences in turnover rates were observed between the two diet groups. Use of the glucose-plus-lipid fuel system enhanced energy storage and the reutilization of amino acid for protein synthesis. PMID:2512806

  7. Direct determination of total sulfur in wine using a continuum-source atomic-absorption spectrometer and an air-acetylene flame.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Heitmann, Uwe; Okruss, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Determination of sulfur in wine is an important analytical task, particularly with regard to food safety legislation, wine trade, and oenology. Hitherto existing methods for sulfur determination all have specific drawbacks, for example high cost and time consumption, poor precision or selectivity, or matrix effects. In this paper a new method, with low running costs, is introduced for direct, reliable, rapid, and accurate determination of the total sulfur content of wine samples. The method is based on measurement of the molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) in an ordinary air-acetylene flame by using a high-resolution continuum-source atomic-absorption spectrometer including a novel high-intensity short-arc xenon lamp. First results for total sulfur concentrations in different wine samples were compared with data from comparative ICP-MS measurements. Very good agreement within a few percent was obtained. PMID:15999269

  8. Apportionment of air pollution sources with directional sampling size segregation and soluble/total elemental determination of air particlates in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Y.S.; Cheung, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    With an aim to improve the identification of pollution sources, to enhance the ability to resolve source types and to assist the interpretation of results, a computer controlled sampling station has been developed for directional sampling and size segregation of air particulates collected using a High Volume Sampler running at a flow rate of 40 cfm. A given set of criteria was monitored by the microcomputer to stop sampling during raining and calm period (<0.5 ms{sup -1}), and to start the pump when more than 60% of the wind direction data are within the designated sector. Two size fractions of the particulates were collected (coarse, 3.0-10 um, and fine, M 3.0 um) daily with a net sampling time of 16-24 hours. Elemental analysis was performed on the particulates sampled for their total and soluble contents using FTIR for the PAHs, Capillary Electrophoresis and DC Arc Plasma Emission Spectroscopy for soluble and total anion and cation analysis.

  9. Distribution, Sources, and Association of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Total Organic Carbon in Size-Segregated Soil Samples Along a Background–Urban–Rural Transect

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sharmila; Khillare, Pandit Sudan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Brown, Richard J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Soil samples were collected over a year-long period along a background–urban–rural transect in Delhi, India for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), black carbon (BC), and total organic carbon (TOC) in five grain size fractions, x, in μm of 0≤x<53 (I), 53≤x<250 (II), 250≤x<500 (III), 500≤x<2000 (IV), and their sum (total: T). Maximum concentrations of PAH, BC, and TOC were observed in the smallest fraction (I) comprising silt and clay, irrespective of site or season. Results of the molecular diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) identified coal, wood, biomass burning, and vehicular emissions as major sources of PAHs at all the three sites, while BC/TOC ratios pointed toward biomass combustion as the chief source of carbonaceous species. This work presents the first such rural-urban transect study considering PAH, BC, and TOC in soil. PMID:23133309

  10. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  11. Development of Towed Marine Seismic Vibrator as an Alternative Seismic Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozasa, H.; Mikada, H.; Murakami, F.; Jamali Hondori, E.; Takekawa, J.; Asakawa, E.; Sato, F.

    2015-12-01

    The principal issue with respect to marine impulsive sources to acquire seismic data is if the emission of acoustic energy inflicts harm on marine mammals or not, since the volume of the source signal being released into the marine environment could be so large compared to the sound range of the mammals. We propose a marine seismic vibrator as an alternative to the impulsive sources to mitigate a risk of the impact to the marine environment while satisfying the necessary conditions of seismic surveys. These conditions include the repeatability and the controllability of source signals both in amplitude and phase for high-quality measurements. We, therefore, designed a towed marine seismic vibrator (MSV) as a new type marine vibratory seismic source that employed the hydraulic servo system for the controllability condition in phase and in amplitude that assures the repeatability as well. After fabricating a downsized MSV that requires the power of 30 kVA at a depth of about 250 m in water, several sea trials were conducted to test the source characteristics of the downsized MSV in terms of amplitude, frequency, horizontal and vertical directivities of the generated field. The maximum sound level satisfied the designed specification in the frequencies ranging from 3 to 300 Hz almost omnidirectionally. After checking the source characteristics, we then conducted a trial seismic survey, using both the downsized MSV and an airgun of 480 cubic-inches for comparison, with a streamer cable of 2,000m long right above a cabled earthquake observatory in the Japan Sea. The result showed that the penetration of seismic signals generated by the downsized MSV was comparable to that by the airgun, although there was a slight difference in the signal-to-noise ratio. The MSV could become a versatile source that will not harm living marine mammals as an alternative to the existing impulsive seismic sources such as airgun.

  12. The nutrient, total petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents in the seawater of Bohai Bay, China: Temporal-spatial variations, sources, pollution statuses, and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shitao

    2015-06-15

    Seawater samples collected between 2007 and 2012 were determined the concentrations of nutrient (DIN and DIP), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and six different heavy metals (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg). The DIN, DIP, TPH, Pb, and Cd concentrations decreased from 2007 to 2009 or 2010 and increased after 2010. However, the Hg and Cu concentrations increased from 2007 to 2012. In contrast, the As and Zn gradually decreased during the study period. All of the pollutant concentrations gradually decreased from the shoreline to the offshore sites. PCA result showed that urban and port areas, agriculture, and atmospheric deposition were the main sources of pollutants in the bay. Although most of the pollutants were present at concentrations bellow the highest seawater quality standards in China, eutrophication was a risk in Bohai Bay. In addition, DIN was the main pollutant and was responsible for the eutrophication risk in Bohai Bay. PMID:25840871

  13. Fluxes, source and transport of organic matter in the western Sea of Okhotsk: Stable carbon isotopic ratios of n-alkanes and total organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Chisato; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2006-02-01

    Settling particles and surface sediments collected from the western region of the Sea of Okhotsk were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), long-chain n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope ratio ( δ13C) to investigate sources and transport of total and terrestrial organic matter in the western region of the sea. The δ13C measurements of TOC in time-series sediment traps indicate lateral transport of resuspended organic matter from the northwestern continental shelf to the area off Sakhalin via the dense shelf water (DSW) flow at intermediate depth. The n-alkanes in the surface sediments showed strong odd carbon number predominance with relatively lighter δ13C values (from -33‰ to -30‰). They fall within the typical values of C3-angiosperms, which is the main vegetation in east Russia, including the Amur River basin. On the other hand, the molecular distributions and δ13C values of n-alkanes in the settling particles clearly showed two different sources: terrestrial plant and petroleum in the Sea of Okhotsk. We reconstructed seasonal change in the fluxes of terrestrial n-alkanes in settling particles using the mixing model proposed by Lichtfouse and Eglinton [1995. 13C and 14C evidence of a soil by fossil fuel and reconstruction of the composition of the pollutant. Organic Geochemistry 23, 969-973]. Results of the terrestrial n-alkane fluxes indicate that there are two transport pathways of terrestrial plant n-alkanes to sediments off Sakhalin, the Sea of Okhotsk. One is lateral transport of resuspended particles with lithogenic material from the northwestern continental shelf by the DSW flow. Another is the vertical transport of terrestrial plant n-alkanes, which is independent of transport of lithogenic material. The latter may include dry/wet deposition of aerosol particles derived from terrestrial higher plants possibly associated with forest fires in Siberia.

  14. Development and application of real-time PCR assays for quantifying total and aerolysin gene-containing aeromonas in source, intermediate, and finished drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang-Ping; Farrell, Sara K; Robinson, Bruce; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2008-02-15

    Aeromonas spp., opportunistic pathogens, are listed as a microbiological contaminant on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. Culture-based methods for identification and quantification of Aeromonas in drinking water are time-consuming and often fail to differentiate pathogenic species from nonpathogenic ones. This study reports successful development and applications of two real-time PCR assays, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and a virulence gene (aerolysin gene), for rapid and effective quantification of total and aerolysin gene-containing Aeromonas spp. The assays successfully quantified total and aerolysin gene-containing Aeromonas in source, intermediate, and finished water samples collected from seven water works and one pilot plant. The effectiveness of Aeromonas removal by different drinking water treatment processes was examined by comparing the results obtained from the EPA culture-based method and developed real-time PCR assays. Regardless of the methods, our results indicated that conventional water treatment combination (prechlorination/ coagulation/sedimentation/rapid sand filtration) and membrane filtration alone could effectively remove Aeromonas. Slow sand filtration alone might not be effective. The removal efficiencies by different disinfection treatments were not determined, due to the lack of detectable Aeromonas. No Aeromonas was detected in samples with turbidity below 0.06 NTU. PMID:18351092

  15. Preliminary results on high-total-dose testing of semiconductor photonic sources: a comparison of VCSELs and resonant-cavity LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghmans, Francis; Coenen, Simon; Brichard, Benoit; Vos, Frans; Decreton, Marc C.; Verschaffelt, Guy; de la Fuente, Alexis; Veretennicoff, Irina P.; Thienpont, Hugo; Bockstaele, Ronny; Bienstman, Peter; Sys, Carl; Dhoedt, Bart; Moerman, Ingrid; Baets, Roel G.; Van Daele, Peter; Jonsson, Jan

    1998-10-01

    Low-power consumption, high efficiency and high bandwidth surface emitting semiconductor optical sources are critical elements in the development of future photonic systems for space and civil nuclear applications. In this paper, we report on preliminary high total dose experiments performed on two types of recently developed microcavity emitters: VCSELs and microcavity (or resonant cavity) LEDs. We gamma irradiated a total of twelve commercially available packaged VCSELs and two home-made flip-chipped 2 X 2 microcavity LED arrays. For doses between 5(DOT)106 Gy and 1.3(DOT)107 Gy the VCSELs show a threshold current increase lower than 20% and an output power decrease lower than 10%. These values are even smaller if the VCSEL is operated at a higher temperature. At a dose of 3.14(DOT)107 Gy, one VCSEL still showed satisfactory operation. The microcavity LEDs suffered from a burn-in after radiation but recovered quickly when biased. Their output power decrease is comparable to that of the VCSELs, while their quantum efficiency is not much affected. The specifications of both types of devices are not substantially altered by high gamma doses and can therefore be considered for application in enhanced radiation environments.

  16. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  17. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China I. The seasonal distribution pattern of total gaseous mercury and its potential sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Qi; Feng Xinbin Lu, Julia Zheng Wei; Song Xinjie; Han Shijie; Xu Hao

    2009-04-15

    An intensive field campaign for the measurement of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in ambient air was conducted in Changbai Mountain area from 5 August 2005 to 5 July 2006 using an automatic atmospheric mercury analyzer (Tekran 2537A), which was the first time TGM was monitored at a remote area in northeastern China. 99% of the hourly TGM concentrations fell between 1.28 and 9.49 ng m{sup -3} with an annual arithmetic mean of 3.58{+-}1.78 ng m{sup -3}, which was significantly elevated compared to values obtained in remote areas of Europe and North America. Seasonal mean TGM concentrations displayed a descending trend as follows: winter, spring, fall, and summer. Compared to spring/winter, TGM concentrations were lower in the summer/fall but the standard deviation (SD) of TGM levels was higher and indicated a correlation with anthropogenic emissions. TGM concentrations showed seasonal differences with respect to meteorological parameters: TGM levels in spring/winter were most correlated with wind speed, and correlated with solar radiation only in the winter, while TGM levels in summer/fall periods were most correlated with air temperature. There was a strong diurnal variation of seasonal TGM with significantly higher concentrations in daytime/nighttime compared to the early morning. The seasonal diel TGM pattern indicated regional biofuel and coal combustion were the primary mercury sources.

  18. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China I. The seasonal distribution pattern of total gaseous mercury and its potential sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Q.; Feng, X.B.; Lu, J.L.; Zheng, W.; Song, X.J.; Han, S.J.; Xu, H.

    2009-04-15

    An intensive field campaign for the measurement of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in ambient air was conducted in Changbai Mountain area from 5 August 2005 to 5 July 2006 using an automatic atmospheric mercury analyzer (Tekran 2537A), which was the first time TGM was monitored at a remote area in northeastern China. 99% of the hourly TGM concentrations fell between 1.28 and 9.49 ng m{sup -3} with an annual arithmetic mean of 3.58 {+-} 1.78 ng m{sup -3}, which was significantly elevated compared to values obtained in remote areas of Europe and North America. Seasonal mean TGM concentrations displayed a descending trend as follows: winter, spring, fall, and summer. Compared to spring/winter, TGM concentrations were lower in the summer/fall but the standard deviation (SD) of TGM levels was higher and indicated a correlation with anthropogenic emissions. TGM concentrations showed seasonal differences with respect to meteorological parameters: TGM levels in spring/winter were most correlated with wind speed, and correlated with solar radiation only in the winter, while TGM levels in summer/fall periods were most correlated with air temperature. There was a strong diurnal variation of seasonal TGM with significantly higher concentrations in daytime/nighttime compared to the early morning. The seasonal diel TGM pattern indicated regional biofuel and coal combustion were the primary mercury sources.

  19. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  20. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  1. Effects of partial or total replacement of maize with alternative feed source on digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites and economics in limousin crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Shi, F H; Fang, L; Meng, Q X; Wu, H; Du, J P; Xie, X X; Ren, L P; Zhou, Z M; Zhou, B

    2014-10-01

    Increasing cost and scarcity of maize has stimulated the use of alternative feed sources (AFS) in the diets of cattle. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial or total replacement of maize on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites, and economics in Limousin crossbred feedlot cattle. Forty-five Limousin×Luxi crossbred bulls were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups, orthodox diet (OD; 45.0% maize), partial replacement diet (PRD; 15% maize, 67% AFS), total replacement diet (TRD; 0% maize, 100% AFS). The growth feeding trial lasted for 98 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded. The digestion trial was carried out after the end of the growth trial. Total faeces and feed samples were measured daily. Digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were calculated. After the feeding trial, blood metabolites were measured in 12 animals from each group. Initial and final body weights did not differ significantly among treatment groups (p>0.05). The ADG and DMI were 1.72 and 8.66, 1.60 and 9.10, and 1.40 and 9.11 kg/d for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively. The PRD and TRD exhibited lower ADG (p<0.01) and higher DMI (p<0.01) than OD. The DMI (%body weight) was comparable between groups (p>0.5). Feed efficiency of PRD and TRD were lower than OD (p<0.01). The DM digestibility decreased with reduced level of maize (p = 0.10), OM digestibility was higher in OD (p<0.05), and CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were similar for all groups (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) in PRD and TRD was higher than OD (p<0.01), while other blood parameters did not differ significantly. Feed costs ($/head/d) were 1.49, 0.98, and 0.72 for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively (p<0.01). Feed costs per kg gain ($) were significantly lower for PRD (0.63) and TRD (0.54) than OD (0.89; p<0.01). Overall profit ($/head) and daily profit

  2. Effects of Partial or Total Replacement of Maize with Alternative Feed Source on Digestibility, Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites and Economics in Limousin Crossbred Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shi, F. H.; Fang, L.; Meng, Q. X.; Wu, H.; Du, J. P.; Xie, X. X.; Ren, L. P.; Zhou, Z. M.; Zhou, B.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cost and scarcity of maize has stimulated the use of alternative feed sources (AFS) in the diets of cattle. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial or total replacement of maize on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites, and economics in Limousin crossbred feedlot cattle. Forty-five Limousin×Luxi crossbred bulls were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups, orthodox diet (OD; 45.0% maize), partial replacement diet (PRD; 15% maize, 67% AFS), total replacement diet (TRD; 0% maize, 100% AFS). The growth feeding trial lasted for 98 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded. The digestion trial was carried out after the end of the growth trial. Total faeces and feed samples were measured daily. Digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were calculated. After the feeding trial, blood metabolites were measured in 12 animals from each group. Initial and final body weights did not differ significantly among treatment groups (p>0.05). The ADG and DMI were 1.72 and 8.66, 1.60 and 9.10, and 1.40 and 9.11 kg/d for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively. The PRD and TRD exhibited lower ADG (p<0.01) and higher DMI (p<0.01) than OD. The DMI (%body weight) was comparable between groups (p>0.5). Feed efficiency of PRD and TRD were lower than OD (p<0.01). The DM digestibility decreased with reduced level of maize (p = 0.10), OM digestibility was higher in OD (p<0.05), and CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were similar for all groups (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) in PRD and TRD was higher than OD (p<0.01), while other blood parameters did not differ significantly. Feed costs ($/head/d) were 1.49, 0.98, and 0.72 for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively (p<0.01). Feed costs per kg gain ($) were significantly lower for PRD (0.63) and TRD (0.54) than OD (0.89; p<0.01). Overall profit ($/head) and daily profit

  3. Dietary fat source alters hepatic gene expression profile and determines the type of liver pathology in rats overfed via total enteral nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if the fatty acid composition of the diet affects the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5-6/group) were overfed low (5%) or high (70%) fat diets with different fatty acid sources: olive oil (OO,...

  4. Effect of lipid source and oxidation level on DE, ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, EE, N, and C in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of lipid source and oxidation level on DE, ME, and ATTD of DM, GE, EE, N, and C of young pigs, 108 barrows (~ 6.66 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 13 dietary treatments, including a corn-soybean meal control diet and 12 diets containing 10% lipid (corn oil, canola oil, poultry fa...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart G of... - Process Vents-Coefficients for Total Resource Effectiveness for New Source Nonhalogenated and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nonhalogenated Flare 0.5276 0.0998 −2.096×10−3 −2.000×10−4 Thermal Incinerator 0 Percent Heat Recovery 0.4068 0.0171 8.664×10−3 −3.162×10−4 Thermal Incinerator 70 Percent Heat Recovery 0.6868 3.209×10−3 3.546×10−3 1... Resource Effectiveness for New Source Nonhalogenated and Halogenated Vent Streams 2 Table 2 to Subpart G...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart G of... - Process Vents-Coefficients for Total Resource Effectiveness for New Source Nonhalogenated and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nonhalogenated Flare 0.5276 0.0998 −2.096×10−3 −2.000×10−4 Thermal Incinerator 0 Percent Heat Recovery 0.4068 0.0171 8.664×10−3 −3.162×10−4 Thermal Incinerator 70 Percent Heat Recovery 0.6868 3.209×10−3 3.546×10−3 1... Resource Effectiveness for New Source Nonhalogenated and Halogenated Vent Streams 2 Table 2 to Subpart G...

  7. Environmental Characterization of GLOBAL Sources of Atmospheric Soil DUST Identified with the NIMBUS 7 Total OZONE Mapping SPECTROMETER (toms) Absorbing Aerosol Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Gill, Thomas E.

    2002-02-01

    We use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) sensor on the Nimbus 7 satellite to map the global distribution of major atmospheric dust sources with the goal of identifying common environmental characteristics. The largest and most persistent sources are located in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in a broad "dust belt" that extends from the west coast of North Africa, over the Middle East, Central and South Asia, to China. There is remarkably little large-scale dust activity outside this region. In particular, the Southern Hemisphere is devoid of major dust activity. Dust sources, regardless of size or strength, can usually be associated with topographical lows located in arid regions with annual rainfall under 200-250 mm. Although the source regions themselves are arid or hyperarid, the action of water is evident from the presence of ephemeral streams, rivers, lakes, and playas. Most major sources have been intermittently flooded through the Quaternary as evidenced by deep alluvial deposits. Many sources are associated with areas where human impacts are well documented, e.g., the Caspian and Aral Seas, Tigris-Euphrates River Basin, southwestern North America, and the loess lands in China. Nonetheless, the largest and most active sources are located in truly remote areas where there is little or no human activity. Thus, on a global scale, dust mobilization appears to be dominated by natural sources. Dust activity is extremely sensitive to many environmental parameters. The identification of major sources will enable us to focus on critical regions and to characterize emission rates in response to environmental conditions. With such knowledge we will be better able to improve global dust models and to assess the effects of climate change on emissions in the future. It will also facilitate the interpretation of the paleoclimate record based on dust contained in ocean sediments and ice cores.

  8. Randomized trial of total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: metabolic effects of varying glucose-lipid ratios as the energy source.

    PubMed

    Baker, J P; Detsky, A S; Stewart, S; Whitwell, J; Marliss, E B; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1984-07-01

    We studied 20 critically ill patients receiving ventilatory support to determine both their metabolic requirements and the effect of providing energy substrate regimens containing different lipid to glucose calorie ratios on whole-body protein economy. The measurements used included indirect calorimetry, substrate hormone profile, and whole body protein turnover by [14C]leucine. Measurements were done while patients were receiving all their nonprotein calories as dextrose ( D100 ) and were compared with results obtained when they received all their nonprotein calories as a combination of dextrose and lipid in a calorie ratio either of 3:1 ( D75 ) or 1:3 ( D25 ). To maintain euglycemia, exogenous insulin was infused by attending physicians not cognizant of the total parenteral nutrition regimen used. Energy expenditure before receiving total parenteral nutrition was only 4.6% above basal, and did not rise significantly during any of the regimens. The insulin infusion rate, plasma insulin, CO2 production, and serum lactate were significantly higher with D100 than with D25 , but not with D75 . Correspondingly, plasma free fatty acids were significantly lower with D100 when compared with D25 but not with D75 . Despite this, there were no significant differences in whole-body protein synthesis, breakdown, or net synthesis (synthesis - breakdown) and, in general, the patients in all groups were close to zero protein balance. These data suggest that critically ill patients are not severely hypermetabolic, and that they can maintain protein balance with a modest excess of calories while using a wide range of fuel mixtures. PMID:6427057

  9. Comparison of lower-frequency (<1000 Hz) downhole seismic sources for use at environmental sites

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    In conjunction with crosswell seismic surveying being done at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, four different downhole seismic sources have been tested between the same set of boreholes. The four sources evaluated were the Bolt airgun, the OYO-Conoco orbital vibrator, and two Sandia-developed vertical vibrators, one pneumatically-driven, and the other based on a magnetostrictive actuator. The sources generate seismic energy in the lower frequency range of less than 1000 Hz and have different frequency characteristics, radiation patterns, energy levels, and operational considerations. Collection of identical data sets with all four sources allows the direct comparison of these characteristics and an evaluation of the suitability of each source for a given site and target.

  10. Solid sampling determination of total fluorine in baby food samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-11-15

    This study describes the applicability of solid sampling technique for the determination of fluorine in various baby foods via molecular absorption of calcium monofluoride generated in a graphite furnace of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry. Fluorine was determined at CaF wavelength, 606.440nm in a graphite tube applying a pyrolysis temperature of 1000°C and a molecule forming temperature of 2200°C. The limit of detection and characteristic mass of the method were 0.20ng and 0.17ng of fluorine, respectively. The fluorine concentrations determined in standard reference sample (bush branches and leaves) were in good agreement with the certified values. By applying the optimized parameters, the concentration of fluorine in various baby foods were determined. The fluorine concentrations were ranged from

  11. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    earthquake energy can travel through the sediments. All of these factors determine how hard the earth will shake during a major earthquake. If we can improve on our understanding of how and where earthquakes will occur, and how strong their resultant shaking will be, then buildings can be designed or retrofitted accordingly in order to resist damage and collapse, and emergency plans can be adequately prepared. In addition, SSIP will investigate the processes of rifting and magmatism in the Salton Trough in order to better understand this important plate-boundary region. The Salton Trough is a unique rift in that subsidence is accompanied by huge influxes of infilling sediment from the Colorado River. Volcanism that accompanies the subsidence here is muted by these influxes of sediment. The Salton Trough, in the central part of the Imperial Valley, is apparently made up of entirely new crust: young sediment in the upper crust and basaltic intrusive rocks in the mid-to-lower crust (Fuis and others, 1984). Similar to the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans performed by the medical industry, seismic imaging is a collection of techniques that enable scientists to obtain a picture of what is underground. The petroleum industry routinely uses these techniques to search for oil and gas at relatively shallow depths; however, the scope of this project demanded that we image as much as 30 km into the Earth’s crust. This project generated and recorded seismic waves, similar to sound waves, which move downward into the Earth and are bent (refracted) or echoed (reflected) back to the surface. SSIP acquired data in a series of intersecting lines that cover key areas of the Salton Trough. The sources of sound waves were detonations (shots) in deep boreholes, designed to create energy equivalent to magnitude 1–2 earthquakes. The study region routinely experiences earthquakes of these magnitudes, but earthquakes are not located in such a way as to permit us to create the

  12. Structure of the deep oceanic lithosphere in the Northwestern Pacific ocean basin derived from active-source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, A.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Fujie, G.; Arai, R.; Miura, S.

    2015-12-01

    Many seismological studies have detected the sharp seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle, some of which are interpreted the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). However there are few data at the old Pacific plate, in particular at ocean basin, which is critical information for understanding nature of the oceanic LAB. In 2014 we conducted an active-source refraction/reflection survey along a 1130-km-long line in southeast of the Shatsky Rise. Five ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed and recovered by R/V Kairei of JAMSTEC. We used an airgun array with a total volume of 7,800 cubic inches with firing at intervals of 200 m. Multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) data were also collected with a 444-channel, 6,000-m-long streamer cable. In OBS records the apparent velocity of the refraction waves from the uppermost mantle was high (< 8.6 km/sec), and considered to be caused by preferred orientation of olivine (e.g., Kodaira et al., 2014). Another remarkable feature is wide-angle reflection waves from the deep lithosphere at large (150-500 km) offsets. We applied the traveltime mapping method (Fujie et al., 2006), forward analysis (Zelt and Smith, 1992) and the amplitude modeling (Larsen and Grieger, 1998) to the OBS data. The results show that deep mantle reflectors exist at the depths from 35 to 60 km, and one possible explanation is that these reflectors correspond to patched low velocity zones around the base of the lithosphere. On MCS sections the clear and sharp Moho was imaged only at the southwestern end of the profile, but Moho was ambiguous or even not imaged in the most part of the profile. Since our seismic line covers the oceanic lithosphere with different ages that correspond to different stages of the Shatsky activity, the Moho appearance may reflect the variation of the Shatsky activity.

  13. Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring (Gradsstram) Using Emergin RFID and Web 2.0 Technologies to Provide Total Asset and Information Visualization, Paper at 2009 INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Kopsick, Deborah A.; Gorman, Bryan L.; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Ferren, Mitch; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2009-01-01

    Background Thousands of shipments of radioisotopes developed in the United States (U.S.) are transported domestically and internationally for medical and industrial applications, including to partner laboratories in European Union (EU) countries. Over the past five years, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)1 have worked with state first responder personnel, key private sector supply chain stakeholders, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring of medical, research and industrial radioisotopes in commerce. ORNL was the pioneer of the international radioisotope shipping and production business. Most radioisotopes made and used today were either made or discovered at ORNL. While most of the radioisotopes used in the commercial sector are now produced and sold by the private market, ORNL still leads the world in the production of exotic, high-value and/or sensitive industrial, medical and research isotopes. The ORNL-EPA-DOE Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project tested, evaluated, and integrated RFID technologies in laboratory settings and at multiple private-sector shipping and distribution facilities (Perkin Elmer and DHL) to track and monitor common radioisotopes used in everyday commerce. The RFID tracking capability was also tested in association with other deployed technologies including radiation detection, chemical/explosives detection, advanced imaging, lasers, and infrared scanning. At the 2007 EU-U.S. Summit, the leaders of the US Department of Commerce (DOC) and EU European Commission (EC) committed to pursue jointly directed Lighthouse Priority Projects. These projects are intended to foster cooperation and reduce regulatory burdens with respect to transatlantic commerce. The

  14. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Blacks Run, Rockingham County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Blacks Run, in Rockingham County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Blacks Run. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Blacks Run watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Blacks Run. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Blacks Run. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow

  15. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed

  16. Multi-scale monitoring of a marine geologic methane source in the Santa Barbara Channel using imaging spectrometry, ARCTAS-CARB in situ sampling and coastal hourly total hydrocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Leifer, I.; Roberts, D.; Dennison, P. E.; Margolis, J.; Moritsch, M.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Coal Oil Point (COP) hydrocarbon seep field off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA is one of the most active and best-studied marine geologic methane sources in the world and contributes to elevated terrestrial methane concentrations downwind. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal variability of this local source and the influence of meteorological conditions on transport and concentration. A methane plume emanating from Trilogy Seep was mapped with the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer at a 7.5 m resolution with a short-wave infrared band ratio technique. This structure agrees with the local wind speed and direction and is orthogonal to the surface currents. ARCTAS-CARB aircraft in situ sampling of lower-troposphere methane is compared to sub-hour total hydrocarbon concentration (THC) measurements from the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD) station located near COP. Hourly SBAPCD THC values from 1980-2008 demonstrate a decrease in seep source strength until the late 1990s, followed by a consistent increase. The occurrence of elevated SBAPCD THC values for onshore wind conditions as well as numerous positive outliers as high as 17 ppm suggests that seep field emissions are both quasi-steady state and transient, direct (bubble) and diffuse (outgassing). As demonstrated for the COP seeps, the combination of imaging spectrometry, aircraft in situ sampling, and ground-based monitoring provides a powerful approach for understanding local methane sources and transport processes.

  17. Effects of Large and Small-Source Seismic Surveys on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, M.; Richardson, W. J.; Koski, W. R.; Smultea, M. A.; Haley, B.; Fitzgerald, M. W.; Rawson, M.

    2006-05-01

    L-DEO implements a marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring and mitigation program during its seismic surveys. The program consists of visual observations, mitigation, and/or passive acoustic monitoring (PAM). Mitigation includes ramp ups, powerdowns, and shutdowns of the seismic source if marine mammals or turtles are detected in or about to enter designated safety radii. Visual observations for marine mammals and turtles have taken place during all 11 L-DEO surveys since 2003, and PAM was done during five of those. Large sources were used during six cruises (10 to 20 airguns; 3050 to 8760 in3; PAM during four cruises). For two interpretable large-source surveys, densities of marine mammals were lower during seismic than non- seismic periods. During a shallow-water survey off Yucatán, delphinid densities during non-seismic periods were 19x higher than during seismic; however, this number is based on only 3 sightings during seismic and 11 sightings during non-seismic. During a Caribbean survey, densities were 1.4x higher during non-seismic. The mean closest point of approach (CPA) for delphinids for both cruises was significantly farther during seismic (1043 m) than during non-seismic (151 m) periods (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001). Large whales were only seen during the Caribbean survey; mean CPA during seismic was 1722 m compared to 1539 m during non-seismic, but sample sizes were small. Acoustic detection rates with and without seismic were variable for three large-source surveys with PAM, with rates during seismic ranging from 1/3 to 6x those without seismic (n = 0 for fourth survey). The mean CPA for turtles was closer during non-seismic (139 m) than seismic (228 m) periods (P < 0.01). Small-source surveys used up to 6 airguns or 3 GI guns (75 to 1350 in3). During a Northwest Atlantic survey, delphinid densities during seismic and non-seismic were similar. However, in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, delphinid densities during non-seismic were 2x those during

  18. Broadband Sound Pressure Field Characteristics of Marine Seismic Sources Used by R/V Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, M.; Boebel, O.; El Naggar, S.; Jokat, W.; Kuhn, G.; Niessen, F.; Schenke, H.; Werner, B.; Diebold, J.

    2006-05-01

    Single airguns and airgun arrays of different size and volume are used as sound sources for scientific marine seismic reflection and refraction surveys conducted by R/V Polarstern in the Arctic and Antarctic Ocean. To ensure that these research activities do not affect marine wildlife and particularly marine mammals in the Antarctic Treaty Area south of 60°S knowledge of the sound pressure field of the seismic sources is essential. Therefore, a broadband marine seismic source characterization study was conducted at the Heggernes Acoustic Range in the Herdlefjord, Norway in October 2003. The objectives were (1) to determine the spatial distribution of the sound pressure levels emitted by Polarstern's seismic sources, (2) to compute the source levels assuming a spherical amplitude decay, (3) to determine mitigation radii, within which at least some species of marine mammals might possibly experience behavioral or physiological disturbance due to the received sound pressure levels. The thresholds currently in use to determine mitigation radii are 160 dBRMS re 1 μPa for potential behavioral disturbance and 180 dBRMS re 1 μPa for potential physiological and hearing effects like temporary threshold shifts. To determine the spatial distribution of the sound pressure levels each airgun (array) was shot along a line of 2- 3 km length running between 2 hydrophone chains with receivers in 35, 100, 198 and 267 m depth. A GI-Gun (2.4 l), a G-Gun (8.5 l) and a Bolt PAR CT800 (32.8 l) were deployed as single sources, and 3 GI-Guns (7.4 l), 3 G-Guns (25.6 l) and 8 VLF-Guns (24 l) as arrays. The measurements are complemented by a modeling approach for an 8 G-Gun (68.2 l) and 8 G-Gun+1 Bolt PAR CT800 array (100.1 l). The data analysis includes a determination of peak-peak, zero-peak and RMS-amplitudes, sound exposure levels and amplitude spectra as function of source-receiver distance. The amplitude vs distance graphs, analyzed for the 4 hydrophone depths, show the typical

  19. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Christians Creek, Augusta County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Christians Creek, in Augusta County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Christians Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Christians Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Christians Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Christians Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Christians Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated

  20. Assessing Acoustic Sound Levels Associated with Active Source Seismic Surveys in Shallow Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Thode, A.; Diebold, J. B.; Webb, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    The potential effect of active source seismic research on marine mammal populations is a topic of increasing concern, and controversy surrounding such operations has begun to impact the planning and permitting of academic surveys [e.g., Malakoff, 2002 Science]. Although no causal relationship between marine mammal strandings and seismic exploration has been proven, any circumstantial evidence must be thoroughly investigated. A 2002 stranding of two beaked whales in the Gulf of California within 50 km of a R/V Ewing seismic survey has been a subject of concern for both marine seismologists and environmentalists. In order to better understand possible received levels for whales in the vicinity of these operations, modeling is combined with ground-truth calibration measurements. A wide-angle parabolic equation model, which is capable of including shear within the sediment and basement layers, is used to generate predictive models of low-frequency transmission loss within the Gulf of California. This work incorporates range-dependent bathymetry, sediment thickness, sound velocity structure and sub-bottom properties. Oceanic sounds speed profiles are derived from the U.S. Navy's seasonal GDEM model and sediment thicknesses are taken from NOAA's worldwide database. The spectral content of the Ewing's 20-airgun seismic array is constrained by field calibration in the spring of 2003 [Tolstoy et al., 2004 GRL], indicating peak energies at frequencies below a few hundred Hz, with energy spectral density showing an approximate power-law decrease at higher frequencies (being ~40 dB below peak at 1 kHz). Transmission loss is estimated along a series of radials extending from multiple positions along the ship's track, with the directivity of the array accounted for by phase-shifting point sources that are scaled by the cube root of the individual airgun volumes. This allows the time-space history of low-frequency received levels to be reconstructed within the Gulf of California

  1. Analysis of time-series of total and plant water stress levels using a dual-source energy balance model over agricultural crops and medium to low resolution thermal infra red remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulet, Gilles; Mougenot, Bernard; Bahir, Malik; Fanise, Pascal; Saadi, Sameh; Simonneaux, Vincent; Chebbi, Wafa; Kassouk, Zeineb; Oualid, Toufik; Olioso, Albert; Lagouarde, Jean-Pierre; Le Dantec, Valérie; Rivalland, Vincent; Zribi, Mehrez; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra

    2015-04-01

    Detecting, monitoring and mapping plant water stress with remote sensing data is a crucial component of modern agricultural water management, especially in areas with scarce water resources such as the south and the eastern parts of the Mediterranean region. Developing efficient operational methods dedicated to those three actions is thus necessary to design observing systems for areas with a mixture of irrigated, rainfed and deficit irrigation agriculture. Those systems can assist managers in tasks such as early warning of drought, real time irrigated area mapping etc. A way to quantify plant and total water stress levels is to exploit the available surface temperature data from remote sensing as a signature of the surface energy balance, including the latent heat flux. Remotely sensed energy balance models enable to estimate evapotranspiration and the water status of continental surfaces. Two-source models, such as TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) allow deriving a rough estimate of the water stress of the vegetation instead of that of a soil-vegetation composite. For the latter, a realistic underlying assumption enables to invert two unknowns (evaporation and transpiration) from a single piece of information. This assumption states that, in most cases, vegetation is unstressed, and that if vegetation is stressed, evaporation is negligible. In the latter case, if vegetation stress is not properly accounted for, the resulting evaporation will decrease to unrealistic levels (negative fluxes) in order to maintain the same total surface temperature. Actual and potential transpiration rates are combined to derive an index of plant water stress applicable to low resolution data. Here, we evaluate time series of plant water stress indices in the Kairouan area in Central Tunisia in the last few years by comparing them with 1- maps of the irrigation sectors as well as rainfall data and 2- turbulent heat flux measurements obtained at low resolution (scintillometer, eddy

  2. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Misra, N. L.; Streli, C.

    2015-08-01

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm2 active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  3. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Wobrauschek, P. Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Streli, C.; Misra, N. L.

    2015-08-15

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm{sup 2} active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  4. Wavelength-dispersive total-reflection X-ray fluorescence with an efficient Johansson spectrometer and an undulator X-ray source: detection of 10-16 g-level trace metals.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenji; Eba, Hiromi; Inoue, Katsuaki; Yagi, Naoto

    2002-09-01

    The present paper reports significant enhancement of the detection power for total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The employment of an efficient wavelength-dispersive spectrometer rather than a conventional Si(Li) detector, as well as the use of a quasi-monochromatic undulator X-ray source, completely changed the quality of X-ray florescence spectra. The energy resolution is 20 times better, which effectively contributes to reducing the low-energy tail of the scattering background and to separating neighboring X-ray florescence peaks. Another advantage is its capability with respect to high-counting-rate measurements, which ensure the detection of weak signals from trace materials. The absolute and relative detection limit for nickel are 3.1 x 10(-16) g and 3.1 ppt (pg/g) for a 0.1-microL droplet of pure water, respectively, which is nearly 50 times better than the current best data achieved by conventional energy-dispersive TXRF using a Si(Li) detector system. PMID:12236366

  5. TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eblen, William R.

    The Hudson River Museum's Environmental Arts and Science Division has published this booklet describing their model educational program, "TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment," a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education utilizing existing curricula. For conducting the program model communities strategically located along the…

  6. Novel piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-04-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources is presented for gun-fired munitions and other similar applications that require very high G survivability. The power sources are designed to harvest energy from the firing acceleration as well as vibratory motion of munitions during the flight and convert it to electrical energy to power onboard electronics. The developed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting power sources produce enough electrical energy for applications such as fuzing. The power sources are designed to withstand firing accelerations in excess of 100,000 G. In certain applications such as fuzing, the developed power sources have the potential of completely eliminating the need for chemical batteries. In fuzing applications, the developed power sources have the added advantage of providing additional safety, since with such power sources the fuzing electronics are powered only after the munitions have exited the barrel and have traveled a safe distance from the weapon platform. The design of a number of prototypes, including their packaging for high G hardening, and the results of laboratory and air-gun testing are presented. Methods to increase the efficiency of such energy-harvesting power sources and minimize friction and damping losses are discussed.

  7. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  8. Event sensing and energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2009-03-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based event sensing and energy-harvesting power sources is presented for gunfired munitions. The power sources are designed to harvest energy from firing acceleration and vibratory motions during the flight. The piezoelectric element may be used to measure setback acceleration level, indicate the barrel exit time and impact time and force levels for fuzing purposes. The developed power sources have the added advantage of providing safety, since the fuzing electronics are powered only after the munitions have exited the barrel. The developed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting power sources produce enough electrical energy for applications such as fuzing. The power sources are designed to withstand firing accelerations in excess of 120,000 G. In certain applications such as fuzing, the developed power sources have the potential of completely eliminating the need for chemical batteries. The design of a number of prototypes, including their packaging for high G hardening, and the results of laboratory, air-gun and firing tests are presented.

  9. Source attribution of agriculture-related deposition by using total nitrogen and δ¹⁵N in epiphytic lichen tissue, bark and deposition water samples in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie; Werner, Willy

    2013-06-01

    Compared with physico-chemical deposition measurement methods, lichens are able to identify the long-term overall effects of high N pollution concentrations in the air. In addition, the natural abundances of the stable isotope of N, (15)N, are being widely used in research on N cycling in ecosystems. They can also be used as instruments for source attribution. In this study, epiphytic lichens were tested to determine whether their respective N content and δ(15)N ratios can be used to estimate N deposition rates and to locate various sources of N compounds. Epiphytic lichen and bark samples were collected from around various deposition measurement field stations at different sites in the western part of Germany. The N content of epiphytic lichens reflects the species-specific, agriculture-related circumstances of N deposition at various sites in Germany. At the same time, δ(15)N signatures of the different investigated epiphytic lichen species and bark samples are highly depleted in (15)N under high ammonium deposition. The different surface types of lichens and barks exhibit different concentrations of N and δ(15)N ratios, despite being exposed to similar N deposition rates. The verification of highly negative δ(15)N ratios at sites with local and regional emitters shows that source attribution is possible by comparing different δ(15)N signatures in areas with a wide range of different N deposition types and the corresponding differences in δ(15)N among various source N pools. Especially nitrophytic lichens can support the on-site instrumentation measuring N deposition by qualification and quantification. PMID:23461645

  10. What Is a Total Artificial Heart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the CardioWest is connected to an outside power source and the AbioCor isn't. The CardioWest ... run from inside the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart ...

  11. Parallel Total Energy

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  12. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  13. The Total Irradiance Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The first Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) launched on NASA’s Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment in 2003 and quickly proved to be the most accurate and stable instrument on orbit for measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI). The TIM’s design improvements over the older classical radiometers helped its selection on many subsequent missions, including NASA’s Glory, NOAA’s TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment, and the series of NASA’s Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor instruments currently underway. I will summarize the status of and differences between each of the TIMs currently on-orbit or in production.

  14. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  15. Total parenteral nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  16. Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2010 OR- ...

  17. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  19. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  20. Total colonoscopy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. B.; Laage, N. J.; Campbell, C. A.; Douglas, J. R.; Walker-Smith, J. A.; Booth, I. W.; Harries, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-three total colonoscopies were performed on 115 children with ages ranging from 3 months to 16 years. The major indications were suspected inflammatory bowel disease and unexplained rectal bleeding. Ninety-seven per cent of all procedures were carried out with sedation only. Adult colonoscopes were used in most of the patients but in babies and small children paediatric instruments were preferable. Total colonoscopy was possible in all patients with a patent colon. The terminal ileum was examined in 63 patients. Endoscopic snare polypectomy was successfully carried out in 8 children and multiple haemangiomas were electrocoagulated in one. Total colonoscopy in this paediatric series proved to be at least as easy, rapid, well-tolerated, and safe as in adults. In selected patients as single colonoscopy can give an accurate diagnosis with biopsy proof and sometimes the opportunity for definitive treatment. PMID:7065694

  1. Total Synthesis of (+)-Acutiphycin

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin (1) resulted in the discovery of additive-free, highly regioselective nickel-catalyzed reductive coupling reactions of aldehydes and 1,6-enynes and the construction of an advanced intermediate in studies directed toward the synthesis of 1. Ultimately, though not employing the nickel-catalyzed reaction, a highly convergent total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin featuring an intermolecular SmI2-mediated Reformatsky coupling reaction and macrolactonization initiated by a retro-ene reaction of an alkoxyalkyne was achieved. The resulting synthesis was 18 steps in the longest linear sequence from either methyl acetoacetate or isobutyraldehyde. PMID:17985925

  2. Total Technology Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Total technology immersion doesn't happen overnight, but with vision and determination, transformation can take hold and start to grow. Floydada Independent School District (FISD), winner of the 2010 Sylvia Charp Award for District Innovation in Technology, is a great example of what a district can achieve when starting with a modest tech…

  3. Total synthesis of jiadifenolide.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-07-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  4. Total absorption Cherenkov spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovski, E. I.

    2015-05-01

    A short review of 50 years of work done with Cherenkov detectors in laboratories at the Lebedev Physical Institute is presented. The report considers some issues concerning the use of Cherenkov total absorption counters based on lead glass and heavy crystals in accelerator experiments.

  5. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  6. Total Synthesis of (-)-Cardiopetaline.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshitake; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-20

    The total synthesis of (-)-cardiopetaline, an aconitine-type natural product, has been accomplished. Our synthesis involved a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of a sulfonyloxirane that enabled, in a single step, the construction of the bicyclo[3.2.1] system in the aconitine skeleton and effective introduction of oxygen functional groups at the appropriate positions. PMID:27166640

  7. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 mg/dL. Note: mg/dL = ...

  8. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  9. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  10. Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total ecosystem metabolism (TEM), both as discrete measurements and as a theoretical concept, has an important history in ecosystem ecology, particularly in estuaries. Some of the earliest ecological studies were developed to determine how energy flowed through an ecosystem and w...

  11. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  12. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  13. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  14. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  15. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  16. Guidance for Total Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoose, William H.

    Elementary guidance, deriving much of its content from the developmental phenomena of middle childhood, is viewed as the maximization of human potentiality in the total range of the population. Included in the list of elementary school guidance objectives are (1) aiding academic development, (2) helping children develop health self-concepts, (3)…

  17. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6π electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200 mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  18. Implosion Source Development and Diego Garcia Reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Boro, C

    2001-06-01

    Calibration of hydroacoustic stations for nuclear explosion monitoring is important for increasing monitoring capability and confidence from newly installed stations and from existing stations. Past work at Ascension Island has shown that ship-towed airguns can be effectively used for local calibrations such as sensor location, amplitude and phase response, and T-phase coupling in the case of T-phase stations. At regional and ocean-basin distances from a station, the calibration focus is on acoustic travel time, transmission loss, bathymetric shadowing, diffraction, and reflection as recorded at a particular station. Such station calibrations will lead to an overall network calibration that seeks to maximize detection, location, and discrimination capability of events with acoustic signatures. Active-source calibration of hydroacoustic stations at regional and ocean-basin scales has not been attempted to date, but we have made significant headway addressing how such calibrations could be accomplished. We have developed an imploding sphere source that can be used instead of explosives on research and commercial vessels without restriction. The imploding sphere has been modeled using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory hydrodynamic code CALE and shown to agree with field data. The need for boosted energy in the monitoring band (2-100 Hz) has led us to develop a 5-sphere implosion device that was tested in the Pacific Ocean earlier this year. Boosting the energy in the monitoring band can be accomplished by a combination of increasing the implosion volume (i.e. the 5-sphere device) and imploding at shallower depths. Although active source calibrations will be necessary at particular locations and for particular objectives, the newly installed Diego Garcia station in the Indian Ocean has shown that earthquakes can be used to help understand regional blockages and the locations responsible for observed hydroacoustic reflections. We have analyzed several events

  19. Total Synthesis of Millingtonine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2016-07-11

    Millingtonine is a glycosidic alkaloid that exists as a pair of pseudo-enantiomeric diastereomers. Consideration of the likely biosynthetic origins of this unusual natural product has resulted in the development of a seven-step total synthesis. Results from this synthetic work provide evidence in support of a proposed network of biosynthetic pathways that can account for the formation of several phenylethanoid natural products. PMID:27249628

  20. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  1. Total Syntheses of Perenniporides.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masao; Ohmori, Ken; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2015-11-20

    The total syntheses of perenniporide A (1) and related compounds have been achieved. Starting from 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene (9), difluorodienone 6 was obtained by oxidative dearomatization, which served as a platform for the high-pressure cycloaddition and for the introduction of the C3-methoxy group. The synthesis allowed access to the natural congeners 2 and 3, enabling assignment of the absolute structures of these natural products. PMID:26555442

  2. Total synthesis of teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  3. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  4. Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty has been the subject of marked advances over the last few years. Modern implants provide a wide range of options, including resurfacing of the humeral head, anatomic hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty and trauma-specific implants for fractures and nonunions. Most humeral components achieve successful long-term fixation without bone cement. Cemented all-polyethylene glenoid components remain the standard for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. The results of shoulder arthroplasty vary depending on the underlying diagnosis, the condition of the soft-tissues, and the type of reconstruction. Total shoulder arthroplasty seems to provide the best outcome for patients with osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthropathy. The outcome of hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures is somewhat unpredictable, though it seems to have improved with the use of fracture-specific designs, more attention to tuberosity repair, and the selective use of reverse arthroplasty, as well as a shift in indications towards internal fixation. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has become extremely popular for patients with cuff-tear arthropathy, and its indications have been expanded to the field of revision surgery. Overall, shoulder arthroplasty is a very successful procedure with predictable pain relief and substantial improvements in motion and function. PMID:21584206

  5. Physician Update: Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    As an integrated prepaid health care system, Kaiser Permanente (KP) is in a unique position to demonstrate that affordability in health care can be achieved by disease prevention. During the past decade, KP has significantly improved the quality care outcomes of its members with preventable diseases. However, because of an increase in the incidence of preventable disease, and the potential long-term and short-term costs associated with the treatment of preventable disease, KP has developed a new strategy called Total Health to meet the current and future needs of its patients. Total Health means healthy people in healthy communities. KP’s strategic vision is to be a leader in Total Health by making lives better. KP hopes to make lives better by 1) measuring vital signs of health, 2) promoting healthy behaviors, 3) monitoring disease incidence, 4) spreading leading practices, and 5) creating healthy environments with our community partners. Best practices, spread to the communities we serve, will make health care more affordable, prevent preventable diseases, and save lives. PMID:24694316

  6. Total photoabsorption in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, N.

    1992-06-01

    The Frascati-Genova collaboration proposes to measure the total photonuclear cross section on a wide range of nuclei between 500 MeV and 2 GeV, to obtain informations on the interaction of baryon resonances with nucleons and on the onset of the shadowing effect. The experiment could be performed in the Hall B as soon as the tagging facility will be ready and before the end of the installation of the CLAS spectrometer. The requirements for the photon beam, like maximum energy, intensity and beam definition, are not so strong so that the experiment would also be a good first test of the tagged photon facility.

  7. Total Synthesis of Teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Giltrap, Andrew M; Dowman, Luke J; Nagalingam, Gayathri; Ochoa, Jessica L; Linington, Roger G; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:27191730

  8. Cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779

  9. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position. PMID:26252484

  10. Total Synthesis of (-)-Daphenylline.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Adachi, Yohei; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-10

    Total synthesis of (-)-daphenylline, a hexacyclic Daphniphyllum alkaloid, was achieved. Construction of the tricyclic DEF ring system was initiated by asymmetric Negishi coupling followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. Installation of a side chain onto the tricyclic core was carried out through Sonogashira coupling, stereocontrolled Claisen rearrangement by taking advantage of the characteristic conformation of the tricyclic DEF core, and the stereoselective alkylation of a lactone. After the introduction of a glycine unit, the ABC ring system was stereoselectively constructed through intramolecular cycloaddition of the cyclic azomethine ylide. PMID:27062676

  11. Total Synthesis of (-)-Exiguolide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigao; Xie, Hengmu; Li, Hongze; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei

    2015-10-01

    A concise total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide has been completed in an overall 2.8% yield over 20 steps in the longest linear path. The key strategies involve (1) Prins cyclization/homobromination of dienyl alcohol with the B ring-substituted aldehyde, prepared by Prins cyclization/bromination, to construct the A ring with excellent cis-Z stereochemical control and (2) an unusual side chain installation/macrocyclization strategy featuring Sonogashira cross-coupling followed by a ring-closing metathesis reaction to deliver the target. PMID:26371396

  12. Immediate total tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Garber, D A; Salama, M A; Salama, H

    2001-03-01

    Successful implant placement at the time of extraction has been documented. Implant placement at the time of extraction was initially performed as a two-stage procedure often with barrier membranes and sophisticated second-stage surgical uncoverings. The authors describe the next generation of this technique, including atraumatic tooth removal with simultaneous root form, implant placement, and temporization at one appointment. This technique of "Immediate Total Tooth Replacement" allows for the maintenance of the bony housing and soft-tissue form that existed before extraction, while at the same time establishing a root form anchor in the bone for an esthetic restoration. PMID:11913258

  13. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  14. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  15. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  16. Total synthesis of atropurpuran.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.0(4,9).0(4,12)]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  17. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  18. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  19. Total Quality Management. ERIC Digest, Number 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Tyler

    The Japanese success story has made W. Edwards Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory increasingly popular among American managers, from car manufacturers to educational leaders. TQM is based on two tenets: the primacy of customer satisfaction and the necessity of tapping nontraditional sources (especially employee ideas) to institute…

  20. On total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  1. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total antioxidant status, and total oxidant status of endemic Thermopsis turcica

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Laçine; Kolay, Erdi; Ağılönü, Yasin; Aslan, Zeyneb; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Thermopsis turcica, endemic to Turkey, is in danger of extinction. Studies on this species are very few due to the fact that it was only discovered in 1983 and grows in a small circumscribed area in Turkey. In this study, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) of methanol (TTM) and acetone (TTA) extracts of T. turcica were measured spectroscopically. Free radical scavenging activity was determined according to the elimination of DPPH radicals and total phenol content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reaction. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured with commercially available kits. Methanol and acetone extracts of T. turcica were found to have a specific radical scavenging effect. This effect was found to be related to the total phenolic content of the extracts. Since the TTA had a higher phenolic content than the methanol extract, it had a stronger radical scavenging effect. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity of the methanol extract was observed to be higher than that of its acetone counterpart. As a result, due to its antioxidative properties, T. turcica is thought to be a natural source of antioxidants. PMID:23961240

  2. Propagation of Exploration Seismic Sources in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.; Barton, P. J.; Gulick, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    The choice of safety radii to mitigation the impact of exploration seismic sources upon marine mammals is typically based on measurement or modeling in deep water. In shallow water environments, rule-of-thumb spreading laws are often used to predict the falloff of amplitude with offset from the source, but actual measurements (or ideally, near-perfect modeling) are still needed to account for the effects of bathymetric changes and subseafloor characteristics. In addition, the question: "how shallow is 'shallow?'" needs an answer. In a cooperative effort by NSF, MMS, NRL, IAGC and L-DEO, a series of seismic source calibration studies was carried out in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 2003. The sources used were the two-, six-, ten-, twelve-, and twenty-airgun arrays of R/V Ewing, and a 31-element, 3-string "G" gun array, deployed by M/V Kondor, an exploration industry source ship. The results of the Ewing calibrations have been published, documenting results in deep (3200m) and shallow (60m) water. Lengthy analysis of the Kondor results, presented here, suggests an approach to answering the "how shallow is shallow" question. After initially falling off steadily with source-receiver offset, the Kondor levels suddenly increased at a 4km offset. Ray-based modeling with a complex, realistic source, but with a simple homogeneous water column-over-elastic halfspace ocean shows that the observed pattern is chiefly due to geophysical effects, and not focusing within the water column. The same kind of modeling can be used to predict how the amplitudes will change with decreasing water depth, and when deep-water safety radii may need to be increased. Another set of data (see Barton, et al., this session) recorded in 20 meters of water during early 2005, however, shows that simple modeling may be insufficient when the geophysics becomes more complex. In this particular case, the fact that the seafloor was within the near field of the R/V Ewing source array seems to have

  3. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Mahanta, Sunayan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years). The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained) hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80°) and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°). Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°). However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25°) of extension (45°) out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100). Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18%) out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head were replaced

  4. Total Energy CMR Production

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Kolagani, R M

    2008-08-11

    The following outlines the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure used to prepare Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (NSMO) temperature sensors at Towson University (Prof. Rajeswari Kolagani) for the LCLS XTOD Total Energy Monitor. The samples have a sharp metal/insulator transition at T {approx} 200 K and are optimized for operation at T {approx} 180 K, where their sensitivity is the highest. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where these abbreviations are defined in table 1. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the attached manuscript accepted for publication in Sensor Letters (G. Yong et al., 2008).

  5. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  6. Endoscopic Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Titus D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Endoscopic neck surgery for the thyroid and parathyroid is being tested as an alternative to open thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of endoscopic transaxillary total thyroidectomy (ETTT). Methods and Results: Twenty-two consecutive patients from January 2006 to September 2008 underwent ETTT. No conversions to open were necessary. Mean age was 49.3±12.9 years, 20 were female, and 2 were male. Mean operating time was 238 minutes±72.7. Mean blood loss was 40mL±28.3mL. Mean weight of the gland was 137.05g±129.21g. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified with no permanent injury. Six patients developed hoarseness of the voice for a mean of 15.1±8.01 days. No patient developed tetany or hypocalcemia requiring treatment. Six patients experienced transient numbness in the anterior chest wall lasting 2 weeks in 5 patients and 2 months in one. All patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion: ETTT requires additional operative time compared with the open approach, but is cosmetically favorable. Visualization of the nerve and parathyroid is much better. Although the learning curve is steep, with experience the operative time will decrease. ETTT is different but safe and feasible. PMID:20202393

  7. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  8. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Slaughter, M

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, cardiac surgeons and biomedical engineers pioneered the development of total artificial hearts (TAH) for the treatment of left and right heart failure. As we mark the 10th anniversary of the first implantation of the AbioCor device, the use of TAH has been limited, having failed to reach its envisioned potential and promise as an alternative therapy to heart transplantation. The Syncardia/CardioWest device, originally developed 30 years ago as the Jarvik TAH and later renamed the CardioWest TAH, continues to be used clinically in over 50 centers within the US and Europe having supported over 900 patients worldwide. Syncardia continues to develop TAH technology as evidenced by their recent introduction of a new portable pneumatic driver that enables patients to be discharged from the hospital. In contrast to TAH devices, continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VAD) have made tremendous technological strides and are rapidly gaining widespread clinical acceptance. The VAD technology has demonstrated extraordinary safety and reliability records through evolving technologies, advanced biocompatible materials, and improved patient management. Subsequently, the number of TAH implantations remains low compared to the growth in LVAD implants. Nonetheless, the Syncardia/CardioWest TAH remains an important and viable option for patients with severe biventricular failure and end organ dysfunction. Overall, a 79% survival rate has been achieved in patients supported with a Syncardia/CardioWest TAH as bridge-to-transplantation. In this review article, a brief history on the evolution of TAH devices, their current use and emerging use of evolving continuous flow VAD technology as chronic biventricular and TAH device systems are presented. PMID:21775941

  9. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  10. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  11. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...

  12. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  13. Energy-harvesting power sources for very-high-G gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2010-04-01

    Several novel classes of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources are presented for very high-G gun-fired munitions (40,000 - 240,000 Gs). The power sources are designed to harvest energy from the firing acceleration and in certain applications also from in-flight vibrations. The harvested energy is converted to electrical energy for powering onboard electronics, and can provide enough energy to eliminate the need for batteries in applications such as fuzing. During the munitions firing, a spring-mass system undergoes deformation, thereby storing mechanical potential energy in the elastic element. After release, the spring-mass system is free to vibrate and energy is harvested using piezoelectric materials. Two distinct classes of systems are presented: First are systems where the spring-mass elements are loaded and released directly by the firing acceleration. Second are those which use intermediate mechanisms reacting to the firing acceleration to load and release the spring-mass system. Description and evaluation of various methods for loading and releasing the spring-mass system in the high-impact environment, as well as packaging for very-high-G survivability are discussed at length. Also included are methods for using the devices as hybrid generator-sensors, how the devices intrinsically provide augmented safety, and methods to increase the efficiency of such power sources for very high-G applications. Examples of a number of prototypes for complete high-G energy harvesting systems are presented. These power sources have been designed using extensive modeling, finite element analysis, and model validation testing. The results of laboratory, air-gun and firing tests are also presented.

  14. Total Quality and Organization Development. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William M.; Petrick, Joseph A.

    As the global business environment becomes more turbulent, quality management seems more indispensable. This book offers strategies for integrating the theory and practice of Total Quality Management (TQM) with organizational-development (OD) theory at all organizational levels. Chapter 1 answers the question "Why Total Quality Management and…

  15. Selection Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library collection development by school library media specialists and describes selection sources for new books and materials; retrospective selection sources for materials published in preceding years; and an acquisition source. Provides an overview of the selection process and includes 10 suggestions for selection. (LRW)

  16. Nonpoint Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, F. X.

    1978-01-01

    Presented a literature review of nonpoint source effects on water quality and pollution covering: (1) water quality effects; (2) watershed studies; (3) nonpoint source models; and nonpoint source controls. A list of 122 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  17. Extragalactic continuum sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtaoja, E.

    1989-09-01

    As with most other high-frequency radio telescopes, continuum work occupies only a small fraction - currently about 5% - of SEST's total time. The importance of these observations in increasing our understanding of quasars and other extragalactic sources is, however, large.

  18. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  19. Nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.

    1994-12-31

    Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.

  20. Kelvin waves in total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Stanford, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Tropical Kelvin waves have been observed previously in ozone mixing ratio data from the SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) instruments on board the Nimbus-7 satellite. Kelvin wave features in total column ozone, using version 6 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument (also on board Nimbus-7) are investigated. Results show eastward-propagating zonal waves 1-2 with periods approximately 5-15 days, amplitudes approximately 3-5 DU, and latitudinal symmetry typical of Kelvin waves. A simplified model calculation suggests that the primary source for the perturbations is slow Kelvin waves in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. Maximum Kelvin wave signatures occur in conjunction with westward lower-to-middle stratospheric equatorial zonal winds (a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wind modulation effect).

  1. Total Cellular RNA Modulates Protein Activity.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Subhabrata; DeMott, Christopher M; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    RNA constitutes up to 20% of a cell's dry weight, corresponding to ∼20 mg/mL. This high concentration of RNA facilitates low-affinity protein-RNA quinary interactions, which may play an important role in facilitating and regulating biological processes. In the yeast Pichia pastoris, the level of ubiquitin-RNA colocalization increases when cells are grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol instead of methanol as the sole carbon source. Total RNA isolated from cells grown in methanol increases β-galactosidase activity relative to that seen with RNA isolated from cells grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol. Because the total cellular RNA content changes with growth medium, protein-RNA quinary interactions can alter in-cell protein biochemistry and may play an important role in cell adaptation, critical to many physiological and pathological states. PMID:27456029

  2. p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter where the gate voltage is proportional to the incident radiation dose. It is configured in an n-WELL of a p-BODY substrate. It is operated in the saturation region which is ensured by connecting the gate to the drain. The n-well is connected to zero bias. Current flow from source to drain, rather than from peripheral leakage, is ensured by configuring the device as an edgeless MOSFET where the source completely surrounds the drain. The drain junction is the only junction not connected to zero bias. The MOSFET is connected as part of the feedback loop of an operational amplifier. The operational amplifier holds the drain current fixed at a level which minimizes temperature dependence and also fixes the drain voltage. The sensitivity to radiation is made maximum by operating the MOSFET in the OFF state during radiation soak.

  3. Vocal Rehabilitation after Partial or Total Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Calcaterra, Thomas C.; Zwitman, Daniel H.

    1972-01-01

    One of the paramount concerns of a patient who must undergo surgical intervention for laryngeal cancer is the effect on his speech. The type of operation is based on the anatomic extent of the cancer, but each procedure presents inherent problems in vocal rehabilitation. Glottic incompetence is the primary deficit to be overcome following hemilaryngectomy, whereas the aspirate voice is the principal problem with supraglottic laryngectomy. When the larynx must be sacrificed by total laryngectomy, the patient attempts to learn esophageal speech. If this fails, a vibrating sound source for speech can be acquired, either by the construction of a trachealpharyngeal communication or by use of a manual electric vibrator. PMID:5052051

  4. Scheme for total quantum teleportation

    PubMed

    DelRe; Crosignani; Di Porto P

    2000-03-27

    We address the issue of totally teleporting the quantum state of an external particle, as opposed to studies on partial teleportation of external single-particle states, total teleportation of coherent states and encoded single-particle states, and intramolecular teleportation of nuclear spin states. We find a set of commuting observables whose measurement directly projects onto the Bell basis and discuss a possible experiment, based on two-photon absorption, allowing, for the first time, total teleportation of the state of a single external photon through a direct projective measurement. PMID:11018993

  5. Assessing Operational Total Lightning Visualization Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Darden, Christopher B.; Nadler, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2003, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program successfully provided total lightning data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) to the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, Alabama. The major accomplishment was providing the observations in real-time to the NWS in the native Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) decision support system. Within days, the NALMA data were used to issue a tornado warning initiating seven years of ongoing support to the NWS' severe weather and situational awareness operations. With this success, SPoRT now provides real-time NALMA data to five forecast offices as well as working to transition data from total lightning networks at Kennedy Space Center and the White Sands Missile Range to the surrounding NWS offices. The only NALMA product that has been transitioned to SPoRT's partner NWS offices is the source density product, available at a 2 km resolution in 2 min intervals. However, discussions with users of total lightning data from other networks have shown that other products are available, ranging from spatial and temporal variations of the source density product to the creation of a flash extent density. SPoRT and the Huntsville, Alabama NWS are evaluating the utility of these variations as this has not been addressed since the initial transition in 2003. This preliminary analysis will focus on what products will best support the operational warning decision process. Data from 19 April 2009 are analyzed. On this day, severe thunderstorms formed ahead of an approaching cold front. Widespread severe weather was observed, primarily south of the Tennessee River with multiple, weak tornadoes, numerous severe hail reports, and wind. This preliminary analysis is the first step in evaluation which product(s) are best suited for operations. The ultimate goal is selecting a single product for use with all total lightning networks to streamline training and

  6. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  7. A Choir for Total Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Ruth Ann

    1980-01-01

    The Total Communication Choir of the Saginaw, Michigan, public schools integrates deaf and hearing elementary and junior high students in music performance. All students both sign and sing. Methods used to instruct the choir are described. (SJL)

  8. March 8 Solar Eclipse Totality

    NASA Video Gallery

    The moon passes in front of the sun, creating a total solar eclipse visible in parts of Southeast Asia. This video. taken from a live broadcast from the Exploratorium Science Center, shows the peri...

  9. Pyodermatitis vegetans after total colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Çobanoğlu, Bengü

    2015-01-01

    Pyostomatitis–pyodermatitis vegetans (PPV) is a rare dermatological manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease, characterized by erythematous, vesiculopustular, exudative, annular, and/or vegetating plaques over the intertriginous regions that may precede or appear at the same time as the mucosal lesions. Systemic corticosteroids, dapsone, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and subtotal/total colectomy are the most common treatment options. A 16-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with a four months history of thickly crusted erosions on his trunk, back, and lower extremity. He had ulcerative colitis for four years and total colectomy was done seven months ago. Clinical and histopathological examination of his lesions were consistent with pyostomatitis vegetans. Although subtotal/total colectomy has been reported as a treatment option for PPV, lesions reappeared three months after total colectomy in our patient. PMID:26904460

  10. Total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A.

    PubMed

    Mergott, Dustin J; Frank, Scott A; Roush, William R

    2004-08-17

    A convergent, highly stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A (1) is described. Key features of the synthesis include the transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic pentaene 11 and the transannular Morita-Baylis-Hillman cyclization of 12 that generates tetracycle 26. The total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A was completed by a sequence involving the highly beta-selective glycosidation reaction of 13 and glycosyl imidate 30. PMID:15173590

  11. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

  12. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  13. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  14. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  15. Total Irradiance Monitor Observations of Total Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) is the most recent instrument launched to measure total solar irradiance (TSI) from space. This electrical substitution radiometer has on-orbit degradation tracking to provide very stable long- term measurements of the net solar radiation incident on the Earth, and the instrument continues the 29-year record of this natural driver of Earth climate. Currently flying on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the TIM has been providing stable, low-noise, and accurate measurements of TSI since early 2003. The TIM will next be flying on NASA's Glory climate mission and is one instrument of the Total Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) selected to continue this important climate record well into the future. The SORCE/TIM has created renewed interest in the TSI absolute value and has acquired the first measurements of the total radiant energy released by large solar flares. Improvements in ground-based calibrations starting with the Glory/TIM will establish traceability linking current to upcoming measurements, solidifying the existing TSI climate data record in the undesirable event of a future data gap.

  16. Total Quality Management Is Total at Fox Valley Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    At Fox Valley Technical College (Wisconsin), application of Total Quality Management (TQM) brought positive outcomes and other effects. Areas in which TQM was used are considered, including admissions, employee safety, customer focus, policy formation, management performance appraisal, student services, creation of a self-managing class, TQM for…

  17. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  18. Experimental observation of total-internal-reflection rainbows.

    PubMed

    Adler, Charles L; Lock, James A; Mulholland, Jonathon; Keating, Brian; Ekelman, Diana

    2003-01-20

    A new class of rainbows is created when a droplet is illuminated from the inside by a point light source. The position of the rainbow depends on both the index of refraction of the droplet and the position of the light source, and the rainbow vanishes when the point source is too close to the center of the droplet. Here we experimentally measure the position of the transmission and one-internal-reflection total-internal-reflection rainbows, and the standard (primary) rainbow, as a function of light-source position. PMID:12570261

  19. Biomaterials in total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Katti, Kalpana S

    2004-12-10

    The current state of materials systems used in total hip replacement is presented in this paper. An overview of the various material systems used in total hip replacement reported in literature is presented in this paper. Metals, polymers, ceramics and composites are used in the design of the different components of hip replacement implants. The merits and demerits of these material systems are evaluated in the context of mechanical properties most suitable for total joint replacement such as a hip implant. Current research on advanced polymeric nanocomposites and biomimetic composites as novel materials systems for bone replacement is also discussed. This paper examines the current research in the materials science and the critical issues and challenges in these materials systems that require further research before application in biomedical industry. PMID:15556342

  20. [Dosimetry of total skin electron irradiation

    PubMed

    Kontra, Gábor; Horváth, Akos; Bajcsay, András; Németh, György

    2000-07-01

    Elaboration of such a simple technique for total skin electron irradiation which ensures good dose homogeneity and minimal x-ray background dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We started large electron field irradiations with the Neptun 10p linear accelerator in the National Institute of Oncology -Budapest in 1986. After the installation of the Siemens Mevatron KD linear accelerator it was possible to introduce the modified Stanford technique. This technique satisfies better the requirements given in the objective. The required field size of 200x75 cm is produced as a result of two fields with 30 degrees angular separation (dual field) at a source skin distance of 465 cm. The patient's body is exposed to six dual electron fields. The electron energy is 6 MeV. Despite the long source skin distance the treatment time is relatively short due to the high dose rate (940 mu/min) capability of our Mevatron KD. The in air dose profiles were measured in miniphantom with semiconductor detector. Depth dose curves were measured in water and in polystyrene phantom with semiconductor detector and with films. RESULTS: The measured dose homogeneity of the 6 MeV energy dual field with 30 degrees angular separation is within +/- 5%in a 200x75cm plane field. The depth of dose maximum of the resulting dose distribution of six dual field irradiation is between 2 mm and 5 mm, while the depth of 80% isodose curve is about 8 mm. The total body x-ray background dose is less than 1% of the skin dose. CONCLUSION: The modified Stanford technique adapted to our Mevatron KD linear accelerator is suitable for total skin electron beam therapy. PMID:12050758

  1. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Proffen, Thomas E; Kim, Hyunjeong

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  2. Total Ozone Prediction: Stratospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Ramdy; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The correct prediction of total ozone as a function of latitude and season is extremely important for global models. This exercise tests the ability of a particular model to simulate ozone. The ozone production (P) and loss (L) will be specified from a well- established global model and will be used in all GCMs for subsequent prediction of ozone. This is the "B-3 Constrained Run" from M&MII. The exercise mostly tests a model stratospheric dynamics in the prediction of total ozone. The GCM predictions will be compared and contrasted with TOMS measurements.

  3. Total eclipses of the sun.

    PubMed

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans. PMID:17817829

  4. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  5. Gap Balanced Total Knee Arthroplasty

    MedlinePlus

    Gap Balanced Total Knee Arthroplasty – SIGMA® with AOX™ You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2010 OR-Live, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Planning: A Total Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Harvard's energy conservation plan is presented in detail with the hope that it will suggest practical, cost-effective energy-saving ideas to other institutions, and to dispel frequently-expressed fears concerning the feasibility and acceptance problems of this type of program. The total energy plan incorporates numerous specific elements that…

  7. The Total Cost of Ownership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2000-01-01

    Examines what Total Cost of Ownership is regarding the purchase of technological resources for schools and the major expenses that are likely to occur after technological hardware and software have been installed. A list of best practices that can reduce costs approximately 15 percent and a checklist for technology budgeting are provided. (GR)

  8. Total Quality Management for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Malcolm S.; Gaunt, Helen J.

    Education in the United Kingdom has been shaped by the advent of local school management and the rapid growth of grant-maintained schools. Total Quality Management (TQM) offers a new way of looking at management principles and structures by identifying the needs of both internal and external customers. This book applies principles of TQM…

  9. Total Quality Management in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Ways to apply the concepts and processes of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education are discussed in this document. Following the introduction and the preface, chapter 1 provides a historical overview and describes the four cornerstones of TQM--an understanding of systems, psychology, knowledge, and statistics. Chapter 2 describes some of the…

  10. Total Synthesis of Amphirionin-4.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael; Kwon, Daniel; Taron, Matthew; Britton, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The first total synthesis of amphirionin-4 has been achieved using a combination of cross-coupling strategies to access the polyene side chain and a chlorohydrin-based approach to construct the tetrahydrofuranol core. The remote C9-stereocenter was introduced through a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling that proceeded with remote stereoinduction. PMID:26172382

  11. Endoscopic Transaxillary Near Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ejeh, Ijeoma Acholonu; Speights, Fredne; Rashid, Qammar N.; Ideis, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since first reported in 1996, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery of the cervical region has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of benign thyroid and parathyroid disease. The endoscopic transaxillary technique uses a remote lateral approach to the thyroid gland. Because of the perceived difficulty in accessing the contralateral anatomy of the thyroid gland, this technique has typically been reserved for patients with unilateral disease. Objectives: The present study examines the safety and feasibility of the transaxillary technique in dissecting and assessment of both thyroid lobes in performing near total thyroidectomy. Methods: Prior to this study we successfully performed endoscopic transaxillary thyroid lobectomy in 32 patients between August 2003 and August 2005. Technical feasibility in performing total thyroidectomy using this approach was accomplished first utilizing a porcine model followed by three human cadaver models prior to proceeding to human surgery. After IRB approval three female patients with histories of enlarging multinodular goiter were selected to undergo endoscopic near total thyroidectomy. Results: The average operative time for all models was 142 minutes (range 57–327 min). The three patients in this study had clinically enlarging multinodular goiters with an average size of 4 cm. The contralateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified in all cases. There was no post-operative bleeding, hoarseness or subcutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: Endoscopic transaxillary near total thyroidectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in human patients with bilateral thyroid disease. PMID:16882421

  12. The Total Synthesis of Neoamphimedine

    PubMed Central

    LaBarbera, Daniel V.; Bugni, Tim S.; Ireland, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    Neoamphimedine, a Pyridoacridine alkaloid from Xestospongia sp., is a potent antitumor agent both in vitro and in vivo. Neoamphimedine can efficiently induce topoisomerase II mediated catenation of plasmid DNA in vitro, and is the only member of more than one hundred pyridoacridines thus far to have this mechanism of action. Herein we report the first total synthesis of Neoamphimedine. PMID:17900144

  13. NEUTRON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Richmond, J.L.; Wells, C.E.

    1963-01-15

    A neutron source is obtained without employing any separate beryllia receptacle, as was formerly required. The new method is safer and faster, and affords a source with both improved yield and symmetry of neutron emission. A Be container is used to hold and react with Pu. This container has a thin isolating layer that does not obstruct the desired Pu--Be reaction and obviates procedures previously employed to disassemble and remove a beryllia receptacle. (AEC)

  14. Image-guided total marrow and total lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, Timothy E. . E-mail: Schultheiss@coh.org; Wong, Jeffrey; Liu, An; Olivera, Gustavo; Somlo, George

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique to spare normal tissue and allow dose escalation in total body irradiation (TBI). We have developed intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for the total marrow irradiation (TMI), total lymphatic irradiation, or total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For TBI, we typically use 12 Gy in 10 fractions delivered at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). Using helical tomotherapy, it is possible to deliver equally effective doses to the bone marrow and lymphatics while sparing normal organs to a significant degree. In the TMI patients, whole body skeletal bone, including the ribs and sternum, comprise the treatment target. In the total lymphatic irradiation, the target is expanded to include the spleen and major lymph node areas. Sanctuary sites for disease (brain and testes) are included when clinically indicated. Spared organs include the lungs, esophagus, parotid glands, eyes, oral cavity, liver, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, bladder, and ovaries. Results: With TBI, all normal organs received the TBI dose; with TMI, total lymphatic irradiation, and total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation, the visceral organs are spared. For the first 6 patients treated with TMI, the median dose to organs at risk averaged 51% lower than would be achieved with TBI. By putting greater weight on the avoidance of specific organs, greater sparing was possible. Conclusion: Sparing of normal tissues and dose escalation is possible using helical tomotherapy. Late effects such as radiation pneumonitis, veno-occlusive disease, cataracts, neurocognitive effects, and the development of second tumors should be diminished in severity and frequency according to the dose reduction realized for the organs at risk.

  15. Total sternectomy for malignant disease.

    PubMed

    París, F; Blasco, E; Tarazona, V; Pastor, J; Zarza, A G; Padilla, J

    1980-09-01

    From 1972 to 1978, six total sternectomies for malignant disease of the sternum were carried out. The clinical data are summarized and the surgical technique is described. After sternectomy, the area of chest wall resection was repaired by suturing a sheet of silicone rubber to the edges of the defect and chest wall stability was assured by using one or two stainless steel struts. Finally the defect was covered with methylmethacrylate prepared and applied inthe operative field. The prosthetic material was shaped until curing by polymerization was complete. We discuss the advantages of this type of reconstruction, the technical details, the use of antibiotics, the surgical drainage, and the need for biopsy prior to carrying out a total sternectomy. PMID:7412352

  16. Formal total synthesis of platencin.

    PubMed

    Varseev, Georgy N; Maier, Martin E

    2009-01-01

    The right bicycle: A concise formal synthesis of platencin was based on an efficient oxygen-mediated palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation of 1 to form a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane, and a deoxygenative rearrangement of tosylhydrazone 2 to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane 3. The total yield of the core structure 4 of platencin was 17.5% for 13 steps from a commercially available compound. Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl, TBS = tert-butyldimethylsilyl, Piv = pivaloyl. PMID:19353600

  17. A Total Synthesis of Paeoveitol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lun; Liu, Fengyi; Xu, Li-Wen; Gao, Ziwei; Zhao, Yu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A four-step total synthesis of paeoveitol (1), a recently disclosed norditerpene natural product from Paeonia vetchii, is reported. This highly concise synthetic route was guided by biosynthetic considerations and enabled by an unusual intermolecular ortho-quinone methide [4 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction, which proceeded with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations point to a crucial intermolecular hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction that govern selectivity in this process. PMID:27389027

  18. Diastereoselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Galiellalactone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewoo; Han, Young Taek; An, Hongchan; Kim, Kyeojin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Suh, Young-Ger

    2015-12-18

    An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-galiellalactone has been accomplished. The key features of the synthesis involve the highly stereoselective construction of the cis-trisubstituted cyclopentane intermediate by a Pd(0)-catalyzed cyclization, the stereospecific introduction of an angular hydroxyl group by Riley oxidation, and the efficient construction of the tricyclic system of (-)-galiellalactone via a combination of diastereoselective Hosomi-Sakurai crotylation and ring-closing metathesis (RCM). PMID:26544529

  19. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Pironetin

    PubMed Central

    Crimmins, Michael T.; Dechert, Anne-Marie R.

    2009-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of pironetin has been achieved in 11 steps from known aldehyde 2. The synthesis relies on the formation of 5 out of 6 stereocenters through titanium mediated iterative aldol reactions. Key steps in this synthesis include an acetal aldol reaction to establish the stereochemistry at C8 and C9, an acetate aldol reaction, and “Evans” syn aldol reaction. PMID:19281219

  20. Total synthesis of (-)-uniflorine A.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Cardona, Francesca; Goti, Andrea

    2009-11-01

    Total synthesis of (-)-uniflorine A (3) has been accomplished in nine steps and 11% overall yield from carbohydrate-based nitrone 5. The key steps of the synthetic strategy were a high regio- and complete stereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkene 6 with nitrone 5, a Tamao-Fleming reaction for replacing the silicon substituent with a hydroxy group with retention of configuration, and a Mitsunobu reaction to establish the correct configuration of the target molecule at C-6. PMID:19835391

  1. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Masahiko; Otsuka, Koji; Saito, Kazuhiko; Saito, Akira; Motegi, Kentaro; Date, Hiromi; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Tomotake; Goto, Satoru; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Fujimori, Akira; Watanabe, Makoto; Aoki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  2. Total Pancreatectomy With Islet Autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melena D.; Gelrud, Andres; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Dunn, Ty B.; Humar, Abhinav; Morgan, Katherine A.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Rastellini, Cristiana; Rickels, Michael R.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.; Andersen, Dana K.

    2015-01-01

    A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases focused on research gaps and opportunities in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for the management of chronic pancreatitis. The session was held on July 23, 2014 and structured into 5 sessions: (1) patient selection, indications, and timing; (2) technical aspects of TPIAT; (3) improving success of islet autotransplantation; (4) improving outcomes after total pancreatectomy; and (5) registry considerations for TPIAT. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; knowledge gaps and research needs were specifically highlighted. Common themes included the need to identify which patients best benefit from and when to intervene with TPIAT, current limitations of the surgical procedure, diabetes remission and the potential for improvement, opportunities to better address pain remission, GI complications in this population, and unique features of children with chronic pancreatitis considered for TPIAT. The need for a multicenter patient registry that specifically addresses the complexities of chronic pancreatitis and total pancreatectomy outcomes and postsurgical diabetes outcomes was repeatedly emphasized. PMID:25599324

  3. Sources and Levels of Ambient Ocean Sound near the Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Matsumoto, Haruyoshi; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Fowler, Matt J.; Lau, Tai-Kwan; Haxel, Joseph H.; Mellinger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region) from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapid disintegration also releases significant acoustic energy, equivalent to large-scale geophysical events. Overall ambient sound levels can be as much as ~10–20 dB higher in the open, deep ocean of the Scotia Sea compared to the relatively shallow Bransfield Strait. Noise levels become lowest during the austral winter, as sea-ice cover suppresses wind and wave noise. Ambient noise levels are highest during austral spring and summer, as surface noise, ice cracking and biological activity intensifies. Vocalizations of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus) whales also dominate the long-term spectra records in the 15–28 and 89 Hz bands. Blue whale call energy is a maximum during austral summer-fall in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait when ambient noise levels are a maximum and sea-ice cover is a minimum. Fin whale vocalizations were also most common during austral summer-early fall months in both the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. The hydrophone data overall do not show sustained anthropogenic sources (ships and airguns), likely due to low coastal traffic and the typically rough weather and sea conditions of the Southern Ocean. PMID:25875205

  4. Active Source Tomography of Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Results From the 2006 Seismic Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, L.; Patanè, D.; Cocina, O.; Castellano, M.; Sgroi, T.; Favali, P.; de Gori, P.

    2008-12-01

    Stromboli island, located in the Southern Tyrrhenian sea, is the emerged part (about 900 m a.s.l.) of a 3km-high strato-volcano. Its persistent Strombolian activity, documented for over 2000 years, is sometimes interrupted by lava effusions or major explosions. Despite the amount of recent published geophysical studies aimed to clarifying eruption dynamics, the spatial extend and geometrical characteristics of the plumbing system remain poorly understood. In fact, the knowledge of the inner structure and the zones of magma storage is limited to the upper few hundreds meters of the volcanic edifice and P- and S-waves velocity models are available only in restricted areas. In order to obtain a more suitable internal structural and velocity models of the volcano, from 25 November to 2 December 2006, a seismic tomography experiment through active seismics using air-gun sources was carried out and the final Vp model is here presented. The data has been inverted for the Vp structure by using the code Simulps13q, considering a 3D grid of nodes spaced 0.5 km down to 2 km depth, beneath the central part of volcano. The results show a relatively high velocity zones located both in the inner part of the volcanic structure, at about 1km b.s.l. and in the last 200-300 m a.s.l. in correspondence with the volcanic conduit. Slower zones were located around the summit craters in agreement with volcanological and petrological informations for the area. The relatively high velocity zones could suggest the presence of intrusive bodies related to the plumbing system.

  5. Sources and levels of ambient ocean sound near the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Dziak, Robert P; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Stafford, Kathleen M; Matsumoto, Haruyoshi; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Fowler, Matt J; Lau, Tai-Kwan; Haxel, Joseph H; Mellinger, David K

    2015-01-01

    Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region) from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapid disintegration also releases significant acoustic energy, equivalent to large-scale geophysical events. Overall ambient sound levels can be as much as ~10-20 dB higher in the open, deep ocean of the Scotia Sea compared to the relatively shallow Bransfield Strait. Noise levels become lowest during the austral winter, as sea-ice cover suppresses wind and wave noise. Ambient noise levels are highest during austral spring and summer, as surface noise, ice cracking and biological activity intensifies. Vocalizations of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus) whales also dominate the long-term spectra records in the 15-28 and 89 Hz bands. Blue whale call energy is a maximum during austral summer-fall in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait when ambient noise levels are a maximum and sea-ice cover is a minimum. Fin whale vocalizations were also most common during austral summer-early fall months in both the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. The hydrophone data overall do not show sustained anthropogenic sources (ships and airguns), likely due to low coastal traffic and the typically rough weather and sea conditions of the Southern Ocean. PMID:25875205

  6. Sources and levels of ambient ocean sound near the antarctic peninsula

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Matsumoto, Haruyoshi; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Fowler, Matt J.; Lau, Tai-Kwan; Haxel, Joseph H.; Mellinger, David K.; et al

    2015-04-14

    Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region) from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapid disintegration also releases significant acoustic energy, equivalent to large-scale geophysical events. Overall ambient sound levels can be as much as ~10–20 dB higher in the open,more » deep ocean of the Scotia Sea compared to the relatively shallow Bransfield Strait. Noise levels become lowest during the austral winter, as sea-ice cover suppresses wind and wave noise. Ambient noise levels are highest during austral spring and summer, as surface noise, ice cracking and biological activity intensifies. Vocalizations of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus) whales also dominate the long-term spectra records in the 15–28 and 89 Hz bands. Blue whale call energy is a maximum during austral summer-fall in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait when ambient noise levels are a maximum and sea-ice cover is a minimum. Fin whale vocalizations were also most common during austral summer-early fall months in both the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. The hydrophone data overall do not show sustained anthropogenic sources (ships and airguns), likely due to low coastal traffic and the typically rough weather and sea conditions of the Southern Ocean.« less

  7. Sources and levels of ambient ocean sound near the antarctic peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Dziak, Robert P.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Matsumoto, Haruyoshi; Lee, Won Sang; Fowler, Matt J.

    2015-04-14

    Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region) from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapid disintegration also releases significant acoustic energy, equivalent to large-scale geophysical events. Overall ambient sound levels can be as much as ~10–20 dB higher in the open, deep ocean of the Scotia Sea compared to the relatively shallow Bransfield Strait. Noise levels become lowest during the austral winter, as sea-ice cover suppresses wind and wave noise. Ambient noise levels are highest during austral spring and summer, as surface noise, ice cracking and biological activity intensifies. Vocalizations of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus) whales also dominate the long-term spectra records in the 15–28 and 89 Hz bands. Blue whale call energy is a maximum during austral summer-fall in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait when ambient noise levels are a maximum and sea-ice cover is a minimum. Fin whale vocalizations were also most common during austral summer-early fall months in both the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. The hydrophone data overall do not show sustained anthropogenic sources (ships and airguns), likely due to low coastal traffic and the typically rough weather and sea conditions of the Southern Ocean.

  8. Neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-10-21

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap.

  9. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  10. Crowd Sourcing.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish. PMID:27039640

  11. NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Reardon, W.A.; Lennox, D.H.; Nobles, R.G.

    1959-01-13

    A neutron source of the antimony--beryllium type is presented. The source is comprised of a solid mass of beryllium having a cylindrical recess extending therein and a cylinder containing antimony-124 slidably disposed within the cylindrical recess. The antimony cylinder is encased in aluminum. A berylliunn plug is removably inserted in the open end of the cylindrical recess to completely enclose the antimony cylinder in bsryllium. The plug and antimony cylinder are each provided with a stud on their upper ends to facilitate handling remotely.

  12. RADIATION SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Brucer, M.H.

    1958-04-15

    A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

  13. Epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chang, Anna Marie; Ho, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shirley H.L.; Yang, Unique

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To understand whether the epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea is corneal or conjunctival in origin. Methods Four cases of total sclerocornea (male:female = 1:3; mean age = 5.4±4.3; 1–11 years old) who received penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) at our hospital between 2008 and 2011 were included. Corneal buttons obtained during PKP were used for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as immunoconfocal microscopy for cytokeratins 3, 12, and 13, goblet cell mucin MUC5AC, connexin 43, stem cell markers p63 and ABCG2, laminin-5, and fibronectin. Results After a mean follow-up period of 38.8±14.0 (12–54) months, the grafts remained clear in half of the patients. TEM examination revealed a markedly attenuated Bowman’s layer in the scleralized corneas, with irregular and variably thinned collagen lamellar layers, and disorganization and random distribution of collagen fibrils, which were much larger in diameter compared with a normal cornea. Immunoconfocal microscopy showed that keratin 3 was expressed in all four patients, while p63, ABCG2, and MUC5AC were all absent. Cornea-specific keratin 12 was universally expressed in Patients 1 to 3, while mucosa (including conjunctiva)-specific keratin 13 was negative in these patients. Interestingly, keratin 12 and 13 were expressed in Patient 4 in a mutually exclusive manner. Linear expression of laminin-5 in the basement membrane zone and similar expression of fibronectin were observed. Conclusions The epithelia in total sclerocornea are essentially corneal in phenotype, but in the event of massive corneal angiogenesis, invasion by the conjunctival epithelium is possible. PMID:24744607

  14. Total Synthesis of Gombamide A.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    The first total synthesis of Gombamide A (1), a cytotoxic cyclic thiopeptide from the sponge Clathria gombawuiensis, has been achieved. Highlights of the convergent synthesis feature a disulfide bond forming cascade to close the 17-membered macrocycle and a selenoazidylation procedure to access the unusual para-hydroxystyrlyamide (pHSA) moiety. The synthesis required 18 steps, 11 steps in its longest linear sequence, and proceeded in 9.1% overall yield. This work will facilitate the study of the biological effects of Gombamide A and provide groundwork to explore the structure-activity relationship around this rare natural product. PMID:27442228

  15. Total Synthesis of the Ammosamides

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Chambers C.; Fenical, William

    2010-01-01

    The ammosamides A-C are chlorinated pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline metabolites isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNR-698. The natural products, which possess a dense array of heteroatoms, were synthesized in 17–19 steps from 4-chloroisatin. That the five nitrogen atoms were introduced at the appropriate time and in a suitable oxidation state was key to the success of the total synthesis. Compared to synthetic deschloro ammosamide B, natural ammosamide B is much less susceptible to oxidative degradation. PMID:20131899

  16. Total Synthesis of Calophyline A.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Xie, Xiaoni; Zu, Liansuo

    2016-08-22

    Reported herein is the total synthesis of calophyline A, an indoline natural product possessing distinct ring connectivity which has not been synthesized previously. The synthetic route features several key transformations, including an aza-pinacol rearrangement to construct the nitrogen-containing bridged [3.2.2] bicycle, a Heck cyclization to assemble the fused 6/5/6/5 ring system, and a challenging late-stage aldol reaction to generate both a neopentyl quaternary stereogenic center and an oxygen-containing bridged [3.2.1] bicycle. PMID:27294980

  17. Total Synthesis of the Hamigerans.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Xue, Dongsheng; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Shuanhu

    2016-08-16

    The first total synthesis of hamigerans D, G, L, and N-Q has been accomplished. A convergent approach was used to build the basic tricarbocyclic ring system bearing a 5-6-6 structure. A sequence of oxidative cleavage, homologation, and ring regeneration provided access to the 5-7-6 skeleton of hamigeran G. Based on the biogenetic hypothesis, elegant and highly efficient biomimetic transformations of hamigeran G into hamigerans D, N-Q, and L were achieved. PMID:27390907

  18. Characterization of total flare energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that the estimates of total energy in the prime flares lie well below the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor upper limits. This is consistent with our knowledge of the energy distribution in solar flares. Insufficient data exist for us to be very firm about this conclusion, however, and major energetic components could exist undetected, especially in the EUV-XUV and optical bands. In addition, the radiant energy cannot quantitatively be compared at this time with non-radiant terms because of even larger uncertainties in the latter.

  19. The Painful Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Mitchell; Park, Andrew; Gerlinger, Tad L

    2016-04-01

    There are many causes of residual pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Evaluation and management begins with a comprehensive history and physical examination, followed by radiographic evaluation of the replaced and adjacent joints, as well as previous films of the replaced joint. Further workup includes laboratory analysis, along with a synovial fluid aspirate to evaluate the white blood cell count with differential as well as culture. Advanced imaging modalities may be beneficial when the diagnosis remains unclear. Revision surgery is not advisable without a clear diagnosis, as it may be associated with poor results. PMID:26772940

  20. Development of a totally implantable total artificial heart controller.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Choi, W W; Min, B G

    1991-01-01

    Using a one chip microcontroller, 87C196 (One chip EPROM), and an erasable and programmable logic device (EPLD), an implantable control system to drive a pendulum type electromechanical total artificial heart was developed. This control system consists of four parts: a main management system, a motor driver with power regulator, a state monitoring system, and a communication portion. The main system has a speed detector, proportional and integral (PI) control, pulse width modulation (PWM) generation, serial communication, and an analog data processor. Two kinds of power system are used, separated by eight photocoupler arrays to improve system stability. When the performance of each compartment was compared with that of the previously used Z80 microprocessor based control system, good correspondence was shown. Logic power consumption was reduced to one third that of the previous controller. Using mock circulation tests, the overall performance of the control system was evaluated. PMID:1751254

  1. CLINICAL OUTCOME AFTER INFECTED TOTAL KNEE AND TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, Falk; Leichtle, Carmen Ina; Schlumberger, Michael; Leichtle, Ulf Gunther; Wünschel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Infection after total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a serious complication which typically leads to a long lasting and intensive surgical and medicamentous treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence outcome after revision surgery caused by prosthetic infection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 64 patients who had revision surgery between 1989 and 2009 due to periprosthetic infection. We examined a total of 69 joints (TKA: 36%, THA: 64%), follow-up 5.1 years (0.5-21 years) after the initial surgical intervention. The mean patient age at time of surgery was 67 years old (43-79 years old). Clinical data and scores including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC)-Index, the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS) were surveyed. Results: There was no difference in clinical scores regarding treatment between a single and a multiple stage treatment regime. Infections with multiple microorganisms and Enterococcus spp. lead to a significantly higher number of interventions. Using a modified Tsukayama system we classified 24% as type I, 34% type II and 42% type III- infections, with no differences in clinical outcome. Overweight patients had a significantly lower HHS and WOMAC-score. Immunosuppression leads to a worse WOMAC and HSS-Score. An increased number of procedures was associated to a limping gait. Conclusion: Thorough surgical technique leads to good clinical results independent of infection-type and treatment philosophy. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. PMID:26997914

  2. Terahertz sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumyatsky, Pavel; Alfano, Robert R.

    2011-03-01

    We present an overview and history of terahertz (THz) sources for readers of the biomedical and optical community for applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, imaging, and spectroscopy. THz low-frequency vibrational modes are involved in many biological, chemical, and solid state physical processes.

  3. Superluminal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, R C

    1995-01-01

    Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604

  4. Kelvin waves in total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Stanford, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical Kelvin waves have been observed previously in ozone mixing ratio data from the SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) instruments on board the Nimbus-7 satellite. The present study investigates Kelvin wave features in total column ozone, using version 6 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument (also on Nimbus-7). Results show eastward-propagating zonal waves 1-2 with periods approx. 5-15 days, amplitudes approx. 3-5 Dobson Units (1-2% of the time mean), and latitudinal symmetry typical of Kelvin waves. The analyses and a linear model in this study suggest that the primary source of the perturbations is slow Kelvin waves in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. Maximum Kelvin wave signatures occur in conjunction with westward lower-to-middle stratospheric equatorial zonal winds (a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wind modulation effect). The significance of these results is that the TOMS data are shown to be useful for investigations with global coverage of a major component of tropical stratospheric dynamics, Kelvin waves. The TOMS data set with its excellent coverage and high quality should be useful in validating model studies in the relatively data sparse and dynamically difficult tropical region.

  5. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-03-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using /sup 15/N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats.

  6. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  7. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  8. Total ozone trend over Cairo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, G. K. Y.

    1994-01-01

    A world wide interest in protecting ozone layer against manmade effects is now increasing. Assessment of the ozone depletion due to these activities depends on how successfully we can separate the natural variabilities from the data. The monthly mean values of total ozone over Cairo (30 05N) for the period 1968-1988, have been analyzed using the power spectral analysis technique. The technique used in this analysis does not depend on a pre-understanding of the natural fluctuations in the ozone data. The method depends on increasing the resolution of the spectral peaks in order to obtain the more accurate sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. Also it handles the possible sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. The results show that it is possible to detect some of the well known national fluctuations in the ozone record such as annual, semiannual, quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations. After separating the natural fluctuations from the ozone record, the trend analysis of total ozone over Cairo showed that a decrease of about -1.2% per decade has occurred since 1979.

  9. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    PubMed

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations. PMID:23588878

  10. Major sources of benzene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

  11. Major sources of benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L A

    1989-01-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

  12. Total synthesis of maoecrystal V.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin; Lin, Guang; Shao, Wen-Bin; Gong, Jian-Xian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Maoecrystal V (1) is a novel diterpenoid, which was originally isolated from the leaves of the Chinese medicinal herb Isodon eriocalyx in 2004 by Sun et al.1 It has been found to be selectively cytotoxic towards HeLa cells, with an IC50 value of 20 ng mL(-1) . Significant research efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of maoecrystal V because of its intriguing biological properties, rarity in nature, and complex structural features. Herein, we describe our recent investigations, which have culminated in the total synthesis of (±)-maoecrystal V. The current strategy involved three key steps for the successful construction of the key tetrahydrofuran oxa-bridge skeleton, including a Wessely oxidative dearomatization, a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and a Rh(II) -catalyzed O - H insertion reaction. PMID:25504983

  13. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  14. Concise total synthesis of glucosepane.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Cristian; Wang, Tina; Spiegel, David A

    2015-10-16

    Glucosepane is a structurally complex protein posttranslational modification that is believed to exist in all living organisms. Research in humans suggests that glucosepane plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both diabetes and human aging, yet comprehensive biological investigations of this metabolite have been hindered by a scarcity of chemically homogeneous material available for study. Here we report the total synthesis of glucosepane, enabled by the development of a one-pot method for preparation of the nonaromatic 4H-imidazole tautomer in the core. Our synthesis is concise (eight steps starting from commercial materials), convergent, high-yielding (12% overall), and enantioselective. We expect that these results will prove useful in the art and practice of heterocyclic chemistry and beneficial for the study of glucosepane and its role in human health and disease. PMID:26472902

  15. Anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Steg, A

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe an anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy. They show that Denonvilliers' fascia is made up of many membranous layers starting at the bladder. They recall the fact that the preprostatic veins are attached at the bottom, not only to the venae dorsales penis, but also to the venae pudendae internae which runs under the levator ani muscle. These preprostatic veins lie inside a vessel-bearing blade of tissue made of muscular and collagenous tissue derived from the anterior vesical wall. This anatomical study recalls the fact that the interprostatorectal dissection line is behind Denonvilliers' fascia and that the preprostatic vein dissection line is on the anterior aspect of the membranous urethra. PMID:4043160

  16. NAVIGATION IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire

    2015-01-01

    Navigation was the most significant advance in instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty over the last decade. It provides surgeons with a precision tool for carrying out surgery, with the possibility of intraoperative simulation and objective control over various anatomical and surgical parameters and references. Since the first systems, which were basically used to control the alignment of bone cutting referenced to the mechanical axis of the lower limb, many other surgical steps have been incorporated, such as component rotation, ligament balancing and arranging the symmetry of flexion and extension spaces, among others. Its efficacy as a precision tool with an effective capacity for promoting better alignment of the lower-limb axis has been widely proven in the literature, but the real value of optimized alignment and the impact of navigation on clinical results and the longevity of arthroplasty have yet to be established. PMID:27026979

  17. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  18. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  19. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  20. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  1. Total quality management program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  2. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  3. Hypermnesia and total retrieval time.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2006-05-01

    Recall performance sometimes improves over repeated recall attempts, a phenomenon dubbed hypermnesia. A critical theoretical issue is whether hypermnesia is due to repeated testing per se or increased retrieval time. The present experiments investigated by contrasting five testing conditions. All participants were presented with the same study list followed by either two shorter recall tests or a single longer test. In the multiple test conditions, the tests were either separated by a (filled) 7-minute interval (the multiple-split condition), or presented consecutively, with no break (the multiple-immediate condition). In the single test conditions, the test either began at the start of the recall session, after a (filled) 7-minute delay, or with a 7-minute interruption inserted in the middle. The multiple-split condition produced more reminiscence and hypermnesia than the multiple-immediate condition. More importantly, the multiple-split condition produced greater cumulative recall than any of the other conditions (which did not differ among themselves). That is, single and repeated recall tests of equal total duration are not functionally equivalent. PMID:16766451

  4. Towards a quantitative understanding of total OH reactivity: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yudong; Shao, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Nölscher, Anke C.; Kessel, Stephan; Guenther, Alex; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Over the past fifty years, considerable efforts have been devoted to measuring the concentration and chemical speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air and emissions. Recently, it has become possible to directly determine the overall effect of atmospheric trace gases on the oxidant hydroxyl radicals (OH), by measuring OH reactivity (OH loss frequency). Quantifying total OH reactivity is one way to characterize the roles of VOCs in formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Approaches for measuring total OH reactivity in both emissions and ambient air have been progressing and have been applied in a wide range of studies. Here we evaluate the main techniques used to measure OH reactivity, including two methods directly measuring OH decay and one comparative reactivity method (CRM), and summarize the existing experimental and modeling studies. Total OH reactivity varies significantly on spatial, diurnal, seasonal and vertical bases. Comparison with individually detected OH sinks often reveals a significant missing reactivity, ranging from 20% to over 80% in some environments. Missing reactivity has also been determined in most source emission studies. These source measurements, as well as numerical models, have indicated that both undetected primary emissions and unmeasured secondary products could contribute to missing reactivity. A quantitative understanding of total OH reactivity of various sources and ambient environments will enhance our understanding of the suite of compounds found in emissions as well as chemical processes, and will also provide an opportunity for the improvement of atmospheric chemical mechanisms.

  5. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to screen various solvent extracts of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla to display potent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Material and methods A detailed study was performed on the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla (TLM) and its derived fractions {n-hexane (TLH), chloroform (TLC) ethyl acetate (TLE) n-butanol (TLB) and residual aqueous fraction (TLA)} by in vitro chemical analyses and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injuries (lipid peroxidation and glutathione contents) in male Sprague-Dawley rat. The total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of all the fractions were also determined. TLM was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents. Results The total phenolic contents (TPC) (121.9±3.1 mg GAE/g extract) of TLM while total flavonoid contents (TFC) of TLE (60.9 ±2.2 mg RTE/g extract) were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Phytochemical screening of TLM revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. The EC50 values based on the DPPH (41.0±1 μg/ml), ABTS (10.0±0.9 μg/ml) and phosphomolybdate (10.7±2 μg/ml) for TLB, hydroxyl radicals (8.0±1 μg/ml) for TLC, superoxide radicals (57.0±0.3 μg/ml) for TLM and hydrogen peroxide radicals (68.0±2 μg/ml) for TLE were generally lower showing potential antioxidant properties. A significant but marginal positive correlation was found between TPC and EC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl, phosphomolybdate and ABTS, whereas another weak and positive correlation was determined between TFC and EC50 values for superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Results of in vivo experiment

  6. ORNL ECR multicharged ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A multicharged ion source based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating has been designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collision studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge states in experiments requiring higher beam intensities than could be previously obtained in our laboratory. The source has already produced up to fully stripped C and O beams, as well as up to He-like Ar beams. Measurements of the energy spread of ions extracted from the ion source operating in both single-stage and two-stage mode are described. In addition, initial results of total cross section measurements for fully stripped light ions incident on atomic hydrogen in the energy range 0.2 to 10 keV are presented. 13 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  7. Total scalp irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Nigel . E-mail: nporton@facstaff.wisc.edu; Jaradat, Hazim; Welsh, James; Tome, Wolfgang

    2005-09-30

    Homogeneous irradiation of the scalp poses technical and dosimetric challenges due to the extensive, superficial, curved treatment volume. Conventional treatments on a linear accelerator use multiple matched electron fields or a combination of electron and photon fields. Problems with these techniques include dose heterogeneity in the target due to varying source-to-skin distance (SSD) and angle of beam incidence, significant dose to the brain, and the potential for overdose or underdose at match lines between the fields. Linac-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans have similar problems. This work presents treatment plans for total scalp irradiation on a helical tomotherapy machine. Helical tomotherapy is well-suited for scalp irradiation because it has the ability to deliver beamlets that are tangential to the scalp at all points. Helical tomotherapy also avoids problems associated with field matching and use of more than one modality. Tomotherapy treatment plans were generated and are compared to plans for treatment of the same patient on a linac. The resulting tomotherapy plans show more homogeneous target dose and improved critical structure dose when compared to state-of-the-art linac techniques. Target equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the best tomotherapy plan was slightly higher than for the linac plan, while the volume of brain tissue receiving over 30 Gy was reduced by two thirds. Furthermore, the tomotherapy plan can be more reliably delivered than linac treatments, because the patient is aligned prior to each treatment based on megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT)

  8. Nineteen-step total synthesis of (+)-phorbol.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Chu, Hang; Felding, Jakob; Baran, Phil S

    2016-04-01

    Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from many chemists and biologists owing to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters. Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogues has relied on isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies, owing to its complexity and unusual placement of oxygen atoms. Purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive, and biological synthesis has not led to even the simplest members of this terpene family. Recently, the chemical syntheses of eudesmanes, germacrenes, taxanes and ingenanes have all benefited from a strategy inspired by the logic of two-phase terpene biosynthesis in which powerful C-C bond constructions and C-H bond oxidations go hand in hand. Here we implement a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy to achieve enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene. The purpose of this synthesis route is not to displace isolation or semisynthesis as a means of generating the natural product per se, but rather to enable access to analogues containing unique placements of oxygen atoms that are otherwise inaccessible. PMID:27007853

  9. 40 CFR 63.602 - Standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 gram/metric ton... cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain...

  10. 40 CFR 63.623 - Standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of... shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases...

  11. 40 CFR 63.622 - Standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of... shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases...

  12. 40 CFR 63.622 - Standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of... shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases...

  13. 40 CFR 63.602 - Standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 gram/metric ton... cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain...

  14. 40 CFR 63.622 - Standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of... shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases...

  15. 40 CFR 63.623 - Standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of... shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases...

  16. 40 CFR 63.623 - Standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of... shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases...

  17. 40 CFR 63.602 - Standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 gram/metric ton... cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain total... cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any affected source any gases which contain...

  18. Radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  19. Cobalt source calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rizvi, H.M.

    1999-12-03

    The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building 774-A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C-067 of Building 773-A. The data from this experiment shows the following: (1) The dose rate of the No.2 cobalt source in Building 774-A measured 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 17, 1999). The dose rate of the Shepherd Model 109 Gamma cobalt source in Building 773-A measured 9.27 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 25, 1999). These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. (2) Two calibration tests in the 774-A source placed the graduated cylinder with the dosimeter solution approximately 1.5 inches off center in the axial direction. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0.92% from 1.083 x 10{sup 5} rad/h to 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h. and (3) A similar test in the cobalt source in 773-A placed the graduated cylinder approximately 2.0 inches off center in the axial direction. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by 10.34% from 1.036 x 10{sup 6} to 9.27 x 10{sup 5}. This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source. In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke (ferrous ammonium sulfate) dosimeter. This solution works well for dose rates to 10{sup 7} rad/h. During irradiation of the Fricke dosimeter solution the Fe{sup 2+} ions ionize to Fe{sup 3+}. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint (not visible to the human eye). To determine the magnitude of the change in Fe ions, one places the solution in an UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. The UV-VIS Spectrophotometer measures the absorbency of the solution. Dividing the absorbency by the total time (in minutes) of exposure yields the dose rate.

  20. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  1. ARIZONA CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  2. HAWAII CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  3. CALIFORNIA CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  4. NEVADA CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  5. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  6. Broad-band calibration of marine seismic sources used by R/V Polarstern for academic research in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, Monika; Boebel, Olaf; El Naggar, Saad; Jokat, Wilfried; Werner, Berthold

    2008-08-01

    Air guns and air-gun arrays of different volumes are used for scientific seismic surveys with R/V Polarstern in polar regions. To assess the potential risk of these research activities on marine mammal populations, knowledge of the sound pressure field of the seismic sources is essential. Therefore, a broad-band (0-80 kHz) calibration study was conducted at the Heggernes Acoustic Range, Norway. A GI (2.4 l), a G (8.5 l) and a Bolt gun (32.8 l) were deployed as single sources, 3 GI (7.4 l), 3 G (25.6 l) and 8 VLF™ Prakla-Seismos air guns (24.0 l) as arrays. Each configuration was fired along a line of 3-4 km length running between two hydrophone chains with receivers in 35, 100, 198 and 263 m depth. Peak-to-peak, zero-to-peak, rms and sound exposure levels (SEL) were analysed as functions of range. They show the typical dipole-like directivity of marine seismic sources with amplitude cancellation close to the sea surface, higher amplitudes in greater depths, and sound pressure levels which continuously decrease with range. Levels recorded during the approach are lower than during the departure indicating a shadowing effect of Polarsterns's hull. Backcalculated zero-to-peak source levels range from 224-240 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. Spectral source levels are highest below 100 Hz and amount to 182-194 dB re 1 μPa Hz-1. They drop off continuously with range and frequency. At 1 kHz they are ~30 dB, at 80 kHz ~60 dB lower than the peak level. Above 1 kHz amplitude spectra are dominated by Polarstern's self-noise. From the rms and sound exposure levels of the deepest hydrophone radii for different thresholds are derived. For a 180 dB rms-level threshold radii maximally vary between 200 and 600 m, for a 186 dB SEL threshold between 50 and 300 m.

  7. The Total Quality Movement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, John A.; Whitaker, Sheldon V., Jr.

    The total quality movement began as a result of the desire of W. Edwards Deming, an American statistician, to permit the economic system to maintain its edge in a growing global market. The 14 points Deming listed as essential to "total quality management" have recently been adapted to the field of education. The success of the total quality…

  8. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOEpatents

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  9. The excitation of normal modes by a curved line source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, E.

    1987-12-01

    The polynomial moments, up to total degree two, of the stress glut are calculated for a curved line source. The significance of the moments, whose total degree is one, is emphasized and the implication for inversion is discussed.

  10. Trends in total column ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, F. S.; Angell, J.; Attmannspacher, W.; Bloomfield, P.; Bojkov, R. D.; Harris, N.; Komhyr, W.; Mcfarland, M.; Mcpeters, R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    It is important to ensure the best available data are used in any determination of possible trends in total ozone in order to have the most accurate estimates of any trends and the associated uncertainties. Accordingly, the existing total ozone records were examined in considerable detail. Once the best data set has been produced, the statistical analysis must examine the data for any effects that might indicate changes in the behavior of global total ozone. The changes at any individual measuring station could be local in nature, and herein, particular attention was paid to the seasonal and latitudinal variations of total ozone, because two dimensional photochemical models indicate that any changes in total ozone would be most pronounced at high latitudes during the winter months. The conclusions derived from this detailed examination of available total ozone can be split into two categories, one concerning the quality and the other the statistical analysis of the total ozone record.

  11. From reactors to long pulse sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mezei, F. |

    1995-12-31

    We will show, that by using an adapted instrumentation concept, the performance of a continuous source can be emulated by one switch on in long pulses for only about 10% of the total time. This 10 fold gain in neutron economy opens up the way for building reactor like sources with an order of magnitude higher flux than the present technological limits. Linac accelerator driven spallation lends itself favorably for the realization of this kind of long pulse sources, which will be complementary to short pulse spallation sources, the same way continuous reactor sources are.

  12. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  13. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  14. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  15. THE EPA MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures or violations of total maximum daily loads of fecal organisms in watersheds frequently generate a need to identify the major sources of contamination or, at least, determine whether the source is human or animal. A few years ago E. coli ribotyping was the only met...

  16. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS PLANS for Phase I the INTERNATIONAL PILOT FOR Global Radiological source SORTING, Tracking, AND MONITORING (GradSStraM) Using eMERGING RFID AND WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO PROVIDE TOTAL ASSET AND INFORMATION VISUALIZATIONA United states- European Union Lighthouse Priority Project for fostering trade and reducing regulatory burden

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of shipments of radioisotopes developed in the United States (US) are transported domestically and internationally for medical and industrial applications, including to partner laboratories in European Union (EU) countries. Over the past five years, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have worked with state regulatory compliance personnel, key private sector shippers and carriers, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring of medical and industrial radioisotopes in commerce. The EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project tested, evaluated, and integrated RFID technologies in laboratory settings, and at multiple private-sector shipping and distribution facilities (Perkin Elmer and DHL) using common radioisotopes used in everyday commerce. The RFID tracking was also tested in association with other deployed technologies including radiation detection, chemical/explosives detection, advanced imaging, lasers, and infrared scanning. At the 2007 EU-US Summit, the leaders of the US Department of Commerce (DOC) and EU European Commission (EC) committed to pursue jointly directed Lighthouse Priority Projects. These projects are intended to 'foster cooperation' and 'reduce regulatory burdens' with respect to transatlantic commerce. The Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) Lighthouse Project on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been directed to 'develop a joint framework for cooperation on identification and development of best practices for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies.' The RFID Lighthouse Priority Project commits both sides to endeavor to align U.S. and EU regulatory and policy approaches on RFID technologies, including pilot projects in the public sector

  17. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abeyta, Cristy L; Matzke, James L; Zarling, John; Tompkin, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  18. Distributed Power Sources for Mars Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Shaban, Yasser

    2003-01-01

    One of the fundamental needs for Mars colonization is an abundant source of energy. The total energy system will probably use a mixture of sources based on solar energy, fuel cells, and nuclear energy. Here we concentrate on the possibility of developing a distributed system employing several unique new types of nuclear energy sources, specifically small fusion devices using inertial electrostatic confinement and portable ``battery type'' proton reaction cells.

  19. Active and passive-source imaging of the Cascadia subduction zone using both onshore and offshore data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiszewski, H. A.; Abers, G. A.; Carton, H. D.; Webb, S. C.; Gaherty, J. B.; Trehu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is characterized by the subduction of young lithosphere with relatively little seismicity, despite evidence of prehistoric earthquakes, and a thick incoming sediment section that feeds the plate interface. It has been suggested that the thrust zone forms a high-porosity channel of near-lithostatic pressure to 40 km depth, but stronger metasediments may also explain many observations. To test these hypotheses, we analyze new data and integrate results from both active and passive-source seismic studies of Cascadia that sample the interplate thrust zone. In June-July 2012, fifteen seismometers were deployed in Washington from the coast to 140 km inland to record airguns from the R/V Langseth along a linear trench-perpendicular profile. We also analyze broadband data from the coincident onshore CAFE (2006-08) broadband high-density array, which provided high-resolution receiver function images of the downgoing plate, and with the offshore Grays Harbor array of the Cascadia Initiative (CI). In the active-source data, arrivals are observed at up to 140 km offset from the stations, the farthest of which are likely turning waves that travel in the slab mantle. Signals from all but the farthest inland stations are dominated by strong reverberating signals at 20-90 km offset. Preliminary calculations indicate that some of these signals have apparent velocity and timing consistent with waves that reflect off the plate interface or just above it. Bounce points for these rays map a zone of high reflectivity extending ~15-20 km on either side of the coastline. Some aspects of the signals may indicate an origin on or near the plate boundary. In addition, these reflections directly underlie CAFE stations where receiver functions have been obtained on land and the CI broadband stations where receiver functions are being obtained offshore, allowing for direct comparison and integration of all three datasets. The CI stations present several challenges

  20. Correlating Total Visual Magnitude Estimates and CCD Photometry for Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidger, Mark Richard

    2015-08-01

    A key facet of understanding the activity of comets is coverage of their light curve. For some comets such as 2P/Encke there is good light curve coverage from visual observers extending back over many returns over more than 2 centuries. However, in recent years, CCD photometry by amateur astronomers has become the dominant data source and the number of total visual magnitude estimates has reduced sharply, making comparison of recent and historical photometric data for comets increasingly difficult. The relationship between total visual magnitude estimates - dominated by the emission from the Swan bands of C2 - and CCD aperture photometry - dominated by the dust continuum - has been far from clear.This paper compares CCD aperture photometry and total visual magnitude for several recent well-observed bright comets, including C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) using a consistent and homogeneous database of observations from (mainly) Spanish observers. For comets with a 1/r radial coma profile, good agreement is found between CCD aperture photometry and total visual magnitude estimates for a CCD aperture corresponding to a physical coma diameter of ≈105km.The relationship between the coma radial brightness slope and the equivalent physical aperture for CCD photometry to obtain agreement with total visual magnitude estimates is investigated.

  1. Optimization of neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.

    1993-11-09

    I consider here the optimization of the two component neutron source, allowing beam species and energy to vary. A simple model is developed, based on the earlier publications, that permits the optimum to be obtained simply. The two component plasma, with one species of hot ion (D{sup +} or T{sup +}) and the complementary species of cold ion, is easy to analyze in the case of a spatially uniform cold plasma, as to good approximation the total number of hot ions is important but not their spatial distribution. Consequently, the optimization can ignore spatial effects. The problem of a plasma with both types of hot ions and cold ions is rather more difficult, as the neutron production by hot-hot interactions is sensitive to their spatial distributions. Consequently, consideration of this problem will be delayed to a future memorandum. The basic model is that used in the published articles on the two-component, beam-plasma mirror source. I integrate the Fokker-Planck equation analytically, obtaining good agreement with previous numerical results. This simplifies the optimization, by providing a functional form for the neutron production. The primary result is expressed in terms of the power efficiency: watts of neutrons/watts of primary power. The latter includes the positive ion neutralization efficiency. At 150 keV, the present model obtains an efficiency of 0.66%, compared with 0.53% of the earlier calculation.

  2. Total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from the southern half of the Western Hemisphere on 3 November 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the path of totality, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of total and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  3. Water-Cooled Total-Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Reece, Garland D.

    1992-01-01

    Water-cooled supersonic total-pressure, static-pressure, and total-temperature probes developed to study high-temperature jet plumes. Total-temperature probe tested up to 2,000 degrees F incorporates annular cooling system up to thermocouple lead. Lead extends into test chamber to sense temperature of supersonic external flow. Design novel and significant. Applicable in development of jet engines and in research on fast flows of hot gases.

  4. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  5. Total radical yields from tropospheric ethene ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammed S; Camredon, Marie; Rickard, Andrew R; Carr, Timo; Wyche, Kevin P; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J

    2011-06-21

    The gas-phase reactions of ozone with alkenes can be significant sources of free radicals (OH, HO(2) and RO(2)) in the Earth's atmosphere. In this study the total radical production and degradation products from ethene ozonolysis have been measured, under conditions relevant to the troposphere, during a series of detailed simulation chamber experiments. Experiments were carried out in the European photoreactor EUPHORE (Valencia, Spain), utilising various instrumentation including a chemical-ionisation-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) measuring volatile organic compounds/oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs/OVOCs), a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system for measuring HO(2) radical products and a peroxy radical chemical amplification (PERCA) instrument measuring HO(2) + ΣRO(2). The ethene + ozone reaction system was investigated with and without an OH radical scavenger, in order to suppress side reactions. Radical concentrations were measured under dry and humid conditions and interpreted through detailed chemical chamber box modelling, incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1) degradation scheme for ethene, which was updated to include a more explicit representation of the ethene-ozone reaction mechanism.The rate coefficient for the ethene + ozone reaction was measured to be (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10(-18) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, and a stabilised Criegee intermediate yield of 0.54 ± 0.12 was determined from excess CO scavenger experiments. An OH radical yield of 0.17 ± 0.09 was determined using a cyclohexane scavenger approach, by monitoring the formation of the OH-initiated cyclohexane oxidation products and HO(2). The results highlight the importance of knowing the [HO(2)] (particularly under alkene limited conditions and high [O(3)]) and scavenger chemistry when deriving radical yields. An averaged HO(2) yield of 0.27 ± 0.07 was determined by LIF/model fitting. The observed yields are interpreted in terms of

  6. Intakes of total and individual flavonoids by US adults.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Wang, Chunyang; Ren, Cuirong

    2014-02-01

    Knowing the dietary flavonoid intake of individuals and populations is the first step to clearly understand their health effects. Dietary flavonoid intake studies have been hampered by the lack of flavonoid food composition data. The objectives of this study were to estimate intakes of individual, classes and total flavonoids in the US adults; to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on the flavonoid consumption patterns; and to establish major dietary sources of flavonoids. We calculated flavonoid intakes using the most updated USDA flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 24-h dietary recall (DR). Estimated mean total flavonoid intake by US adults was 344.83 ± 9.13 mg/day. The flavan-3-ols (191.99 ± 6.84 mg/day) were the most abundant flavonoid class. The three most dominant individual flavonoids were catechin, epicatechin and polymers. Tea, wine, beer, citrus fruits and apples were the most important sources of total flavonoid intakes in the US adults. PMID:24020353

  7. Integrated Data Fusion and Mining Techniques for Monitoring Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surface waters, markedly of seasonal variations, is a known precursor of disinfection byproducts such as Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) in drinking water treatment. Real-time knowledge of TOC distribution in source water can help treatment operation to...

  8. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  9. 75 FR 22418 - FHA TOTAL Mortgage Scorecard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT FHA TOTAL Mortgage Scorecard AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... samples at FHA's request, and appeals in writing for loss of privilege to use the scorecard. DATES... following information: Title of Proposal: FHA TOTAL Mortgage Scorecard. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0556....

  10. Creating the Total Quality Effective School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual…

  11. Total Quality Management in Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, Edward

    Quality is at the top of most agendas, and improving quality is probably the most important task facing any institution. In addition, quality is difficult to define or measure. This book, the second edition of "Total Quality Management in Education," introduces the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and demonstrates how they can be put…

  12. Total Solar Irradiance Variability: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, Judit M.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of total solar irradiance from space within the last two decaades convinced the skeptics that total irradiance varies over a wide range of periodicities: from minutes to the 11-year solar activity cycle. Analyses based on these space-borne observations have demonstrated that the irradiance variations are directly related to changes at the photosphere and the solar interior.

  13. Total Cost Management: Analyzing Operational Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    Total cost management, an innovation useful in higher education, is best implemented in the institution's support services. Total cost management is the practice of analyzing and improving an institution's financial and qualitative performance when producing a particular product or service, paying attention to the complete work process and all…

  14. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  15. Comparison of Recent Total Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helizon, R.; Pap, J.

    2002-12-01

    Total solar irradiance has been measured since 1978 from various satellites. Since the absolute accuracy of the current irradiance measurements is about 0.2%, one needs to compile composite irradiance time series to study long-term changes and to establish whether there are any secular variations over the last two and half decades. In this paper we compare the UARS/ACRIM II and SOHO/VIRGO total irradiance data as well as the SOHO/VIRGO and ACRIM III total irradiance. Our main goal is to validate the newly processed ACRIM II total irradiance. Comparison of the SOHO/VIRGO and ACRIM III data will also help to establish whether the high total irradiance values for the maximum of solar cycle 23 represent real solar, rather than, instrumental events.

  16. [Effect analysis on the two total load control methods for poisonous heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Firstly it should be made clear that implementation of source total load control for the first type of pollutants is necessary for environmental pollution control legislation and economic structure regulation. This kind of surveillance method has been more practical to be implemented since the Manual of the Industry Discharge Coefficient of First National Pollution Sources Investigation was published. The source total load control and water environment total load control are independent of each other and none of them is redundant, on the other side they can be complementary to each other. In the present, some local planning managers are blurring and confusing the contents and styles of the two surveillance methods. They just use the water total load control to manage all the pollutants, and source total load control is discarded, which results in the loss of control for the first type of pollutants especially for the drinking water source surveillance. There is a big difference between the water quality standards and the water environmental background concentration values for the first type of pollutants in the Environmental quality standard for surface water (GB 3838-88), which means that there are problems such as "relaxing the pollutant discharge permit" and "risk induced by valence state change". Taking an enterprise with 10t electrolytic lead production capacity as an example, there is a big difference between the allowable lead discharged loads by the two total load surveillance methods. In summary, it will bring a lot of harmful effects if the water total load control is implemented for the two types of pollutants, so the source total load control and water environmental total load control should be implemented strictly at the same time. PMID:23379176

  17. Tennessee Valley Total and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Climatology Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J. M.; McCaul, E. W.

    2008-01-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) has been in operation since 2001 and consists often VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama. The NALMA locates sources of impulsive VHF radio signals from total lightning by accurately measuring the time that the signals arrive at the different receiving stations. The sources detected are then clustered into flashes by applying spatially and temporally constraints. This study examines the total lightning climatology of the region derived from NALMA and compares it to the cloud-to-ground (CG) climatology derived from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) The presentation compares the total and CG lightning trends for monthly, daily, and hourly periods.

  18. Determination of total iodine and {sup 129}I in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, A.A.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Studies using {sup 129}I as a tracer have increased significantly since the AMS measurement of {sup 129}I became available. Determinations of {sup 129}I and total iodine in soils can help understand fallout patterns from anthropogenic sources (e.g. nuclear reprocessing plant, nuclear accidents). Iodine is a trace element in soils with a concentration range generally between 0.1 and 10 ppm. Traces of iodine are normally determined using neutron activation analysis. In this talk a simple and reliable method will be described for the determination of total iodine in soils using gas chromatography. Also, the preparation of samples for {sup 129}I determination will be discussed along with examples of these measurements in the case of soil samples related to the Chernobyl accident.

  19. 78 FR 75331 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Crosman Corporation (Airguns), Bloomfield and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ..., 78 FR 53127-53128, 8/28/2013). The notification conforming to the requirements of the regulations of..., such as dog tags; protective eyewear; nickel-cadmium storage batteries; fiber optic sights;...

  20. Permit application and approval chronology for a small airgun survey offshore southern California, June 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Normark, William R.; Fisher, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Offshore geophysical surveys are subject to increased restrictions resulting from new or revised Federal legislation and increased authority of State agencies that deal with environmental issues. This report reviews the process followed by the U.S. Geological Survey to obtain necessary approvals for a marine geophysical survey conducted in June, 1999, offshore Southern California. Discussions and negotiations between the USGS, National Marine Fisheries Service, the California Coastal Commission, the California State Lands Commission, and various other interested parties during six months prior to the survey are documented. A suggested timeframe that should be followed for obtaining the approvals and permits for future work offshore California is based on the outcome of the permitting process for the 1999 cruise, as well as continuing dialog with representatives of the Federal and State entities involved.

  1. Total plankton respiration in the Chesapeake Bay plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, C. N.; Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Total plankton respiration (TPR) was measured at 17 stations within the Chesapeake Bay plume off the Virginia coast during March, June, and October 1980. Elevated rates of TPR, as well as higher concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigment a, were found to be associated with the Bay plume during each survey. The TPR rates within the Bay plume were close to those found associated with the Hudson River plume for comparable times of the year. The data examined indicate that the Chesapeake Bay plume stimulates biological activity and is a source of organic loading to the contiguous shelf ecosystem.

  2. Determination of the total inductance of TPF-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunamaspakorn, T.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R.; Promping, J.; Onjun, T.

    2015-05-01

    Thailand Plasma Focus I (TPF-I) is a dense plasma focus device which was developed as a collaborative project among Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology and Thammasat university. It aims to be a radiation source for academic research. This device has a power of 6 kJ. In this work, a Rogowski coils was used for measuring high speed current pulse to capture electric signal during operation TPF-I. By determining period of the discharge, it was found that the total inductance of TPF-I is about 216±12 nH, which is in agreement with Lee model.

  3. 2016 Total Solar Eclipse Expedition of KASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Su-Chan; Choi, SeongHwan; Jang, Bi-Ho; Park, Jongyeob; Jeon, Young-Beom; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Chae, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on March 9 along the path through Indonesia and the Pacific. KASI organized an expedition team for total solar eclipse observation. The main purpose of this observation is to test the coronal temperature and outflow velocity diagnostics based on filter observation, which is proposed for the next generation coronagraph. In addition, various white light observations were tried. Although we could not get satisfactory data for the quantitative diagnostics due to system problem and weather, we could get some useful experimental data and nice white light images. We plan next expedition for 2017 total solar eclipse in USA.

  4. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  5. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1994-01-01

    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  6. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexey A; Dobrovolsky, Andrey N; Goretskii, Victor P

    2016-02-01

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm(2) in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation. PMID:26931996

  7. Outdoor Activities for a Total Lunar Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes several activities involving a total eclipse of the moon. Included are observations with binoculars, naked eye, and telescope; timing activities and observations of color changes during penumbral and umbral phases; and photography activities. (CS)

  8. Concise Enantiospecific Total Synthesis of Tubingensin A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-tubingensin A. Our synthesis features an aryne cyclization to efficiently introduce the vicinal quaternary stereocenters of the natural product and proceeds in only nine steps (longest linear sequence) from known compounds. PMID:24524351

  9. Need total sulfur content? Use chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kubala, S.W.; Campbell, D.N.; DiSanzo, F.P.

    1996-09-01

    Regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency require petroleum refineries to reduce or control the amount of total sulfur present in their refined products. These legislative requirements have led many refineries to search for online instrumentation that can produce accurate and repeatable total sulfur measurements within allowed levels. Several analytical methods currently exist to measure total sulfur content. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), microcoulometry, lead acetate tape, and pyrofluorescence techniques. Sulfur-specific chemiluminescence detection (SSCD) has recently received much attention due to its linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and equimolar response. However, its use has been largely confined to the area of gas chromatography. This article focuses on the special design considerations and analytical utility of an SSCD system developed to determine total sulfur content in gasoline. The system exhibits excellent linearity and selectivity, the ability to detect low minimum levels, and an equimolar response to various sulfur compounds. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  11. UNDERSTANDING CHILDREN'S TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that significant portion of total exposure of infants and children to environmental contaminants can result from contamination of food in the home. Children's foods become contaminated through handling and contact with surf...

  12. Evolution Character Analysis of Total Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, N. B.

    2013-05-01

    The significant periods of total solar irradiance are 35 days and 26 days in solar cycle 23 and 24, respectively. It is inferred that the solar quasi-rotation periods are 35 days and 26 days in solar cycle 23 and 24, respectively. The value of total solar irradiance in solar cycle 24 minimum should be close to the value of Maunder minimum. On short time scales, sunspots should be the main reason to cause variations of total solar irradiance on the scale of one solar rotation cycle to several months, but not the unique one, and the variations of total solar irradiance are notrelated with the Mg II index on the scale of a few days to one solar rotation cycle.

  13. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cutting and removal under the contract. For a cruise sale the purchaser shall not be entitled to a refund... total volume shown in the contract. For a scale sale, if it is determined after all designated...

  14. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cutting and removal under the contract. For a cruise sale the purchaser shall not be entitled to a refund... total volume shown in the contract. For a scale sale, if it is determined after all designated...

  15. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  16. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  17. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  18. NEW BEARING SURFACES IN TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes; de Freitas Spinelli, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is being increasingly indicated for younger and more active patients, in addition to a naturally growing demand for the procedure because of increasing life expectancy among patients. The high costs of this surgery and the controversies regarding implant performance have made this topic the subject of constant research, seeking new materials with better resistance to wear and better biocompatibility. The present article provides a review of new surfaces in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:27042614

  19. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  20. Total overlay analysis for designing future aligner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magome, Nobutaka; Kawai, Hidemi

    1995-05-01

    We found total overlay with respect to optical lithography using an approach similar to quality control technique employed at a semiconductor factory. This approach involves an aligner performance, process quality, reticle error and overlay measurement. This paper further describes new ides for the number of machines to be used for matching and data collection period. Lastly, improvement on total overlay and a prospective view for a future aligner and its usage are also described.

  1. Effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:23554550

  2. Proximal tibial fracture following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Krause, Heike; Dunleavy, Kim

    2011-09-01

    The patient was a 74-year-old man, with a history of total knee arthoplasty 14 years earlier, after having sustained a pathological fracture of the proximal diaphysis of the left tibia following a fall. Given the unstable nature of the fracture and the severe osteolysis noted below the total knee arthroplasty, surgical management 1 day after the fall entailed packing cancellous bone graft into the defect and realigning the fracture. PMID:21885911

  3. Monitoring the source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  5. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  6. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  7. Disposal of disused sealed radiation sources in Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Vicente, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper gives a description of the concept of a geological repository for disposal of disused sealed radiation sources (DSRS) under development in the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), in Brazil. DSRS represent a significant fraction of total activity of radioactive wastes to be managed. Most DSRS are collected and temporarily stored at IPEN. As of 2006, the total collected activity is 800 TBq in 7,508 industrial gauge or radiotherapy sources, 7.2 TBq in about 72,000 Americium-241 sources detached from lightning rods, and about 0,5 GBq in 20,857 sources from smoke detectors. The estimated inventory of sealed sources in the country is 2.7 hundred thousand sources with 26 PBq. The proposed repository is designed to receive the total inventory of sealed sources. A description of the pre-disposal facilities at IPEN is also presented. (authors)

  8. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

  9. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M. )

    1993-03-20

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing [sup 60]Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. High efficiency source coupler for optical waveguide illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic or optical waveguide illumination system includes a source coupling system. The source coupling system includes an optical channel with an internal cavity. A light source is disposed inside the driving circuit. Coupling losses are minimized by placing the light source within the optical channel. The source cavity and the source optical channel can be shaped to enhance the amount of light captured in the channel by total internal reflection. Multiple light distribution waveguides can be connected to the source coupling channel to produce an illumination system.

  11. LISA source confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, Jeff; Cornish, Neil J.

    2004-10-15

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will detect thousands of gravitational wave sources. Many of these sources will be overlapping in the sense that their signals will have a nonzero cross correlation. Such overlaps lead to source confusion, which adversely affects how well we can extract information about the individual sources. Here we study how source confusion impacts parameter estimation for galactic compact binaries, with emphasis on the effects of the number of overlaping sources, the time of observation, the gravitational wave frequencies of the sources, and the degree of the signal correlations. Our main findings are that the parameter resolution decays exponentially with the number of overlapping sources and superexponentially with the degree of cross correlation. We also find that an extended mission lifetime is key to disentangling the source confusion as the parameter resolution for overlapping sources improves much faster than the usual square root of the observation time.

  12. Total Solar Eclipse of 2002 December 04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2001-01-01

    On 2002 December 04, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and the Indian Ocean, and ends at sunset in southern Australia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the southern two thirds of Africa, Antarctica, Indian Ocean and Australia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  13. Total quality management in orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Atta, A E

    1999-12-01

    Quality is the buzz word for the new Millennium. Patients demand it, and we must serve it. Yet one must identify it. Quality is not imaging or public relations; it is a business process. This short article presents quality as a balance of three critical notions: core clinical competence, perceived values that our patients seek and want, and the cost of quality. Customer satisfaction is a variable that must be identified for each practice. In my practice, patients perceive quality as communication and time, be it treatment or waiting time. Time is a value and cost that must be managed effectively. Total quality management is a business function; it involves diagnosis, design, implementation, and measurement of the process, the people, and the service. Kazien is a function that reduces value services, eliminates waste, and manages time and cost in the process. Total quality management is a total commitment for continuous improvement. PMID:10587600

  14. Total artificial hearts: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cohn, William E; Timms, Daniel L; Frazier, O H

    2015-10-01

    A practical artificial heart has been sought for >50 years. An increasing number of people succumb to heart disease each year, but the number of hearts available for transplantation remains small. Early total artificial hearts mimicked the pumping action of the native heart. These positive-displacement pumps could provide adequate haemodynamic support and maintain the human circulation for short periods, but large size and limited durability adversely affected recipients' quality of life. Subsequent research into left ventricular assist devices led to the use of continuous-flow blood pumps with rotating impellers. Researchers have attempted to integrate this technology into modern total artificial hearts with moderate clinical success. The importance of pulsatile circulation remains unclear. Future research is, therefore, needed into positive-displacement and rotary total artificial hearts. PMID:26031698

  15. The US 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Martina B.; Habbal, S. R.; Wind Sherpas, Solar

    2012-05-01

    In preparation for the Total Solar Eclipse that will span across the United States in 2017, multiple eclipse workshops are being planned to bring together professional and amateur researchers, educators, and imagers. Our ultimate goal with these workshops is to maximize the amount and quality of data we can collect during the eclipse as well as to leverage this exciting event to educate and inspire people of all ages. Part of the workshops will be dedicated to discussing the science that can be learned from observing total solar eclipses, and part of the workshops will be dedicated to strategizing about how to mobilize and prepare communities in the path of totality. In this poster, we will share our preliminary results from the inaugural workshop in Maryland, April 2012.

  16. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  17. Total Solar Eclipse of 2001 June 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1999-01-01

    On 2001 June 21, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and Madagascar, and ends at sunset in the Indian Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern South America and the southern two thirds of Africa. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  18. Total Solar Eclipse of 1997 March 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1995-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 1997 March 9. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in eastern Kazakhstan and travels through Mongolia and eastern Siberia, where it swings northward to end at sunset in the Arctic Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Asia, the northern Pacific, and the northwest corner of North America. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 280 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  19. Total Solar Eclipse of 2006 March 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    On 2006 March 29, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in Brazil and extends across the Atlantic, northern Africa, and central Asia where it ends at sunset in western Mongolia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the northern two thirds of Africa, Europe, and central Asia.Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  20. Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2007-01-01

    On 2008 August 01, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in northern Canada and extends across Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, most of Europe and Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 308 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  1. COMPONENT VERSION IN MODULAR TOTAL HIP REVISION

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Michael A.; Pemberton, Aaron; Milbrandt, Joseph C.; Allan, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic changes of the proximal femur make revision total hip arthroplasty challenging. Metaphyseal retroversion and diaphyseal varus are common in this scenario. Twenty-one total hip revisions using a modular femoral prosthesis were examined by obtaining three radiographs (A/P, surgical lateral, and true lateral of the femur) to assemble CAD models for determining the range of modular component positioning. An average of femoral neck anteversion was observed. Seventeen of 21 cases (81%) had retroverted metaphyseal segments (−23.2°+/−17.4°) and/or varus stems (−32.1°+/−13.0°). Neck anteversion averaged 21.4°(+/−10.0°). One of 21 cases (5%) resulted in component orientation similar to a non-modular prosthesis. Modular components provide options to accommodate proximal femoral remodeling not afforded by monobloc stems in total hip revision surgery. PMID:19742077

  2. Total Solar Eclipse of 1999 August 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1997-01-01

    On 1999 August 11, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Eastern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the Atlantic and crosses central Europe, the Middle East, and India, where it ends at sunset in the Bay of Bengal. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, all of Europe, northern Africa, and the western half of Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 1400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  3. An Operational Perspective of Total Lightning Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total lightning networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total lightning and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total lightning information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total lightning information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total lightning can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize

  4. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  5. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. Method This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. Results 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). Interpretation In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties. PMID:25267502

  6. Modeling Frequency Comb Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qian; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-06-01

    Frequency comb sources have revolutionized metrology and spectroscopy and found applications in many fields. Stable, low-cost, high-quality frequency comb sources are important to these applications. Modeling of the frequency comb sources will help the understanding of the operation mechanism and optimization of the design of such sources. In this paper,we review the theoretical models used and recent progress of the modeling of frequency comb sources.

  7. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noell, A.C.; Yung, P.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Ponce, A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  8. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  9. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of lumbar hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Man Sup; Lee, Hae Wan; Yu, Chang Hee

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare surgical entity without a standard method of repair. With advancements in laparoscopic techniques, successful lumbar herniorrhaphy can be achieved by the creation of a completely extraperitoneal working space and secure fixation of a wide posterior mesh. We present a total extraperitoneal laparoendoscopic repair of lumbar hernia, which allowed for minimal invasiveness while providing excellent anatomical identification, easy mobilization of contents and wide secure mesh fixation. A total extraperitoneal method of lumbar hernia repair by laparoscopic approach is feasible and may be an ideal option. PMID:22111086

  10. Employee benefits in a total rewards framework.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jane; Hein, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Benefits represent one of the largest investments a company makes in its talent. However, our tendency can be to design, deliver and communicate benefits programs independently, without fully considering how those programs fit within a bigger picture of total rewards. Sure, we need to manage and execute individual benefit programs--but not at the expense of getting a real return on our more significant investment in talent. This article provides employers with perspectives on the value of managing benefits within the broader framework of total rewards, why it works and, most importantly, how to make it work. PMID:23488085

  11. Biomechanics of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Berliner, Jonathan L; Regalado-Magdos, Ashton; Ma, C Benjamin; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an effective procedure for treatment of glenohumeral joint disease among patients with severe rotator cuff deficiency. Improvements in prosthetic design are the result of an evolved understanding of both shoulder and joint replacement biomechanics. Although modern generations of the reverse shoulder prosthesis vary in specific design details, they continue to adhere to Grammont's core principles demonstrated by his original Delta III prosthesis. This review article discusses the biomechanics of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with a focus on elements of implant design and surgical technique that may affect stability, postoperative complications, and functional outcomes. PMID:25441574

  12. Pollution prevention and total quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Both quality management and pollution prevention are paradigms for their respective concepts to be followed and put into effect in industrial production. They each represent a framework for making things better, and for the examination and evaluation of current practices. Both pollution prevention and total quality management welcome innovative thought and the mandate to question the validity of practices. This chapter investigates the similarities of purpose and content of pollution prevention and total quality management techniques for industrial wastes. It also examines the reasons and directions that industry is following to make both paradigms integral parts of conducting business.

  13. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, A. C.; Yung, P. T.; Yang, W.; Ponce, A.; Lee, C.

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  14. When are total concentrations not total? Factors affecting geochemical analytical techniques for measuring element concentrations in soil.

    PubMed

    McIlwaine, Rebekka; Cox, Siobhan F; Doherty, Rory

    2015-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) following aqua regia digestion and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are both geochemical techniques used to determine 'total' concentrations of elements in soil. The aim of this study is to compare these techniques, identify elements for which inconsistencies occur and investigate why they arise. A study area (∼14,000 km(2)) with a variety of total concentration controls and a large geochemical dataset (n = 7950) was selected. Principal component analysis determined underlying variance in a dataset composed of both geogenic and anthropogenic elements. Where inconsistencies between the techniques were identified, further numerical and spatial analysis was completed. The techniques are more consistent for elements of geogenic sources and lead, whereas other elements of anthropogenic sources show less consistency within rural samples. XRF is affected by sample matrix, while the form of element affects ICP concentrations. Depending on their use in environmental studies, different outcomes would be expected from the techniques employed, suggesting the choice of analytical technique for geochemical analyses may be more critical than realised. PMID:25712881

  15. Total sulfate vs. sulfuric acid monomer concenterations in nucleation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitola, K.; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Sarnela, N.; Jokinen, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulfuric-acid concentration is a crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulfuric-acid monomer concentrations and total-sulfate concentrations measured from the same source of sulfuric-acid vapor. The discrepancy of about 1-2 orders of magnitude was found with similar particle-formation rates. To investigate this discrepancy, and its effect on nucleation, a method of thermally controlled saturator filled with pure sulfuric acid (97% wt.) for production of sulfuric-acid vapor is applied and rigorously tested. The saturator provided an independent vapor-production method, compared to our previous method of the furnace (Brus et al., 2010, 2011), to find out if the discrepancy is caused by the production method itself. The saturator was used in a H2SO4-H2O nucleation experiment, using a laminar flow tube to check reproducibility of the nucleation results with the saturator method, compared to the furnace. Two independent methods of mass spectrometry and online ion chromatography were used for detecting sulfuric-acid or sulfate concentrations. Measured sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate concentrations are compared to theoretical predictions calculated using vapor pressure and a mixing law. The calculated prediction of sulfuric-acid concentrations agrees very well with the measured values when total sulfate is considered. Sulfuric-acid monomer concentration was found to be about 2 orders of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions, but with a temperature dependency similar to the predictions and the results obtained with the ion-chromatograph method. Formation rates are reproducible when compared to our previous results with both sulfuric-acid or total-sulfate detection and sulfuric-acid production methods separately, removing any doubts that the vapor-production method would

  16. Total and methylated mercury in Arctic multiyear sea ice.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Sarah A; Armstrong, Debbie; Chaulk, Amanda; Comte, Jérôme; Gosselin, Michel; Wang, Feiyue

    2014-05-20

    Mercury is one of the primary contaminants of concern in the Arctic marine ecosystem. While considerable efforts have been directed toward understanding mercury cycling in the Arctic, little is known about mercury dynamics within Arctic multiyear sea ice, which is being rapidly replaced with first-year ice. Here we report the first study on the distribution and potential methylation of mercury in Arctic multiyear sea ice. Based on three multiyear ice cores taken from the eastern Beaufort Sea and McClure Strait, total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.65 to 60.8 pM in bulk ice, with the highest values occurring in the topmost layer (∼40 cm) which is attributed to the dynamics of particulate matter. Methylated mercury concentrations ranged from below the method detection limit (<0.1 pM) to as high as 2.64 pM. The ratio of methylated to total mercury peaked, up to ∼40%, in the mid to bottom sections of the ice, suggesting the potential occurrence of in situ mercury methylation. The annual fluxes of total and methylated mercury into the Arctic Ocean via melt of multiyear ice are estimated to be 420 and 42 kg yr(-1), respectively, representing an important and changing source of mercury and methylmercury into the Arctic Ocean marine ecosystem. PMID:24766483

  17. Redshifts of southern radio sources. VII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Wright, Alan E.; Batty, Michael J.; Savage, Ann; Peterson, Bruce A.; Gulkis, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Redshifts and low-resolution spectral data are presented for 47 objects, most of which are QSOs identified with flat-spectrum radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz survey. These data were taken with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope using both the IPCS and FORS spectrographs. The total spectral coverage is 3200-9500 A. Three objects are optical counterparts identified with IRAS sources.

  18. The SLAC polarized electron source laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) has operated a polarized photocathode electron source and titanium sapphire laser for high energy physics collisions for over 6,500 hours of nearly continuous operation. The laser system for the source has demonstrated > 98.5% total uptime for the duration of the experiment. The laser system uses a pair of titanium sapphire oscillators pumped by frequency doubled YAG lasers to produce 2ns, 250 {micro}J pulses at wavelengths from 740nm to 870nm.

  19. Total Quality Management: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers describing the implementation of Total Quality Management in a variety of higher education settings. Following a Foreword by Peter Likins and a Preface by Daniel J. Julius, the chapter titles and authors are: (1) "TQM: Implications for Higher Education--A Look Back to the Future" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randall Summers);…

  20. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  1. The total synthesis of (-)-cryptocaryol A.

    PubMed

    Dias, L C; Kuroishi, P K; de Lucca, E C

    2015-03-28

    A stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-cryptocaryol A (1) is described. Key features of the 17-step route include the use of three boron-mediated aldol reaction-reduction sequences to control all stereocenters and an Ando modification of the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination that permitted the installation of the Z double bond of the α-pyrone ring. PMID:25695350

  2. Strainrange partitioning: A total strain range version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total strain range. Inelastic and elastic strain-range - life relations are summed to give total strain-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic strains are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to elastic strains are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the elastic strain-range - life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic strains. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic strain range. The total strain SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total strain-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic strains cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic strain range SRP approach.

  3. Total Quality Management: The Emperor's Tailor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Gary C.; Keeler, Carolyn M.

    Conversations among educators, business leaders, legislators, and educational reformers have generated support for the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education. This paper considers whether TQM is indeed the solution to education's problems. After a brief explanation of TQM theory, the paper is organized around four broad issues…

  4. Total synthesis of (±)-hippolachnin A.

    PubMed

    Ruider, Stefan A; Sandmeier, Tobias; Carreira, Erick M

    2015-02-16

    The first total synthesis of the marine polyketide (±)-hippolachnin A has been achieved in nine linear steps and an overall yield of 9%. Rapid access to the oxacyclobutapentalene core structure was secured by strategic application of an ene cyclization. PMID:25476132

  5. [Open total dislocation of the talus].

    PubMed

    Grabski, R S; Sosiński, R

    1992-01-01

    A case of 35 years old patient with open, total, fixed dislocation of the talus reduced with heel traction is presented. The Sudeck syndrome subsided after one year. Weight bearing was not allowed for 7 months. An examination after 2.5 years revealed minor osteoarthritis, full range of movement in the foot but limited walking capability. PMID:7555299

  6. A Campus Is a Total Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Described are the various components of the total college or university community and their associated environmental health and safety problems. Included are food service, insect and rodent control, multi-use athletic facilities, housing, laboratory animal facilities, laboratory biosafety, radiological health, fire protection, and emergency…

  7. Total synthesis of (S)-equol.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Jennifer M; Kerrigan, Sean A; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Boulanger, William A

    2006-11-23

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (S)-equol is reported. The described route relies on an Evans alkylation to form the stereocenter and an intramolecular Buchwald etherification to generate the chroman ring. Key features of this method include its brevity, its scalability, and the low cost of starting materials. [reaction: see text]. PMID:17107042

  8. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  9. The total synthesis of pantocin B.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A E; Clardy, J

    2000-02-10

    [reaction: see text] Pantocin B, an unusual antibiotic produced by Erwinia herbicola, effectively controls E. amylovora, the pathogen causing the plant disease fire blight. A total synthesis of pantocin B from L-alanine, glycine, and L-malic acid is reported. PMID:10814312

  10. Total Quality Can Help Your District's Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokeley, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Describes how educators in the Pearl River School District, Pearl River, New York, have implemented Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to evaluate and improve their effectiveness. Includes two charts that depict key indicators of financial and academic performance and a seven-year profile of the district's budget, enrollment, diploma rate,…

  11. Total Quality: Myth or Management in Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudof, Mark G.; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the Total Quality Management approach looks at elements that can and can not be applied in the university context. The approach is seen to offer a technique and justification for constantly seeking improvement, fostering willingness to change, distributing decision making, promoting positive attitudinal change, and shifting focus…

  12. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of hedyotol A.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Ryo; Akao, Yusuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Inai, Makoto; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Hamashima, Yoshitaka; Kan, Toshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    The total synthesis of hedyotol A (1), a natural product isolated from Hedyotis lawsoniae (DC.) Wight et Arn. (Rubiaceae), was accomplished in a highly stereocontrolled manner. Key steps include an L-proline-catalyzed cross-aldol reaction and the biomimetic construction of a furofuran lignan skeleton through a quinomethide intermediate. PMID:24660822

  13. Total Synthesis of (±)-Gracilioether F.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shui; Wong, Henry N C

    2016-03-01

    Total synthesis of (±)-gracilioether F was achieved via a pivotal reductive cleavage of 1,2-dioxane from allenic ester in 11 steps. The key 1,2-dioxane species, derived from singlet oxygen and a diene, could be used as a common precursor for a stereocontrolled formation of the crucial 1,4-diol through a reductive cleavage. PMID:26878903

  14. Total Quality Management in Libraries: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Rosanna M., Comp.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) brings together the best aspects of organizational excellence by driving out fear, offering customer-driven products and services, doing it right the first time by eliminating error, and maintaining inventory control without waste. Libraries are service organizations which are constantly trying to improve service.…

  15. Coordinating Council. Ninth Meeting: Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the 9th meeting of the STI Coordinating Council. The council listened to the speakers' understanding of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and heard stories of successful applications of these principles. Definitions of quality stated were focused on customer satisfaction. Reports presented by the speakers are also included.

  16. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  17. Total Quality Management (TQM) in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael F.

    This document consists largely of paper versions of the transparencies used by the author to give his conference paper on Total Quality Management (TQM) in the college and university setting. An introduction lists a series of definitional phrases, a list of what TQM is not, and 11 fundamental principles describing what TQM is. The three major…

  18. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  19. Application of Total Quality Management in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, M. S.; Akhtar, M. S.; Ullah, S. Zia; Memon, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of education. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. Reviewing fresh literature from the internet …

  20. In-situ measurements of total carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, W.; Boryta, M.; Nelson, R.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of the equilibration of biotic and pre-biotic materials and of the mechanisms leading to their presence in a planetary context requires knowledge of the relative concentrations of the organic species within a sample. The measurement of these relative concentrations is not practical for many remote sensing and in-situ techniques because of the large number of potential compounds having high variance in (for example) volatility, spectral response and/or molecular weight. One approach is to compare the concentration of identified materials to the total carbon and total organic carbon in a sample. The traditional two-stage approach for this measurement is acidification to convert "inorganic" carbon to CO2 and pyrolysis to convert the remaining "organic" carbon and carbon-based compounds the CO2. Measurement of the evolved CO2 provides a measure of organic and total carbon in the sample. These measurements are relatively successful in a laboratory context, but are difficult to implement robotically, particularly in challenging environments. A variety of alternative approaches for achieving total carbon measurements with acceptable accuracy are examined for feasibility of use in a field or robotic environment, with particular emphasis on soils on Mars.

  1. Isolation of total RNA from pollens.

    PubMed

    Bijli, K M; Singh, B P; Sridhara, S; Arora, N

    2001-05-01

    Isolation of total RNA from plant materials has been difficult, due to the presence of complex organic substances and the associated pigmentation. In fact, there is a dearth of standardized protocols for isolating total RNA from pollens. To find a simple and reliable method for isolating total RNA from pollen, four methods, viz. phenol/SDS (PS), guanidine HCl (GH), tri-reagent (TR), and modified SDS-betaME (SB) were tested with fresh pollen of Ricinus communis (procured at -70 degrees C) and pollen dried at 30-37 degrees C. The quality and quantity of RNA was superior for the material processed at -70 degrees C. SB gave the highest RNA yield (2.35 mg/g, OD260/280 >2.0), compared to other methods. The results obtained by the SB method were found to be comparable with the widely used tri-reagent method. This was validated with other pollens of Imperata cylindrica and Xanthium strumarium. The yield obtained from graded amounts of pollen was consistent with SB, compared to the TR method. The RNA isolated by SB gave good quality mRNA for synthesizing cDNA. The SDS-betaME method is simple, efficient, and uses less expensive reagents. Hence, we recommend the modified SDS-betaME method for isolating total RNA from pollens. PMID:11426703

  2. Total Synthesis of (±)-Maoecrystal V

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Feng; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The total synthesis of racemic maoecrystal V has been accomplished. Key steps include an intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization to rapidly construct the core system from simple starting materials and the creation of the A–C ring trans-fusion through intramolecular delivery of a hydrogen to the hindered β-face of the ring system. PMID:23126440

  3. GGOT total pressure loss control concept evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, R. F.

    1993-07-01

    Total pressure loss is one of the most important parameters in the design of a turbine. This parameter effects not only the turbine performance, but consequently the engine power balance and engine performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be an effective tool in predicting turbine total pressure loss, and also for performing sensitivity studies to achieve an optimal design with respect to pressure loss. In the present study, the AEROVISC code was used to predict the total pressure loss in the Turbine Technology Team Gas Generator Oxidizer Turbine (GGOT). The objectives in this study are two-fold. It is first necessary to determine an optimal methodology in predicting total pressure loss. The type of grid, grid density and distribution are parameters which may affect the loss prediction. Also, the effect of using a standard K-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions versus a two-layer turbulence model needs to be investigated. The use of grid embedding to resolve areas with high flow gradients needs to be explored. The second objective of the study is to apply the optimal methodology toward evaluating different tip leakage control concepts.

  4. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total payment. 5461.3 Section 5461.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Contract Payments § 5461.3...

  5. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Total payment. 5461.3 Section 5461.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Contract Payments § 5461.3...

  6. Total Quality Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Lawrence A.; Lozier, G. Gredgory

    1991-01-01

    Total Quality Management, based on theories of W. Edward Deming and others, is a style of management using continuous process improvement characterized by mission and customer focus, a systematic approach to operations, vigorous development of human resources, long-term thinking, and a commitment to ensuring quality. The values espoused by this…

  7. Applying Total Quality Management in Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredendall, Lawrence D.; Lippert, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    South Carolina's Agricultural Service Laboratory received responses from 252 of 500 farmers who currently use the soil testing service; 97% were pleased with accuracy, 89% with turnaround time, 18% thought the fee too high. Nonusers (100 of 520) were mainly dissatisfied with turnaround time. Total quality management methods were used to improve…

  8. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  9. Total Energy Management for Minnesota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Energy, Planning and Development, St. Paul.

    Total Energy Management (TEM) is a unified, planned approach to reducing the energy use and costs of an individual school or school district. The program increases energy awareness and improves school energy efficiency through: (1) careful energy accounting; (2) changes in operations and maintenance procedures; (3) modifications in the building…

  10. Total Quality Management in Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Denise G.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is "a system of continuous improvement employing participative management and centered on the needs of customers." Key components of TQM are employee involvement and training, problem-solving teams, statistical methods, long-term goals and thinking, and recognition that the system, not people, produces…

  11. Total synthesis: Towards artificial terpene cyclases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willot, Matthieu; Christmann, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    The plant-derived sesquiterpene englerin A is a potent inhibitor of several renal cancer cell lines. Two recent total syntheses have utilized cationic gold(I)-complexes to coax readily available open-chain precursors into englerin's challenging oxotricyclic core with enzyme-like precision.

  12. Revitalizing Space Operations through Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the reader what total quality management (TQM) is and how to apply TQM in the space systems and management arena. TQM is easily understood, can be implemented in any type of business organization, and works.

  13. Total Synthesis of (-)-Nemorosone and (+)-Secohyperforin.

    PubMed

    Sparling, Brian A; Tucker, James K; Moebius, David C; Shair, Matthew D

    2015-07-17

    A general strategy for the synthesis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols is described in which a scalable, Lewis acid catalyzed epoxide-opening cascade cyclization is used to furnish common intermediate 4. The utility of this approach is exemplified by the total syntheses of both ent-nemorosone and (+)-secohyperforin, which were each accomplished in four steps from this intermediate. PMID:26125288

  14. DESIGN FOR TOTAL ORGANICS REMOVAL AT CINCINNATI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The industrial Ohio River is the source water for Cincinnati Water Work's (CWW) California surface water treatment plant. s is true for many industrial rivers, a large number of organic contaminants can be found in trace concentrations in the Ohio River. any Cincinnati citizens a...

  15. Modeling Environment for Total Risk-1A

    EPA Science Inventory

    MENTOR-1A uses an integrated, mechanistically consistent source-to-dose modeling framework to quantify inhalation exposure and dose for individuals and/or populations due to co-occurring air pollutants. It uses the "One Atmosphere" concept to characterize simultaneous exposures t...

  16. Modeling Environment for Total Risk-2E

    EPA Science Inventory

    MENTOR-2E uses an integrated, mechanistically consistent source-to-dose-to-response modeling framework to quantify inhalation exposure and doses resulting from emergency events. It is an implementation of the MENTOR system that is focused towards modeling of the impacts of rele...

  17. Lens testing using total internal reflection holography

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1976-12-14

    Accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of lens surfaces tugh holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and convex surfaces to be so tested.

  18. Modeling Environment for Total Risk-4M

    EPA Science Inventory

    MENTOR-4M uses an integrated, mechanistically consistent, source-to-dose modeling framework to quantify simultaneous exposures and doses of individuals and populations to multiple contaminants. It is an implementation of the MENTOR system for exposures to Multiple contaminants fr...

  19. Total Energy Concepts as Applied to Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudgeon, R.L.

    A comprehensive discussion of single fuel source generation of power and heating requirements is presented. Definition and explanation of system concepts includes--(1) heat pumps, (2) steam turbines, (3) gas turbines, and (4) gas and diesel engines. Concept cost evaluation factors described are--(1) load pattern, (2) campus configuration, (3) fuel…

  20. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  1. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  2. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is the definitive catalog of X-ray sources detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. When compared to all previous and current X-ray missions, Chandra breaks the resolution barrier with an arcsecond scale on-axis point spread function. The combination of excellent spatial resolution, a reasonable field of view, and low instrumental background translate into a high detectable-source density, with low confusion and good astrometry. The wealth of information that can be extracted from identified serendipitous sources is a powerful and valuable resource for astronomy. The aim of the CSC is to disseminate this wealth of information by characterizing the X-ray sky as seen by Chandra. The CSC provides simple access to Chandra data for individual sources or sets of sources matching user-specified search criteria. The catalog is intended to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. For each detected X-ray source, the catalog lists the source position and a detailed set of source properties, including multi-band aperture fluxes, X-ray colors and hardness ratios, spectra, temporal variability information, and source extent estimates. In addition to these traditional elements, the catalog includes file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra for each source individually from each observation in which a source is detected. The first release of the CSC includes information for 150,000 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public imaging observations from the first eight years of the Chandra mission. Only point sources, and compact sources with extents < 30 arcsec, are included. Highly extended sources, and sources located in selected fields containing bright, highly extended sources, are excluded from this release. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS

  3. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; (Helen He, Xiangqun; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-07-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  4. The Planck Compact Source Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Caniego, Marcos

    2015-12-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources observed over the entire sky at nine different frequencies between 30 and 857 GHz. It consists of Galactic and extragalactic objects detected in the Planck single-frequency full mission total intensity maps. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub·catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The PCCS2 covers most of the sky and can be used to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources located in certain regions where the complex background makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels.

  5. Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkhosh, Maryam; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Borji, Saeedeh Hemmati; Bajgirani, Ali Ghiami

    2013-04-01

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key issue to reducing ground-level ozone and PAN. A multivariate receptor model (Unmix) was used for the determination of the contributions of VOCs sources in Tehran-Iran. Concentrations of ambient C2-C10 VOCs were measured continuously and online at the center of Tehran city during the winter of 2012. A high correlation coefficient existed between measured and predicted values (R (2) = 0.99), indicating that the data were well modeled. Five possible VOCs source categories were identified and mobile sources such as vehicle exhaust (61 %) and fuel evaporation (12 %) more than half of the total VOC concentration. City gas and CNG sources, biogenic source, and industrial solvent source categories accounted for 17 %, 8 % and 2 % of the total VOC, respectively. Result showed Unmix for VOCs source apportionment can be used to analyze and generate air pollution control strategies and policies. PMID:23283536

  6. Total Limb Rotation after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Side-to-Side Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Seok-Tae; Ko, Young-Bong

    2016-08-01

    Total limb rotation, an important anatomical feature of the lower limb, is defined as any rotation of the lower limb on its longitudinal axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discrepancies of rotational profiles of total limb between nonoperated and operated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We conducted an analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data from 32 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Using these CT scan, rotational profiles of total limb, such as femoral neck anteversion angle expressed as femoral torsion angle (FTA), tibial torsion angle (TTA), knee joint rotation angle (KJRA), and total limb rotation (TLR) were measured. There were significant discrepancies of FTA and KJRA between operated and nonoperated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The mean difference of operated and nonoperated side for FTA and KJRA were -6.51 ± 11.88 degrees (p = 0.0041) and -6.83 ± 5.04 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, there were no significant discrepancies of TLR, TTA. These results are due to the compensation effect of KJRA. However, excessive external rotation of the femoral component beyond the compensation effect of prosthetic knee joint can lead to a total limb rotational discrepancy in patient undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26571050

  7. Early Predictors of Hypocalcemia After Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Genther, Dane J.; Lopez, Michael; Agrawal, Nishant; Tufano, Ralph P.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Postoperative hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy, and perioperative monitoring of serum calcium levels is arguably the primary reason for overnight hospitalization. Confidently predicting which patients will not develop significant hypocalcemia may allow for a safe earlier discharge. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of patient characteristics with hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH) level after total thyroidectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy by a single high-volume surgeon between February 1, 2010, and November 30, 2012. Postoperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D), calcium, and IPTH levels were tested within 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Mild hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.4 to 8.0 mg/dL. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.0 mg/dL or the development of hypocalcemia-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS Total thyroidectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Associations of patient demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory values with postoperative mild and significant hypocalcemia were examined using univariate analysis, and independent predictors of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and IPTH level were determined using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Overall, 304 total thyroidectomies were performed. Mild and significant hypocalcemia occurred in 68 (22.4%) and 91 (29.9%) patients, respectively, of which the majority were female (P = .003). The development of significant hypocalcemia was associated with postoperative IPTH level (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, males had a decreased risk of developing mild (odds ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.16–0.85]) and significant (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.09–0.78]) hypocalcemia. Every 10-pg/mL increase in postoperative IPTH level

  8. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2009-09-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) was published in 2009 March, and includes information about 94,676 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents <˜30''.The CSC is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime.The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports medium sophistication scientific analysis on using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools; and (4) includes real X-ray sources detected with flux significance greater than a predefined threshold, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at an acceptable level. For each detected X-ray source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a source is detected.

  9. Phase-sensitive swept source OCT imaging of the human retina with a VCSEL light source

    PubMed Central

    Choi, WooJhon; Potsaid, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Baumann, Bernhard; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Lu, Chen D.; Cable, Alex E.; Huang, David; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the challenges in achieving high phase stability, Doppler swept source / Fourier domain OCT has advantages of less fringe washout and faster imaging speeds compared to spectral / Fourier domain detection. This manuscript demonstrates swept source OCT with a VCSEL light source at 400kHz sweep rate for phase-sensitive Doppler imaging, measuring pulsatile total retinal blood flow with high sensitivity and phase stability. A robust, simple, and computationally efficient phase stabilization approach for phase-sensitive swept source imaging is also presented. PMID:23381430

  10. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  11. Finite source depolarization factors for circumstellar scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Carlaw, Vivette A.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.

    1989-01-01

    A single scattering theory is used to directly derive the D(r) result of Cassinelli et al (1987) and to investigate the extent to which it can be generalized to nonuniform spherical light sources, nonspherical light sources, arbitrary spatial distributions of scattering electrons, and scattering particles other than electrons. Expressions are also obtained for the factor by which the total scattered (as well as polarized) intensity is modified by finite size light sources, which is relevant to the case where the much stronger direct unpolarized starlight is eclipsed.

  12. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  13. Temporal bone chondroblastoma totally invisible on MRI.

    PubMed

    Hiraumi, Harukazu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Norio; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone chondroblastoma that was totally invisible on MRI. The patient was a 64-year-old man who presented with several months history of vertigo. The CT scan with bone window setting showed destruction of the temporomandibular joint, the floor of the middle cranial fossa, and the superior semicircular canal. Calcific foci were seen within the tumor. On MR imaging, the tumor, situating mainly medial to the temporomandibular joint, showed no signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The tumor was not enhanced with gadolinium. In summary, the tumor was totally signal negative or "invisible" on pre- and postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. The tumor was resected through transpetrosal - transzygomatic approach. PMID:26743837

  14. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  15. Generalized Higher Degree Total Variation (HDTV) Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Ongie, Greg; Ramani, Sathish; Jacob, Mathews

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called generalized higher degree total variation (HDTV). These penalties further extend our previously introduced HDTV penalties, which generalize the popular total variation (TV) penalty to incorporate higher degree image derivatives. We show that many of the proposed second degree extensions of TV are special cases or are closely approximated by a generalized HDTV penalty. Additionally, we propose a novel fast alternating minimization algorithm for solving image recovery problems with HDTV and generalized HDTV regularization. The new algorithm enjoys a ten-fold speed up compared to the iteratively reweighted majorize minimize algorithm proposed in a previous work. Numerical experiments on 3D magnetic resonance images and 3D microscopy images show that HDTV and generalized HDTV improve the image quality significantly compared with TV. PMID:24710832

  16. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy (TIRFM) is an elegant optical technique that provides for the excitation of fluorophores in an extremely thin axial region (‘optical section’). The method is based on the principle that when excitation light is totally internally reflected in a transparent solid (e.g., coverglass) at its interface with liquid an electromagnetic field, called the evanescent wave, is generated in the liquid at the solid-liquid interface and is the same frequency as the excitation light. Since the intensity of the evanescent wave exponentially decays with distance from the surface of the solid, only fluorescent molecules within a few hundred nanometers of the solid are efficiently excited. This unit will briefly review the history, optical theory, and the different hardware configurations used in TIRFM. In addition, it will provide experimental details and methodological considerations for studying receptors at the plasma membrane in neurons. PMID:19816922

  17. Fall 2010 Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. S.; Socker, D. G.; Willson, R. C.; Kopp, G.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a NASA-Sponsored program to understand the differences in Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) results reported by various space-based radiometers, the Naval Research Laboratory is hosting a Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Workshop. This workshop is a follow-on meeting to a similar workshop hosted by the National Institute for Standards and Technology in 2005. These workshops have been attended by many of the PI teams of the past and current TSI measuring instruments. The discussions at these workshops have addressed calibration methods and the numerous instrumental differences that need to be understood in order to bring the complete ensemble of results onto a common scale. In this talk we will present an overview of the NRL Calibration Workshop which will include results of recent calibration studies at various laboratories and have involved several TSI instruments.

  18. Total variation projection with first order schemes.

    PubMed

    Fadili, Jalal M; Peyre, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    This article proposes a new algorithm to compute the projection on the set of images whose total variation is bounded by a constant. The projection is computed through a dual formulation that is solved by first order non-smooth optimization methods. This yields an iterative algorithm that applies iterative soft thresholding to the dual vector field, and for which we establish convergence rate on the primal iterates. This projection algorithm can then be used as a building block in a variety of applications such as solving inverse problems under a total variation constraint, or for texture synthesis. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the usefulness and potential applicability of our TV projection algorithm on various examples including denoising, texture synthesis, inpainting, deconvolution and tomography problems. We also show that our projection algorithm competes favorably with state-of-the-art TV projection methods in terms of convergence speed. PMID:20876024

  19. A Modern Approach to Total Wellbeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzic, Maja; Chen, Meifania; Brouwer, Rick; Dillon, Tharam

    The events of the last decades have impacted our lives and our health significantly. We expected that the technology boom will improve our lives. While this may be true in a specific context, generally speaking our societies are suffering from moral decays, terrorism fears, wars, financial crisis and unpredictable acts of nature that are increasing in frequency and in intensity. The complex nature of the world we live is impacting our health and wellbeing considerably. Our health is not only determined by our physical health but is the end product of the interplay of the physical, mental, emotional, financial, relational and spiritual events of a lifetime. In this paper we develop a framework that will help us define and measure total wellbeing of individuals in our volatile societies. This framework will help us better understand the complex nature of total wellbeing and develop effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  20. Pain Management After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Lisa T; Corbiere, Nicole C; DeLisle, Jay A; Clark, Alexander Martin; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2016-06-01

    Controlling pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is critical to minimizing complications, decreasing costs, and expediting patients' return to function. We implemented a TJA multimodal pain management protocol at a Level III trauma center in a small, rural community in New York. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patient charts and collected patient demographics, pain management information, and discharge data. Our primary goals were to quantify the total number of narcotic medication doses used and length of hospital stay. The multimodal pain management protocol significantly reduced the number of narcotic doses used (P < .01). Hospital length of stay decreased slightly; although not statistically significant (P = .25), this may be clinically significant. Gender, age, and type of arthroplasty (ie, knee, hip) were not significant factors. A multimodal approach to pain management after TJA can reduce narcotic use and hospital length of stay, thereby also reducing the incidence of side effects from narcotics. PMID:27234795