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Sample records for airlift command mac

  1. A decision support system for the Military Airlift Command, the Airlift Deployment Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, R.D.; Harrison, I.G.

    1989-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is assisting the Military Airlift Command (MAC) with the development of the Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS). ADANS will improve MAC's automated capabilities for scheduling peacetime airlift missions, deliberate planning, execution planning, and analysis of the airlift system. ADANS will consist of four subsystems: airlift planning and scheduling algorithms, database management, user interface, and communications. This paper describes MAC's current airlift planning and scheduling operations, the current automated systems used to develop airlift schedules and plans, approaches to developing ADANS, and major improvements that will result from the implementation of ADANS. This report is based on a series of in-depth interviews and working sessions that were conducted with MAC staff, a review of airlift scheduling literature, and the ongoing research effort at ORNL for the ADANS project. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An automatic high frequency radio network for the Military Airlift Command

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, R. G.; Hall, W. D.; Salamone, P. P.; Wickwire, K. H.

    The authors describe the initial design of an automatic high-frequency (HF) radio network for the Military Airlift Command (MAC). The network design incorporates new technology that will make HF communications more reliable. The network uses the Automatic Communications Processor (ACP) developed for MAC to perform adaptive frequency selection and automatic link establishment (ALE). The MAC network functions with decentralized control performed by network control computers at each node, which carry out networking functions such as automatic route selection and message relaying. Simulation results show that an automated HF radio network provides significant improvement in message delivery compared with a network that uses only point-to-point links.

  3. Introduction to MAC CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald D.

    1987-01-01

    The author introduces the Military Airlift Command (MAC) and its mission. A brief history of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) as it relates to MAC is given. He also states why MAC is currently interested in CRM.

  4. Automated support for processing special assignment airlift missions (SAAMs): A concept paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, A.; Hwang, Ho-Ling.

    1989-10-30

    The Airlift Development Analysis System (ADANS) is a research and development effort sponsored by the Headquarters, Military Airlift Command (HQ MAC) and conducted by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this effort is to upgrade HQ MAC's automated capabilities for scheduling peacetime/wartime missions, deliberate and execution planning, and analysis of the airlift system. HQ MAC is also integrating its airlift scheduling processes to provide an easier transition from peacetime to wartime duties. The goal of this research and development effort is to provide an integrated system that allows HQ MAC to better maintain its forces in a constant state of readiness. The development for ADANS is scheduled in three increments and is to be completed in September 1992. This paper documents the procedures for processing SAAMs at HQ MAC as of May 1989 and presents functions that will be provided by ADANS to support SAAMs. In general, ADANS will provide HQ MAC Current Operations, Airlift Management Division, Special Airlift Branch (HQ MAC/DOOMS) and Air Transportation, Director of Cargo and Requirements, Special Assignment Airlift Division (HQ MAC/TRKS) with the ability to automate SAAM information management/data processing tasks, along with systematic error and consistency checking. Reports will be generated automatically by the system for analysis of SAAM requirements and airlift allocation. Consequently, better data integrity among various forms and reports can be expected.

  5. Functional description of the Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.; Southworth, F.; Sexton, A.; Hilliard, M.; Kraemer, R. ); Russell, D.L.; Holcomb, M.; Wood, T.S.; Brenner, H.; Jacobi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters Military Airlift Command (HQMAC) and the Numbered Air Forces (NAFs) with planning, scheduling, and analytical tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. ADANS will consist of an algorithms subsystem for airlift planning, scheduling, and analysis; a relational database management system (RDBMS); a user friendly front-end subsystem; and communications software. ADANS will be completed by October 1992. It will be developed in three increments to provide an initial operating capability as quickly as possible. At the end of each increment, an operational airlift planning, scheduling, and analysis system will be installed. ADANS will provide automated tools for MAC mission support allocation, airlift scheduling, load allocation, and analysis of the airlift system. The ADANS scheduling algorithms and database will operate on the Deployment Flow Computer System (DFCS) at HQMAC, Scott Air Force Base. The DFCS will consist of Honeywell DPS 90/92 Tandem and Honeywell DPS 90/92 mainframe computers. User workstations will interface with the DFCS through two local area networks, one classified and one unclassified. The classified DFCS will be connected via a high-speed bus to HQMAC's System 1'' computer, a node on the Worldwide Military Command and Control System Intercomputer Network for communications with the Joint Deployment System and the Joint Operations Planning System. Systems currently under development that will interface with ADANS include the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System and the Global Decision Support System (GDSS). MAC Command and Control Information Processing System data will be available through GDSS. This command and control information will be accessed by ADANS so that analysts will have data on resources used within MAC's airlift system during plan and schedule development. 80 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Airlift deployment analysis system life cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Das, S. ); Worthington, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters, Military Airlift Command (HQ MAC) with planning, scheduling, and analysis tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. This Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis identifies cost factors impacting ADANS during its life cycle. This analysis lists exact costs when known and reasonable estimates of other costs. This report states costs in fiscal year (FY) dollars for costs already expended (FY86--FY89) and in FY90 dollars for projected costs. Factors that could have a substantial impact on the ADANS life cycle development and maintenance costs are noted. The development effort will conclude in FY92. This LCC analysis covers a 15-year period from FY86--FY00. The total costs of ADANS is projected to be approximately $60 million. Of this total, about 20% is for development of functional capability, about 9% for development of the cross-cutting subsystems, and about 71% for program and system support. The total Oak Ridge National Laboratory development cost for FY86--FY92 is about $27.5 million; the total cost for HQ MAC is about 32.5 million. 32 tabs.

  7. Design and Implementation of a MAC Protocol for Timely and Reliable Delivery of Command and Data in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hoon; Van Vinh, Phan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a new TDMA-based MAC protocol for providing timely and reliable delivery of data and command for monitoring and control networks. In this kind of network, sensor nodes are required to sense data from the monitoring environment periodically and then send the data to a sink. The sink determines whether the environment is safe or not by analyzing the acquired data. Sometimes, a command or control message is sent from the sink to a particular node or a group of nodes to execute the services or request further interested data. The proposed MAC protocol enables bidirectional communication, controls active and sleep modes of a sensor node to conserve energy, and addresses the problem of load unbalancing between the nodes near a sink and the other nodes. It can improve reliability of communication significantly while extending network lifetime. These claims are supported by the experimental results. PMID:24084116

  8. Opportunities for integrating deliberate and time-sensitive joint depolyment planning in USTRANSCOM component commands

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.

    1988-05-02

    The Decision System Research Section of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is assisting the Deployment Directorate (formerly the Joint Deployment Agency) of the US Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) in identifying and evaluating opportunities for improving the automation support used in deliberate and time-critical deployment planning. USTRANSCOM, which is a unified command (i.e., personnel are drawn from all services), was created in the fall of 1987 to consolidate the functions of the former Military Transportation Operating Agencies (the Military Airlift Command, the Military Traffic Management Command, and the Military Sealift Command). An important factor justifying creation of USTRANSCOM, was the possibility of combining and improving coordination in deployment planning between the organizations responsible for strategic transportation activities during times of crisis. This report, the second in a series to be produced in the course of the ORNL study, presents three possibilities for integrating deliberate and time-sensitive planning. Two proposals recommended for use by MTMC and MSC build on cooperative planning initiatives already in progress in the two commands. A unique application of relative probabilistic measures is a key element in a proposal for improving MTMC/MAC airlift planning. 35 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Options for improving computing and data system support for HQ USTRANSCOM (Headquarters, US Transportation Command) deployment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    The Decision Systems Research Section of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is assisting the Deployment Systems Division of the Headquarters, US Transportation Command (HQ USTRANSCOM) with an evaluation of options for improving the computing and data systems support for deliberate and time-critical joint deployment planning. USTRANSCOM, which is a unified command (i.e., personnel are drawn from all the services), was created in the fall of 1987 to consolidate the functions of the former military transportation operating agencies (the Military Airlift Command, the Military Traffic Management Command, and the Military Sealift Command). An important factor in the creation of USTRANSCOM was the possibility of achieving more efficient joint deployment planning through consolidation of the computing and data systems used by the command's strategic mobility planners and operation center personnel. This report, the third in a series to be produced in the course of ORNL studies for USTRANSCOM, presents options for improving automation support for HQ USTRANSCOM deployment planning. The study covered methods for improving data concepts used in deployment databases, recommendations for extending the life of the Joint Deployment system, and alternatives for integrating HQ USTRANSCOM planning support with systems at MAC, MTMC, and MSC. 36 refs.

  10. Quality Assurance (QA) plan for the Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Loffman, R.S.; Truett, L.F.

    1990-09-01

    Development of the Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began in 1986. When fully implemented in 1992, ADANS will provide Headquarters, Military Airlift Command with an automated airlift planning and scheduling system. ADANS will be operational through at least the year 2000. This Quality Assurance (QA) Plan will be used by the ADANS team at ORNL as a guide to ensure that the ADANS software development project results in a high-quality product completed on time and within budget. The Plan defines the program elements to be considered under QA management, the responsibilities of each individual concerned, the acceptance criteria, and a schedule for QA program element reviews. Forms for maintaining appropriate QA records are also included.

  11. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1952 architectural drawings by Strategic Air Command, MacDill Air Force Base) BASE LAYOUT, 1952 - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  12. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... MAC? The symptoms of MAC can include high fevers, chills, diarrhea , weight loss, stomach aches, fatigue, and anemia ( ... anemia. Many drug interactions. Rifampin (Rifampicin, Rifadin, Rimactane): fever, chills, muscle or bone pain; can turn urine, sweat, ...

  13. Optimal design of airlift fermenters

    SciTech Connect

    Moresi, M.

    1981-11-01

    In this article a modeling of a draft-tube airlift fermenter (ALF) based on perfect back-mixing of liquid and plugflow for gas bubbles has been carried out to optimize the design and operation of fermentation units at different working capacities. With reference to a whey fermentation by yeasts the economic optimization has led to a slim ALF with an aspect ratio of about 15. As far as power expended per unit of oxygen transfer is concerned, the responses of the model are highly influenced by kLa. However, a safer use of the model has been suggested in order to assess the feasibility of the fermentation process under study. (Refs. 39).

  14. High Resolution Visualization Applied to Future Heavy Airlift Concept Development and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FordCook, A. B.; King, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of high resolution 3D visualization tools for exploring the feasibility and advantages of future military cargo airlift concepts and evaluating compatibility with existing and future payload requirements. Realistic 3D graphic representations of future airlifters are immersed in rich, supporting environments to demonstrate concepts of operations to key personnel for evaluation, feedback, and development of critical joint support. Accurate concept visualizations are reviewed by commanders, platform developers, loadmasters, soldiers, scientists, engineers, and key principal decision makers at various stages of development. The insight gained through the review of these physically and operationally realistic visualizations is essential to refining design concepts to meet competing requirements in a fiscally conservative defense finance environment. In addition, highly accurate 3D geometric models of existing and evolving large military vehicles are loaded into existing and proposed aircraft cargo bays. In this virtual aircraft test-loading environment, materiel developers, engineers, managers, and soldiers can realistically evaluate the compatibility of current and next-generation airlifters with proposed cargo.

  15. Liquid mixing in internal loop airlift reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.J.; Hwang, S.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Chang, C.M. . Dept. of Biotechnology)

    1994-09-01

    The airlift reactor is a promising reactor for two- and three-phase reactions due to its advantages of high fluid circulation, mass and heat transfer, short mixing time, low shear stress, and energy consumption. It has been widely applied in biochemical fermentation, chemical reactions, and biological wastewater treatment processes. Liquid mixing in the riser and downcomer of two- and three-phase internal loop airlift reactors as well as the overall liquid mixing were studied. Tracer was injected into the airlift reactors, and pH sensors were employed to measure the variations of tracer concentration in the riser, downcomer, top, and bottom sections. The Bo number in individual sections of the airlift reactors were obtained by time domain analysis of these concentration variations. It was found that the degree of mixing in the riser was higher than that in the downcomer. Moreover, mixing in the two-phase system was superior to that in the three-phase system, and the degree of mixing of the calcium alginate system was lower than that of the polystyrene system. Minimum values of the overall axial dispersion coefficient existed in the relationship between the overall axial dispersion coefficient and solids loading.

  16. Operational effectiveness of a Multiple Aquila Control System (MACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Flynn, J. D.; Frey, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The operational effectiveness of a multiple aquila control system (MACS) was examined under a variety of remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission configurations. The set of assumptions and inputs used to form the rules under which a computerized simulation of MACS was run is given. The characteristics that are to govern MACS operations include: the battlefield environment that generates the requests for RPV missions, operating time-lines of the RPV-peculiar equipment, maintenance requirements, and vulnerability to enemy fire. The number of RPV missions and the number of operation days are discussed. Command, control, and communication data rates are estimated by determining how many messages are passed and what information is necessary in them to support ground coordination between MACS sections.

  17. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  18. Preliminary analysis of long-range aircraft designs for future heavy airlift missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Murphy, R.; Barlow, A.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized design study of very large cargo aircraft for the future heavy airlift mission was conducted using the Aircraft Synthesis program (ACSYNT). The study was requested by the Air Force under an agreement whereby Ames provides computerized design support to the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. This effort is part of an overall Air Force program to study advanced technology large aircraft systems. Included in the Air Force large aircraft program are investigations of missions such as heavy airlift, airborne missile launch, battle platform, command and control, and aerial tanker. The Ames studies concentrated on large cargo aircraft of conventional design with payloads from 250,000 to 350,000 lb. Range missions up to 6500 n.mi. and radius missions up to 3600 n.mi. have been considered. Takeoff and landing distances between 7,000 and 10,000 ft are important constraints on the configuration concepts. The results indicate that a configuration employing conventional technology in all disciplinary areas weighs approximately 2 million pounds to accomplish either a 6500-n.mi. range mission or a 3600-n.mi. radius mission with a 350,000-lb payload.

  19. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control. PMID:25903476

  20. Results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.B.

    1983-05-01

    The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

  1. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  2. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  3. Airlift recirculation well test results -- Southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A and M-Areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952--1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. A plume of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the Lost Lake aquifer is moving generally southward with the natural flow of groundwater. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, a series of wells is being installed to contain and treat the plume. Airlift Recirculation Wells (ARW) are a new and innovative technology with potential for more cost effective implementation than conventional pump and treat systems. Two Airlift Recirculation Wells have been installed and tested to quantify performance parameters needed to locate a line of these wells along the leading edge of the contaminant plume. The wells proved to be very sensitive to proper development, but after this requirement was met, performance was very good. The Zone of Capture has been estimated to be within a radius of 130--160 ft. around the wells. Thus a line of wells spaced at 250 ft. intervals could intercept the contaminant plume. At SSR-012, TCE was stripped from the groundwater at approximately 1.2 lb./day. The longer term effect of the recirculation wells upon the plume and the degree of recirculation within the aquifer itself will require additional data over a longer time period for an accurate review. Data collection is ongoing.

  4. TRAVEL WITH COMMANDER QUALICIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commander Qualicia is a cartoon character created for an on-line training course that describes the quality system for the National Exposure Research Laboratory. In the training, which was developed by the QA staff and graphics/IT support contractors, Commander Qualicia and the ...

  5. Station Commander Praises AMS

    NASA Video Gallery

    When asked what's the most important International Space Station experiment, Commander Chris Hadfield names the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2, a state-of-the-art particle physics detector that coul...

  6. Commanding Constellations (Pipeline Architecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Tim; Condron, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Providing ground command software for constellations of spacecraft is a challenging problem. Reliable command delivery requires a feedback loop; for a constellation there will likely be an independent feedback loop for each constellation member. Each command must be sent via the proper Ground Station, which may change from one contact to the next (and may be different for different members). Dynamic configuration of the ground command software is usually required (e.g. directives to configure each member's feedback loop and assign the appropriate Ground Station). For testing purposes, there must be a way to insert command data at any level in the protocol stack. The Pipeline architecture described in this paper can support all these capabilities with a sequence of software modules (the pipeline), and a single self-identifying message format (for all types of command data and configuration directives). The Pipeline architecture is quite simple, yet it can solve some complex problems. The resulting solutions are conceptually simple, and therefore, reliable. They are also modular, and therefore, easy to distribute and extend. We first used the Pipeline architecture to design a CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Ground Telecommand system (to command one spacecraft at a time with a fixed Ground Station interface). This pipeline was later extended to include gateways to any of several Ground Stations. The resulting pipeline was then extended to handle a small constellation of spacecraft. The use of the Pipeline architecture allowed us to easily handle the increasing complexity. This paper will describe the Pipeline architecture, show how it was used to solve each of the above commanding situations, and how it can easily be extended to handle larger constellations.

  7. Borisenko Hands Over Command to Fossum

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko handed over station command duties to Flight Engineer Mike Fossum. Fossum will command Expedition 29. The traditional Change of Command Ceremony took place ...

  8. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  9. EISCAT observations during MAC/SINE and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hall, C.

    1989-01-01

    The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The VHF (224 MHz) radar operations during MAC/SINE yielded most interesting observations of strong coherent echoes from the mesopause region. Characteristic data of these polar mesospheric summer echoes are presented. The UHF (933 MHz) radar operations during MAC/Epsilon were done with 18 deg off zenith beam and allows the deduction of meridonal and horizontal wind components as well as radial velocity spectra in addition to the usual electron density profiles in the D and lower E regions. Some results from the VHF and UHF radars indicating the presence of gravity waves are examined.

  10. Modeling an airlift bioscrubber for removal of airphase BTEX

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, F.G.; Nirmalakhandan, N.

    1999-11-01

    Biological treatment of airstreams has been shown to be useful when the airstreams are contaminated with low concentrations of volatile organic chemicals. One type of airphase biological reactor, the bioscrubber, has operational advantages over the two other types of airphase bioreactors, biofilters, and biotrickling filters. The airlift bioscrubber is a new bioscrubber configuration that offers some advantages over the conventional two-stage bioscrubber. In this work. a practical mathematical model was developed for the airlift bioscrubber for the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. The model input parameters were defined, and typical values were determined from the published literature. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the mathematical model to define the operating range of the airlift bioscrubber for the removal of the benzene, toluene, and ethylene compounds. In addition, the sensitivity analysis results were used to define the range of testing that is appropriate for laboratory validation and calibration of the proposed mathematical model.

  11. Cost efficient command management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Theresa; Murphy, C. W.; Kuntz, Jon; Barlett, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The design and implementation of a command management system (CMS) for a NASA control center, is described. The technology innovations implemented in the CMS provide the infrastructure required for operations cost reduction and future development cost reduction through increased operational efficiency and reuse in future missions. The command management design facilitates error-free operations which enables the automation of the routine control center functions and allows for the distribution of scheduling responsibility to the instrument teams. The reusable system was developed using object oriented methodologies.

  12. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  13. Fiverr MacGyver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in

  14. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  15. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. 32 CFR 724.406 - Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commander, Naval Medical Command. 724.406 Section 724.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL..., Naval Medical Command. Custodian of Navy and Marine Corps health records. (See subpart C)....

  17. 32 CFR 724.406 - Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander, Naval Medical Command. 724.406 Section 724.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL..., Naval Medical Command. Custodian of Navy and Marine Corps health records. (See subpart C)....

  18. 32 CFR 724.406 - Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commander, Naval Medical Command. 724.406 Section 724.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL..., Naval Medical Command. Custodian of Navy and Marine Corps health records. (See subpart C)....

  19. 32 CFR 724.406 - Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commander, Naval Medical Command. 724.406 Section 724.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL..., Naval Medical Command. Custodian of Navy and Marine Corps health records. (See subpart C)....

  20. 32 CFR 724.406 - Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commander, Naval Medical Command. 724.406 Section 724.406 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL..., Naval Medical Command. Custodian of Navy and Marine Corps health records. (See subpart C)....

  1. Station Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    The reins of the International Space Station were passed from Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum of NASA to his NASA colleague, newly arrived Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank in a ceremony on t...

  2. CHeCS Commanding Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) commanding hardware. It includes information on the hardware status, commanding plan, and command training status with specific information the EV-CPDS 2 and 3, TEPC, MEC, and T2

  3. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  4. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  5. Telemetry and command standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.; Macmedan, Mervyn L.; Lenhart, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    The first phase of the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) efforts toward the definition of standards for space telemetry, spacecraft tracking, and command functions has established a set of standard space communications techniques capable of satisfying almost the entire spectrum of space mission user requirements. This was achieved by focusing on the distinctive problems associated with the space/ground data link, and developing the infrastructural system designated the 'Open Systems Interconnection'. The intrinsically international coordination by CCSDS of development efforts ensures highly flexible mutual support activities by the various national space agencies.

  6. The Multidimensional Audioconferencing Classification System (MACS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.; Chang, Yu-bi

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of the Multidimensional Audioconferencing Classification System (MACS), an instrument for the tabulation, analysis, and interpretation of audioconferencing instructional interactions. MACS draws on three theoretical and empirical streams: (1) systematic small group interaction analysis; (2) systematic classroom…

  7. Hydrodynamic study of an internal airlift reactor for microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Rengel, Ana; Zoughaib, Assaad; Dron, Dominique; Clodic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Internal airlift reactors are closed systems considered today for microalgae cultivation. Several works have studied their hydrodynamics but based on important solid concentrations, not with biomass concentrations usually found in microalgae cultures. In this study, an internal airlift reactor has been built and tested in order to clarify the hydrodynamics of this system, based on microalgae typical concentrations. A model is proposed taking into account the variation of air bubble velocity according to volumetric air flow rate injected into the system. A relationship between riser and downcomer gas holdups is established, which varied slightly with solids concentrations. The repartition of solids along the reactor resulted to be homogenous for the range of concentrations and volumetric air flow rate studied here. Liquid velocities increase with volumetric air flow rate, and they vary slightly when solids are added to the system. Finally, liquid circulation time found in each section of the reactor is in concordance with those employed in microalgae culture. PMID:21710261

  8. [Performance of internal-loop air-lift nitrifying bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Mei; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Yang-Yang; Hu, Bao-Lan; Chen, Jian-Song

    2002-07-01

    The performance of internal-loop air-lift nitrifying bioreactor was good with strong tolerance to influent ammonia concentration (78.49 mmol/L), high volume converting rate (163.18 mmol/L.d) and obvious working stability (ammonia removal > 94.42%). During operation of internal-loop air-lift bioreactor, the nitrifying activated sludge was granulated. The nitrifying granular activated sludge began to appear on day 45. Its average diameter was 0.83 mm, settling velocity was 55.53 m/h and specific ammonia removal rate was 0.95 mmol (NH4(+)-N)/g (VS).d. The nitrifying granular activated sludge had the activity for anaerobic ammonia oxidation with ammonia oxidation rate of 0.23 mmol (NH4(+)-N)/g(VS).d and nitrite reduction rate of 0.24 mmol (NO2(-)-N)/g(VS).d. PMID:12385250

  9. The eutrophication commandments.

    PubMed

    Fulweiler, R W; Rabalais, N N; Heiskanen, A S

    2012-10-01

    Typically, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are used to illustrate how humans have impacted the earth. However, we have also dramatically altered the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling through the biosphere. Eventually these nutrients are carried to coastal receiving waters where they cause severe, often negative consequences including increased phytoplankton and macroalgae blooms, loss of submerged aquatic vegetation, low oxygen events, and decreased biodiversity. In many systems mitigation efforts are now underway to return these ecosystems to a less impacted state. While many uncertainties about the best way to manage eutrophic systems remain it is clear that we must take action to lessen our human nutrient footprint. Based on our current understanding of eutrophic systems we present ten eutrophication commandments or guidelines as a tool for scientists, policy makers, managers, and the public. PMID:22889495

  10. Gas transfer rates from airlifts used for concurrent aeration, carbon dioxide stripping, and recirculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airlifts simplify recirculating aquaculture systems and can potentially reduce capital costs and minimize maintenance issues. Airlifts have the ability to move and aerate water as well as degass the water of any carbon dioxide. This study evaluated the oxygen transfer and carbon dioxide removal abil...

  11. Flow, aeration, and carbon dioxide transfer rates for airlifts used in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airlift pumping systems reduce the electrical costs of moving water in a recirculating aquaculture system and can be concurrently designed to aerate water and remove carbon dioxide. This study determined the water flow, oxygen transfer, and CO2 removal rates for water using airlift technology in a 1...

  12. Practical design and application of airlift technology for aquaculture reuse systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air-lift technology to support water movement in low-head water treatment units for recirculating aquacultures systems provides an energy efficient alternative to the use of centrifugal pumps. The benefits of air-lift are further realized when electrical requirements for aeration, CO2 degassing, and...

  13. 32 CFR 861.5 - DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures. 861.5 Section 861.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.5 DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board...

  14. 32 CFR 861.5 - DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures. 861.5 Section 861.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.5 DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board...

  15. Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2002-01-01

    The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion

  16. Safety aspects of spacecraft commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N.

    1994-01-01

    The commanding of spacecraft is a potentially hazardous activity for the safety of the spacecraft. Present day control systems contain safety features in their commanding subsystem and in addition, strict procedures are also followed by operations staff. However, problems have occurred on a number of missions as a result of erroneous commanding leading in some cases to spacecraft contingencies and even to near loss of the spacecraft. The problems of checking commands in advance are increased by the tendency in modern spacecraft to use blocked/time-tagged commands and the increased usage of on-board computers, for which commands changing on-board software tables can radically change spacecraft or subsystem behavior. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study aims to improve the approach to safety of spacecraft commanding. It will show how ensuring 'safe' commanding can be carried out more efficiently, and with greater reliability, with the help of knowledge based systems and/or fast simulators. The whole concept will be developed based on the Object-Oriented approach.

  17. A Physically Based Model for Air-Lift Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FrançOis, Odile; Gilmore, Tyler; Pinto, Michael J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1996-08-01

    A predictive, physically based model for pumping water from a well using air injection (air-lift pumping) was developed for the range of flow rates that we explored in a series of laboratory experiments. The goal was to determine the air flow rate required to pump a specific flow rate of water in a given well, designed for in-well air stripping of volatile organic compounds from an aquifer. The model was validated against original laboratory data as well as data from the literature. A laboratory air-lift system was constructed that consisted of a 70-foot-long (21-m-long) pipe, 5.5 inches (14 cm) inside diameter, in which an air line of 1.3 inches (3.3 cm) outside diameter was placed with its bottom at different elevations above the base of the long pipe. Experiments were conducted for different levels of submergence, with water-pumping rates ranging from 5 to 70 gallons/min (0.32-4.4 L/s), and air flow ranging from 7 to 38 standard cubic feet/min (0.2-1.1 m3 STP/min). The theoretical approach adopted in the model was based on an analysis of the system as a one-dimensional two-phase flow problem. The expression for the pressure gradient includes inertial energy terms, friction, and gas expansion versus elevation. Data analysis revealed that application of the usual drift-flux model to estimate the air void fraction is not adequate for the observed flow patterns: either slug or churn flow. We propose a modified drift-flux model that accurately predicts air-lift pumping requirements for a range of conditions representative of in-well air-stripping operations.

  18. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in an immobilized cell airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kermanshahi pour, A; Karamanev, D; Margaritis, A

    2005-09-01

    An "immobilized cell airlift bioreactor", was used for the aerobic bioremediation of simulated diesel fuel contaminated groundwater and tested with p-xylene and naphthalene in batch and continuous regimes. The innovative design of the experiments consists of two stages. At the first stage "immobilized soil bioreactor" (ISBR) was used to develop an efficient microbial consortium from the indigenous microorganisms, which exist in diesel fuel contaminated soil. The concept of ISBR relies on the entrapment of the soil particles into the pores of a semi-permeable membrane, which divides the bioreactor into two aerated and non-aerated portions. The second stage involves inoculating the "immobilized cell air lift bioreactor" with the cultivated microbial consortia of the first stage. Immobilized cell airlift bioreactor has the same configuration as ISBR except that in this bioreactor instead of soil, microorganisms were immobilized on the fibers of the membrane. The performance of a 0.83 L immobilized cell airlift bioreactor was investigated at various retention time (0.5-6 h) and concentrations of p-xylene (15, 40 and 77 mg/L) and naphthalene (8, 15 and 22 mg/L) in the continuous operation. In the batch regime, 0.9L bioreactor was operated at various biodegradation times (15-135 min) and concentrations of p-xylene (13.6, 44.9 and 67.5 mg/L) and naphthalene (1.5 and 3.8 mg/L). Under the conditions of the complete biodegradation of p-xylene and naphthalene, the obtained volumetric biodegradation rates at biomass density of 720 mg/L were 15 and 16 mg/L h, respectively. PMID:16095655

  19. Station Commander Sends Holiday Greetings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank of NASA sends season's greetings to the world and shares his thoughts about being in orbit aboard the space-based laborat...

  20. Network command processing system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, Yon-Woo; Murphy, Lisa D.

    1993-01-01

    The Network Command Processing System (NCPS) developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ground Network (GN) stations is a spacecraft command system utilizing a MULTIBUS I/68030 microprocessor. This system was developed and implemented at ground stations worldwide to provide a Project Operations Control Center (POCC) with command capability for support of spacecraft operations such as the LANDSAT, Shuttle, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, and Nimbus-7. The NCPS consolidates multiple modulation schemes for supporting various manned/unmanned orbital platforms. The NCPS interacts with the POCC and a local operator to process configuration requests, generate modulated uplink sequences, and inform users of the ground command link status. This paper presents the system functional description, hardware description, and the software design.

  1. Space vehicle onboard command encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A flexible onboard encoder system was designed for the space shuttle. The following areas were covered: (1) implementation of the encoder design into hardware to demonstrate the various encoding algorithms/code formats, (2) modulation techniques in a single hardware package to maintain comparable reliability and link integrity of the existing link systems and to integrate the various techniques into a single design using current technology. The primary function of the command encoder is to accept input commands, generated either locally onboard the space shuttle or remotely from the ground, format and encode the commands in accordance with the payload input requirements and appropriately modulate a subcarrier for transmission by the baseband RF modulator. The following information was provided: command encoder system design, brassboard hardware design, test set hardware and system packaging, and software.

  2. 32 CFR 536.12 - Commanding General, U.S. Army Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Commanding General, U.S. Army Medical Command.... Army Medical Command. (a) After consulting with the Commander USARCS on the selection of medical claims attorneys, the Commander of the U.S. Army MEDCOM, the European Medical Command, or other regional...

  3. 32 CFR 536.12 - Commanding General, U.S. Army Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commanding General, U.S. Army Medical Command.... Army Medical Command. (a) After consulting with the Commander USARCS on the selection of medical claims attorneys, the Commander of the U.S. Army MEDCOM, the European Medical Command, or other regional...

  4. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  5. Modeling microalgal growth in an airlift-driven raceway reactor.

    PubMed

    Ketheesan, Balachandran; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2013-05-01

    In previous proof-of-concept studies, feasibility of a new airlift-raceway configuration and its energetic advantage and improved CO2 utilization efficiency over the traditional raceways and photobioreactors have been documented. In the current study, a mathematical model for predicting biomass growth in the airlift-raceway reactor is presented, which includes supply and transfer of CO2 and the synergetic effects of light, CO2, nitrogen, and temperature. The model was calibrated and validated with data from prototype scale versions of the reactor on two test species: Nannochloropsis salina and Scenedesmus sp., cultivated under indoor and outdoor conditions. Predictions of biomass concentrations by the proposed model agreed well with the temporal trend of the experimental data, with r(2) ranging from 0.96 to 0.98, p<0.001. A sensitivity analysis of the 10 model parameters used in this study revealed that only three of them were significant, with sensitivity coefficients ranging from 0.08 to 0.13. PMID:23603218

  6. Intrathecal Veratridine Administration Increases MAC in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Sharma, Manohar; Eger, Edmond I; Laster, Michael J.; Hemmings, Hugh C.; Harris, R. Adron

    2008-01-01

    Background Results from several studies point to sodium channels as potential mediators of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. We hypothesized that the intrathecal administration of veratridine, a drug that enhances the activity or effect of sodium channels, should increase MAC. Methods We measured the change in isoflurane MAC caused by intrathecal infusion of various concentrations of veratridine into the lumbothoracic subarachnoid space of rats. We compared these result to those obtained from intracerebroventricular infusion. Results As predicted, intrathecal infusion of veratridine increased MAC. The greatest infused concentration (25 μM) also produced neuronal injury in the hind limbs of two rats and decreased the peak effect on MAC. A concentration of 1.6 μM produced the greatest (21%) increase in MAC. Intraventricular infusion of 1.6 and 6.4 μM veratridine did not alter MAC. Rats given 25 μM died. Conclusion Intrathecal administration of veratradine increases MAC of isoflurane, a finding consistent with a role for sodium channels as potential mediators of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. Implications Intrathecal administration of veratridine can increase MAC, presumably by an effect on sodium channels. PMID:18713899

  7. George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2007-01-01

    The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development" and…

  8. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  9. The SAS-3 delayed command system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    To meet the requirements arising from the increased complexity of the power, attitude control and telemetry systems, a full redundant high-performance control section with delayed command capability was designed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3). The relay command system of SAS-3 is characterized by 56 bystate relay commands, with capability for handling up to 64 commands in future versions. The 'short' data command service of SAS-1 and SAS-2 consisting of shifting 24-bit words to two users was expanded to five users and augmented with a 'long load' data command service (up to 4080 bits) used to program the telemetry system and the delayed command subsystem. The inclusion of a delayed command service ensures a program of up to 30 relay or short data commands to be loaded for execution at designated times. The design and system operation of the SAS-3 command section are analyzed, with special attention given to the delayed command subsystem.

  10. In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

  11. The evaluation of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer associated with airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide aeration, degasification, and water circulation. They allow the simplification of systems, and if designed properly, can reduce the capital costs and minimize operation and maintenance associated with alternative pumping systems. In order t...

  12. Production of bacterial cellulose membranes in a modified airlift bioreactor by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Chi; Li, Meng-Hsun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a novel bioreactor for producing bacterial cellulose (BC) is proposed. Traditional BC production uses static culture conditions and produces a gelatinous membrane. The potential for using various types of bioreactor, including a stirred tank, conventional airlift, and modified airlift with a rectangular wire-mesh draft tube, in large-scale production has been investigated. The BC obtained from these bioreactors is fibrous or in pellet form. Our proposed airlift bioreactor produces a membrane-type BC from Gluconacetobacter xylinus, the water-holding capacity of which is greater than that of cellulose types produced using static cultivation methods. The Young's modulus of the product can be manipulated by varying the number of net plates in the modified airlift bioreactor. The BC membrane produced using the proposed bioreactor exhibits potential for practical application. PMID:25823854

  13. An experimental study on the airlift pump with air jet nozzle and booster pump.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju; Lee, Chae-Moon; Park, Jung-Won

    2009-01-01

    The experiments for high head airlifting performance with vertical tube were examined for wastewater treatment. Comparing with the centrifugal pump and other pumps, the airlift pump has some problems and limited applications. However, an advantage of an airlift pump is in its geometrical simplicity, not having any moving parts, so it is suitable in lifting fluids including tiny pieces of metal or grit. In this study, for the purpose of high lifting head, an air jet nozzle was used. We have performed experimentally according to various characteristics of the airlift pump system such as the change of submerged depth, lifting head of liquid-air mixture (total head) and air flow rate. This work has verified through experiments that airlift pump shows lifting ability for 3 m (Sr = 0.3) in comparison with conventional height, 2 m (Sr = 0.4). Also, we suggested that the new airlift pump system with the air booster pump be used to improve the higher lifting head performance. PMID:25084423

  14. Fast arithmetic in MacLISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, G. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    MacLISP provides a compiler which produces numerical code competitive in speed with some FORTRAN implementations and yet compatible with the rest of the MacLISP system. All numerical programs can be run under the MacLISP interpreter. Additional declarations to the compiler specify type information which allows the generation of optimized numerical code which generally does not require the garbage collection of temporary numerical results. Array accesses are almost as fast as in FORTRAN, and permit the use of dynamically allocated arrays of varying dimensions. The implementation decisions regarding user interface, data representations, and interfacing conventions are discussed which allow the generation of fast numerical LISP code.

  15. Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) development guidelines: User interface

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Loffman, R.S.; Stevens, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    This user interface document is the first in a series of development guidelines for the Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) project. This report documents the user interface design as it currently exists. These guidelines, which are specific to the current ADANS operating environment, will be used by the developers of ADANS to create a consistent, efficient, and logical user interface. A good user interface optimizes the interactions between a computer system and the personnel using the system and minimizes conditions that degrade human performance or cause human error. ADANS is still under development; as new capabilities become available to the ADANS development team, the ADANS user interface will be modified. Thus, a revision of this report is expected. 3 refs.

  16. Fluid dynamics of airlift reactors; Two-phase friction factors

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Calvo, E. )

    1992-10-01

    Airlift loop reactors (ALR) are useful equipment in biotechnology in a wide range of uses, however their design is not a simple task since prediction of fluid dynamics in these reactors is difficult. Most of the different strategies found in the literature in order to predict two main parameters, namely, gas holdup and liquid velocity, are based on energy or momentum balances. The balances include frictional effects, and it is not yet clear how to predict these effects. The objective of this article is to show how criteria corresponding to one-phase flow may be used in order to predict the frictional effects in ALRs. Based on a model proposed by Garcia-Calvo (1989, 1991), we simulated experimental data of liquid velocity profiles and gas holdup obtained by Young et al. in an ALR with two different configurations. Experimental data obtained in other three external ALRs with different shapes and sizes are also simulated.

  17. 10 commandments of smile esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Andre Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The search for esthetic treatment has persisted in the routine of dental professionals. Following this trend, dental patients have sought treatment with the primary aim of improving smile esthetics. The aim of this article is to present a protocol to assess patient's smile: The 10 Commandments of smile esthetics. PMID:25279532

  18. User's manual for MacPASCO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, S. H.; Davis, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for MacPASCO, which is an interactive, graphic, preprocessor for panel design. MacPASCO creates input for PASCO, an existing computer code for structural analysis and sizing of longitudinally stiffened composite panels. MacPASCO provides a graphical user interface which simplifies the specification of panel geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry on the computer screen, then uses a combination of graphic and text inputs to: refine the structural geometry; specify information required for analysis such as panel load and boundary conditions; and define design variables and constraints for minimum mass optimization. Only the use of MacPASCO is described, since the use of PASCO has been documented elsewhere.

  19. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  20. A Conversation with Patricia MacLachlan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Contains an interview with Patricia MacLachlan, former teacher and author of the award-winning novel "Sarah, Plain and Tall" about her views on the latest trends in teaching reading and writing to children. (TB)

  1. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

  2. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  3. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  4. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  5. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military... support to the Naval Discharge Review Board and for implementation of departmental discharge review decisions. (See subpart C)....

  6. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military... support to the Naval Discharge Review Board and for implementation of departmental discharge review decisions. (See subpart C)....

  7. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military... support to the Naval Discharge Review Board and for implementation of departmental discharge review decisions. (See subpart C)....

  8. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Naval Military Personnel Command. 724.405 Section 724.405 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval...

  9. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Naval Military Personnel Command. 724.405 Section 724.405 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval...

  10. Bioconversion of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed Abdel-Monaem; AlZahrani, Abdulraheem Ahmad; Noweir, Madbuli Hamed; El-Marakby, Fadia Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5-8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2 mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500 mg/L at pH values 8.0-8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8-8.5. PMID:25147857

  11. SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOW MAINTENANCE AIRLIFT PUMP TO EXTEND THE LIFE OF STRIPPER WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Bennett

    2004-03-01

    This report summarizes the evolution and testing results of the Airlift pumping system. System development has passed through four versions: Gen 1, Gen 2, Gen 3, and 3.1. The DOE grant only funded the development and testing of the Gen 2 version, but the Gen 2 unit was a crucial design bridge between the primitive Gen 1 unit and the sophisticated Gen 3 unit. The DOE grant covered the years 2000 to 2002, but this report analyzes the data collected from testing on all four versions across the years 1998 through 2003. A variety of Airlift units were tested in twelve wells. The overall reliability of the Airlift versus traditional pump jack technology was compared. Although neither the Gen 2 nor Gen 3 demonstrated a reliable pumping system, the Gen 3.1 was designed to correct the flaws in these systems. Currently undergoing testing, the Gen 3.1 is operating with a reliability four times better and two-and-a-half times better in the time it requires to repair than standard pump jack technology. The high reliability and low maintenance required to operate the Airlift Gen 3.1 will make the Airlift the natural and economical choice to replace pump jacks on stripper wells.

  12. British Airways' pre-command training program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdstock, L. F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Classroom, flight simulator, and in-flight sessions of an airline pilot training program are briefly described. Factors discussed include initial command potential assessment, precommand airline management studies course, precommand course, and command course.

  13. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams ceremonially handed over command of the International Space Station on Saturday to fellow NASA astronaut Kevin Ford on the eve of her departure from the comple...

  14. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  15. Terrain commander UGS operational trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Robert L.

    2004-09-01

    Operational trials of Textron Systems" Terrain Commander unattended ground sensor (UGS) system are described. Terrain Commander is a powerful new concept in surveillance and remote situational awareness. It leverages a diverse suite of sophisticated unattended ground sensors, day/night electro-optics, satellite data communications, and an advanced Windows based graphic user interface. Terrain Commander OASIS (Optical Acoustic SATCOM Integrated Sensor) provides next generation target detection, classification, and tracking through smart sensor fusion of beam-forming acoustic, seismic, passive infrared, and magnetic sensors. With its fully integrated SATCOM system using internet protocols, virtually any site in the world can be monitored from almost any other location. Multiple remote sites such as airfields, landing zones, base perimeters, road junctions, flanks, and border crossings are monitored with ease from a central location. Intruding personnel or vehicles are automatically detected, classified, and imaged. Results from early operational trials in the outback of Australia and in various locations in the US are described. Probability of detection and recognition against a wide variety of targets including personnel, military and civilian vehicles, in-shore watercraft, and low altitude aircraft are discussed. Environments include snow cover, tropical savannah, rainforest, and woodlands. Experience with alternative SATCOM systems during the trials is also touched upon.

  16. GREEN-MAC-LCCP: a tool for assessing the life cycle climate performance of MAC systems.

    PubMed

    Papasavva, Stella; Hill, William R; Andersen, Stephen O

    2010-10-01

    In 2008, 95% of the vehicle fleet in the developed countries and 80% of fleet in the developing countries were equipped with mobile air conditioning systems (MACs). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted due to refrigerant leakage (direct emissions) and due to the energy consumed by MACs operation (indirect emissions). In response to reducing the global warming impact of MACs, policy makers and the industry are investigating alternative refrigerant systems that use low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. The GREEN-MAC-LCCP model assesses the direct and indirect CO(2) equivalent emissions related to MACs usage, as well as those associated with the production, use and disposal of alternative refrigerants and MACs components. This model provides a platform for simple data input and provides an output summary as well as details that can be analyzed in a custom fashion by the user. It provides engineers and policy makers a state-of-the-art tool, based on sound engineering data and methods, in order to facilitate the process of evaluating alternate refrigerants with low lifecycle global warming impact as well as providing the total impact of any MACs on the environment. It has been recognized as the standard of the MACs industry. PMID:20812721

  17. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  18. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  19. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  20. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  1. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  2. A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

  3. HFGMC Enhancement of MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2006-01-01

    Additional information about a mathematical model denoted the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) and implementation of the HFGMC within version 4.0 of the MAC/GMC software has become available. MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells) was a topic of several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, version 4.0 having been described in "Comprehensive Micromechanics-Analysis Code - Version 4.0" (LEW-17495-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 9 (September 2005), page 54. MAC/GMC predicts elastic and inelastic thermomechanical responses of composite materials. MAC/GMC utilizes the generalized method of cells (GMC) - a model of micromechanics that predicts macroscopic responses of a composite material as functions of the properties, sizes, shapes, and responses of its constituents (e.g., matrix and fibers). The accuracy of the GMC is limited by neglect of coupling between normal and shear stresses. The HFGMC was developed by combining elements of the GMC and a related model, denoted the higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), that can account for this coupling. Hence, the HFGMC enables simulation of stress and strain with greater accuracy. Some alterations of the MAC/GMC data structure were necessitated by the greater computational complexity of the HFGMC.

  4. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. The term...

  5. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. The term...

  6. The effect of discontinuous airlift mixing in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Leupold, Marco; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Discontinuous airlift mixing was realized by injecting pressured air at time intervals with a frequency between 0.033 and 0.25 Hz (at 80 kPa; i.e., every 4-30 s; valve opening time 800 ms) into outdoor flat panel photobioreactors ([Formula: see text]). This caused a flow velocity between 2 and 20 cm s(-1) of the culture medium within the photobioreactor and the mixing time was between 38 and 103.5 s, requiring 0.175-1.340 L(gas volume) L(photobioreactor volume)(-1) min(-1) pressured air. In order to detect the effect on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus during outdoor experiments and to be able to compare obtained results, a batch run with an airlift frequency of 0.25 Hz was simultaneously used as control. Growth at different airlift frequencies was measured by the increase of cell dry weight (CDW) during 3-5 days and biomass yield on light energy was calculated. With increasing airlift frequencies, growth increased from 52 to 91 % compared to the control. When CDW was at around 1.0-1.5 g L(-1), airlift frequency had no effect on growth, indicating that mass transfer gradients of nutrients and gas were not the limiting factors of growth. Above 1.5 g CDW L(-1), growth increased with increasing airlift frequency and light limitation for a single cell occurred. This effect was observed during low and high irradiance and it is concluded that a higher mean flow causes a better light distribution, resulting in an enhanced growth. Biomass productivity and demand of pressured air are correlated logarithmically, which enables to save mixing energy during cultivation. PMID:23494400

  7. Shared decision making after MacIntyre.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon

    2011-04-01

    This paper explores the practical consequences that Enlightenment ideals had on morality as it applies to clinical practice, using Alisdair MacIntyre's conceptualization and critique of the Enlightenment as its reference point. Taking the perspective of a practicing clinician, I critically examine the historical origins of ideas that made shared decision making (SDM) a necessary and ideal model of clinician-patient relationship. I then build on MacIntyre's critique of Enlightenment thought and examine its implications for conceptions of shared decision-making that use an Enlightenment justification, as well as examining contemporary threats to SDM that the Enlightenment made possible. I conclude by offering an alternative framing of SDM that fits with the clinician's duty to act on behalf of and along with patients but that avoids the tenuous Enlightenment assumptions that MacIntyre's work so vocally critiques. PMID:21378085

  8. Low-pressure airlift fermenter for single cell protein production: II. Continuous culture of Pichia yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.Y.; Srinivasan, S.; Leavitt, R.I.; Coty, V.F.; Kondis, E.F.

    1987-03-01

    Experiments using Pichia yeast grown on n-paraffins have been conducted in laboratory 10-l airlift fermenters and in a 640-l module of commercial scale. Results confirmed the design concept with low-pressure air. However, in the absence of mass transport constraints, the build up of toxic factors in the fermenter appeared to a major variable limiting cell productivity. Foaming in the large fermenter also presented a serious problem, which must be solved before low-pressure airlift fermenters become practical. 14 references.

  9. Nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated biofilm airlift reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Benthum, W.A.J. van; Mathijssen, J.P.M.; Sunde, J.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Heijnen, J.J.; Garrido, J.M.

    1998-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds like ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate can be found in domestic as well as industrial wastewaters. These compounds can cause many environmental problems in surface waters but can be removed by applying nitrification and denitrification processes. Denitrification was integrated in a nitrifying biofilm airlift suspension reactor by intermittent aeration. A total nitrogen-removal efficiency of 75% was reached at an aerobic ammonia load of 5 kg{sub N}{center_dot}m{sup {minus}3}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}. Acetate was added to the reactor during the anoxic periods. The system was operated at sufficiently long anoxic hydraulic retention times to allow suspended growth of denitrifying heterotrophs. However, the heterotrophic biomass did not grow in suspension but grew as protuberances and layers on the nitrifying biofilms. Nitrification and denitrification occurred via nitrite as an intermediate, possibly because denitrifiers outcompeted the nitrite oxidizers. Because of the establishing of the nitrite route, a low average COD/N ratio of 2.6 kg{sub COD}{center_dot}kg{sub N}{sup {minus}1} was obtained. When denitrifying operation with acetate addition was started, initially almost all nitrogen removed was emitted as nitrous oxide. Subsequently, the nitrous oxide emission strongly decreased to almost zero in a period of 30 days, while the nitrogen-removal efficiency was maintained.

  10. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 7. General view of command center, building 501, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General view of command center, building 501, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 6. General view of command center, building 501, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General view of command center, building 501, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flight termination system used for each launch. (f) Electromagnetic interference. Each command control system component must function within the electromagnetic environment to which it is exposed. A command... must prevent electromagnetic interference. (g) Command transmitter failover. A command control...

  14. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flight termination system used for each launch. (f) Electromagnetic interference. Each command control system component must function within the electromagnetic environment to which it is exposed. A command... must prevent electromagnetic interference. (g) Command transmitter failover. A command control...

  15. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flight termination system used for each launch. (f) Electromagnetic interference. Each command control system component must function within the electromagnetic environment to which it is exposed. A command... must prevent electromagnetic interference. (g) Command transmitter failover. A command control...

  16. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flight termination system used for each launch. (f) Electromagnetic interference. Each command control system component must function within the electromagnetic environment to which it is exposed. A command... must prevent electromagnetic interference. (g) Command transmitter failover. A command control...

  17. An Interview with Peter MacDonald.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Peter MacDonald, Chairman of the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe in the United States speaks to such issues as energy development/management, oil companies, Navajo-Hopi relocation legislation, traditionalism, and the role of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes. (RTS)

  18. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  19. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 ..mu..m in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed.

  20. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  1. The MacArthur Fellows Look Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, June; Daniel, Neil

    1984-01-01

    The article describes replies to a questionnaire by recipients of the MacArthur Fellows Program, an award given to individuals with uncommon abilities across a wide spectrum of creative pursuits. Replies touch on school and family backgrounds, acceleration, importance of grades, recognition of achievement, extracurricular activities, and…

  2. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  3. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are @ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit`s position while within a building when satellite signals are not available.

  4. 42 CFR 423.2120 - Filing briefs with the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing briefs with the MAC. 423.2120 Section 423..., and Judicial Review § 423.2120 Filing briefs with the MAC. Upon request, the MAC will give the enrollee requesting review a reasonable opportunity to file a brief or other written statement about...

  5. Making Connections--The MeneMAC Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sueoka, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the MeneMAC (Media Arts Communications, dubbed "MeneMAC" in honor of the school mascot, the menehune) Learning Center at Moanalua High School (MoHS), inaugurated its integrated media curriculum for its class of 27 entering freshmen. MeneMAC originated as a media learning center, offering students a chance to explore their interests and…

  6. Command and Service Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Command and Service Module (CSM) Communications. The communication system's capabilities are defined, including CSM-Earth, CSM-Lunar Module and CSM-Extravehicular crewman communications. An overview is provided for S-band communications, including data transmission and receiving rates, operating frequencies and major system components (pre-modulation processors, unified S-band electronics, S-band power amplifier and S-band antennas). Additionally, data transmission rates, operating frequencies and the capabilities of VHF communications are described. Major VHF components, including transmitters and receivers, and the VHF multiplexer and antennas are also highlighted. Finally, communications during pre-launch, ascent, in-flight and entry are discussed. Overall, the CSM communication system was rated highly by flight controllers and crew. The system was mostly autonomous for both crew and flight controllers and no major issues were encountered during flight.

  7. Absorption of sulfur dioxide by glycerol-containing hexamethylenetetramine solutions in an airlift apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ennan, A.A.; Gavrilenko, M.I.; Nikitin, V.I.; Kurando, S.V.

    1994-04-10

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide in an airlift apparatus with an external circuit is studied by using the cellular model. The absorption was accomplished using glycerol-containing hexamethylenetetramine solutions. These solutions are shown to be in principle applicable for decontaminating air by removing sulfur dioxide.

  8. 32 CFR 861.5 - DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures. 861.5 Section 861.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... consider reinstating a suspended carrier on either CARB motion or carrier motion, unless such carrier...

  9. 32 CFR 861.5 - DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures. 861.5 Section 861.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... consider reinstating a suspended carrier on either CARB motion or carrier motion, unless such carrier...

  10. 32 CFR 861.5 - DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DOD Commercial Airlift Review Board procedures. 861.5 Section 861.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... consider reinstating a suspended carrier on either CARB motion or carrier motion, unless such carrier...

  11. Empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient for a rectangular internal-loop airlift bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...

  12. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, fluid dynamics, culture media aspects, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic manufacture, plant cell culture, and hybridoma culture. Topics explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, plant, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 75 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Station Commander Congratulates New Flight Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum congratulates Judd Frieling, Tomas Gonzalez-Torres and Greg Whitney on being selected as NASA's newest flight directors. ...

  14. Waveform command shaping control of multimode systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhazza, Khaled A.; Masoud, Ziyad N.

    2016-02-01

    A method for eliminating residual vibrations in multimode systems is presented using a command shaping technique. The proposed command shaping technique captures two main advantages. Namely, the independence of the time length of the shaped command from the resonant frequencies of the system, and the ability to generate the command profile without a full system model. Experiments on systems with partial models represented by their resonant frequencies show that shaped command profiles generated using actual measured resonant frequencies of a system outperform those based on mathematical models. This feature of the proposed command shaping technique makes it very attractive for complicated multimode systems where mathematical models are difficult to build. Profiles of the proposed shaped command are simple and do not require intensive calculations. Performance of the proposed shaped command is validated using numerical simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations prove that the shaped commands are capable of completely eliminating residual vibrations of multimode systems. Experiments show that residual vibration elimination depends on the level of accuracy of the measured resonant frequencies of the system.

  15. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase II-Air Training Command, Military Airlift Command, and Strategic Air Command [and] Phase III-Electronic Warfare Trainers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Hubbard, David C.

    This document consists of an interim report and a final report which describe the second and third phases of a project designed to determine the utility and utilization of sophisticated hardware and software capabilities known as advanced instructional features (AIFs). Used with an aircrew training device (ATD), AIFs permit a simulator instructor…

  16. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monaem Zytoon, Mohamed; Ahmad AlZahrani, Abdulraheem; Hamed Noweir, Madbuli; Ahmed El-Marakby, Fadia

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m−3 h−1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2 mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500 mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5. PMID:25147857

  17. 14 CFR 91.1031 - Pilot in command or second in command: Designation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Designation required. (a) Each program manager must designate a— (1) Pilot in command for each program flight... designated by the program manager, must remain the pilot in command at all times during that flight....

  18. Model-based evaluation of ferrous iron oxidation by acidophilic bacteria in chemostat and biofilm airlift reactors.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Sirous; Faraghi, Neda; Hosseini, Maryam

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a model-based evaluation of ferrous iron oxidation in chemostat and biofilm airlift reactors inoculated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans bacteria. The competition between the two types of bacteria in the chemostat and in the biofilm airlift reactors together with the distribution of both bacteria along the biofilm thickness at different time sections has been studied. The bacterial distribution profiles along the biofilm in the airlift reactor at different time scales show that in the beginning A. ferrooxidans bacteria are dominant, but when the reactor operates for a long time the desirable L. ferrooxidans species outcompete A. ferrooxidans as a result of the low Fe(2+) and high Fe(3+) concentrations. The results obtained from the simulation were compared with the experimental data of continuously operated internal loop airlift biofilm reactor. The model results are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:26264929

  19. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast Guard District Commander or District...

  20. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast Guard District Commander or District...

  1. MAC, material accounting database user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    The K Basins Material Accounting (MAC) database system user guide describes the user features and functions, and the document is structured like the database menus. This document presents the MAC database system user instructions which explain how to record the movements and configuration of canisters and materials within the K Basins on the computer, the mechanics of handling encapsulation tracking, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions.

  2. 32 CFR 552.65 - Command supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Command supervision. 552.65 Section 552.65 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....65 Command supervision. (a) All insurance business conducted on Army installation will be...

  3. 76 FR 19893 - Unified Command Plan 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... HOUSE, Washington, April 6, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-8644 Filed 4-7-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 5000-04-P ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of April 6, 2011 Unified Command Plan 2011 Memorandum for the Secretary of... the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title 10, United States Code, section 161(b)(2)...

  4. 32 CFR 215.7 - Command relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Command relationships. 215.7 Section 215.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY RESOURCES IN THE EVENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES § 215.7 Command...

  5. 32 CFR 215.7 - Command relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command relationships. 215.7 Section 215.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY RESOURCES IN THE EVENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES § 215.7 Command...

  6. 32 CFR 637.3 - Installation Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation Commander. 637.3 Section 637.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.3 Installation Commander....

  7. 32 CFR 637.3 - Installation Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Installation Commander. 637.3 Section 637.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.3 Installation Commander....

  8. 32 CFR 637.3 - Installation Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Installation Commander. 637.3 Section 637.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.3 Installation Commander....

  9. 32 CFR 637.3 - Installation Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation Commander. 637.3 Section 637.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.3 Installation Commander....

  10. 32 CFR 637.3 - Installation Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Installation Commander. 637.3 Section 637.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.3 Installation Commander....

  11. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  12. Autonomous Command Operation of the WIRE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prior, Mike; Walyus, Keith; Saylor, Rick

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the end-to-end design architecture for an autonomous commanding capability to be used on the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) mission for the uplink of command loads during unattended station contacts. The WIRE mission is the fifth and final mission of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Small Explorer (SMEX) series to be launched in March of 1999. Its primary mission is the targeting of deep space fields using an ultra-cooled infrared telescope. Due to its mission design WIRE command loads are large (approximately 40 Kbytes per 24 hours) and must be performed daily. To reduce the cost of mission operations support that would be required in order to uplink command loads, the WIRE Flight Operations Team has implemented an autonomous command loading capability. This capability allows completely unattended operations over a typical two-day weekend period.

  13. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, C.R. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN ); Taylor, L.A. ); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1991-11-01

    New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

  14. 32 CFR 700.1056 - Command of a ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Command of a ship. 700.1056 Section 700.1056... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1056 Command of a ship. (a) The officer detailed to command a commissioned ship shall be an officer of the line in the Navy eligible for command at sea. (b) The officer...

  15. 32 CFR 700.1056 - Command of a ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Command of a ship. 700.1056 Section 700.1056... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1056 Command of a ship. (a) The officer detailed to command a commissioned ship shall be an officer of the line in the Navy eligible for command at sea. (b) The officer...

  16. 32 CFR 700.1056 - Command of a ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Command of a ship. 700.1056 Section 700.1056... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1056 Command of a ship. (a) The officer detailed to command a commissioned ship shall be an officer of the line in the Navy eligible for command at sea. (b) The officer...

  17. 32 CFR 700.1056 - Command of a ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Command of a ship. 700.1056 Section 700.1056... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1056 Command of a ship. (a) The officer detailed to command a commissioned ship shall be an officer of the line in the Navy eligible for command at sea. (b) The officer...

  18. 32 CFR 700.1056 - Command of a ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a ship. 700.1056 Section 700.1056... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1056 Command of a ship. (a) The officer detailed to command a commissioned ship shall be an officer of the line in the Navy eligible for command at sea. (b) The officer...

  19. The next generation of command post computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Ross D.; Lieb, Aaron J.; Samuel, Jason M.; Burger, Mitchell A.

    2015-05-01

    The future of command post computing demands an innovative new solution to address a variety of challenging operational needs. The Command Post of the Future is the Army's primary command and control decision support system, providing situational awareness and collaborative tools for tactical decision making, planning, and execution management from Corps to Company level. However, as the U.S. Army moves towards a lightweight, fully networked battalion, disconnected operations, thin client architecture and mobile computing become increasingly essential. The Command Post of the Future is not designed to support these challenges in the coming decade. Therefore, research into a hybrid blend of technologies is in progress to address these issues. This research focuses on a new command and control system utilizing the rich collaboration framework afforded by Command Post of the Future coupled with a new user interface consisting of a variety of innovative workspace designs. This new system is called Tactical Applications. This paper details a brief history of command post computing, presents the challenges facing the modern Army, and explores the concepts under consideration for Tactical Applications that meet these challenges in a variety of innovative ways.

  20. Aeration and mass transfer optimization in a rectangular airlift loop photobioreactor for the production of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Yao, Lishan; Huang, Qingshan

    2015-08-01

    Effects of superficial gas velocity and top clearance on gas holdup, liquid circulation velocity, mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient are investigated in a new airlift loop photobioreactor (PBR), and empirical models for its rational control and scale-up are proposed. In addition, the impact of top clearance on hydrodynamics, especially on the gas holdup in the internal airlift loop reactor, is clarified; a novel volume expansion technique is developed to determine the low gas holdup in the PBR. Moreover, a model strain of Chlorella vulgaris is cultivated in the PBR and the volumetric power is analyzed with a classic model, and then the aeration is optimized. It shows that the designed PBR, a cost-effective reactor, is promising for the mass cultivation of microalgae. PMID:25958141

  1. A novel airlift reactor enhanced by funnel internals and hydrodynamics prediction by the CFD method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Chaohai; Feng, Chunhua; Zhu, Jialiang

    2012-01-01

    Airlift reactors have been used widely in many industrial processes, but little work has been conducted on such reactors integrated with internals. In this study, a novel airlift reactor with a funnel internal was developed to achieve better flow conditions and advantages in biological processes. The CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation method was employed to investigate the effect of the funnel internals on hydrodynamic properties in the reactor. A CFD model was developed for gas-liquid two-phase flow simulation in a bench-scale reactor. Grid-independent simulation results were verified with global-scale experimental data. The results showed that the local or global gas holdup could be enhanced by 15% and that turbulent kinetic energy could be reduced by a maximum of 7.8% when the superficial gas velocity was 1 cm/s. These features are beneficial for applications in stress-sensitive biological processes. PMID:22119313

  2. Modeling particle transport by bubbles for performance guidelines in airlift fermentors.

    PubMed

    Snape, J B; Thomas, N H

    1992-07-01

    A calculation method has been developed to model the statistical transport of biological particles in bubble-driven flows, with special reference to the biokinetics of environmental excursions experienced by individual cells, aggregated cells, or immobilization beads in airlift bioreactors. Interim developments on modeling the transport of such particles in concentric tube devices are reported. The calculation is driven by user-prescribed global parameters for the bioreactor geometry, bulk air flow rate, and particle parameters (size and slip speed). The algorithm calls on empirical data correlations for void fraction, bulk liquid flow rate, and bubble sizes and slip speeds, optimally selected from a large bibliographic database. The Monte Carlo algorithm concentrates on simulating particle transport in the bubbly riser flows.The packaged family of correlations and calculations represents, in effect, an expert system augmented by a transport simulation suited to characterizing the biokinetic response of cells cultured in airlift bioreactors. PMID:18601123

  3. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  4. Expedition 33/34 Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams hands over station command to Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford in a ceremony that took place Saturday Nov. 17, 2012. Williams returned to Earth with two crew...

  5. Detail of west wall of south wing of commandant's house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of west wall of south wing of commandant's house with scale Fort Simcoe commandant's house & blockhouse - Fort Simcoe, Commandant's House & Blockhouse, Fort Simcoe Road, White Swan, Yakima County, WA

  6. 14 CFR 1214.703 - Chain of command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Shuttle Commander § 1214.703 Chain of command. (a) The Commander is a career NASA astronaut who has been.... (b) The pilot is a career NASA astronaut who has been designated to serve as the pilot on...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.703 - Chain of command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Shuttle Commander § 1214.703 Chain of command. (a) The Commander is a career NASA astronaut who has been.... (b) The pilot is a career NASA astronaut who has been designated to serve as the pilot on...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.703 - Chain of command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Shuttle Commander § 1214.703 Chain of command. (a) The Commander is a career NASA astronaut who has been.... (b) The pilot is a career NASA astronaut who has been designated to serve as the pilot on...

  9. 14 CFR 1214.703 - Chain of command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Shuttle Commander § 1214.703 Chain of command. (a) The Commander is a career NASA astronaut who has been.... (b) The pilot is a career NASA astronaut who has been designated to serve as the pilot on...

  10. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. Introduction to MacDraft. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traxler, Gene

    This training module on MacDraft is part of a computer drafting skills unit on communications technology for grades 9-12. The objective is for each student to complete a drawing on the MacIntosh computer using the MacDraft software program. This drawing is to be dimensioned with a dual system and is to include a border and title block. This module…

  15. Wireless Sensor Networks Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijuan, Du; Yuanpeng, Wang; WeiPeng, Jing

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor network energy-efficient MAC protocol, ES-MAC protocol, and shows the results of simulation experiments. During the transmission the nodes do not send ACK packages while use a small amount of new information packets, so they can reduce unnecessary energy loss and wasted time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that ES-MAC protocol reduces energy consumption while reducing network latency and improving network throughput.

  16. Station Commander Captures Unprecedented View of Comet

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Commander Dan Burbank captured spectacular imagery of Comet Lovejoy as seen from about 240 miles above the Earth’s horizon on Wednesday, Dec. 21. Burbank described se...

  17. STS-81 Commander Mike Baker at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-81 Mission Commander Michael A. Baker talks to the press at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility after he and his crew arrived at the space center for the final countdown preparations for the fifth Shuttle-Mir docking mission.

  18. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  19. A Mobile Automated Characterization System (MACS) for indoor floor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.S.; Haley, D.C.; Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-03-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an advanced Mobile Automated Characterization System (MACS) to characterize indoor contaminated floors. MACS is based upon Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON), an earlier floor characterization system developed at SRTC. MACS will feature enhanced navigation systems, operator interface, and an interface to simplify integration of additional sensors. The enhanced navigation system will provide the capability to survey large open areas much more accurately than is now possible with SIMON, which is better suited for hallways and corridors that provide the means for recalibrating position and heading. MACS operator interface is designed to facilitate MACS`s use as a tool for health physicists, thus eliminating the need for additional training in the robot`s control language. Initial implementation of MACS will use radiation detectors. Additional sensors, such as PCB sensors currently being developed, will be integrated on MACS in the future. Initial use of MACS will be focused toward obtaining comparative results with manual methods. Surveys will be conducted both manually and with MACS to compare relative costs and data quality. While clear cost benefits anticipated, data quality benefits should be even more significant.

  20. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  1. Response surface methodology for ozonation of trifluralin using advanced oxidation processes in an airlift photoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behin, J.; Farhadian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Degradation of trifluralin, as a wide used pesticide, was investigated by advance oxidation process comprising O3/UV/H2O2 in a concentric tube airlift photoreactor. Main and interactive effects of three independent factors including pH (5-9), superficial gas velocity (0.05-0.15 cm/s) and time (20-60 min) on the removal efficiency were assessed using central composite face-centered design and response surface method (RSM). The RSM allows to solve multivariable equations and to estimate simultaneously the relative importance of several contributing parameters even in the presence of complex interaction. Airlift photoreactor imposed a synergistic effect combining good mixing intensity merit with high ozone transfer rate. Mixing in the airlift photoreactor enhanced the UV light usage efficiency and its availability. Complete degradation of trifluralin was achieved under optimum conditions of pH 9 and superficial gas velocity 0.15 cm/s after 60 min of reaction time. Under these conditions, degradation of trifluralin was performed in a bubble column photoreactor of similar volume and a lower efficiency was observed.

  2. Electro-Fenton decolourisation of dyes in an airlift continuous reactor using iron alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, O; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    In this study, electro-Fenton dye degradation was performed in an airlift continuous reactor configuration by harnessing the catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an airlift reactor with a working volume of 1.5 L, air flow of 1.5 L/min and 115 g of Fe alginate gel beads. An electric field was applied by two graphite bars connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. In this study, Lissamine Green B and Reactive Black 5 were selected as model dyes. Fe alginate gel beads can be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process, as they are more efficient than the conventional electrochemical techniques. At optimal working conditions (3 V and pH 2), the continuous process was performed. For both dyes, the degree of decolourisation increases when the residence time augments. Taking into account hydrodynamic and kinetic behaviour, a model to describe the reactor profile was obtained, and the standard deviation between experimental and theoretical data was lower than 6%. The results indicate the suitability of the electro-Fenton technique to oxidise polluted effluents in the presence of Fe alginate gel beads. Moreover, the operation is possible in a continuous airlift reactor, due to the entrapment of iron in the alginate matrix. PMID:22851224

  3. Partial nitritation and o-cresol removal with aerobic granular biomass in a continuous airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Jemaat, Zulkifly; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    Several chemical industries produce wastewaters containing both, ammonium and phenolic compounds. As an alternative to treat this kind of complex industrial wastewaters, this study presents the simultaneous partial nitritation and o-cresol biodegradation in a continuous airlift reactor using aerobic granular biomass. An aerobic granular sludge was developed in the airlift reactor for treating a high-strength ammonium wastewater containing 950 ± 25 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1). Then, the airlift reactor was bioaugmented with a p-nitrophenol-degrading activated sludge and o-cresol was added progressively to the ammonium feed to achieve 100 mg L(-1). The results showed that stable partial nitritation and full biodegradation of o-cresol were simultaneously maintained obtaining a suitable effluent for a subsequent anammox reactor. Moreover, two o-cresol shock-load events with concentrations of 300 and 1000 mg L(-1) were applied to assess the capabilities of the system. Despite these shock load events, the partial nitritation process was kept stable and o-cresol was totally biodegraded. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to identify the heterotrophic bacteria related to o-cresol biodegradation and the ammonia oxidising bacteria along the granules. PMID:24140352

  4. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khondee, Nichakorn; Tathong, Sitti; Pinyakong, Onruthai; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Chatchupong, Thawach; Ruangchainikom, Chalermchai; Luepromchai, Ekawan

    2012-04-30

    An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80-90% of the 200 mg L(-1) total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L(-1) immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85±5% TPH and 73±11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25-200 mg L(-1) amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries. PMID:22398031

  5. Growth characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana in airlift and bubble column photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Das, Debabrata

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of bioCO(2) sequestration using Chlorella sorokiniana. It was found that 5% CO(2) (v/v) in air was the most suitable concentration for the growth of this organism. At this concentration, the maximum rate of CO(2) sequestered and the biomass obtained were found to be 1.21 g L(-1)d(-1) and 4.4 g L(-1) respectively. Modeling and simulation of the growth profile was obtained using the logistic equation. Further, at higher CO(2) concentrations, pH drop in the growth media, TAP [-acetate], was prevented by replacing NH(4)Cl by NaNO(3.) Additionally, the study evaluated the performance of two reactors namely: bubble column and airlift reactor based on their growth profile and transport properties like K(L)a and mixing time. The growth profile was better in airlift reactor and it provides cyclic axial mixing of media. K(L)a of downcomer was significantly lower than the riser in airlift reactor. PMID:22525259

  6. Command Preprocessor for Radiotelescopes and Microwave Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek

    1999-01-01

    The LQG controllers, designed for the NASA Deep Space Network antennas have small tracking errors and are resistant to wind disturbances. However, during antenna slewing, they induce limit cycling caused by the violation of the antenna rate and acceleration limits. This problem can be avoided by introduction of a command that does not exceed the limits. The command preprocessor presented in this paper generates a command that is equal to the original command if the latter does not exceed the limits, and varies with the maximal (or minimal) allowable rate and acceleration if the limits are met or exceeded. It is comparatively simple since it requires only knowledge of the command at the current and the previous time instants, while other known preprocessors require knowledge of the terminal state and the acquisition time. Thus, the presented preprocessor is more suitable for implementation. In this article analysis of the preprocessor is presented. Also the performances of the preprocessor itself, and of the antenna with the preprocessor is illustrated with typical antenna commands.

  7. ISS Update: Station Command and Data Handling System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem interviews ODIN flight controller Amy Brezinski, who monitors and commands the Command and Data Handling System for the International Space Station. Brezinski...

  8. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Test Telemetry And Command System (TTACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Alvin J.

    1994-11-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a multimission Test Telemetry and Command System (TTACS) which provides a multimission telemetry and command data system in a spacecraft test environment. TTACS reuses, in the spacecraft test environment, components of the same data system used for flight operations; no new software is developed for the spacecraft test environment. Additionally, the TTACS is transportable to any spacecraft test site, including the launch site. The TTACS is currently operational in the Galileo spacecraft testbed; it is also being provided to support the Cassini and Mars Surveyor Program projects. Minimal personnel data system training is required in the transition from pre-launch spacecraft test to post-launch flight operations since test personnel are already familiar with the data system's operation. Additionally, data system components, e.g. data display, can be reused to support spacecraft software development; and the same data system components will again be reused during the spacecraft integration and system test phases. TTACS usage also results in early availability of spacecraft data to data system development and, as a result, early data system development feedback to spacecraft system developers. The TTACS consists of a multimission spacecraft support equipment interface and components of the multimission telemetry and command software adapted for a specific project. The TTACS interfaces to the spacecraft, e.g., Command Data System (CDS), support equipment. The TTACS telemetry interface to the CDS support equipment performs serial (RS-422)-to-ethernet conversion at rates between 1 bps and 1 mbps, telemetry data blocking and header generation, guaranteed data transmission to the telemetry data system, and graphical downlink routing summary and control. The TTACS command interface to the CDS support equipment is nominally a command file transferred in non-real-time via ethernet. The CDS support equipment is responsible for

  10. Test Telemetry And Command System (TTACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, Alvin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a multimission Test Telemetry and Command System (TTACS) which provides a multimission telemetry and command data system in a spacecraft test environment. TTACS reuses, in the spacecraft test environment, components of the same data system used for flight operations; no new software is developed for the spacecraft test environment. Additionally, the TTACS is transportable to any spacecraft test site, including the launch site. The TTACS is currently operational in the Galileo spacecraft testbed; it is also being provided to support the Cassini and Mars Surveyor Program projects. Minimal personnel data system training is required in the transition from pre-launch spacecraft test to post-launch flight operations since test personnel are already familiar with the data system's operation. Additionally, data system components, e.g. data display, can be reused to support spacecraft software development; and the same data system components will again be reused during the spacecraft integration and system test phases. TTACS usage also results in early availability of spacecraft data to data system development and, as a result, early data system development feedback to spacecraft system developers. The TTACS consists of a multimission spacecraft support equipment interface and components of the multimission telemetry and command software adapted for a specific project. The TTACS interfaces to the spacecraft, e.g., Command Data System (CDS), support equipment. The TTACS telemetry interface to the CDS support equipment performs serial (RS-422)-to-ethernet conversion at rates between 1 bps and 1 mbps, telemetry data blocking and header generation, guaranteed data transmission to the telemetry data system, and graphical downlink routing summary and control. The TTACS command interface to the CDS support equipment is nominally a command file transferred in non-real-time via ethernet. The CDS support equipment is responsible for

  11. SuperMacLang: Development of an Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith; Foelsche, Otmar K. E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of "SuperMacLang, the 1990s version of the MacLang authoring system. An analysis of various features of the program explains the ways in which certain aspects of collaboration and funding affected developer and programming decisions. (Author/VWL)

  12. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  13. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX(MAC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is accumulating evidence that potable water is a source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The linkage of mycobacteriosis to drinking water has been shown in AIDS populations where up to 8% of deaths in this group is attributed to MAC. Infection with these organisms ha...

  14. Intel-Based Mac Computers Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Today, Mac computers offer schools an easy and powerful way to engage students in learning, foster 21st century skills and leverage existing software assets. Innovative software and hardware built into the Mac allows students to demonstrate their individual strengths--empowering them to be creators of content, rather than just consumers. Judging…

  15. SOA approach to battle command: simulation interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayott, Gregory; Self, Mid; Miller, Gordon J.; McDonnell, Joseph S.

    2010-04-01

    NVESD is developing a Sensor Data and Management Services (SDMS) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that provides an innovative approach to achieve seamless application functionality across simulation and battle command systems. In 2010, CERDEC will conduct a SDMS Battle Command demonstration that will highlight the SDMS SOA capability to couple simulation applications to existing Battle Command systems. The demonstration will leverage RDECOM MATREX simulation tools and TRADOC Maneuver Support Battle Laboratory Virtual Base Defense Operations Center facilities. The battle command systems are those specific to the operation of a base defense operations center in support of force protection missions. The SDMS SOA consists of four components that will be discussed. An Asset Management Service (AMS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interface definition required to interact with a named asset (sensor or a sensor platform, a process such as level-1 fusion, or an interface to a sensor or other network endpoint). A Streaming Video Service (SVS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interfaces required to interact with a named video stream, and abstract the consumers of the video stream from the originating device. A Task Manager Service (TMS) will be used to automatically discover the existence of a named mission task, and will interpret, translate and transmit a mission command for the blue force unit(s) described in a mission order. JC3IEDM data objects, and software development kit (SDK), will be utilized as the basic data object definition for implemented web services.

  16. Managing the Risk of Command File Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Bryant, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Command File Error (CFE), as defined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) is, regardless of the consequence on the spacecraft, either: an error in a command file sent to the spacecraft, an error in the process for developing and delivering a command file to the spacecraft, or the omission of a command file that should have been sent to the spacecraft. The risk consequence of a CFE can be mission ending and thus a concern to space exploration projects during their mission operations. A CFE during space mission operations is often the symptom of some kind of imbalance or inadequacy within the system that comprises the hardware & software used for command generation and the human experts involved in this endeavour. As we move into an era of enhanced collaboration with other NASA centers and commercial partners, these systems become more and more complex and hence it is all the more important to formally model and analyze CFEs in order to manage the risk of CFEs. Here we will provide a summary of the ongoing efforts at JPL in this area and also explain some more recent developments in the area of developing quantitative models for the purpose of managing CFE's.

  17. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  18. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  19. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast...

  20. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast...

  1. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  2. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast...

  3. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  4. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authority of commanders. (a) Commanders shall be responsible for the satisfactory accomplishment of the... subordinate commands are fully aware of the importance of strong, dynamic leadership and its relationship to the overall efficiency and readiness of naval forces. Commanders shall exercise positive...

  5. 32 CFR 700.1054 - Command of a naval base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Command of a naval base. 700.1054 Section 700.1054 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1054 Command of a naval base. The officer detailed to command a naval...

  6. 32 CFR 700.1055 - Command of a naval shipyard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a naval shipyard. 700.1055 Section 700.1055 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1055 Command of a naval shipyard. The officer detailed to command a...

  7. 32 CFR 700.1055 - Command of a naval shipyard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Command of a naval shipyard. 700.1055 Section 700.1055 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1055 Command of a naval shipyard. The officer detailed to command a...

  8. 32 CFR 700.1054 - Command of a naval base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a naval base. 700.1054 Section 700.1054 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1054 Command of a naval base. The officer detailed to command a naval...

  9. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines....

  10. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines....

  11. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines....

  12. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines....

  13. 32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a submarine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Command of a submarine. 700.1058 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a submarine. The officer detailed to command a submarine... submarines....

  14. 46 CFR 147.5 - Commandant (CG-OES); address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commandant (CG-OES); address. 147.5 Section 147.5... General Provisions § 147.5 Commandant (CG-OES); address. Commandant (CG-OES) is the Office of Operating... Commandant (CG-OES), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC...

  15. 46 CFR 147.5 - Commandant (CG-522); address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commandant (CG-522); address. 147.5 Section 147.5... General Provisions § 147.5 Commandant (CG-522); address. Commandant (CG-522) is the Office of Operating... Commandant (CG-522), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC...

  16. 46 CFR 147.5 - Commandant (CG-522); address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commandant (CG-522); address. 147.5 Section 147.5... General Provisions § 147.5 Commandant (CG-522); address. Commandant (CG-522) is the Office of Operating... Commandant (CG-522), U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7126, Washington, DC...

  17. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  18. [Monitoring Required for Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC) and Specific MAC Methodologies].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2015-03-01

    Many physicians responsible for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) are not anesthesiologists and are not acquainted with treatment in response to sudden changes in patient condition. In particular, rapid response and early detection are essential for respiratory depression. Physicians engaged in MAC require pharmacological knowledge regarding sedative and analgesic medications, need to be able to accurately evaluate physiological responses to sedative and anesthetic levels, and need to be acquainted with emergency procedures such as basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). Patient management focusing on both ventilation and oxygenation, through the use of capnography and continuous respiratory monitoring, in addition to oxygenation monitoring using a pulse oximeter, and measuring ECGs and blood pressure in the management of sedated patients, is also important. PMID:26121782

  19. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

  20. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  1. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  2. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  3. Lessons learned in simulating a command center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Gregory A.; Cantor, Robert M.; Wenzel, Gregory

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents some lessons learned from simulating the operation of a command center in distributed interactive simulations (DIS). We present the design of the Booz Allen Command Center Systems Interface (C2SI) in terms of its functional architecture as well as the technologies used in its implementation. We discuss the design of the distributed component interfaces based on cooperating software agent pairs. We discuss aspects of several issues in simulating command and control systems in the ADS/DIS environment, namely, interoperation of constructive and virtual simulation, situation awareness, communication with adjacent C2 entities, control of subordinate entities and external sensors, terrain/environmental data management, and data collection for after-action reporting.

  4. Natural language interface for command and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

  5. Visualization for cyber security command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, John T.; Newey, Brent; Havig, Paul R.

    2010-04-01

    To address the unique requirements of cyber Command and Control (C2), new visualization methods are needed to provide situation awareness and decision support within the cyber domain. A key challenge is the complexity of relevant data: it is immense and multidimensional, includes streaming and log data, and comes from multiple, disparate applications and devices. Decision makers must be afforded a view of a) the current state of the cyber battlespace, b) enemy and friendly capabilities and vulnerabilities, c) correlations between cyber events, and d) potential effects of alternative courses of action within cyberspace. In this paper we present requirements and designs for Visualization for Integrated Cyber Command and Control (VIC3).

  6. Increased productivity in flight with voice commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition technology has matured to the point where it can provide a viable means of increasing productivity by naturalizing the man-machine interface. With ever increasing workloads being placed on astronauts, speech recognition may provide an alternative means of system controlling that would reduce the task burden. Voice commanding, allowing hands-free operation, can be especially effective during operations requiring simultaneous system control. A flight experiment is under development to demonstrate the operational effectiveness of voice control by commanding the Space Shuttle's Closed Circuit Television (CCIV) system. This experiment will help direct future applications of voice entry to space operations.

  7. 33 CFR 150.606 - After learning of a possible violation, what does the Sector Commander, or the MSU Commander...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false After learning of a possible violation, what does the Sector Commander, or the MSU Commander, with COTP and OCMI authority do? 150.606....606 After learning of a possible violation, what does the Sector Commander, or the MSU Commander,...

  8. 33 CFR 150.606 - After learning of a possible violation, what does the Sector Commander, or the MSU Commander...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false After learning of a possible violation, what does the Sector Commander, or the MSU Commander, with COTP and OCMI authority do? 150.606....606 After learning of a possible violation, what does the Sector Commander, or the MSU Commander,...

  9. Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    On-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces was studied. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

  10. Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study showed that on-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings can be accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented, in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

  11. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  12. Command Line Image Processing System (CLIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleagle, S. R.; Meyers, G. L.; Kulinski, R. G.

    1985-06-01

    An interactive image processing language (CLIPS) has been developed for use in an image processing environment. CLIPS uses a simple syntax with extensive on-line help to allow even the most naive user perform complex image processing tasks. In addition, CLIPS functions as an interpretive language complete with data structures and program control statements. CLIPS statements fall into one of three categories: command, control,and utility statements. Command statements are expressions comprised of intrinsic functions and/or arithmetic operators which act directly on image or user defined data. Some examples of CLIPS intrinsic functions are ROTATE, FILTER AND EXPONENT. Control statements allow a structured programming style through the use of statements such as DO WHILE and IF-THEN - ELSE. Utility statements such as DEFINE, READ, and WRITE, support I/O and user defined data structures. Since CLIPS uses a table driven parser, it is easily adapted to any environment. New commands may be added to CLIPS by writing the procedure in a high level language such as Pascal or FORTRAN and inserting the syntax for that command into the table. However, CLIPS was designed by incorporating most imaging operations into the language as intrinsic functions. CLIPS allows the user to generate new procedures easily with these powerful functions in an interactive or off line fashion using a text editor. The fact that CLIPS can be used to generate complex procedures quickly or perform basic image processing functions interactively makes it a valuable tool in any image processing environment.

  13. Apollo 13 Command Module recovery after splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Crewmen aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission, hoist the Command Module aboard ship. The Apollo 13 crewmen were already aboard the Iwo Jima when this photograph was taken. The Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970 in the South Pacific Ocean.

  14. Lessons learned in command environment development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Daniel F.; Collie, Brad E.

    2000-11-01

    As we consider the issues associated with the development of an Integrated Command Environment (ICE), we must obviously consider the rich history in the development of control rooms, operations centers, information centers, dispatch offices, and other command and control environments. This paper considers the historical perspective of control environments from the industrial revolution through the information revolution, and examines the historical influences and the implications that that has for us today. Environments to be considered are military command and control spaces, emergency response centers, medical response centers, nuclear reactor control rooms, and operations centers. Historical 'lessons learned' from the development and evolution of these environments will be examined to determine valuable models to use, and those to be avoided. What are the pitfalls? What are the assumptions that drive the environment design? Three case histories will be presented, examining (1) the control room of the Three Mile Island power plant, (2) the redesign of the US Naval Space Command operations center, and (3) a testbed for an ICE aboard a naval surface combatant.

  15. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINGUISTIC UNITS AND MOTOR COMMANDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FROMKIN, VICTORIA A.

    ASSUMING THAT SPEECH IS THE RESULT OF A NUMBER OF DISCRETE NEUROMUSCULAR EVENTS AND THAT THE BRAIN CAN STORE ONLY A LIMITED NUMBER OF MOTOR COMMANDS WITH WHICH TO CONTROL THESE EVENTS, THE RESEARCH REPORTED IN THIS PAPER WAS DIRECTED TO A DETERMINATION OF THE SIZE AND NATURE OF THE STORED ITEMS AND AN EXPLANATION OF HOW SPEAKERS ENCODE A SEQUENCE…

  17. Ten Commandments for the School Nurse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworak, Esther S.

    2001-01-01

    This 1982 paper presents 10 commandments to guide school nurses, including: never allowing oneself to be ignored; always being included in school functions regarding child health; always participating in kindergarten roundups and similar activities to promote child health; always respecting parents' primary responsibility to the child; and always…

  18. iTOUGH2 Command Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, Stefan

    2002-06-18

    iTOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media. This report contains a detailed description of all iTOUGH2 commands.

  19. Cultivation of aerobic granules in a novel configuration of sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Laya Siroos; Ayati, Bita; Ganjidoust, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granules can be formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors (SBAR) and sequencing batch reactors (SBR). Comparing these two systems, the SBAR has excellent mixing condition, but due to a high height-to-diameter ratio (H/D), there is no performance capability at full scale at the present time. This research examined a novel configuration of SBAR at laboratory scale (with a box structure) for industrial wastewater treatment. To evaluate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and granule formation of the novel reactor (R1), in comparison a conventional SBAR (R2) was operated under similar conditions during the experimental period. R1 and R2 with working volumes of 3.6 L and 4.5 L, respectively, were used to cultivate aerobic granules. Both reactors were operated for 4 h per cycle. Experiments were done at different organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.6-4.5 kg COD/m3.d for R1 and from 0.72-5.4 kg COD/m3.d for R2. After 150 days of operation, large-sized black filamentous granules with diameters of 0.5-2 mm and 2-11 mm were formed in R1 and R2, respectively. In the second part of the experiment, the efficiency of removal of a toxic substance by aerobic granules was investigated using aniline as a carbon source with a concentration in the range 1.2-6.6 kg COD/m3.d and 1.44-7.92 kg COD/m3.d in R1 and R2, respectively. It was found that COD removal efficiency of the novel airlift reactor was over 97% and 94.5% using glucose and aniline as carbon sources, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) was also decreased to 30 mL/g by granulation in the novel airlift reactor. PMID:23393968

  20. Smart command recognizer (SCR) - For development, test, and implementation of speech commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Carol A.; Bunnell, John W.; Krones, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    The SCR, a rapid prototyping system for the development, testing, and implementation of speech commands in a flight simulator or test aircraft, is described. A single unit performs all functions needed during these three phases of system development, while the use of common software and speech command data structure files greatly reduces the preparation time for successive development phases. As a smart peripheral to a simulation or flight host computer, the SCR interprets the pilot's spoken input and passes command codes to the simulation or flight computer.

  1. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard. PMID:26029950

  2. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  3. Handling Deafness Problem of Scheduled Multi-Channel Polling MACs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fulong; Liu, Hao; Shi, Longxing

    Combining scheduled channel polling with channel diversity is a promising way for a MAC protocol to achieve high energy efficiency and performance under both light and heavy traffic conditions. However, the deafness problem may cancel out the benefit of channel diversity. In this paper, we first investigate the deafness problem of scheduled multi-channel polling MACs with experiments. Then we propose and evaluate two schemes to handle the deafness problem. Our experiment shows that deafness is a significant reason for performance degradation in scheduled multi-channel polling MACs. A proper scheme should be chosen depending on the traffic pattern and the design objective.

  4. Cooperative energy harvesting-adaptive MAC protocol for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard. PMID:26029950

  5. Airlift Mini-Bubbler Testing in the Slurry FED Melt Rate Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, D.C.

    2003-03-10

    The objectives of the mini airlift bubbler testing are to evaluate the impact of the bubbler on melt rate, melting behavior and cold cap structure, foam formation and stability, bubbler air venting, off gas behavior, and electrode/plenum power use. In addition, the effects of frit and plenum temperature on bubbler performance were evaluated. This report will cover the second program element, the evaluation of two lengths of mini-bubblers in Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnaces to assess melting behavior and melt rate enhancement.

  6. Exopolysaccharide production and mycelial growth in an air-lift bioreactor using Fomitopsis pinicola.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dubok; Maeng, Jeung-Moo; Ding, Ji-Lu; Cha, Wol-Suk

    2007-08-01

    For effective exopolysaccharide production and mycelial growth by a liquid culture of Fomitopsis pinicola in an air-lift bioreactor, the culture temperature, pH, carbon source, nitrogen source, and mineral source were initially investigated in a flask. The optimal temperature and pH for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were 25degrees C and 6.0, respectively. Among the various carbon sources tested, glucose was found to be the most suitable carbon source. In particular, the maximum mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were achieved in 4% glucose. The best nitrogen sources were yeast extract and malt extract. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract and malt extract were 0.5 and 0.1%, respectively. K2HPO4 and MgSO4 x 7H2O were found to be the best mineral sources for mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production. In order to investigate the effect of aeration on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production in an air-lift bioreactor, various aerations were tested for 8 days. The maximum mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production were 7.9 g/l and 2.6 g/l, respectively, at 1.5 vvm of aeration. In addition, a batch culture in an air-lift bioreactor was carried out for 11 days under the optimal conditions. The maximum mycelial growth was 10.4 g/l, which was approximately 1.7-fold higher than that of basal medium. The exopolysaccharide production was increased with increased culture time. The maximum concentration of exopolysaccharide was 4.4 g/l, which was about 3.3-fold higher than that of basal medium. These results indicate that exopolysaccharide production increased in parallel with the growth of mycelium, and also show that product formation is associated with mycelial growth. The developed model in an air-lift bioreactor showed good agreement with experimental data and simulated results on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production in the culture of F pinicola. PMID:18051607

  7. Reconstitution of the Escherichia coli macrolide transporter: the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MacA stimulates the ATPase activity of MacB.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Elena B; Devroy, Vishakha K; Lau, Sze Yi; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2007-02-01

    Periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) are essential components of the type I protein secretion systems and drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies suggested that MFPs connect the inner and outer membrane components of the transport systems and by this means co-ordinate the transfer of substrates across the two membranes. In this study, we purified and reconstituted the macrolide transporter MacAB from Escherichia coli. Here, MacA is a periplasmic MFP and MacB is an ABC-type transporter. Similar to other MFP-dependent transporters from E. coli, the in vivo function of MacAB requires the outer membrane channel TolC. The purified MacB displayed a basal ATPase activity in detergent micelles. This activity conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but was unresponsive to substrates or accessory proteins. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, the ATPase activity of MacB was strictly dependent on MacA. The catalytic efficiency of MacAB ATPase was more than 45-fold higher than the activity of MacB alone. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of MacA were essential for this activity. MacA stimulated MacB ATPase only in phospholipid bilayers and did not need the presence of macrolides. Our results suggest that MacA is a functional subunit of the MacB transporter. PMID:17214741

  8. Aero Commander in flight - Upswept fuselage study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center's Aero Commander 680F is shown in flight with tufts attached to the side and bottom sections of the aircraft. These were placed on the aircraft for a Upswept Fuselage Study to see if the flow separated on the aft section of a small aircraft for comparison of data acquired from a large cargo-type aircraft with an upswept aft section. The photo of the tufts demonstrates that the flow is attached with no turbulence present. (Note the straight lines of tufts). The Aero Commander was used both for support and as a research aircraft. Among other uses, it was flown to outlying dry lakebeds, used as emergency landing sites, before X-15 flights. It could reach the lakebeds quickly and land on the hard-packed surfaces to ensure they were not soft from rainfall or some other cause. Between 1964 and 1966, the Flight Research Center used the aircraft in the Aviation Safety and Operating Problems Program to evaluate the aerodynamics of various light aircraft and to define possible technological improvements. The Aero Commander left what had become the Dryden Flight Research Center on March 14, 1979, and was transferred to the Customs Air Branch in San Diego. The Aero Commander 680F (N6297), built by the Aero Commander Company of Bethany, Oklahoma, is a pressurized five-place aircraft that is powered by two 380-horsepower reciprocating engines built by Lycoming Company. The fuselage length is 24.2 feet with a wing span of 35.98 feet.

  9. PAD-MAC: Primary User Activity-Aware Distributed MAC for Multi-Channel Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Piran, Md. Jalil; Kim, Hansoo; Yun, Jihyeok; Suh, Doug Young

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to solve problems related to spectrum scarcity and provides a ubiquitous wireless access environment. CR-enabled secondary users (SUs) exploit spectrum white spaces opportunistically and immediately vacate the acquired licensed channels as primary users (PUs) arrive. Accessing the licensed channels without the prior knowledge of PU traffic patterns causes severe throughput degradation due to excessive channel switching and PU-to-SU collisions. Therefore, it is significantly important to design a PU activity-aware medium access control (MAC) protocol for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we first propose a licensed channel usage pattern identification scheme, based on a two-state Markov model, and then estimate the future idle slots using previous observations of the channels. Furthermore, based on these past observations, we compute the rank of each available licensed channel that gives SU transmission success assessment during the estimated idle slot. Secondly, we propose a PU activity-aware distributed MAC (PAD-MAC) protocol for heterogeneous multi-channel CRNs that selects the best channel for each SU to enhance its throughput. PAD-MAC controls SU activities by allowing them to exploit the licensed channels only for the duration of estimated idle slots and enables predictive and fast channel switching. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PAD-MAC, we compare it with the distributed QoS-aware MAC (QC-MAC) and listen-before-talk MAC schemes. Extensive numerical results show the significant improvements of the PAD-MAC in terms of the SU throughput, SU channel switching rate and PU-to-SU collision rate. PMID:25831084

  10. PAD-MAC: primary user activity-aware distributed MAC for multi-channel cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Piran, Md Jalil; Kim, Hansoo; Yun, Jihyeok; Suh, Doug Young

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to solve problems related to spectrum scarcity and provides a ubiquitous wireless access environment. CR-enabled secondary users (SUs) exploit spectrum white spaces opportunistically and immediately vacate the acquired licensed channels as primary users (PUs) arrive. Accessing the licensed channels without the prior knowledge of PU traffic patterns causes severe throughput degradation due to excessive channel switching and PU-to-SU collisions. Therefore, it is significantly important to design a PU activity-aware medium access control (MAC) protocol for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we first propose a licensed channel usage pattern identification scheme, based on a two-state Markov model, and then estimate the future idle slots using previous observations of the channels. Furthermore, based on these past observations, we compute the rank of each available licensed channel that gives SU transmission success assessment during the estimated idle slot. Secondly, we propose a PU activity-aware distributed MAC (PAD-MAC) protocol for heterogeneous multi-channel CRNs that selects the best channel for each SU to enhance its throughput. PAD-MAC controls SU activities by allowing them to exploit the licensed channels only for the duration of estimated idle slots and enables predictive and fast channel switching. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PAD-MAC, we compare it with the distributed QoS-aware MAC (QC-MAC) and listen-before-talk MAC schemes. Extensive numerical results show the significant improvements of the PAD-MAC in terms of the SU throughput, SU channel switching rate and PU-to-SU collision rate. PMID:25831084

  11. MAC mini acceptance test procedure, software Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some major improvements made to it to organize the main-tables by Location, Canister, and Material. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  12. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  13. 5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster building from John L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy Ginn & Co., New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Roaster Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  14. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  15. Capture Zone Analyses of Two Airlift Recirculation Wells in the Southern Sector of A/M Area

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.

    1999-09-14

    This report documents a series of capture zone analyses performed to access the expected overall performance of two (of the twelve) vertical airlift recirculation wells (ARWs) (specifically, SSR-011 and SRR-012) located in the Southern Sector of A/M Area.

  16. A tribute to Lloyd D. MacLean

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Roger G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dr. Lloyd D. MacLean, long-time co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Surgery passed away earlier this year at the age of 90. In order to appreciate the contributions of Dr. MacLean to the journal, this commentary recognizes him as a humble surgeon–scientist who was one of — if not the — most outstanding Canadian ambassadors to academic surgery in North America. PMID:26204372

  17. Conformal holonomy in MacDowell-Mansouri gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, James A.; Wang, Charles H.-T.

    2014-03-15

    The MacDowell-Mansouri formulation of general relativity is based on a gauge theory whose gauge algebra depends on the sign of the cosmological constant. In this article, we show that the gauge algebra is uniquely determined by the conformal structure of spacetime itself. Specifically, we show that in vacuum: the spacetime conformal holonomy algebra coincides with the MacDowell-Mansouri gauge algebra for both signs of the cosmological constant, in both Lorentzian and Euclidean metric signatures.

  18. 42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 423.2110 Section 423..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or the IRE...

  19. 42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 423.2110 Section 423..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or the IRE...

  20. 42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 423.2110 Section 423..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or the IRE...

  1. Remote Task-level Commanding of Centaur over Time Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Ngo, Tam; Burridge, Robert; Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Remote operation of robots on the lunar surface by ground controllers poses unique human-robot interaction challenges due to time delay and constrained bandwidth. One strategy for addressing these challenges is to provide task-level commanding of robots by a ground controller. Decision-support tools are being developed at JSC for remote task-level commanding over time-delay. The approach is to provide ground procedures that guide a controller when executing task-level command sequences and aid awareness of the state of command execution in the robot. This approach is being evaluated using the Centaur robot at JSC. The Centaur Central Commander provides a task-level command interface that executes on the robot side of the delay. Decision support tools have been developed for a human Supervisor in the JSC Cockpit to use when interacting with the Centaur Central Commander. Commands to the Central Commander are defined as instructions in a procedure. Sequences of these instructions are grouped into procedures for the Cockpit Supervisor. When a Supervisor is ready to perform a task, a procedure is loaded into the decision support tool. From this tool, the Supervisor can view command sequences and dispatch individual commands to Centaur. Commands are queued for execution on the robot side of the delay. Reliable command sequences can be dispatched automatically upon approval by the Supervisor. The decision support tool provides the Supervisor with feedback about which commands are waiting for execution and which commands have finished. It also informs the Supervisor when a command fails to have its intended effect. Cockpit procedures are defined using the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) developed at JSC for mission operations. The decision support tool is based on a Procedure Sequencer and multi-agent software developed for human-robot interaction. In this paper the approach for remote task-level commanding of robots is described and the results of the evaluation

  2. A Patterned Preamble MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Inwhee

    In this paper, we propose a novel MAC protocol with the patterned preamble technique to improve performance in terms of low power, channel utilization, and delay in wireless sensor networks. B-MAC is one of typical MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks using the duty cycle in order to achieve low-power operation. Since it works in an asynchronous fashion, B-MAC employs extended preamble and preamble sampling techniques. Even if it has outstanding performance in idle state, the overhead of these techniques is very large when packets are sent and received, because there is a lot of waste in the traditional preamble method. Instead of the simple preamble, our proposed MAC solution is to introduce more intelligent preamble with some patterns consisting of 2 phases (Tx phase & Ack phase). With this concept we implement real source code working on the mica2 platform with Tinyos-1.x version. Also, the test setup is presented, and the test results demonstrate that the proposed protocol provides better performance in terms of delay compared to B-MAC.

  3. Identifying ChIP-seq enrichment using MACS

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianxing; Liu, Tao; Qin, Bo; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Model-based Analysis of ChIP-seq (MACS) is a computational algorithm that identifies genome-wide locations of transcription/chromatin factor binding or histone modification from ChIP-seq data. MACS consists of four steps: removing redundant reads, adjusting read position, calculating peak enrichment, and estimating the empirical false discovery rate. In this protocol, we provide a detailed demonstration of how to install MACS and how to use it to analyze three common types of ChIP-seq datasets with different characteristics: the sequence-specific transcription factor FoxA1, the histone modification mark H3K4me3 with sharp enrichment, and the H3K36me3 mark with broad enrichment. We also explain how to interpret and visualize the results of MACS analyses. The algorithm requires approximately 3 GB of RAM and 1.5 hours of computing time to analyze a ChIP-seq dataset containing 30 million reads, an estimate that increases with sequence coverage. MACS is open-source and is available from http://liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS. PMID:22936215

  4. Production of xylanolytic enzymes by Aspergillus terricola in stirred tank and airlift tower loop bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Michele; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Ruzene, Denise Santos; Vicente, António Augusto; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Héctor Francisco; Teixeira, José António

    2011-12-01

    Fungi producing high xylanase levels have attracted considerable attention because of their potential industrial applications. Batch cultivations of Aspergillus terricola fungus were evaluated in stirred tank and airlift bioreactors, by using wheat bran particles suspended in the cultivation medium as substrate for xylanase and β-xylosidase production. In the stirred tank bioreactor, in physical conditions of 30°C, 300 rpm, and aeration of 1 vvm (1 l min⁻¹), with direct inoculation of fungal spores, 7,475 U l⁻¹ xylanase was obtained after 36 h of operation, remaining constant after 24 h. In the absence of air injection in the stirred tank reactor, limited xylanase production was observed (final concentration 740 U l⁻¹). When the fermentation process was realized in the airlift bioreactor, xylanase production was higher than that observed in the stirred tank bioreactor, being 9,265 U l⁻¹ at 0.07 vvm (0.4 l min⁻¹) and 12,845 U l⁻¹ at 0.17 vvm (1 l min⁻¹) aeration rate. PMID:21626207

  5. Feasibility of microalgal cultivation in a pilot-scale airlift-driven raceway reactor.

    PubMed

    Ketheesan, Balachandran; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-03-01

    A Scenedesmus sp. was cultivated in a 23-L airlift-driven raceway reactor under artificial lighting and laboratory conditions, in batch and continuous modes. In batch mode, a maximum volumetric biomass productivity of 0.085 dry g L(-1) day(-1) was achieved under sparging at a CO(2)-to-air ratio of 1%, and a maximum CO(2) utilization efficiency of 33% was achieved at a CO(2)-to-air ratio of 0.25%. In continuous mode, the maximum volumetric biomass productivity was 0.19 dry g L(-1) day(-1). Biomass productivities per unit power input achieved in this reactor configuration (0.60-0.69 dry g W(-1) day(-1)) were comparable to or better than those reported in the literature for different photobioreactor designs (0.10-0.51 dry g W(-1) day(-1)). Based on the energy-efficient productivity and the high CO(2) utilization efficiency demonstrated in this study, the proposed airlift-driven raceway design holds promise for cost-effective algal cultivation. PMID:22277208

  6. Hydrodynamic characteristics and gas-liquid mass transfer in a biofilm airlift suspension reactor.

    PubMed

    Nicolella, C; van Loosdrecht, M C; van der Lans, R G; Heijnen, J J

    1998-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and mass transfer, specifically the effects of gas velocity and the presence and type of solids on the gas hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficient, were studied on a lab-scale airlift reactor with internal draft tube. Basalt particles and biofilm-coated particles were used as solid phase. Three distinct flow regimes were observed with increasing gas flow rate. The influence of the solid phase on the hydrodynamics was a peculiar characteristic of the regimes. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was found to decrease with increasing solid loading and particle size. This could be predominantly related to the influence that the solid has on gas hold-up. The ratio between gas hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficient was found to be independent of solid loading, size, or density, and it was proven that the presence of solids in airlift reactors lowers the number of gas bubbles without changing their size. To evaluate scale effects, experimental results were compared with theoretical and empirical models proposed for similar systems. PMID:10099471

  7. Evolvable work-centred support systems for command and control: creating systems users can adapt to meet changing demands.

    PubMed

    Roth, E; Scott, R; Deutsch, S; Kuper, S; Schmidt, V; Stilson, M; Wampler, J

    2006-06-10

    Military command and control (C2) organizations are complex socio-technical systems which must constantly adapt to meet changing operational requirements. We describe our experiences in developing a work-centred support system (WCSS) to aid weather forecasting and monitoring in a military airlift C2 organization as an illustrative case. As part of the development process we conducted field observations both before and after introduction of the WCSS in their operations centre. A striking finding was the constant changes that operations personnel faced (changes in goals and priorities, changes in scale of operations, changes in team roles and structure, and changes in information sources and systems). We describe the changes in workplace demands that we observed and the modifications we needed to make to the WCSS in response. For today's fielded systems, it is seldom possible to make changes that are responsive to users' changing requirements in a timely manner. We argue for the need to incorporate facilities that enable users to adapt their systems to the changing requirements of work and point to some promising directions towards evolvable work-centred support systems. PMID:16720529

  8. Domain specific software architectures: Command and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Christine; Hatch, William; Ruegsegger, Theodore; Balzer, Bob; Feather, Martin; Goldman, Neil; Wile, Dave

    1992-01-01

    GTE is the Command and Control contractor for the Domain Specific Software Architectures program. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an architecture-driven, component-based capability for the automated generation of command and control (C2) applications. Such a capability will significantly reduce the cost of C2 applications development and will lead to improved system quality and reliability through the use of proven architectures and components. A major focus of GTE's approach is the automated generation of application components in particular subdomains. Our initial work in this area has concentrated in the message handling subdomain; we have defined and prototyped an approach that can automate one of the most software-intensive parts of C2 systems development. This paper provides an overview of the GTE team's DSSA approach and then presents our work on automated support for message processing.

  9. Ground-Commanded Television Assembly (GCTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A ground-commanded color television assembly (GCTA) was designed for use on lunar explorations associated with NASA manned Apollo missions. The camera system as seen on Apollo 15 provided television coverage in the vicinity of the lunar module (LM) landing site, and was mounted on the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) to provide color coverage of astronaut activity and lunar topography during traverses on the surface. Remote control of the camera from earth was accomplished through the existing real-time Apollo command links. The assembly is illustrated. The configuration satisfied all anticipated requirements of the Apollo 15 mission and was fully responsive to specifications. The technical approach was based on proven designs and offered maximum mission flexibility, potential growth, and capability to withstand environmental extremes encountered on the lunar surface.

  10. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  11. Commander Lousma records PGU data on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Lousma, wearing communications kit assembly (ASSY) mini headset (HDST), records Plant Growth Unit (PGU) data for the Influence of Weightlessness on Plant Lignification Experiment at forward middeck locker MF14K. The experiment is designed to demonstrate the effect of weightlessness on the quantity and rate of lignin formation in different plant species during early stages of development. Port side bulkhead with window shade and filter kit appears behind Lousma and potable water tank below him. Trash bag also appears in view.

  12. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  13. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  14. Apollo 13 Command Module recovery after splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Crewmen aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission, guide the Command Module (CM) atop a dolly on board the ship. The CM is connected by strong cable to a hoist on the vessel. The Apollo 13 crewmen were already aboard the Iwo Jima when this photograph was taken. The Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970 in the South Pacific Ocean.

  15. Ground-Commanded Television Assembly (GCTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Ground-Commanded Television Assembly (GCTA) are discussed. The equipment was used to provide television coverage of lunar surface explorations during Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. The subjects include the following; (1) yoke/faceplate qualification data, (2) elevation drive improvement program, (3) Apollo 17 thermal data, (4) equipment status, and (5) drawing status. Illustrations of the components of the assembly are provided. Tables of data are developed to show the performance of the components.

  16. Apollo experience report: Command module uprighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A water-landing requirement and two stable flotation attitudes required that a system be developed to ensure that the Apollo command module would always assume an upright flotation attitude. The resolution to the flotation problem and the uprighting concepts, design selection, design changes, development program, qualification, and mission performance are discussed for the uprighting system, which is composed of inflatable bags, compressors, valves, and associated tubing.

  17. Haise Commands First Enterprise Test Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The first crew members for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) are photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter Assembly Facility at Palmdale, California. The Shuttle Enterprise is Commanded by former Apollo 13 Lunar Module pilot, Fred Haise (left) with C. Gordon Fullerton as pilot. The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise was named after the fictional Starship Enterprise from the popular 1960's television series, Star Trek.

  18. 32 CFR 536.7 - Responsibilities of the Commander USARCS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... responsibilities set forth in § 536.9(a)(12). (p) Develop and maintain plans for a disaster or civil disturbance in... to any legal office or command throughout the world. When authorized by the chain of command...

  19. Astronaut Vance Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew, is seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  20. Expedition 27/28 Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    At 11:41 a.m. EDT Sunday, Dmitry Kondratyev, who has been the commander of Expedition 27 aboard the International Space Station, conducted a ceremonial change of command with Andrey Borisenko, who ...

  1. 32 CFR 536.3 - Command and organizational relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operation and for the time necessary to accomplish the mission. The appropriate major Army command (MACOM... coordination with the Commander USARCS, the MACOM will designate the area of responsibility for each...

  2. 32 CFR 536.3 - Command and organizational relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operation and for the time necessary to accomplish the mission. The appropriate major Army command (MACOM... coordination with the Commander USARCS, the MACOM will designate the area of responsibility for each...

  3. 32 CFR 536.3 - Command and organizational relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operation and for the time necessary to accomplish the mission. The appropriate major Army command (MACOM... coordination with the Commander USARCS, the MACOM will designate the area of responsibility for each...

  4. Anaesthesia with sevoflurane in pigeons: minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) determination and investigation of cardiorespiratory variables at 1 MAC.

    PubMed

    Botman, J; Gabriel, F; Dugdale, A H A; Vandeweerd, J-M

    2016-05-28

    The objective of the study was to determine the minimal anaesthetic concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane (SEVO) in pigeons and investigate the effects of 1 MAC SEVO anaesthesia on cardiovascular and respiratory variables compared with the awake state. This is a prospective, experimental study. Animals were seven healthy adult pigeons. After acclimatisation to handling, heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, respiratory rate (fR), end-expired carbon dioxide tension (PE'CO2), inspired CO2 tension, indirect systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) and cloacal temperature were measured to determine baseline, 'awake' values. Pigeons were then anaesthetised with SEVO and MAC was determined by the 'bracketing' method. The same variables were monitored during a 40 minute period at 1.0 MAC SEVO for each bird. Mean MAC was 3.0±0.6 per cent for SEVO. During maintenance of anaesthesia at 1.0 MAC, SAP decreased significantly (P<0.001) without any significant change in HR. Although PE'CO2 increased significantly (P=0.001) despite an increase in fR, awake PE'CO2 values were unexpectedly low. Sinus arrhythmias were detected in two birds under SEVO anaesthesia. The times to tracheal intubation and to recovery were 2.5±0.7 and 6.4±1.7 minutes, respectively. Recovery was rapid and uneventful in all birds. In conclusion, SEVO is suitable for anaesthesia in pigeons. PMID:27083873

  5. 19 CFR 122.36 - Responsibility of aircraft commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.36 Responsibility of aircraft commander. If an aircraft lands in the U.S. and Customs officers have not arrived, the aircraft commander... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibility of aircraft commander....

  6. Is EURONET C.C.L. a "Common" Command Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheijen-Voogd, C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a chart which compares selected command functions of DIMDI and IRS/ESA, two major versions of the EURONET Common Command Language, with the IRS/ESA-Quest retrieval language and includes specific remarks for most of the commands. (RBF)

  7. 32 CFR 700.902 - Eligibility for command at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for command at sea. 700.902 Section... Present Contents § 700.902 Eligibility for command at sea. All officers of the line of the Navy, including... deck duties afloat, are eligible for command at sea....

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard....

  10. View of Apollo 14 crewmen in Command Module simulation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The members of the prime crew of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission participate in Command Module simulation training at the Kennedy Space Center. Left to right, are Astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot; Sturat A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander.

  11. 14 CFR 125.281 - Pilot-in-command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot-in-command qualifications. 125.281... Requirements § 125.281 Pilot-in-command qualifications. No certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as pilot in command of an airplane unless that person— (a) Holds at least a...

  12. 14 CFR 125.281 - Pilot-in-command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot-in-command qualifications. 125.281... Requirements § 125.281 Pilot-in-command qualifications. No certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as pilot in command of an airplane unless that person— (a) Holds at least a...

  13. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in assembly of MacAB-TolC macrolide transporter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2012-12-01

    MacB is a founding member of the Macrolide Exporter family of transporters belonging to the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily. These proteins are broadly represented in genomes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are implicated in virulence and protection against antibiotics and peptide toxins. MacB transporter functions together with MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, which stimulates MacB ATPase. In Gram-negative bacteria, MacA is believed to couple ATP hydrolysis to transport of substrates across the outer membrane through a TolC-like channel. In this study, we report a real-time analysis of concurrent ATP hydrolysis and assembly of MacAB-TolC complex. MacB binds nucleotides with a low millimolar affinity and fast on- and off-rates. In contrast, MacA-MacB complex is formed with a nanomolar affinity, which further increases in the presence of ATP. Our results strongly suggest that association between MacA and MacB is stimulated by ATP binding to MacB but remains unchanged during ATP hydrolysis cycle. We also found that the large periplasmic loop of MacB plays the major role in coupling reactions separated in two different membranes. This loop is required for MacA-dependent stimulation of MacB ATPase and at the same time, contributes to recruitment of TolC into a trans-envelope complex. PMID:23057817

  14. Passage of downstream migrant American eels through an airlift-assisted deep bypass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Noreika, John

    2016-01-01

    Traditional downstream guidance and bypass facilities for anadromous fishes (i.e., surface bypasses, surface guidance structures, and behavioral barriers) have frequently been ineffective for anguillid eels. Because eels typically spend the majority of their time near the bottom in the vicinity of intake structures, deep bypass structures with entrances near the bottom hold promise for increased effectiveness, thereby aiding in the recovery of this important species. A new design of a deep bypass system that uses airlift technology (the Conte Airlift Bypass) to induce flow in a bypass pipe was tested in a simulated intake entrance environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Water velocities of 0.9–1.5 m s−1 could be generated at the bypass entrance (opening with 0.073 m2 area), with corresponding flows through the bypass pipe of 0.07–0.11 m3 s−1. Gas saturation and hydrostatic pressure within the bypass pipe did not vary appreciably from a control (no air) condition under tested airflows. Migratory silver-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) tested during dark conditions readily located, entered, and passed through the bypass; initial avoidance rates (eels approaching but not entering the bypass entrance) were lower at higher entrance velocities. Eels that investigated the bypass pipe entrance tended to enter headfirst, but those that then exited the pipe upstream did so more frequently at lower entrance velocities. Eels appeared to swim against the flow while being transported downstream through the pipe; median transit times through the bypass for each test velocity ranged from 5.8 to 12.2 s, with transit time decreasing with increasing entrance velocity. Eels did not show strong avoidance of the vertical section of the pipe which contained injected air. No mortality or injury of bypassed eels was observed, and individual eels repeatedly passed through the bypass at rates of up to 40 passes per hour, suggesting that individuals do not

  15. 24 Command Fire Improvement Action Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN, G.B.

    2000-12-01

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is responsible for providing support to the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) in the implementation of the Hanford Emergency Preparedness (EP) program. During fiscal year 2000, a number of program improvements were identified from various sources including a major range fire (24 Command Fire). Evaluations of the emergency preparedness program have confirmed that it currently meets all requirements and that performance of personnel involved is good, however the desire to effect continuous improvement resulted in the development of this improvement program plan. This program plan defines the activities that will be performed in order to achieve the desired performance improvements.

  16. Effective inpatient medication reconciliation: The 10 commandments.

    PubMed

    Siu, Henry K

    2015-01-01

    Medication Reconciliation (MedRec) is the comprehensive process of medication verification, clarification and documentation in an effort to avoid medication errors. There are many reasons that contribute to the inadequacies of current day inpatient MedRec. Among these include the limited medical literacy of patients, communication between providers and teams of providers, and the intrinsic difficulties of medical charting. Although the best approach to inpatient MedRec is not known, the following outlines the 10 most important aspects, or "Commandments", for effective inpatient MedRec. The tenets are not listed in any particular order of importance. PMID:25758318

  17. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Berglin, Eric J.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  18. A model for cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei in an airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Bannari, Rachid; Bannari, Abdelfettah; Vermette, Patrick; Proulx, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    A mathematical model for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 grown in a cellulose medium with lactose as fed batch in an airlift reactor is proposed. To describe adequately the mass transfer between the air bubbles and the broth, it uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) including multiphase Eulerian-Eulerian formulation, with a detailed description of the bubble size distribution through the use of the population balance model (PBM) and the class method (CM). The kinetics of the biomass growth is further coupled to the fluid flow conditions using partial differential equations for all the species involved, providing detailed information of important reactor conditions such as the distribution of oxygen, cellulose, and the shear stress within the reactor over the entire period of fermentation. Predicted results agree well with the available overall measurements for a typical fed-batch operation and detailed profiles of the predicted concentration fields are discussed from an engineering viewpoint. PMID:22389072

  19. Low-pressure airlift fermenter for single cell protein production. I. Design and oxygen transfer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.Y.; Kondis, E.F.; Srinivasan, S.

    1987-03-01

    The energy consumption of a fermenter constitutes a major part of the operating expense of a single cell protein process. A low-pressure airlift fermenter was designed to reduce this cost. In this new design, the fermenter broth is kept below 120 cm in depth, and air alone is employed to fulfil the need of supplying oxygen, and cooling and agitating the broth. The use of low-pressure air from air blowers instead of air compressors lowers the capital cost of air delivery and reduces the energy consumption in the fermenter section to below 1 kWh/kg protein, a saving of over 70% as compared to a conventional stirred tank fermenter. It also eliminates the investment of mechanical agitators, heat exchangers, and air compressors. Sulfite oxidation studies confirmed the design concepts. 30 references.

  20. Autolysis of Blakeslea trispora during carotene production from cheese whey in an airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Varzakakou, Maria; Roukas, Triantafyllos; Papaioannou, Emmanuel; Kotzekidou, Parthena; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of autolysis in Blakeslea trispora during carotene production from deproteinized hydrolyzed whey in an airlift reactor was investigated. The process of cellular autolysis was studied by measuring the changes in carotene concentration, dry biomass, residual sugars, pH, intracellular protein, specific activity of the hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, chitinase), and micromorphology of the fungus using a computerized image analysis system. All these parameters were useful indicators of autolysis, but image analysis was found to be the most useful indicator of the onset and progress of autolysis in the culture. Autolysis of B. trispora began early in the growth phase, continued during the stationary phase, and increased significantly in the decline phase. The morphological differentiation of the fungus was a result of the degradation of the cell membrane by hydrolytic enzymes. The biosynthesis of carotenes was carried out in the exponential phase, where the phenomenon of autolysis was not intense. PMID:21229460

  1. Calcium accumulation characterization in the aerobic granules cultivated in a continuous-flow airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dandan; Liu, Mengyuan; Gao, Linlin; Shao, Chunyan; Yu, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Limited work has been done on the accumulation characterization of Ca(2+) in aerobic granules that are cultivated in a continuous-flow bioreactor. In this work, the contribution of Ca(2+) to the biogranulation in a continuous flow airlift fluidized bed (CAFB) reactor has been studied. The spatial distribution and form of calcium in the granules were investigated by scanning electron microscopy-mapping, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Calcium was located throughout the Ca-rich granules, rather than accumulating in the center of the granules of the sequencing batch reactor. Furthermore, CaCO3 was detected as the main crystalline mineral form of the calcium. Calcium augmentation of the inflow promoted the accumulation of magnesium in the granules in the CAFB. The magnesium was presented as Ca7Mg2P6O24 according to XRD analyses. PMID:23436127

  2. Air-lift reactor system for the treatment of waste-gas-containing monochlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pradnya R; Deshmukh, Sharvari C; Morone, Amruta P; Kanade, Gajanan; Pandey, R A

    2013-01-01

    An air-lift bioreactor (ALR) system, applied for the treatment of waste-gas-containing monochlorobenzene (MCB) was seeded with pure culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, isolated from soil as a starter seed. It was found that MCB was biologically converted to chloride as chloride was mineralized in the ALR. After the built up of the biomass in the ALR, the reactor parameters which have major influence on the removal efficiency and elimination capacity were studied using response surface methodology. The data generated by running the reactor for 150 days at varying conditions were fed to the model with a target to obtain the removal efficiency above 95% and the elimination capacity greater than 60%. The data analysis indicated that inlet loading was the major parameter affecting the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of >95%. The reactor when operated at optimized conditions resulted in enhanced performance of the reactor. PMID:24617061

  3. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  4. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  5. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  6. Airlift bioreactors: Experimental and theoretical analysis or two-phase hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Local two-phase flow measurements were obtained in a pilot-scale, external loop airlift bioreactor. The gas-liquid system was air and water; the gas phase was not recirculated. Sparging rates ranged from 1.0-8.0 cm/s, using a multiorifice, ring sparger. The axial dependence of the cross sectionally averaged gas volume fraction was determined using a track-mounted gamma densitometer. Hot-film anemometry was used to measure the radial and azimuthal dependence of the liquid velocity and turbulence for two axial riser locations. The same spatial dependence was ascertained for the gas velocity and volume fraction using resistivity probe techniques. The axial distribution of liquid phase pressure was measured with precision inclined manometers. The axial dependence of the void fraction was found to be modest. The radial dependence of the gas and liquid velocities and the void fraction was substantial, especially near the sparger. Local property changes with azimuthal position were small, and the flow may be characterized as being azimuthally symmetric. The developing flow effects were pronounced, as evidenced by the distinct changes in the radial profiles of fluid flow properties with axial position. Under certain operating conditions, liquid acceleration effects near the sparger resulted in greatly reduced slip velocities. For the two-phase riser flow, a model was developed directly from the point equations of continuity and motion, resulting in a differential, two-fluid form. Macroscopic mechanical energy balance equations were used to describe the flow in the gas-liquid separator and the downcomer. The model incorporates empirical parameters for the frictional effects only. The developing two-phase flow characteristic of airlift risers was observed to create large frictional effects at the wall.

  7. Optimization of outdoor cultivation in flat panel airlift reactors for lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Münkel, Ronja; Schmid-Staiger, Ulrike; Werner, Achim; Hirth, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae are discussed as a potential renewable feedstock for biofuel production. The production of highly concentrated algae biomass with a high fatty acid content, accompanied by high productivity with the use of natural sunlight is therefore of great interest. In the current study an outdoor pilot plant with five 30 L Flat Panel Airlift reactors (FPA) installed southwards were operated in 2011 in Stuttgart, Germany. The patented FPA reactor works on the basis of an airlift loop reactor and offers efficient intermixing for homogeneous light distribution. A lipid production process with the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (SAG 211-12), under nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation, was established and evaluated in regard to the fatty acid content, fatty acid productivity and light yield. In the first set of experiments limitations caused by restricted CO₂ availability were excluded by enriching the media with NaOH. The higher alkalinity allows a higher CO₂ content of supplied air and leads to doubling of fatty acid productivity. The second set of experiments focused on how the ratio of light intensity to biomass concentration in the reactor impacts fatty acid content, productivity and light yield. The specific light availability was specified as mol photons on the reactor surface per gram biomass in the reactor. This is the first publication based on experimental data showing the quantitative correlation between specific light availability, fatty acid content and biomass light yield for a lipid production process under nutrient deprivation and outdoor conditions. High specific light availability leads to high fatty acid contents. Lower specific light availability increases fatty acid productivity and biomass light yield. An average fatty acid productivity of 0.39 g L⁻¹  day⁻¹ for a 12 days batch process with a final fatty acid content of 44.6% [w/w] was achieved. Light yield of 0.4 g mol photons⁻¹ was obtained for the first 6 days of

  8. 32 CFR 724.306 - Functions of the Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functions of the Commander, Naval Medical... PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Director, Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards and President Naval Discharge Review Board; Responsibilities in Support of the Naval Discharge Review...

  9. 32 CFR 724.306 - Functions of the Commander, Naval Medical Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Functions of the Commander, Naval Medical... PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Director, Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards and President Naval Discharge Review Board; Responsibilities in Support of the Naval Discharge Review...

  10. Data representations in PDP-10 MacLISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, G. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The internal representations of the various MacLISP data types are presented and discussed. Certain implementation tradeoffs are considered. The ultimate decisions on these tradeoffs are discussed in the light of MacLISP's prime objective of being an efficient high-level language for the implementation of large systems such as MACSYMA. The basic strategy of garbage collection is outlined, with reference to the specific representations involved. Certain clever tricks are explained and justified. The address space crunch is explained and some alternative solutions explored.

  11. Production of polygalacturonases by Aspergillus oryzae in stirred tank and internal- and external-loop airlift reactors.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Roselei Claudete; da Silveira, Maurício Moura

    2012-11-01

    The production of endo- and exo-polygalacturonase (PG) by Aspergillus oryzae was assessed in stirred tank reactors (STRs), internal-loop airlift reactors (ILARs) and external-loop airlift reactors (ELARs). For STR production, we compared culture media formulated with either pectin (WBE) or partially hydrolyzed pectin. The highest enzyme activities were obtained in medium that contained 50% pectin in hydrolyzed form (WBE5). PG production in the three reactor types was compared for WBE5 and low salt WBE medium, with additional salts added at 48, 60 and 72h (WBES). The ELARs performed better than the ILARs in WBES medium where the exo-PG was the same concentration as for STRs and the endo-PG was 20% lower. These results indicate that PG production is higher under experimental conditions that result in higher cell growth with minimum pH values less than 3.0. PMID:22940313

  12. Development of a draft-tube airlift bioreactor for Botryococcus braunii with an optimized inner structure using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Liu, Rui; Wang, Feng; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-09-01

    The key parameters of the inner structure of a cylindrical airlift bioreactor, including the ratio of the cross-section area of the downcomer to the cross-section area of the riser, clearance from the upper edge of the draft tube to the water level, and clearance from the low edge of the draft tube to the bottom of the reactor, significantly affected the biomass production of Botryococcus braunii. In order to achieve high algal cultivation performance, the optimal structural parameters of the bioreactor were determined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulated results were validated by experimental data collected from the microalgal cultures in both 2 and 40-L airlift bioreactors. The CFD model developed in this study provides a powerful means for optimizing bioreactor design and scale-up without the need to perform numerous time-consuming bioreactor experiments. PMID:22750496

  13. Comparisons between cellulase production by Aspergillus fumigatus in agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Wase, D.A.J.; McManamey, W.J.; Raymahasay, S.; Vaid, A.K.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured in disc-turbine-agitated vessels and in an air-lift fermentor. In the agitated vessels the yield of cellulase was reduced when the agitation rate was increased, although extracellular protein levels rose. The enzyme complex itself was shown to be exceptionally stable under conditions similar to those in the agitated vessels, so probably shear damage to the mycelium had occurred, liberating intracellular contents. These appeared to contain an inhibitor that could be removed by fabricated inorganic protein absorbents, such as kieselguhr and alumina. However, the inhibitor was not likely to be protease, since only relatively low levels could be detected and its identity has not been established. The use of an air-lift fermentor avoided the shear effects due to use of the disc turbine agitator in the conventional fermentors, and yields of enzyme were then found to increase by about 20%, maximum yields being obtained at maximum Kla values.

  14. Hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer in a packed bed split-cylinder airlift reactor containing dilute alcoholic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz Moraveji, Mostafa; Ebrahimi Fakhari, Mona; Mohsenzadeh, Elmira; Davarnejad, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the influences of alcohols on the hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer characteristics in an airlift reactor equipped with packing were investigated. The hydrodynamic parameters and mass transfer coefficient in 1 % (v/v) aqueous solutions of four aliphatic alcohols were tested. It was concluded that alcohols addition increased gas holdup and gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient. The packing installation increased mass transfer coefficient, gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity, as well.

  15. A New Developed Airlift Reactor Integrated Settling Process and Its Application for Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Nitrogen Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Chaohai

    2013-01-01

    This study presented the performance of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process using a new developed hybrid airlift reactor which integrated the activated sludge reaction process in the airlift reactor and the sludge settling separation process in the clarifier. The proposed reactor was started up successfully after 76 days within which the COD and total nitrogen removal rate can reach over 90% and 76.3%, respectively. The effects of different COD/N and DO concentrations on the performance of reactor were investigated. It was found that the influent COD/N maintained at 10 was sufficient for SND and the optimum DO concentration for SND was in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 mg L−1. Batch test demonstrated that both macroscopic environment caused by the spatial DO concentration difference and microscopic environment caused by the stratification of activated sludge may be responsible for the SND process in the reactor. The hybrid airlift reactor can accomplish SND process in a single reactor and in situ automatic separation of sludge; therefore, it may serve as a promising reactor in COD and nitrogen removal fields. PMID:23935415

  16. A new developed airlift reactor integrated settling process and its application for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Chaohai

    2013-01-01

    This study presented the performance of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process using a new developed hybrid airlift reactor which integrated the activated sludge reaction process in the airlift reactor and the sludge settling separation process in the clarifier. The proposed reactor was started up successfully after 76 days within which the COD and total nitrogen removal rate can reach over 90% and 76.3%, respectively. The effects of different COD/N and DO concentrations on the performance of reactor were investigated. It was found that the influent COD/N maintained at 10 was sufficient for SND and the optimum DO concentration for SND was in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 mg L(-1). Batch test demonstrated that both macroscopic environment caused by the spatial DO concentration difference and microscopic environment caused by the stratification of activated sludge may be responsible for the SND process in the reactor. The hybrid airlift reactor can accomplish SND process in a single reactor and in situ automatic separation of sludge; therefore, it may serve as a promising reactor in COD and nitrogen removal fields. PMID:23935415

  17. The command of biotechnology and merciful conquest in military opposition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ji-Wei

    2006-11-01

    Biotechnology has an increasingly extensive use for military purposes. With the upcoming age of biotechnology, military operations are depending more on biotechnical methods. Judging from the evolving law of the theory of command, the command of biotechnology is feasible and inevitable. The report discusses some basic characteristics of modern theories of command, as well as the mature possibility of the command theory of military biotechnology. The evolution of the command theory is closely associated with the development of military medicine. This theory is expected to achieve successes in wars in an ultramicro, nonlethal, reversible, and merciful way and will play an important role in biotechnological identification and orientation, defense and attack, and the maintenance of fighting powers and biological monitoring. The command of military biotechnology has not become a part of the virtual military power yet, but it is an exigent strategic task to construct and perfect this theory. PMID:17153559

  18. The Arecibo Remote Command Center Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Siemens, Xavier; Dolch, Timothy; Stovall, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) is a multi-institution research and education program that introduces undergraduates to the field of pulsar research. Specifically, the program trains students to work in small teams to operate several of the world's largest radio telescopes (both Arecibo and the Green Bank Telescope). Students conduct survey observations for the PALFA Galactic plane pulsar survey and conduct timing observations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) for the NANOGrav search for gravitational waves using these telescopes. In addition, ARCC students search pulsar candidates generated from processed survey data in order to find both new radio MSPs and non-recycled pulsars. The ARCC program currently operates at four U.S. institutions and involves more than 50 undergraduate students each year. To date, ARCC students have discovered 64 new pulsars in this program.

  19. A spacecraft computer repairable via command.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fimmel, R. O.; Baker, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    The MULTIPAC is a central data system developed for deep-space probes with the distinctive feature that it may be repaired during flight via command and telemetry links by reprogramming around the failed unit. The computer organization uses pools of identical modules which the program organizes into one or more computers called processors. The interaction of these modules is dynamically controlled by the program rather than hardware. In the event of a failure, new programs are entered which reorganize the central data system with a somewhat reduced total processing capability aboard the spacecraft. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the system architecture and the final overall system design rather than the specific logic design.

  20. STS-99 Commander Kregel arrives for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-99 Commander Kevin Kregel arrives at KSC aboard a T-38 jet aircraft to prepare for launch of Endeavour Jan. 31 at 12:47 p.m. EST. Over the next few days, the crew will review mission procedures, conduct test flights in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and undergo routine preflight medical exams. STS-99 is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which will chart a new course, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station- derived mast protruding from the payload bay to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety.

  1. STS-70 Mission Commander Henricks inspects tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-70 Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks inspects the nose wheel landing gear tires of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery along with Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber after the spaceplane touched down on KSC's Runway 33 to successfully conclude the nearly nine-day space flight. Main gear touchdown was unofficially listed at 8:02 a.m. EDT on July 22, 1995 on the second landing attempt after the first opportunity was waved off. The orbiter was originally scheduled to land on the 21st, but fog and low visibility at the Shuttle Landing Facility led to the one-day extension. This was the 24th landing at KSC and the 70th Space Shuttle mission. During the space flight, the five-member crew deployed the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G (TDRS- G). The other crew members were Pilot Kevin R. Kregel and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie and Donald A. Thomas.

  2. STS-81 Commander Mike Baker suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-81 Mission Commander Michael A. Baker is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Baker is on his fourth space flight and will have responsibility for the 10-day mission, including the intricate docking and undocking maneuvers with the Russian Mir space station. He will also be in charge of two in-flight Risk Mitigation experiments and be the subject of a Human Life Sciences experiment. He and five crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis will lift off during a 7-minute window that opens at 4:27 a.m. EST, January 12.

  3. Collins named First Woman Shuttle Commander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Just a few hours after NASA revealed that there is water ice on the Moon, U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton introduced Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Eileen Collins to a packed auditorium at Dunbar Senior High School in Washington, D.C., as the first woman who will command a NASA space shuttle mission. With students at this school, which is noted for its pre-engineering program, cheering, Clinton said that Collins' selection “is one big step forward for women and one giant step for humanity.” Clinton added, “It doesn't matter if you are a boy or a girl, you can be an astronaut or a pilot, if you get a first-rate education in math and science.”

  4. Using HMI Weintek in command of an industrial robot arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Balan, I. B. A.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper intends to highlight the utility and importance of HMI in the control of the robotic arm, commanding a Siemens PLC. The touch screen HMI Weinteke MT3070a is the user interface in the process command of Siemens PLC, in which the distances and displacement speeds are introduced on the three axes. The interface includes monitoring robotic arm movement but also allows its command by incrementing step by step the motion over axis.

  5. Data acquisition command interface using VAX/VMS DCL

    SciTech Connect

    Poore, R.V.; Barrus, D.M.; Cort, G.; Goldstone, J.A.; Miller, L.B.; Nelson, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    The user interface to a data acquisition system is being developed at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research Facility using the VAX/VMS command language interface DCL. Commands are being implemented which provide for system initialization and control functions and FASTBUS diagnostics. The data acquisition system incorporates the concept of a data acquisition ''state'' (running, halted, etc.) where a certain subset of input commands is allowed.

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean assisted with egressing command module after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, is assisted with egressing the Apollo 12 Command Module by a U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmer during recovery operations in the Pacific Ocean. Already in the life raft are Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; and Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot. The Apollo 12 splashdown occured at 2:58 p.m., November 24, 1969 near American Samoa.

  7. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. An emergency command recognizer for voiced system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterlind, P.; Johnston, Waymon L.

    1987-10-01

    An algorithm for accepting speaker-independent voiced input, aimed especially at accommodating emergency acoustic commands, is described. The algorithm is directed toward correctly identifying commands from speaker-independent acoustic input using machine recognition of common, standarized phonemic input, using these recognized sounds to reconstruct entire words and phrases. Speaker-dependent phonemes are not used during the command reconstruction process, so that speaker idiosyncracies are accommodated. Machine recognition extends to voice pitch and emotional tension characteristics.

  9. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad

    2008-01-01

    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  10. Proposal and Rationale for the Development of a Mac Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordner, Marsha

    At Clark State Community College (CSCC), in Ohio, faculty in the Commercial Art and English departments have investigated and debated the best uses for a Mac Lab. Computer needs for the Commercial Art Program were determined through visits to local businesses that produce art on a commercial level; to local secondary school commercial art…

  11. Integrated, Kerberized Login on MacOS X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotz, Henry B.

    2006-01-01

    Context for this information. MacOS X login process and available hooks. Authorization Services configuration. Authorization Services plug-in s. Kerberos plug-in s. Other bugs and recommendations. Authorization Services Called by loginwindow, screen saver and fast user switching. It calls Directory Services, Login Hook, and Login Items (System Preferences).

  12. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  13. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents MAC/FAC, a model of similarity-based retrieval that attempts to capture psychological phenomena; discusses its limitations and extensions, its relationship with other retrieval models, and its placement in the context of other work on the nature of similarity. Examines the utility of the model through psychological experiments and…

  14. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Annually, your board of directors must review these policies and the performance of your Farmer Mac.... (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed... fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by § 615.5143....

  15. The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

  16. 42 CFR 405.1118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 405.1118 Section 405.1118 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Determinations, Redeterminations, Reconsiderations, and Appeals Under...

  17. Modeling Woven Polymer Matrix Composites with MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) is used to predict the elastic properties of plain weave polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The traditional one step three-dimensional homogertization procedure that has been used in conjunction with MAC/GMC for modeling woven composites in the past is inaccurate due to the lack of shear coupling inherent to the model. However, by performing a two step homogenization procedure in which the woven composite repeating unit cell is homogenized independently in the through-thickness direction prior to homogenization in the plane of the weave, MAC/GMC can now accurately model woven PMCs. This two step procedure is outlined and implemented, and predictions are compared with results from the traditional one step approach and other models and experiments from the literature. Full coupling of this two step technique with MAC/ GMC will result in a widely applicable, efficient, and accurate tool for the design and analysis of woven composite materials and structures.

  18. MAC mini acceptance test procedures, software Version 3.3

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some improvements made to it to to change slightly the access authorized users had to the modification of critical data. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  19. What if MacGyver Taught Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip; Leech, Trey

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising childhood obesity rates, many physical educators find themselves with declining financial resources. Similar to how MacGyver had to do when he was in a bind on his self-titled television show, physical educators need to think creatively when providing equipment for use by their students. The problem that has been identified is:…

  20. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances,...

  1. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances,...

  2. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances, Organization...

  3. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  4. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ...

  5. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ...

  6. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances, Organization...

  7. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  8. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances,...

  9. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615.5174 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Property, Transfers of Capital, and Other Investments §...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615.5174 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Property, Transfers of Capital, and Other Investments §...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615.5174 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Property, Transfers of Capital, and Other Investments §...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615.5174 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Property, Transfers of Capital, and Other Investments §...

  14. 17. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING COMMANDER'S OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - COMMANDER'S OFFICE VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. An implantable micropower command receiver for telemetry battery power switching.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, J D; Leung, A; Ko, W H

    1981-01-01

    Command receivers that control the functioning of additional implanted circuitry can be useful in many medical telemetry applications. The authors have designed and constructed a thick-film hybrid command receiver system that directly interfaces with the second-generation ICP telemetry system. This command receiver controls telemetry on/off state through enabling/disabling the telemetry pulse generator stage. Lithium battery powering of the implant is made practical through use of this command receiver. An automatic power shutdown feature is incorporated to guard against accidental battery drain. The unit uses two commercial CMOS integrated circuits, a transistor, a resistor and an RF coil. PMID:7295932

  18. 42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 405.1110 Section 405....1110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC for it...

  19. 42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 405.1110 Section 405....1110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC for it...

  20. 42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 405.1110 Section 405....1110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC for it...

  1. 42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 405.1110 Section 405....1110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC for it...

  2. 42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 405.1110 Section 405....1110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC for it...

  3. 75 FR 69154 - Land Release for Long Island MacArthur Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Long Island MacArthur Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation... requesting public comment on the Long Island MacArthur Airport (ISP), Ronkonkoma, New York, notice of...-aeronautical development. The parcel is located on the northeast corner of the Long Island MacArthur...

  4. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  5. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  6. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  8. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  9. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  10. MacMouse. Developing Preschool Readiness Concepts and Skills with HyperCard and MacRecorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    Through developments with the use of the "Apple Macintosh" computer, "HyperCard," and "MacRecorder," children in preschool handicapped programs are now capable of participating in appropriate computerized learning experiences. "HyperCard" allows educators to produce their own computerized instructional lessons with a software program that…

  11. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  12. MacB ABC transporter is a dimer whose ATPase activity and macrolide-binding capacity are regulated by the membrane fusion protein MacA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Barrera, Nelson P; Frankish, Helen M; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Robinson, Carol V; Borges-Walmsley, M Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled. PMID:18955484

  13. MacB ABC Transporter Is a Dimer Whose ATPase Activity and Macrolide-binding Capacity Are Regulated by the Membrane Fusion Protein MacA*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N.; Barrera, Nelson P.; Frankish, Helen M.; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Robinson, Carol V.; Borges-Walmsley, M. Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled. PMID:18955484

  14. 46 CFR 90.10-9 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 90.10-9 Section 90.10-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-9 Coast Guard District Commander. This...

  15. 46 CFR 167.05-15 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 167.05-15 Section 167.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-15 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of...

  16. 46 CFR 90.10-9 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 90.10-9 Section 90.10-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-9 Coast Guard District Commander. This...

  17. 46 CFR 167.05-15 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 167.05-15 Section 167.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-15 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-13 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 188.10-13 Section 188.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-13 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of the...

  19. 46 CFR 90.10-9 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 90.10-9 Section 90.10-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-9 Coast Guard District Commander. This...

  20. 46 CFR 167.05-15 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 167.05-15 Section 167.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-15 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of the Coast Guard designated as such by...

  1. 46 CFR 90.10-9 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 90.10-9 Section 90.10-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-9 Coast Guard District Commander. This...

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-13 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 188.10-13 Section 188.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-13 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of the...

  3. 46 CFR 90.10-9 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 90.10-9 Section 90.10-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-9 Coast Guard District Commander. This...

  4. 46 CFR 167.05-15 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 167.05-15 Section 167.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-15 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of...

  5. 46 CFR 167.05-15 - Coast Guard District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander. 167.05-15 Section 167.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-15 Coast Guard District Commander. This term means an officer of...

  6. 19 CFR 122.36 - Responsibility of aircraft commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibility of aircraft commander. 122.36...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.36 Responsibility of aircraft commander. If an aircraft lands in the U.S. and Customs officers have not arrived, the aircraft...

  7. 19 CFR 122.36 - Responsibility of aircraft commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibility of aircraft commander. 122.36...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.36 Responsibility of aircraft commander. If an aircraft lands in the U.S. and Customs officers have not arrived, the aircraft...

  8. 19 CFR 122.36 - Responsibility of aircraft commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibility of aircraft commander. 122.36...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.36 Responsibility of aircraft commander. If an aircraft lands in the U.S. and Customs officers have not arrived, the aircraft...

  9. Photocopy of photograph (original located in Command Historian's Archives, Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located in Command Historian's Archives, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Port Hueneme, California). George E. Kidder-Smith, photographer, April 1945, Photograph #109-1. BUILDING 10, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Fleet Landing Building, Bounded by Richardson & Pratt Avenues, Maryland & West Virginia Streets, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 14 CFR 417.303 - Command control system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Command control system requirements. 417.303 Section 417.303 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.303 Command control system requirements. (a) General....

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 192 - Checklist for Commanders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Checklist for Commanders A Appendix A to Part...) MISCELLANEOUS EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN OFF-BASE HOUSING Pt. 192, App. A Appendix A to Part 192—Checklist for Commanders A. Are all assigned personnel informed of the Equal Opportunity in Off-Base Housing...

  12. 14 CFR 417.305 - Command control system testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Command control system testing. 417.305 Section 417.305 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.305 Command control system testing. (a) General. (1) A...

  13. 14 CFR 417.305 - Command control system testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Command control system testing. 417.305 Section 417.305 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.305 Command control system testing. (a) General. (1) A...

  14. 14 CFR 1215.106 - User command and tracking data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false User command and tracking data. 1215.106 Section 1215.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA... one of three locations: (1) For Shuttle payloads which utilize the Shuttle commanding system,...

  15. 14 CFR 1215.106 - User command and tracking data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true User command and tracking data. 1215.106 Section 1215.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA... one of three locations: (1) For Shuttle payloads which utilize the Shuttle commanding system,...

  16. Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from Lunar Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from the Lunar Module, 'Spider', on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module, 'Gumdrop'. Object jutting out from the Service Module aft bulkhead is the high-gain S-Band antenna.

  17. 76 FR 1975 - Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ..., 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-590 Filed 1-10-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 5000-04-P ... Memorandum of January 6, 2011--Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command #0; #0; #0... of United States Joint Forces Command Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to...

  18. 3 CFR - Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces... of United States Joint Forces Command Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my... States Joint Forces Command, effective on a date to be determined by the Secretary of Defense. I...

  19. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subordinate commands are fully aware of the importance of strong, dynamic leadership and its relationship to the overall efficiency and readiness of naval forces. Commanders shall exercise positive leadership and actively develop the highest qualities of leadership in persons with positions of authority...

  20. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subordinate commands are fully aware of the importance of strong, dynamic leadership and its relationship to the overall efficiency and readiness of naval forces. Commanders shall exercise positive leadership and actively develop the highest qualities of leadership in persons with positions of authority...

  1. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subordinate commands are fully aware of the importance of strong, dynamic leadership and its relationship to the overall efficiency and readiness of naval forces. Commanders shall exercise positive leadership and actively develop the highest qualities of leadership in persons with positions of authority...

  2. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subordinate commands are fully aware of the importance of strong, dynamic leadership and its relationship to the overall efficiency and readiness of naval forces. Commanders shall exercise positive leadership and actively develop the highest qualities of leadership in persons with positions of authority...

  3. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military commanders' responsibilities. 809a.10... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a... enforced by the military. These will be announced by local proclamation or order, and will be given...

  4. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military commanders' responsibilities. 809a.10... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a... enforced by the military. These will be announced by local proclamation or order, and will be given...

  5. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military commanders' responsibilities. 809a.10... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a... enforced by the military. These will be announced by local proclamation or order, and will be given...

  6. Team Cognition in Experienced Command-and-Control Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Duran, Jasmine L.; Taylor, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members…

  7. Commander's conference room (room 202), closet and hallway to bathroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Commander's conference room (room 202), closet and hallway to bathroom and bedroom, leading to conference room 211. Viewing windows look down on the display area. View to north - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BATTERY COMMAND CENTER WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF BATTERY COMMAND CENTER WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. THE ENTRY STAIRWAY IS IN THE FOREGROUND. THE ABOVE-GROUND SECTION OF THE STRUCTURE IS ON THE RIGHT, UNDERGROUND PORTION ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Young Children and Turtle Graphics Programming: Understanding Turtle Commands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Diane O.

    The LOGO programing language developed for children includes a set of primitive graphics commands that control the displacement and rotation of a display screen cursor called a turtle. The purpose of this study was to examine 4- to 7-year-olds' understanding of single turtle commands as transformations that connect turtle states and to…

  10. 14 CFR 417.305 - Command control system testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Command control system testing. 417.305 Section 417.305 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.305 Command control system testing. (a) General. (1) A...

  11. 14 CFR 417.305 - Command control system testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Command control system testing. 417.305 Section 417.305 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.305 Command control system testing. (a) General. (1) A...

  12. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military commanders' responsibilities. 809a.10... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a... enforced by the military. These will be announced by local proclamation or order, and will be given...

  13. Teachers' Commands and Their Role in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertsch, Kathy M.; Houlihan, Daniel; Lenz, Melissa A.; Patte, Christi A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Many aspects of teacher competency have been previously examined, particularly a teacher's ability to give commands effectively. Teachers' instructions to students within the classroom, aid in the acquisition of both the students' academic and nonacademic skills. Teachers' commands promote verbal and social skills, and facilitate…

  14. 14 CFR 61.55 - Second-in-command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-in-command qualifications. (a) A person may serve as a second-in-command of an aircraft type... appropriate category and class rating; and (2) An instrument rating or privilege that applies to the aircraft being flown if the flight is under IFR; and (3) The appropriate pilot type rating for the...

  15. 14 CFR 61.55 - Second-in-command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-in-command qualifications. (a) A person may serve as a second-in-command of an aircraft type... appropriate category and class rating; and (2) An instrument rating or privilege that applies to the aircraft being flown if the flight is under IFR; and (3) The appropriate pilot type rating for the...

  16. 14 CFR 61.55 - Second-in-command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-in-command qualifications. (a) A person may serve as a second-in-command of an aircraft type... appropriate category and class rating; and (2) An instrument rating or privilege that applies to the aircraft being flown if the flight is under IFR; and (3) At least a pilot type rating for the aircraft...

  17. 19 CFR 122.36 - Responsibility of aircraft commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility of aircraft commander. 122.36...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.36 Responsibility of aircraft commander. If an aircraft lands in the U.S. and Customs officers have not arrived, the aircraft...

  18. Frogmen on Apollo command module boilerplate flotation collar during recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Apollo command module boilerplate floats in the Atlantic Ocean during a practice recovery exercise. Frogmen in a liferaft and on the flotation collar secure the command module boilerplate for hoisting onto a nearby recovery ship. The exercise was conducted in preparation for the forthcoming Apollo-Saturn 201 (AS-201) mission.

  19. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  20. Program for Editing Spacecraft Command Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy; Waggoner, Bruce; Kordon, Mark; Hashemi, Mahnaz; Hanks, David; Salcedo, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Sequence Translator, Editor, and Expander Resource (STEER) is a computer program that facilitates construction of sequences and blocks of sequences (hereafter denoted generally as sequence products) for commanding a spacecraft. STEER also provides mechanisms for translating among various sequence product types and quickly expanding activities of a given sequence in chronological order for review and analysis of the sequence. To date, construction of sequence products has generally been done by use of such clumsy mechanisms as text-editor programs, translating among sequence product types has been challenging, and expanding sequences to time-ordered lists has involved arduous processes of converting sequence products to "real" sequences and running them through Class-A software (defined, loosely, as flight and ground software critical to a spacecraft mission). Also, heretofore, generating sequence products in standard formats has been troublesome because precise formatting and syntax are required. STEER alleviates these issues by providing a graphical user interface containing intuitive fields in which the user can enter the necessary information. The STEER expansion function provides a "quick and dirty" means of seeing how a sequence and sequence block would expand into a chronological list, without need to use of Class-A software.

  1. Implementation of a medical command and control team in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Reigner, Philippe; Vallotton, Laurent; Clouet, Jean-Gabriel; Danzeisen, Claude; Zürcher, Mathias; Yersin, Bertrand

    2014-04-01

    In case of a major incident or disaster, the advance medical rescue command needs to manage several essential tasks simultaneously. These include the rapid deployment of ambulance, police, fire and evacuation services, and their coordinated activity, as well as triage and emergency medical care on site. The structure of such a medical rescue command is crucial for the successful outcome of medical evacuation at major incidents. However, little data has been published on the nature and structure of the command itself. This study presents a flexible approach to command structure, with two command heads: one emergency physician and one experienced paramedic. This approach is especially suitable for Switzerland, whose federal system allows for different structures in each canton. This article examines the development of these structures and their efficiency, adaptability and limitations with respect to major incident response in the French-speaking part of the country. PMID:24601925

  2. Unstable manifolds for the MacKay approximate renormalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jaroslav

    1989-01-01

    For a renormalisation of a critical phenomenon in some class of dynamical systems, it is the unstable manifolds of the critical set which give the universal families which describe the critical transition. In this paper, we study such manifolds for the MacKay [1988] approximate renormalisation scheme which models the breakup of invariant circles of arbitrary rotation number in area-preserving twist maps. We derive a number of properties of the unstable manifolds and then discuss the implications of these to the full renormalisation. In particular a) we suggest the importance of continuity in the definition of unstable manifolds, and b) show that their structure is similar to that observed numerically by MacKay and Percival [1987] in a related renormalisation. Finally we show that the residues of approximating periodic orbits are bounded above on the critical set.

  3. Preliminary results on B-anti B mixing from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.

    1987-05-01

    An excess of like-charge dimuons has been observed with the MAC detector in multihadron events produced in e e annihilation at s = 29 GeV. If this excess is attributed to B - anti B mixing, the corresponding value of the mixing parameter chi = GAMMA(B X)/GAMMA(B X) is chi = 0.21/sub -0.15//sup +0.25/ and chi > 0.02 at 90% C.L.

  4. A Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) Criterion for the Chemostat

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanji

    2016-01-01

    The Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) criterion is a graphical criterion that has been widely used for elucidating the local stability properties of the Gause (1934) type predator-prey systems. It has not been stated whether a similar criterion holds for models with explicit resource dynamics (Kooi et al. (1998)), like the chemostat model. In this paper we use the implicit function theorem and implicit derivatives for proving that a similar graphical criterion holds under chemostat conditions, too. PMID:27517080

  5. Production of protein-rich fungal biomass in an airlift bioreactor using vinasse as substrate.

    PubMed

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Issarapayup, Kerati; Pavasant, Prasert; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The potential for large-scale production of an edible fungus, Rhizopus oligosporus, on a liquid residue from sugar-to-ethanol production, vinasse, was investigated. An airlift bioreactor (2.5-L working volume) was used for cultivating the fungus on 75% (v/v) vinasse with nutrient supplementation (nitrogen and phosphorus) at 37°C and pH 5.0. Aeration rates were varied from 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 to 2.0 volume(air)/volume(liquid)/min (vvm). The fungal biomass yield depended on the aeration rate, and the highest fungal biomass obtained was 8.04±0.80 (g(biomass increase)/g(initial biomass)) at 1.5vvm. The observed reductions in organic content by 80% (as soluble chemical oxygen demand) suggest the potential of recycling treated effluent as process water for in-plant use or for land applications. The fungal biomass contained ~50% crude protein and the essential amino acids contents were comparable to commercial protein sources for aquatic feeds (fishmeal and soybean meal), with the exception of methionine and phenylalanine. PMID:23434806

  6. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium by crosslinked chitosan-iron(III) in an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Demarchi, Carla Albertina; Rodrigues, Clóvis Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Column experiments were conducted in an airlift reactor containing a certain amount of crosslinked chitosan-iron(III) (Ch-Fe), to examine the effects of adsorbent mass, flow rate, and influent concentrations on Cr(VI) removal. The breakthrough time increased with an increase in Ch-Fe mass, but decreased with an increase in initial Cr(VI) concentration. The exhaustion time decreased with an increase in initial Cr(VI) concentration. The capacity at the breakthrough point increased with an increase in Ch-Fe mass, flow rate, and initial Cr(VI) concentration. The capacity at the exhaustion point increased with an increase in flow rate, but showed no specific trend with an increase in initial Cr(VI) concentration. The bed volumes at breakthrough point increased with an increase in Ch-Fe, flow rate and Cr(VI) concentration. The adsorbent exhaustion decreased with an increase in flow rate and Ch-Fe, but increased with an increase in initial Cr(VI) concentration. Columns with large amounts of Ch-Fe are preferable for obtaining optimal results during the adsorption process. The higher the flow velocity, the better the column performance. The Thomas, Clark and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to the experimental results. Good agreement was observed between the predicted theoretical breakthrough curves and the experimental results. PMID:26901729

  7. Airlift column photobioreactors for Porphyridium sp. culturing: part I. effects of hydrodynamics and reactor geometry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hu-Ping; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H

    2012-04-01

    Photosynthetic microorganisms have been attracting world attention for their great potential as renewable energy sources in recent years. Cost effective production in large scale, however, remains a major challenge to overcome. It is known to the field that turbulence could help improving the performance of photobioreactors due to the so-called flashing light effects. Better understanding of the multiphase fluid dynamics and the irradiance distribution inside the reactor that cause the flashing light effects, as well as quantifying their impacts on the reactor performance, thus, are crucial for successful design and scale-up of photobioreactors. In this study, a species of red marine microalgae, Porphyridium sp., was grown in three airlift column photobioreactors (i.e., draft tube column, bubble column, and split column). The physical properties of the culture medium, the local fluid dynamics and the photobioreactor performances were investigated and are reported in this part of the manuscript. Results indicate that the presence of microalgae considerably affected the local multiphase flow dynamics in the studied draft tube column. Results also show that the split column reactor works slightly better than the draft tube and the bubble columns due to the spiral flow pattern inside the reactor. PMID:22068325

  8. Wood and paper properties of vacuum airlift segregated juvenile poplar whole-tree chips

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, J.E.; Isebrands, J.G.; Einspahr, D.W.; Crist, J.B.; Sturos, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Whole tree chips from a hybrid poplar clone (Populus Tristis No.1) grown under short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) were separated into three fractions using vacuum airlift segregation (VAS). The fractions were: accepts, which was predominantly a woody fraction; rejects, which contained less wood and more bark and twigs; and fines, which consisted mostly of bark particles. The raw material quality was evaluated and kraft pulp and paper properties were determined on the whole tree chips and each VAS fraction as well as on a 50:50 mixture of the accepts:rejects fractions. A 50:50 mixture of VAS accepts and 55-yr-old mill-run jack pine was also studied. Pulp and paper properties of the whole tree chips, the VAS accepts and rejects, and a 50:50 mixture of accepts:rejects were similar and were only slightly lower quality than those of mature aspen (Populus) chips. The 50:50 mixture of VAS accepts and mill-run jack pine was acceptable by industrial standards. These results suggest that whole tree chips from SRIC poplar stands can be mixed with conifer chips to supplement furnishes for kraft pulping.

  9. Instability phenomenon in an external-loop three-phase gas-liquid-solid airlift reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Douek, R.S.; Livingston, A.G.; Hewitt, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    Three-phase airlift (TPAL) reactors have applications ranging from biotechnology to catalytic hydrogenation. Circulation in a loop consisting of a riser and downcomer with top and bottom connections is induced by injecting gas at the bottom of the riser. The continuous liquid phase recirculates up the riser and down the downcomer, carrying the solid phase in suspension. A hydrodynamic model was developed for TPAL reactors which enables the prediction of main variables of a TPAL reactor (phase holdups and liquid recirculation velocity) as a function of the inlet gas superficial velocity and the solids loading. This model considers a TPAL reactor to comprise riser and downcomer sections alone; the difference in the effective densities between these regions gives rise to the recirculation. As part of a program of experimental work aimed at verifying this model, it was decided to carry out experiments on an external-loop reactor which would generate direct measurements of the required riser and downcomer hydrodynamic parameters. During the course of these experiments, however,a surprising and before now unreported instability phenomenon was observed. This behavior prevented the system from reaching a steady distribution of solids. In general, instabilities are undesirable since they could adversely affect the system control and performance. The objective of this article is to describe the observed phenomenon and attempt to explain why it occurs.

  10. Hydrodynamic flow regimes, gas holdup, and liquid circulation in airlift reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abashar, M.E.; Narsingh, U.; Rouillard, A.E.; Judd, R.

    1998-04-01

    This study reports an experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic behavior of an external-loop airlift reactor (ALR) for the air-water system. Three distinct flow regimes are identified--namely homogeneous, transition, and heterogeneous regimes. The transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous flow is observed to occur over a wide range rather than being merely a single point as has been previously reported in the literature. A gas holdup correlation is developed for each flow regime. The correlations fit the experimental gas holdup data with very good accuracy (within {+-}5%). It would appear, therefore, that a deterministic equation to describe each flow regime is likely to exist in ALRs. This equation is a function of the reactor geometry and the system`s physical properties. New data concerning the axial variation of gas holdup is reported in which a minimum value is observed. This phenomenon is discussed and an explanation offered. Discrimination between two sound theoretical models--namely model 1 (Chisti et al., 1988) and model 2 (Garcia Calvo, 1989)--shows that model 1 predicts satisfactorily the liquid circulation velocity with an error of less than {+-} 10%. The good predictive features of model 1 may be due to the fact that it allows for a significant energy dissipation by wakes behind bubbles. Model 1 is now further improved by the new gas holdup correlations which are derived for the three different flow regimes.

  11. Feasibility study of in-well vapor stripping using airlift pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Gvirtzman, H.; Gonen, O.

    1995-12-31

    This study tests the feasibility of a aquifer remediation concept proposed by Gvirtzman and Gorelick (1992) that involves the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in ground water. The principal is to inject air into a well, creating airlift pumping, which is used as a means of in-well vapor stripping. The partially treated water is diverted away from the well and infiltrates back to the water table, thus allowing remediation of a larger aquifer volume. A remediation well prototype, constructed in a laboratory aquifer model, was used to demonstrate the process involved. The removal rates of trichloroethylene, toluene, and chloroform were monitored using eight triple-level observation wells. The continuous decrease of VOC concentrations during the short-term experiment has yielded macroscopic evidence that the process offers some promise. It was found that the flow field in the saturated zone, involving the continuous water circulation between the pumping well and the recharging area, caused temporal and spatial variation in remediation efficiency.

  12. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale air-lift internal-loop bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Using sodium fluoride as tracer, residence time distribution technique was employed to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale Internal-Loop Airlift Bio-particle (ILAB) bioreactor that was a novel system for ammonia removal from wastewater. The results showed that the flow pattern of ILAB reactor was close to completely mixed reactor under all the tested air flow rates and liquid flow rates (with average N of 1.88). The total dead zone (TDZ) was 32.43% with biological dead zone (BDZ) of 20.66% and hydraulic dead zone (HDZ) of 8.95%. At higher air flow rates, the flow pattern of reactor approached that of completely mixed reactor (N from 2.72 to 1.54), and the increase of air flow rate gave rise to the decrease of TDZ in the reactor (from 36.24% to 23.00%). Whereas at higher liquid flow rates, the flow pattern of ILAB reactor got away from that of completely mixed reactor (N from 1.51 to 1.72), and the increase of liquid flow rate yielded a rise of TDZ in the reactor (from 28.48% to 36.84%). The study highlighted that the effect of air flow rate on flow pattern and TDZ of the reactor was greater than that of liquid flow rate. PMID:25594127

  13. Degradation of aqueous methylene blue using an external loop airlift sonophotoreactor: Statistical analysis and optimization.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Masroor; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad

    2016-07-28

    Degradation and mineralization of aqueous methylene blue (MB) are investigated in a bench scale external loop airlift sonophotoreactor. A central composite design along with response surface methodology is employed to model and optimize the sonophotolytic process. A quadratic empirical expression between responses and independent variables (pH and initial concentrations of H2O2 and MB) is derived. The efficiencies of the system for the MB degradation after 10, 15, and 30 min, and total organic carbon reduction after 150 min are considered as responses. The analysis of variance performed high values for the coefficient of determination R(2) and adjusted R(2) for all four responses. Optimum values of process variables for the maximum degradation and mineralization efficiency are pH 6.6 and initial concentrations of H2O2 and MB are 1,280 and 10.56 mg/L, respectively. With optimal operating conditions, 99.93% and 55.32% MB removal (after 10 min) and TOC reduction (after 150 min) are achieved, respectively. Artificial neural networks are also used to model the experimental data. The respirometric study is conducted to compare the biodegradability of untreated and sonophotolytically pre-treated MB solutions at different reaction times. Pre-treated solutions at 180, 240, and 300 min performed higher biodegradability compared to those of untreated MB solutions. PMID:27128152

  14. Control and Optimization of Regenerative Power Flow in 21st Century Airlifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Boroyevich, Dushan

    2001-12-01

    In this project we investigated the optimization of the power distribution system and some of its components for 21st century airlifters. Herein we describe the formulation of an optimization problem for typical components found in a power distribution system: an input filter and a buck converter. The optimization formulation includes time and frequency domain constraints as well as optimization of the inductors. An optimization problem is formulated for each of the components, but it is formulated in such a way that the two-optimization problems can be easily integrated into a single optimization problem accounting for internal stability. Using this principle, an optimization problem can be formulated for each component of the power distribution system, and then integrated into the combined optimization of the entire system. An example is given in which the system is optimized to bound the effect of the regenerative power flow onto the aircraft power bus. A bi-Level formulation is introduce which significantly reduces the computational complexity of the optimization problem. It is anticipated that the next generation aircraft will include novel actuators that incorporate piezoelectric material. Since this material is an energy transducer, we can expect these actuators to regenerate power back onto the power bus. To study this effect, models are developed of the actuators and the power flow is investigated as a function of the internal control loops. Then an optimization problem is formulated for the drive amplifiers for these actuators.

  15. Simultaneous carbon and nutrient removal in an airlift loop reactor under a limited filamentous bulking state.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Su, Yimin; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ke

    2013-02-01

    Airlift loop reactors (ALRs) are important bioreactors for wastewater treatment. However, few studies have investigated the application of an ALR for simultaneous carbon and nutrient removal, especially for activated sludge systems. This study evaluated the performance of integrated nitrogen, phosphorus and COD removal in an ALR with a low height-to-diameter ratio in a limited filamentous bulking (LFB) state (SVI of 180-220mL/g). The average removal efficiencies for COD, NH(4)(+)-N, TN and TP were 91%, 92%, 86% and 94%, respectively. Additional research showed that only under the LFB state, the appropriate distribution of dissolved oxygen inside the ALR was established to promote a well-balanced aerobic and anoxic/anaerobic state. In addition, the macro-gradient of the substrate concentration at the inlet and the heavier bio-P sludge density compensated for the proliferation of filaments. Hence, the stable LFB state was achieved by balancing the floc-forming bacteria and the filamentous bacteria in the ALR. PMID:23313686

  16. Modeling and analysis of airlift system operating in three-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dong; Kang, Yong; Tang, Chuan-lin; Wang, Xiao-chuan

    2015-03-01

    Based on the momentum theorem, the fluid governing equation in a lifting pipe is proposed by use of the method combining theoretical analysis with empirical correlations related to the previous research, and the performance of an airlift pump can be clearly characterized by the triangular relationship among the volumetric flux of air, water and solid particles, which are obtained respectively by using numerical calculation. The meso-scale river sand is used as tested particles to examine the theoretical model. Results of the model are compared with the data in three-phase flow obtained prior to the development of the present model, by an independent experimental team that used the physical conditions of the present approach. The analytical error can be controlled within 12% for predicting the volumetric flux of water and is smaller than that (±16%) of transporting solid particles in three-phase flow. The experimental results and computations are in good agreement for air-water two-phase flow within a margin of ±8%. Reasonable agreement justifies the use of the present model for engineering design purposes.

  17. Astaxanthin induction in Microalga H. pluvialis with flat panel airlift photobioreactors under indoor and outdoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Poonkum, Woradej; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Pavasant, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin was induced from Haematococcus pluvialis (NIES-144) under indoor and outdoor conditions using 17-, 50-, and 90-L flat-panel airlift photobioreactors (FP-APBRs). Preliminary experiments in 1.5-L bubble column photobioreactors (BC-PBRs) revealed that sterilized clean water with 3% CO2 aeration (1.47 cm(3) s(-1) CO2 loading) could best encourage astaxanthin accumulation at 18.21 g m(-3) (3.63% by weight). Operating 17-L FP-APBRs with these bubble column parameters under indoor conditions could further enhance astaxanthin to 26.63 g m(-3) (5.34% by weight). This was potentially due to the inherited up-lift force from the reactor that helped avoid cell precipitation by allowing the cells to be circulated within the reactor. In addition, the various sizes of FP-APBRs exhibited similar performance, implying a potential scale-up opportunity. However, similar operation under outdoor condition exhibited slightly poorer performance due to the light inhibition effect. The best outdoor performance was obtained with the FP-APBR covered with one layer of shading net, where 20.11 g m(-3) (4.47% by weight) of astaxanthin was resulted. PMID:25105532

  18. Gluconic acid production from sucrose in an airlift reactor using a multi-enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Agnes Cristina Oliveira; Furlan, Felipe Fernando; Badino, Alberto Colli; Tardioli, Paulo Waldir

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose from sugarcane is produced in abundance in Brazil, which provides an opportunity to manufacture other high-value products. Gluconic acid (GA) can be produced by multi-enzyme conversion of sucrose using the enzymes invertase, glucose oxidase, and catalase. In this process, one of the byproducts is fructose, which has many commercial applications. This work concerns the batch mode production of GA in an airlift reactor fed with sucrose as substrate. Evaluation was made of the influence of temperature and pH, as well as the thermal stability of the enzymes. Operational conditions of 40 °C and pH 6.0 were selected, based on the enzymatic activity profiles and the thermal stabilities. Under these conditions, the experimental data could be accurately described by kinetic models. The maximum yield of GA was achieved within 3.8 h, with total conversion of sucrose and glucose and a volumetric productivity of around 7.0 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:25326720

  19. Simulation and optimization of airlift external circulation membrane bioreactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Qing, Zhang; Rongle, Xu; Xiang, Zheng; Yaobo, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The airlift external circulation membrane bioreactor (AEC-MBR) is a new MBR consisting of a separated aeration tank and membrane tank with circulating pipes fixed between the two tanks. The circulating pipe is called a H circulating pipe (HCP) because of its shape. With the complex configuration, it was difficult but necessary to master the AEC-MBR's hydraulic characteristics. In this paper, simulation and optimization of the AEC-MBR was performed using computational fluid dynamics. The distance from diffusers to membrane modules, i.e. the height of gas-liquid mixing zone (h(m)), and its effect on velocity distribution at membrane surfaces were studied. Additionally, the role of HCP and the effect of HCP's diameter on circulation were simulated and analyzed. The results showed that non-uniformity of cross-flow velocity existed in the flat-plate membrane modules, and the problem could be alleviated by increasing hm to an optimum range (h(m)/B ≥ 0.55; B is total static depth). Also, the low velocity in the boundary layer on the membrane surface was another reason for membrane fouling. The results also suggested that HCP was necessary and it had an optimum diameter to make circulation effective in the AEC-MBR. PMID:24804658

  20. Optimization of partial nitritation in a continuous flow internal loop airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Xing, Bao-Shan; Ni, Wei-Min

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the performance of the partial nitritation (PN) process in a continuous flow internal loop airlift reactor was optimized by applying the response surface method (RSM). The purpose of this work was to find the optimal combination of influent ammonium (NH4(+)-Ninf), dissolved oxygen (DO) and the alkalinity/ammonium ratio (Alk/NH4(+)-N) with respect to the effluent nitrite to ammonium molar ratio and nitrite accumulation ratio. Based on the RSM results, the reduced cubic model and the quadratic model developed for the responses indicated that the optimal conditions were a DO content of 1.1-2.1 mg L(-1), an Alk/NH4(+)-N ratio of 3.30-5.69 and an NH4(+)-Ninf content of 608-1039 mg L(-1). The results of confirmation trials were close to the predictions of the developed models. Furthermore, three types of alkali were comparatively explored for use in the PN process, and bicarbonate was found to be the best alkalinity source. PMID:24012847

  1. Cultivation of oleaginous Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in airlift bioreactor by using seawater.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Liao, Yu-Ting; Liu, Yi Xian

    2016-02-01

    The enormous water resource consumption is a concern to the scale-up fermentation process, especially for those cheap fermentation commodities, such as microbial oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. The direct cultivation of oleaginous Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a 5-L airlift bioreactor using seawater instead of pure water led to a slightly lower biomass being achieved, at 17.2 compared to 18.1 g/L, respectively. Nevertheless, a higher lipid content of 65 ± 5% was measured in the batch using seawater as compared to the pure water batch. Both the salinity and osmotic pressure decreased as the cultivation time increased in the seawater batch, and these effects may contribute to the high tolerance for salinity. No effects were observed for the seawater on the fatty acid profiles. The major components for both batches using seawater and pure water were C16:0 (palmitic acid), C18:1 (oleic acid) and C18:2 (linoleic acid), which together accounted for over 85% of total lipids. The results of this study indicated that seawater could be a suitable option for scaling up the growth of oleaginous R. mucilaginosa, especially from the perspective of water resource utilization. PMID:26319611

  2. The influence of sorbitol on the production of cellulases and xylanases in an airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Carla Eliana Todero; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Camassola, Marli; da Silveira, Maurício Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-11-01

    The production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum in an airlift bioreactor was evaluated. In batch production, we tested media with isolated or associated cellulose and sorbitol. In fed-batch production, we tested cellulose addition at two different times, 30 h and 48 h. Higher liquid circulation velocities in the downcomer were observed in sorbitol 10 g L(-1) medium. In batch production, higher FPA (filter paper activity) and endoglucanase activities were obtained with cellulose (7.5 g L(-1)) and sorbitol (2.5 g L(-1)), 1.0 U mL(-1) (120 h) and 6.4 U m L(-1) (100 h), respectively. For xylanases, the best production condition was cellulose 10 g L(-1), which achieved 5.5 U mL(-1) in 64 h. The fed-batch process was favorable for obtaining xylanases, but not for FPA and endoglucanases, suggesting that in the case of cellulases, the inducer must be added early in the process. PMID:24045195

  3. Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation using anaerobic digested starch processing wastewater in an airlift circulation photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaobo; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yalei; Yang, Libin; Zhao, Fangchao; Zhou, Xuefei

    2014-10-01

    To explore the integration of microalgae cultivation and anaerobic processing for wastewater treatment, we utilized an airlift circulation photobioreactor and a dynamic membrane reactor for microalgae cultivation in combination with an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for starch processing wastewater (SPW) treatment. Chlorella pyrenoidosa completely adapted to the digested SPW without any chemical additives, and it grew normally under a wide temperature range in different seasons. C. pyrenoidosa was always the dominant microorganism in the photobioreactors although bacteria and some wild type microalgae were observed. Optimal biomass growth and pollutants removal was achieved at temperatures between 35 and 38°C in summer, removing 65.99% of COD, 83.06% of TN, 96.97% of TP and a biomass productivity of 0.37gL(-1)d(-1). Temperature fluctuation significantly influenced lipid contents and FAMEs compositions in biomass. The results demonstrate the successful integration of microalgae biomass production and anaerobic processing for wastewater treatment. PMID:25164347

  4. Ammonia and phenol removal in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qifeng; Du, Cong; Yang, Ting; Fu, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    An internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor (IC-SBAR) has been developed to evaluate the efficiency of phenol and ammonia removal in treating synthetic wastewater. This study examined the effect of operation cycle on this system. Results showed that above 97.0% removal efficiencies of ammonia and phenol were achieved, which indicated that ammonia and phenol removals were not related to operation cycle. The average removal efficiency of 91.7% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved when the static/aerobic/settling time was 240 min/440 min/40 min. It was found that COD removal efficiency increased due to the time of operation cycle being prolonged. The average removal efficiencies of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) were 65.8, 69.3 and 68.9% when average TIN concentrations were 78.0, 97.6 and 88.4 mg/L, respectively, in the influent. A cycle study showed that most phenol was degraded by aerobic microbes. Increasing the static time from 120 to 240 min resulted in the accumulation of NO2(-)-N, which indicated that the structures of the nitrifying bacterial community were changed. PMID:26114272

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an airlift intermittent circulation membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiyan; Chen, Jiandong; Li, Yun; Feng, Tengteng; Zhang, Shoutong

    2013-12-01

    A new airlift intermittent circulation integrated bioreactor was developed for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal of wastewater, in which, circulation of mixed liquid between mixing zone and aeration zone was realized by aeration power, alternately anaerobic/anoxic bio-environment in mixing zone was realized by intermittent circulation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was obtained through strengthened denitrifying phosphorus removal process. Removal performance of the reactor was investigated and pollutant removal and transfer mechanism in one operation circle was analyzed. The experiment results indicated that under the influent condition of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 642.1 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 87.4 mg/L and PO4(3-)-P of 12.1 mg/L, average removal efficiencies of COD, TN and PO4(3-)-P reached 96.4%, 83.2% and 90.5%, respectively, with the hydraulic residence time of 22 hr and operation circle time of 185 min. Track studies indicated that the separation of aeration and mixing zones and intermittent circulation of mixed liquid between the two zones provided distinct biological environments spatially and temporally, which ensured the occurrence of multifunctional microbial reactions. PMID:25078818

  6. Development and characterization of the partial nitrification aerobic granules in a sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjun; Ishii, Satoshi; Rathnayake, Lashitha; Ito, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    In this study, partial nitrifying (PN) aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch airlift reactor by controlling the airflow rate and NH4(+) loading rate. The PN reactor produced an effluent with a NO2(-)/NH4(+) ratio of approximately one and with an NH4(+) conversion rate of 1.22 kg N m(-3)day(-1). More than 95% of the total organic carbon was removed during the process. On the basis of clone library analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) closely related to Nitrosomonas eutropha and putative heterotrophic denitrifiers were mainly present near the surface of the PN aerobic granules. Microelectrode measurements revealed that both NH4(+) and NO2(-) were consumed near the surface (<200 μm), whereas no nitrate (NO3(-)) accumulation was observed throughout the granules. These results indicate that PN by AOB and nitrite denitrification by heterotrophs, but not nitrite oxidation, simultaneously occurred near the surface of the PN aerobic granules. PMID:23665689

  7. Purification of high ammonia wastewater in a biofilm airlift loop bioreactor with microbial communities analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Sun, Liping; Wen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    A 70 m(3) gas-liquid-solid three-phase flow airlift loop bioreactor, in which biofilm attached on granular active carbon carriers, was used for purification of the high ammonia wastewater from bioethanol production. Under the optimum operating conditions, COD and NH4 (+)-N average removal rate of 89.0 and 98.6 % were obtained at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Scanning electron microscopy was applied for observation of the biofilm formation. High contaminants removal efficiency was achieved by holding high biomass concentration in the reactor due to the attached biofilm over the carriers. The 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis indicated that 68.6 % of the clones were affiliated with the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and residual clones clustered with various sequences from uncultured bacteria. The presence of various anoxic/anaerobic bacteria indicated that the oxygen gradient inside the biofilm could provide appropriate micro-environment for nitrogen removal through simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. PMID:25344088

  8. [Removal of Cr from tannery sludge by bioleaching in air-lift reactor: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Li-xiang; Li, Chao

    2007-09-01

    A bioleaching process performed in 280 L air-lift reactor was developed for extracting Cr from tannery sludge. Cr removal efficiency under different aeration amount with a range from 1.0 m3/h to 3.0 m3/h was investigated. The results showed that the sludge could be homogeneous quickly for different aeration treatment even if aeration amount was as low as 1.0 m3/h. But the obvious effect of aeration amount on pH decrease and subsequent Cr dissolution in tannery sludge during bioleaching was observed. If the aeration amount was below 1.5 m3/h, it at least took 90 h to reach 80% Cr removal efficiency. In the light of Cr removal efficiency and energy consume, the aeration amount of 2.0 m3/h was considered as an optimum one for bioleaching in this trial. Cr removal efficiency could reach above 92.5% at 72 h. In the sludge bioleaching system dissolved oxygen increased obviously with the decrease of pH. Eventually, dissolved oxygen rised to 5 mg/L or more when aeration amount was maintained at 2.0 m3/h or more. Therefore, it was suggested that the aeration amount in ALR could be adjusted to a lower level in the late stage of tannery sludge bioleaching in order to save operation cost. PMID:17990555

  9. Bartonella henselae inhibits apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Volkhard A J; Schairer, Annette; Neumann, Diana; Grassl, Guntram A; Lauber, Kirsten; Lebiedziejewski, Maria; Schaller, Martin; Kyme, Pierre; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2005-01-01

    Bartonella henselae causes the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis probably resulting from the release of vasculoendothelial growth factor (VEGF) from infected epithelial or monocytic host cells. Here we demonstrate that B. henselae in addition to VEGF induction was also capable of inhibiting the endogenous sucide programme of monocytic host cells. Our results show that B. henselae inhibits pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-induced apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells. B. henselae was observed to be present in a vacuolic compartment of Mono Mac 6 cells. Direct contact of B. henselae with Mono Mac 6 cells was crucial for inhibition of apoptosis as shown by the use of a two-chamber model. Inhibition of apoptosis was paralleled by diminished caspase-3 activity which was significantly reduced in PDTC-stimulated and B. henselae-infected cells. The anti-apoptotic effect of B. henselae was accompanied by (i) the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and (ii) the induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1 and -2 (cIAP-1, -2). Our results suggest a new synergistic mechanism in B. henselae pathogenicity by (i) inhibition of host cell apoptosis via activation of NF-kappaB and (ii) induction of host cell VEGF secretion. PMID:15617526

  10. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC). User Guide: Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code's (MAC) who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells (GMC), micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, (2) different integration algorithms may be selected, (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented, and (4) a variety of fiber and laminate architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  11. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC) User Guide: Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triple ply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control), and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed; (2) different integration algorithms may be selected; (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented; and (4) a variety of fiber architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  12. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 5: Retrieval command system reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The retrieval command subsystem reference manual for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) is presented. The command subsystem may be operated conversationally or in the batch mode. Retrieval commands are categorized into search-oriented and output-oriented commands. The characteristics of ancillary commands and their application are reported.

  13. Terrain Commander: a next-generation remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneral, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    Terrain Commander is a fully automated forward observation post that provides the most advanced capability in surveillance and remote situational awareness. The Terrain Commander system was selected by the Australian Government for its NINOX Phase IIB Unattended Ground Sensor Program with the first systems delivered in August of 2002. Terrain Commander offers next generation target detection using multi-spectral peripheral sensors coupled with autonomous day/night image capture and processing. Subsequent intelligence is sent back through satellite communications with unlimited range to a highly sophisticated central monitoring station. The system can "stakeout" remote locations clandestinely for 24 hours a day for months at a time. With its fully integrated SATCOM system, almost any site in the world can be monitored from virtually any other location in the world. Terrain Commander automatically detects and discriminates intruders by precisely cueing its advanced EO subsystem. The system provides target detection capabilities with minimal nuisance alarms combined with the positive visual identification that authorities demand before committing a response. Terrain Commander uses an advanced beamforming acoustic sensor and a distributed array of seismic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors to detect, capture images and accurately track vehicles and personnel. Terrain Commander has a number of emerging military and non-military applications including border control, physical security, homeland defense, force protection and intelligence gathering. This paper reviews the development, capabilities and mission applications of the Terrain Commander system.

  14. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC. PMID:23974027

  15. Use of modern control theory in military command and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Timothy E.

    2001-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of modern control theoretic approaches in military command and control. The military enterprise is a highly dynamic and nonlinear environment. The desire on the part of military commanders to operate at faster operational tempos while still maintaining a stable and robust system, naturally leads to the consideration of a control theoretic approach to providing decision aids. I will present a brief history of the science of command and control of military forces and discuss how modern control theory might be applied to air operations.

  16. Experimental analysis of the fundamental two-phase flow characteristics of a pilot-scale airlift fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.A.; Carbonell, G.; Ollis, D.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the fundamental two-phase flow characteristics impacting fermentor mixing and gas-liquid mass transfer are presented. Studies using air and water were performed in a pilot-scale (160 liter), external-loop airlift fermentor. The dependence of flow characteristics upon fermentor design and operating parameters is examined through the use of different downcomer-to-riser diameter ratios (0.47 and 0.73), superficial gas velocities (1 to 8 cm/s), and two different ring sparger designs.

  17. 33 CFR 67.40-1 - Notification to District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... notify the District Commander by either telegram or overnight mail on the day they begin construction... same manner as prescribed in the case of Class “A” structures, except that the telegram on the...

  18. 33 CFR 67.40-1 - Notification to District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notify the District Commander by either telegram or overnight mail on the day they begin construction... same manner as prescribed in the case of Class “A” structures, except that the telegram on the...

  19. 33 CFR 67.40-1 - Notification to District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notify the District Commander by either telegram or overnight mail on the day they begin construction... same manner as prescribed in the case of Class “A” structures, except that the telegram on the...

  20. STS-85 Commander Curtis Brown arrives at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-85 Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr., arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility for his mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The liftoff of STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.

  1. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a..., floods, hurricanes, and other natural disasters, arrangements should be made for the identification...

  2. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. Astronauts Stafford and Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two American ASTP crewmen, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (foreground) and Vance D. Brand are seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  4. 14 CFR § 1214.703 - Chain of command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... astronaut who has been designated to serve as commander on a particular flight, and who shall have the... Space Center, Houston, TX. (b) The pilot is a career NASA astronaut who has been designated to serve...

  5. ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, MILITARY AIR COMMAND COMMUNICATION CENTER PRECAST CONCRETE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, MILITARY AIR COMMAND COMMUNICATION CENTER PRECAST CONCRETE WALL DETAILS. DATED 03/15/1971 - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  6. 49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. COMMAND INFORMATION CENTER (CIC) - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING VARIOUS TYPES OF RADAR UNITS, PLOT TABLES AND PLOTTING BOARDS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. ISS Commander Plays Alabama Fight Song from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Even the International Space Station is abuzz about the BCS Championship game. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, who is the current commander of the station, is a Notre Dame alumnus, and he’s been havin...

  8. 70. Commander's launch control console, plexiglass shield down, looking southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Commander's launch control console, plexiglass shield down, looking southeast, filing cabinet in corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Command shaping for residual vibration free crane maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, G. G.; Petterson, B.; Dohrmann, C.; Robinett, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Cranes used in the construction and transportation industries are generally devices with multiple degrees of freedom including variable load-line length, variable jib length (usually via a trolley), and variable boom angles. Point-to-point payload maneuvers using cranes are performed so as not to excite the spherical pendulum modes of their cable and payload assemblies. Typically, these pendulum modes, although time-varying, exhibit low frequencies. Current crane maneuvers are therefore performed slowly contributing to high construction and transportation costs. This investigation details a general method for applying command shaping to various multiple degree of freedom cranes such that the payload moves to a specified point without residual oscillation. A dynamic programming method is used for general command shaping for optimal maneuvers. Computationally, the dynamic programming approach requires order M calculations to arrive at a solution, where M is the number of discretizations of the input commands. This feature is exploited for the crane command shaping problem allowing for rapid calculation of command histories. Fast generation of commands is a necessity for practical use of command shaping for the applications described in this work. These results are compared to near-optimal solutions where the commands are linear combinations of acceleration pulse basis functions. The pulse shape is required due to hardware requirements. The weights on the basis functions are chosen as the solution to a parameter optimization problem solved using a Recursive Quadratic Programming technique. Simulation results and experimental verification for a variable load-line length rotary crane are presented using both design procedures.

  11. Command shaping for residual vibration free crane maneuvers

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.G.; Petterson, B.; Dohrmann, C.; Robinett, R.D.

    1995-07-01

    Cranes used in the construction and transportation industries are generally devices with multiple degrees of freedom including variable load-line length, variable jib length (usually via a trolley), and variable boom angles. Point-to-point payload maneuvers using cranes are performed so as not to excite the spherical pendulum modes of their cable and payload assemblies. Typically, these pendulum modes, although time-varying, exhibit low frequencies. Current crane maneuvers are therefore performed slowly contributing to high construction and transportation costs. This investigation details a general method for applying command shaping to various multiple degree of freedom cranes such that the payload moves to a specified point without residual oscillation. A dynamic programming method is used for general command shaping for optimal maneuvers. Computationally, the dynamic programming approach requires order M calculations to arrive at a solution, where M is the number of discretizations of the input commands. This feature is exploited for the crane command shaping problem allowing for rapid calculation of command histories. Fast generation of commands is a necessity for practical use of command shaping for the applications described in this work. These results are compared to near-optimal solutions where the commands are linear combinations of acceleration pulse basis functions. The pulse shape is required due to hardware requirements. The weights on the basis functions are chosen as the solution to a parameter optimization problem solved using a Recursive Quadratic Programming technique. Simulation results and experimental verification for a variable load-line length rotary crane are presented using both design procedures.

  12. Command Preprocessor for the Beam-Waveguide Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawronski, W.

    1998-10-01

    The high-gain linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controllers, designed for 32-GHz (Ka-band) monopulse tracking, have small tracking errors and are resistant to wind disturbances. However, during antenna slewing, they induce limit cycling caused by the violation of the antenna rate and acceleration limits. This problem can be avoided by the introduction of a command that does not exceed the limits. The command preprocessor presented in this article generates a command that is equal to the original command if the latter does not exceed the limits and varies with the maximal (or minimal) allowable rate and acceleration if the limits are met or exceeded. It is comparatively simple since it requires only knowledge of the command at the current and the previous time instants, while other known preprocessors require knowledge of the terminal state and the acquisition time. Thus, the presented preprocessor is more suitable for implementation into the antenna control software. In this article, analysis of the preprocessor is presented. Also, the performances of the preprocessor itself and of the antenna with the preprocessor are illustrated with typical antenna commands.

  13. The Berlin Airlift (1948-49): Reporting History with Children's Express. Learner's Guide: An Educational Resource for Students in Middle and High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Express, New York, NY.

    This guide examines the Berlin Airlift (1948-49) as a 3 component initiative consisting of an educational video report, a "Learner's Guide," and an Internet Web site. These three components were developed by Children's Express at Maryland Public Television in accordance using the national history standards to enrich existing curricula. The…

  14. Growth of oleaginous Rhodotorula glutinis in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor by using lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate as the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chang, Jung-Tzu

    2015-05-01

    The conversion of abundant lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to valuable compounds has become a very attractive idea recently. This study successfully used LCB (rice straw) hydrolysate as a carbon source for the cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis in an airlift bioreactor. The lipid content of 34.3 ± 0.6% was obtained in an airlift batch with 60 g reducing sugars/L of LCB hydrolysate at a 2 vvm aeration rate. While using LCB hydrolysate as the carbon source, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the predominant fatty acids of the microbial lipids. Using LCB hydrolysate in the airlift bioreactor at 2 vvm achieved the highest cell mass growth as compared to the agitation tank. Despite the low lipid content of the batch using LCB hydrolysate, this low cost feedstock has the potential of being adopted for the production of β-carotene instead of lipid accumulation in the airlift bioreactor for the cultivation of R. glutinis. PMID:25454603

  15. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  16. Use of Spacecraft Command Language for Advanced Command and Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mims, Tikiela L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the use of SCL in building and monitoring command and control applications in order to determine its fitness for space operations. Approximately 24,325 lines of PCG2 code was converted to SCL yielding a 90% reduction in the number of lines of code as many of the functions and scripts utilized in SCL could be ported and reused. Automated standalone testing, simulating the actual production environment, was performed in order to generalize and gauge the relative time it takes for SCL to update and write a given display. The use of SCL rules, functions, and scripts allowed the creation of several test cases permitting the detection of the amount of time it takes update a given set of measurements given the change in a globally existing CUI or CUI. It took the SCL system an average 926.09 ticks to update the entire display of 323 measurements.

  17. Shear conditions in clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in stirred tank and airlift bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cerri, M O; Badino, A C

    2012-08-01

    In biochemical processes involving filamentous microorganisms, the high shear rate may damage suspended cells leading to viability loss and cell disruption. In this work, the influence of the shear conditions in clavulanic acid (CA) production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was evaluated in a 4-dm(3) conventional stirred tank (STB) and in 6-dm(3) concentric-tube airlift (ALB) bioreactors. Batch cultivations were performed in a STB at 600 and 800 rpm and 0.5 vvm (cultivations B1 and B2) and in ALB at 3.0 and 4.1 vvm (cultivations A1 and A2) to define two initial oxygen transfer conditions in both bioreactors. The average shear rate ([Formula: see text]) of the cultivations was estimated using correlations of recent literature based on experimental data of rheological properties of the broth (consistency index, K, and flow index, n) and operating conditions, impeller speed (N) for STB and superficial gas velocity in the riser (UGR) for ALB. In the same oxygen transfer condition, the [Formula: see text] values for ALB were higher than those obtained in STB. The maximum [Formula: see text] presented a strong correlation with a maximum consistency index (K (max)) of the broth. Close values of maximum CA production were obtained in cultivations A1 and A2 (454 and 442 mg L(-1)) with similar maximum [Formula: see text] values of 4,247 and 4,225 s(-1). In cultivations B1 and B2, the maximum CA production of 269 and 402 mg L(-1) were reached with a maximum [Formula: see text] of 904 and 1,786 s(-1). The results show that high values of average shear rate increase the CA production regardless of the oxygen transfer condition and bioreactor model. PMID:22271253

  18. Air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor for realized simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuiyi; Wang, Lu; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui

    2013-05-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was realized by means of a novel air-lift internal loop biofilm reactor, in which aeration was set in middle of the reactor. During operation, the aeration was adjusted to get appropriate dissolve oxygen (DO) in bulk solution and let aerobic and anoxic zone coexist in one reactor. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, corresponding to DO of 5.8 and 2.5 mg/L in bulk solution, ammonia nitrogen removal percentage reached about 80 and 90 %, but total nitrogen removal percentage was lower than 25 %. While the aeration was reduced to 0.1 L/min, aerobic and anoxic zones existed simultaneously in one reactor to get 75 % of ammonia nitrogen and 50 % of total nitrogen removal percentage. Biofilms were, respectively, taken from aerobic and anoxic zone to verify their function of nitrification and denitrification in two flasks, in which ammonia nitrogen was transferred into nitrate completely by aerobic biofilm, and nitrate was removed more than 80 % by anoxic biofilm. Microelectrode was used to measure the DO distribution inside biofilms in anoxic zone corresponding to different aerations. When aeration was at 0.6 and 0.2 L/min, DO inside biofilm was more than 1.5 mg/L, but the DO inside biofilm decreased to anoxic status with depth of biofilm increasing corresponding to aeration of 0.1 L/min. The experimental results indicated that SND could be realized because of simultaneous existence of aerobic and anoxic biofilms in one reactor. PMID:23001679

  19. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  20. Regional characterisation of hydraulic properties of rock using air-lift data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wladis, David; Gustafson, Gunnar

    Hydrogeologic studies are commonly data-intense. In particular, estimations of hydraulic properties of hard rock often require large amounts of data. In many countries, large quantities of hydrogeologic data have been collected and archived over the years. Therefore, the use of existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies, although the available data may be considered imprecise. Initially, however, the potential usefulness, i.e., the expected accuracy, of the available data in each specific case must be carefully examined. This study investigates the possibilities of obtaining estimates of transmissivity from hard-rock air-lift data in Sweden within an order of magnitude of results obtained from high-quality injection-test data. The expected accuracy of the results was examined analytically and by means of statistical methods. The results were also evaluated by comparison with injection-test data. The results indicate that air-lift data produce estimates of transmissivity within an order of magnitude compared to injection-test data in the studied examples. The study also shows that partial penetration and hydrofracturing may only affect the estimations approximately half an order of magnitude. Thus, existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collection of new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies. Résumé Les études hydrogéologiques reposent en général sur un nombre important de données. En particulier, l'estimation des propriétés hydrauliques des roches indurées exige souvent un grand nombre de données. Dans de nombreuses régions, des données hydrogéologiques très nombreuses ont été recueillies et archivées depuis longtemps. C'est pourquoi le recours à des données existantes peut être une alternative intéressante en termes de coût par rapport à l'obtention de nouvelles données dans les premières étapes des études hydrogéologiques, même si

  1. Regional characterisation of hydraulic properties of rock using air-lift data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wladis, David; Gustafson, Gunnar

    Hydrogeologic studies are commonly data-intense. In particular, estimations of hydraulic properties of hard rock often require large amounts of data. In many countries, large quantities of hydrogeologic data have been collected and archived over the years. Therefore, the use of existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies, although the available data may be considered imprecise. Initially, however, the potential usefulness, i.e., the expected accuracy, of the available data in each specific case must be carefully examined. This study investigates the possibilities of obtaining estimates of transmissivity from hard-rock air-lift data in Sweden within an order of magnitude of results obtained from high-quality injection-test data. The expected accuracy of the results was examined analytically and by means of statistical methods. The results were also evaluated by comparison with injection-test data. The results indicate that air-lift data produce estimates of transmissivity within an order of magnitude compared to injection-test data in the studied examples. The study also shows that partial penetration and hydrofracturing may only affect the estimations approximately half an order of magnitude. Thus, existing data may provide a cost-efficient alternative to collection of new data in early stages of hydrogeologic studies. Résumé Les études hydrogéologiques reposent en général sur un nombre important de données. En particulier, l'estimation des propriétés hydrauliques des roches indurées exige souvent un grand nombre de données. Dans de nombreuses régions, des données hydrogéologiques très nombreuses ont été recueillies et archivées depuis longtemps. C'est pourquoi le recours à des données existantes peut être une alternative intéressante en termes de coût par rapport à l'obtention de nouvelles données dans les premières étapes des études hydrogéologiques, même si

  2. 42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 423.2110 Section 423..., and Judicial Review § 423.2110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or the IRE may refer a case...

  3. 42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 423.2110 Section 423..., and Judicial Review § 423.2110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or the IRE may refer a case...

  4. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  5. Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Allan B

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

  6. MQ-MAC: A Multi-Constrained QoS-Aware Duty Cycle MAC for Heterogeneous Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Rahman, Md. Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability) within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC). MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency. PMID:22163439

  7. Effect of scale-up on average shear rates for aerated non-Newtonian liquids in external loop airlift reactors.

    PubMed

    Al-Masry

    1999-02-01

    Average shear rates have been estimated experimentally in a 700-dm3 external loop airlift reactor. Aqueous pseudoplastic carboxymethylcellulose and xanthan gum solutions were used to simulate non-Newtonian behavior of biological media. Average shear rates of non-Newtonian solutions were found by analogy with Newtonian glycerol solutions using downcomer liquid velocity as the measurable parameter. Due to the complexity of local shear rate measurement, an average shear rate was assumed to exist and is proportional to superficial gas velocity. The data from this work and those in the literature were used in producing a new correlation for estimating average shear rates as a function of superficial gas velocity, geometry, and dispersion height. Wall shear rates were found to be significant. The ratio of wall shear rates to bulk shear rates were varied from 5% to 40%. Furthermore, it has been found that shear rates generated in airlift loop reactors are lower than those generated in bubble columns. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099557

  8. CFD simulation and optimization of membrane scouring and nitrogen removal for an airlift external circulation membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Wei, Yuansong; Zheng, Xiang; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Xing; Liu, Jibao; Luo, Nan; Xu, Rongle; Yu, Dawei; Fan, Yaobo

    2016-11-01

    Cost-effective membrane fouling control and nitrogen removal performance are of great concern in airlift external circulation membrane bioreactors (AEC-MBRs). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model incorporating sub-models of bio-kinetics, oxygen transfer and sludge rheology was developed for the cost-effective optimization of a lab-scale AEC-MBR. The model was calibrated and validated by extensive measurements of water velocities and water quality parameters in the AEC-MBR. The validated results demonstrated that the optimized height of gas-liquid dispersion was at around 300mm. The shear stress on membrane surface was equalized and had an average value of 1.2Pa under an air flowrate of 1.0m(3)h(-1). The model further revealed that the high nitrogen removal efficiency (>90%) was achieved due to the high recirculation ratio driven by airlift force without destroying the oxygen deprivation and enrichment in the anoxic and oxic zone, respectively. PMID:27540633

  9. Application of airlift bioreactor for the cultivation of aerobic oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis with different aeration rates.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Liu, Yi Xian

    2014-08-01

    The high cost of microbial oils produced from oleaginous microorganisms is the major obstacle to commercial production. In this study, the operation of an airlift bioreactor is examined for the cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis, due to the low process cost. The results suggest that the use of a high aeration rate could enhance cell growth. The maximum biomass concentration of 25.40 g/L was observed in the batch with a 2.0 vvm aeration rate. In addition, a higher aeration rate of 2.5 vvm could achieve the maximum growth rate of 0.46 g/L h, about twice the 0.22 g/L h obtained in an agitation tank. However, an increase in tank pressure instead of the aeration rate did not enhance cell growth. The operation of airlift bioreactor described in this work has the advantages of simple operation and low energy consumption, thus making it suitable for the accumulation of microbial oils. PMID:24503421

  10. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  11. Microalgae cultivation in air-lift reactors: modeling biomass yield and growth rate as a function of mixing frequency.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maria J; Janssen, Marcel; Ham, Nienke; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

    2003-04-20

    The slow development of microalgal biotechnology stems from the failure in the design of large-scale photobioreactors where light energy is efficiently utilized. Due to the light gradient inside the reactor and depending on the mixing properties, algae are subjected to certain light/dark cycles where the light period is characterized by a light gradient. These light/dark cycles will determine productivity and biomass yield on light energy. Air-lift reactors can be used for microalgae cultivation and medium-frequency light/dark cycles will be found in these systems. Light/dark cycles are associated with two basic parameters: first, the light fraction, i.e., the ratio between the light period and the cycle time and second, the frequency of the light/dark cycle. In the present work, light/dark cycles found in air-lift reactors were simulated taking into account the light gradient during the light period. The effect of medium-frequency cycle time (10-100 s) and light fraction (0.1-1) on growth rate and biomass yield on light energy of the microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta was studied. The biomass yield and growth rates were mainly affected by the light fraction, while cycle time had little influence. Response surface methodology was used and a statistical model describing the effect of light fraction and cycle time on growth rate and biomass yield on light energy was developed. The use of the model as a reactor design criterion is discussed. PMID:12584758

  12. Poly(L-lactide)-degrading enzyme production by Actinomadura keratinilytica T16-1 in 3 L airlift bioreactor and its degradation ability for biological recycle.

    PubMed

    Sukkhum, Sukhumaporn; Tokuyama, Shinji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2012-01-01

    The optimal physical factors affecting enzyme production in an airlift fermenter have not been studied so far. Therefore, the physical parameters such as aeration rate, pH, and temperature affecting PLA-degrading enzyme production by Actinomadura keratinilytica strain T16-1 in a 3 l airlift fermenter were investigated. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize PLA-degrading enzyme production by implementing the central composite design. The optimal conditions for higher production of PLA-degrading enzyme were aeration rate of 0.43 vvm, pH of 6.85, and temperature at 46° C. Under these conditions, the model predicted a PLA-degrading activity of 254 U/ml. Verification of the optimization showed that PLA-degrading enzyme production of 257 U/ml was observed after 3 days cultivation under the optimal conditions in a 3 l airlift fermenter. The production under the optimized condition in the airlift fermenter was higher than un-optimized condition by 1.7 folds and 12 folds with un-optimized medium or condition in shake flasks. This is the first report on the optimization of environmental conditions for improvement of PLA-degrading enzyme production in a 3 l airlift fermenter by using a statistical analysis method. Moreover, the crude PLA-degrading enzyme could be adsorbed to the substrate and degraded PLA powder to produce lactic acid as degradation products. Therefore, this incident indicates that PLA-degrading enzyme produced by Actinomadura keratinilytica NBRC 104111 strain T16-1 has a potential to degrade PLA to lactic acid as a monomer and can be used for the recycle of PLA polymer. PMID:22297224

  13. MAC-bridging for multi-PHYs communication in BAN.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    Body Area Network (BAN) is a collection of low-power, miniaturised, and intelligent sensor nodes that are used for unobtrusive and ambulatory health monitoring of a patient without any additional constraints. These nodes operate on different frequency bands or Multiple Physical Layers (Multi-PHYs). Additionally, some BAN applications demand a logical connection between different nodes working on different Multi-PHYs. In this paper, the idea of controlling Multi-PHYs using one MAC protocol is introduced. Unlike existing procedures where different nodes working on different channels are connected at the link layer bridging/switching, the proposed procedure called bridging logically connects them at the MAC layer. In other words, the bridge is used to relay or filter packets between different PHYs in the same BAN. Numerical approximations are presented to analyze the stochastic behaviour of the bridges, all of them having Multi-PHYs interfaces. The MICS and the ISM bands are regarded as PHY1 and PHY2, respectively. The performance results are presented for PHY2 (given that data is already received from PHY1) in terms of probability of successful transmission, number of failed requests, power consumption, and delay. Simulations are conducted to validate the analytical results. It can be seen that the deployment of multiple bridges along with the corresponding nodes allows Multi-PHYs communication with high transmission probability, low power consumption, and tolerable delay. PMID:22163447

  14. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 3: Commands specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (3 of 4) contains the specification for the command language for the AMPS system. The volume contains a requirements specification for the operating system and commands and a design specification for the operating system and command. The operating system and commands sits on top of the protocol. The commands are an extension of the present set of AMPS commands in that the commands are more compact, allow multiple sub-commands to be bundled into one command, and have provisions for identifying the sender and the intended receiver. The commands make no change to the actual software that implement the commands.

  15. Serum Mac-2 binding protein is a novel biomarker for chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Tomohiro; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Ebisutani, Yusuke; Ueda, Makiko; Hata, Tomoki; Kawamoto, Koichi; Takamatsu, Shinji; Mizutani, Kayo; Shimomura, Mayuka; Sobajima, Tomoaki; Fujii, Hironobu; Nakayama, Kotarosumitomo; Nishino, Kimihiro; Yamada, Makoto; Kumada, Takashi; Ito, Toshifumi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2bp) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Fifty-nine healthy volunteers (HV), 162 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 94 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were enrolled in this study. We measured serum Mac-2bp using our developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Additional biochemical variables were measured using an automated analyzer (including aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, and amylase levels) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen). The ability of Mac-2bp to predict CP diagnosis accurately was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. RESULTS: Serum Mac-2bp levels were significantly increased in CP patients compared to HV (P < 0.0001) and PDAC patients (P < 0.0001). Area under the ROC curve values of Mac-2bp for the discrimination of CP from HV and PDAC were 0.727 and 0.784, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that serum Mac-2bp levels were independent determinants for CP diagnosis from HV and PDAC patients. Immunohistological staining showed that Mac-2bp was expressed faintly in the pancreas tissues of both CP and PDAC patients. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in patients with CP or PDAC. Serum Mac-2bp levels were highly correlated with protein levels of alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and C-reactive protein, but not amylase, suggesting that the damaged liver produces Mac-2bp. CONCLUSION: Measurement of serum Mac-2bp may be a novel and useful biomarker for CP diagnosis as well as liver fibrosis in the general population. PMID:27158210

  16. Extension to distributed annotation system: Summary and summaryplot commands.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies provided an effective way to generate data from entire genomes and test variants from thousands of individuals. The information acquired from analysing the data generated from high-throughput sequencing technologies provided useful insights into applications like whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing to discover the genetic cause of complex diseases and drug responses. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is one of the proposed solution developed to share and unify biological data from multiple local and remote DAS annotation servers. The researchers can use DAS to request data from federated or centralised databases and integrate them into a unified view. Furthermore, with the use of Reference DAS servers, structural and sequence data can be used to accompany annotation data, for the pursue of new knowledge for a particular feature or region. In this paper, two additional commands, summary and summary-plot commands, to the existing DAS protocol are proposed and implemented. The proposed commands were created in order to give the users the capabilities to request a summary of features for a particular region of interest. The summary command was created in order to extend the capabilities of the current DAS protocol, while the summaryplot command was created to provide a more user-friendly alternative to standard XML DAS responses. Finally, three examples are presented based on the GENCODE annotation data. PMID:26738065

  17. Command and control displays for space vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Zetocha, Paul; Aleva, Denise

    2010-04-01

    This paper shall examine several command and control facility display architectures supporting space vehicle operations, to include TacSat 2, TacSat 3, STPSat 2, and Communications Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS), located within the Research Development Test & Evaluation Support Complex (RSC) Satellite Operations Center 97 (SOC-97) at Kirtland Air Force Base. A principal focus is to provide an understanding for the general design class of displays currently supporting space vehicle command and control, e.g., custom, commercial-off-the-shelf, or ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf, and more specifically, what manner of display performance capabilities, e.g., active area, resolution, luminance, contrast ratio, frame/refresh rate, temperature range, shock/vibration, etc., are needed for particular aspects of space vehicle command and control. Another focus shall be to address the types of command and control functions performed for each of these systems, to include how operators interact with the displays, e.g., joystick, trackball, keyboard/mouse, as well as the kinds of information needed or displayed for each function. [Comparison with other known command and control facilities, such as Cheyenne Mountain and NORAD Operations Center, shall be made.] Future, anticipated display systems shall be discussed.

  18. A packet-based concept for spacecraft command planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Valerie B.

    1993-01-01

    The current generation of spacecraft being developed and operated by the Applied Physics Laboratory provides users with access to a broad spectrum of scientific instruments on maneuverable platforms that can be oriented for observation of both moving and stationary targets of interest. The capability of these increasingly complex spacecraft to perform data collection operations is approaching one observation per orbit. To enable both rapid configuration and generation of complex spacecraft command sequences, as well as reusability of command sequences among data collection operations, a packet-based concept for spacecraft command planning has been developed. The configuration of the spacecraft for any operation is designed using 'packets' where a packet represents a set of commands that is reusable. The packets can be combined in varying levels of functionality, and in varying time relationships, to create an observation timeline. At the lowest packet level are primitives. Primitives relate the details of command generation for a particular spacecraft to a 'message template.' Thus the packet concept itself is reusable from one spacecraft to the next.

  19. ITOUGH2 command reference. Version 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of all ITOUGH2 commands. It complements the ITOUGH2 User`s Guide and the collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media. Extensive experience in using TOUGH2 is a prerequisite for using ITOUGH2. The preparation of an input file for TOUGH2 or its derivatives is described in separate manuals and is not part of this report. The ITOUGH2 user`s guide summarizes the inverse modeling theory pertaining to ITOUGH2, and describes the program output. Furthermore, information about code architecture and installation are given. In Chapter 2 of this report, a brief summary of inverse modeling theory is given to restate the main concepts implemented in ITOUGH2 and to introduce certain definitions. Chapter 3 introduces the basic concepts of the ITHOUGH2 input language and the main structure of an ITOUGH2 input file. Chapter 4, the main part of this report, provides detailed descriptions of each ITOUGH2 command in alphabetical order. It is complemented by a command index in Appendix B in which the commands are given in logical order. The content of Chapter 4 is also available on-line using command it2help. Chapter 5 describes the usage of the UNIX script files for executing, checking, and terminating ITOUGH2 simulations.

  20. Virtual command center for distributed collaborative undersea warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Encarnacao, L. M.; Shane, Richard T.; Drew, Ernest; Mulhearn, Jim F.

    2000-08-01

    The Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport (NUWCDIVNPT) and its partners have developed a prototype CTI (Command Technology Initiatives) Test Bed to demonstrate the utility of a facility where warfighters, government, academia and industry can evaluate the application of collaborate decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies to submarine command and control. The CTI Test bed is currently comprised of three components: Collaborative Visualization Environment (CVE) for Submarine Command and Control, which provides a coherent 3-D display of the perceived undersea battlespace. Individual windows can display multi-dimensional data/information to support a common picture of undersea battlespace management and tactical control; Submarine Fleet Mission Programming Library (SFMPL) which provides environmental data, such as transmission loss, to CVE; Command and Control Data Server which provides contact reports, areas of uncertainty, and ownship/contact motion to CVE Facilitated by a CORBA4 (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) compliant architecture, remotely connected collaborators interact via a computer network to generate and share information. Additionally, collaborators communicate orally via network telephony. Currently, the CTI Test bed is configured to provide volumetric displays of: undersea battlespace w/ bathymetry; Detection/Counter-detection regions for a given probability of detection; Contact(s) Volume of Uncertainty The CTI Test Bed provides a CORBA compliant framework, which can be readily expanded to evaluate candidate applications of collaborative command and tactical decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies.