Science.gov

Sample records for airline deregulation act

  1. An Analysis of the Proposed Airline Competition Enhancement Act of 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    reservation systems currently dominating the travel industry. The airline provides the subscribing travel agency with the terminal(s), software...concerning the booking and the customer is kept on file at the travel agency and transmitted to the airline’s central processing system where the...It evolved into an international reservation system and extensive travel agency automation network that is powered by seven IBM mainframe computers

  2. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  3. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John H.; Rutner, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America, This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  4. The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; deWit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The deregulation of US aviation in 1978 resulted in the reconfiguration of airline networks into hub-and-spoke systems, spatially concentrated around a small number of central airports or 'hubs' through which an airline operates a number of daily waves of flights. A hub-and-spoke network requires a concentration of traffic in both space and time. In contrast to the U.S. airlines, European airlines had entered the phase of spatial network concentration long before deregulation. Bilateral negotiation of traffic fights between governments forced European airlines to focus their networks spatially on small number of 'national' airports. In general, these star-shaped networks were not coordinated in time. Transfer opportunities at central airports were mostly created 'by accident'. With the deregulation of the EU air transport market from 1988 on, a second phase of airline network concentration started. European airlines concentrated their networks in time by adopting or intensifying wave-system structures in their flight schedules. Temporal concentration may increase the competitive position of the network in a deregulated market because of certain cost and demand advantages.

  5. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism

    PubMed Central

    Ekeberg, Øivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986. PMID:24934082

  6. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Oivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986.

  7. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  8. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  9. Confronting Deregulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madget, James

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how schools can capitalize on new opportunities for cost savings and improved service in a deregulated electric industry. It discusses strategies for preparing to buy electrical power on the open market and examines two forms of purchasing called "wholesale-wheeling" and "retail-wheeling." Steps in conducting a…

  10. Airline Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  11. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  12. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  13. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  14. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  15. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  16. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  17. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  18. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  19. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  20. Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the current downturn in demand for air travel, major airlines are revising and rationalizing their networks in an attempt to improve financial performance and strengthen their defences against both new entrants and traditional rivals. Expansion of commercial agreements or alliances with other airlines has become a key reaction to the increasingly competitive marketplace. In the absence, for regulatory reasons, of cross-border mergers these are the principal means by which the industry can consolidate internationally. This paper analyzes the developments which have been taking place and attempts to itentify the implications for airline network structures and the function of different hub airports. The range of services available to passengers in long-haul markets to/from Europe is evaluated before and after recent industry reorganization. Hubs are crucial to interlink the route networks of parmers in an alliance. However, duplication between nearby hub airports that find themselves within the same airline alliance can lead to loss of service at the weaker locations. The extent to which the alliance hubs in Europe duplicate or complement each other in terms of network coverage is assessed and this methodology also enables the optimal partnerships for "unattached" airlines to be identified. The future role of the various European hubs is considered under different scenarios of global alliance development. The paper concludes by considering possible longer-term developments. In an environment where the low-cost carriers will provide a major element of customer choice, it is suggested that the traditional airlines will retrench around their hubs, surrendering many secondary cities to the low-cost sector. Further reduction in the number of alliances could threaten more of the European hubs. For both regulatory and commercial reasons, the end result may be just one airline alliance - so recreating in the deregulated market the historic rule of IATA.

  1. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  2. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  3. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  4. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  5. Overview: Tuition Deregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Prior to 2003, the Texas Legislature had the regulatory authority to set tuition rates, generally mandating that the same statutory and designated tuition rate be charged across the state. Tuition deregulation became effective September 1, 2003, and universities began increasing designated tuition in spring 2004. This article answers the following…

  6. Economic deregulation and transport safety: a synthesis of evidence from evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of evidence from studies that have evaluated the impacts of economic deregulation on transport safety. Most of these studies refer to aviation or road transport. Very few studies deal with deregulation of rail transport. There are no studies of maritime transport, which has never been regulated the same way as other modes of transport. The review includes studies that have attempted to quantify the impacts of transport deregulation on transport safety. Each study contains one or more estimates of the effect on transport safety of deregulation. Summary estimates of effect have been derived from the individual estimates of effect by means of meta-analysis. Airline deregulation, which has only been evaluated in the United States, does not appear to influence the safety of air travel. Deregulation of road transport has been evaluated in several countries. The summary estimate of effect indicates that no statistically significant changes in road safety have occurred as a result of deregulation. Deregulation of rail transport has only been evaluated in Great Britain and the United States. The experience so far suggests that deregulation of railways is associated with improved rail safety. This association does, however, not necessarily imply a causal relationship.

  7. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  8. Anthropometry of Airline Stewardesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    dimensions of the airline stewardesses who, as will be shown below, differ significantly in many respects from other female populations. Lacking...measurements over clothing were negligible except for one dimension , bust circumference. In this instance, arrange- ments were made with the clinic nurse...metatarsal- phalangeal joints. N 422 MEAN 8.81 + 0.02 CM. S.D. 0.47 ± 0.02 CM. MINIMUM 7.50 CM. MAXIMUM 10.50 CM. C.V. 5.29 % 3.47 ± 0.01

  9. Food irradiation and airline catering

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  10. Airline Operations Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  11. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  12. Deregulation and the American Education Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Dana N. Thompson; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The deregulation movement has impacted the social, political, and economic landscape in the United States and continues to do so. In this article, we briefly summarize the general history of deregulation in this country and the meaning of deregulation within the specific context of education policy and reform. We focus on deregulation efforts…

  13. Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Timothy H. [D-NY-1

    2009-02-09

    03/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Workforce Protections. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1422, which became Public Law 111-119 on 12/21/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  15. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  16. NASA Airline Operations Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation NASA airline operations center (AOC) research. It includes information on using IBM Watson in the AOC. It also reviews a dispatcher decision support tool call the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. It should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  17. State Deregulation and Management Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tancredo, Thomas G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The origin of deregulation of higher education in Colorado, its effects, and implications for other states are discussed. In "How and Why It Happened," Thomas G. Tancredo traces the development of a new budgeting process, called MOU (memorandum of understanding). Under MOU each governing board is responsible for setting the expenditure…

  18. Deregulation? Early Radio Policy Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Louise M.

    In debating the merits of the deregulation of broadcasting, policy makers should be cognizant of the conditions that led originally to that regulation. An examination of (1) the letters and speeches of Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, the first regulator of broadcasting; (2) the congressional debate over the regulatory issues of monopoly,…

  19. Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Some Empirical Findings," Management Science 25 (November 1979)s 1045-1056. 2. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics , published monthly by U.S. Civil...Times, various issues 1976-1986. 6. Traffic, ICAO Digest of Statistics , Series T, various editions 1976-1980. 7. World Airline Accident Summary...34 statistical license" and added the rankings from each of the four measures considered separately to produce a final ranking shown in Table 2.2 [7

  20. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  1. 76 FR 23109 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... flights. For example, Condor Flugdienst Airlines (Condor) states that it sees no reason to enforce a... carriers that commented, Condor Airlines notes that when a longer delay becomes inevitable, Condor has... medical attention, Condor states that its flight attendants are capable of providing basic first aid...

  2. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  3. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  4. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  5. MET deregulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is an oncogene encoding for a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MET has a normal function in organ development during embryogenesis and in tissue homeostasis during adult life. Deregulation of HGF/MET signaling pathway is frequently observed in many cancer types, conferring invasive growth and tendency to progression. MET deregulation is due to gene amplification or increased copy number, gene mutation, receptor over-expression or ligand autocrine loops activation. These events lead to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastatic spread and neo-angiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that anti-HGF/MET agents may represent a potential antitumor strategy. In breast cancer (BC), preclinical and clinical data demonstrated the role of HGF/MET signalling pathway in carcinogenesis, disease progression and resistance features. Methods For this review article, all published data on HGF/MET in BC were collected and analyzed. Results Several evidences underline that, in early BC, MET over-expression has an independent negative prognostic significance, regardless of method used for evaluation and BC subtypes. Available data suggest that MET is a relevant target particularly in basal-like (BL) and in triple negative BC. Moreover, preclinical and retrospective data support the critical role of MET deregulation in the development of resistance to target-agents, such as anti-HER2 strategies. Conclusions MET is a promising new target in BC. Several anti-MET agents are under investigation and ongoing clinical trials will clarify its relevance in BC treatment. PMID:26366398

  6. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  7. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  8. Error prevention as developed in airlines.

    PubMed

    Logan, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  9. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-05-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  10. Changing Public Interest Values in Broadcast Deregulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virts, Paul H.

    Because the Federal Communication Commission's (FCC) decision to deregulate commercial radio has created great controversy over what constitutes "public interest" in broadcast deregulation, this paper provides a brief historical analysis of the bases for defining the public interest standard in broadcast regulation and examines the use…

  11. Perspectives of those impacted: airline pilot's perspective.

    PubMed

    Butler, G C; Nicholas, J; Lackland, D T; Friedberg, W

    2000-11-01

    The airline pilot operates within an environment that consists of circadian dysrhythmia, reduced atmospheric pressure, mild hypoxia, low humidity, and exposure to sound, vibration, cosmic-radiation, and magnetic-field exposure. These occupational exposures present physiological challenges to the long term health of the airline pilot. In particular, exposure to cosmic radiation and its carcinogenic potential have recently received considerable attention. Given the complexity of the environment and possible synergistic exposures, there is an immediate requirement for comprehensive research into both cosmic-radiation and magnetic-field exposures in airline pilots. In response, the Airline Pilots Association International in conjunction with the Medical University of South Carolina (Department of Biometry and Epidemiology) has initiated an extensive research program into these occupational exposures. These investigations include ground based calculations, flight-dose estimates, epidemiological survey and exposure assessment, and biological marker analysis.

  12. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  13. NASA Research to Support the Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation that was a review of NASA projects that support airline operations. It covered NASA tasks that have provided new tools to the airline operations center and flight deck including the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool, Dynamic Weather Routes, Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests, and Airplane State Awareness and Prediction Technologies. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  14. Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    28 Soviet Union ...34 Feature Articles Civil Aviation in the Soviet Union ................................................................. 39 Attacks on Airline...relief transport aircraft or hijackings; none were related to the Gulf war. Likewise, in Asia, there were few criminal acts against civil aviation

  15. 78 FR 6067 - BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and Expenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... public that it is conducting a mandatory survey titled Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues... Investment and Trade in Services Survey Act (22 U.S.C. 3101-3108, as amended). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... annual public reporting burden for this collection of information is 4 hours per response. Send...

  16. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  17. Design firms shaken by utility deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Korman, R.

    1994-04-11

    Deregulation of the US utility industry has wrought massive change in the engineering community. Power-plant design firms not only play with a livelier ball this spring, they`re playing an entirely new game.

  18. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  19. The Future of Regulation in the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherington, P. W.; Hill, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Federal regulation of airlines is analyzed to predict the amount of regulation to be expected in the future. It is stated that the regulatory powers will increase because of the advantages that such regulation provides to the airlines. Six propositions are submitted as guidelines for future airlines regulation. The loss of revenue experienced by the airlines is examined and methods for improving the economic situation are defined.

  20. The microbiological composition of airliner cabin air.

    PubMed

    Wick, R L; Irvine, L A

    1995-03-01

    Hundreds of millions of passengers travel on U.S. airliners annually. These large numbers, together with the close proximity required onboard, raise a concern about microbiologic disease transmission in cabin air. Previous air quality surveys generally concentrated on environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter. They largely ignored the microorganisms also present. We sampled the microbiologic climate of 45 domestic and international flights. We also sampled common locations in a major southwestern city. The concentration of microorganisms in airline cabin air is much lower than in ordinary city locations. We conclude that the small number of microorganisms found in U.S. airliner cabin environments does not contribute to the risk of disease transmission among passengers.

  1. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  2. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  3. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  4. 76 FR 51119 - Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific Airlines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Office of the Secretary Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific... directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding California-Palomar Airlines, Inc. d/b/a California Pacific Airlines fit, willing, and able, and awarding to it a...

  5. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  6. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  7. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  8. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  9. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  10. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  11. Deregulation-restructuring: Evidence for individual industries

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Graniere, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    Several studies have measured the effects of regulation on a particular industry. These studies range widely in sophistication, from simple observation (comparison) of pre-transformation and post-transformation actual industry performance to econometric analysis that attempt to separate the effects of deregulation from other factors in explaining changes in an industry`s performance. The major problem with observation studies is that they are unable to measure the effect of one particular event, such as deregulation, on an industry`s performance. For example, at the same time that the United Kingdom privatized its electric power industry, it also radically restructured the industry to encourage competition and instituted a price-cap mechanism to regulate the prices of transmission, distribution, and bundled retail services. Subsequent to these changes in 1991, real prices for most UK electricity customers have fallen. It is not certain however, which of these factors was most important or even contributed to the decline in price. In any event, one must be cautious in interpreting the results of studies that attempt to measure the effect of deregulation per se for a specific industry. This report highlights major outcomes for five industries undergoing deregulation or major regulatory and restructuring reforms. These include the natural gas, transportation, UK electric power, financial, and telecommunications industries. Particular attention was given to the historical development of events in the telecommunications industry.

  12. Deregulating electric utilities: issues and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.H.

    1987-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the merits of continued utility regulation. To reach a better understanding of the issues involved, five related topics are discussed: the economic rationale for regulating utilities; traditional problems that have emerged with regulation in practice; recent theoretical and empirical evidence relating to the need for regulation; options for deregulation; and trends in construction of future power facilities in the present regulated environment. In general, evidence suggests that gains from regulation increasingly are negated by the disadvantages. Inefficiencies resulting from regulatory pricing have been accentuated by rapidly changing energy prices and inflation. Although some inefficiencies have been reduced by changes in rate proceedings, recent volatility in energy markets has increased the value of shifting to the more flexible pricing typically associated with deregulated markets. Furthermore, expected costs of deregulation may be less than initially envisioned. Gains from regulating the production of electricity have also been reduced by the apparent exhaustion of scale economies. There is increasing evidence that competitive forces can be used instead of regulation to produce low-cost electricity. Improvements in the technology of transmission have made spatial location of power generation less important, allowing producers at widely disparate locations to compete effectively in the same markets. The urgency of deregulation, however, is derived from concern about long-run supplies under regulation. Although present generating facilities are sufficient to meet demand over the next several years, additional capacity is likely to be necessary by the end of the century. 33 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  14. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  15. U.S. Airlines: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-06

    carriers to compete and earn an adequate profit . Marketin2 Practices Limit the Ability of Airlines Entering New Markets to Compete Airline marketing...industry allows American and United each to receive over $300 million per year in excess of the costs of the service provided (including a reasonable profit ...Prices Have Worsened Carriers’ Financial Problems Airline industry profitability has been low for several years. The industry lost money in 4 out of the

  16. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  17. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  18. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  19. Utilities` ``obligation to serve`` under deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities` franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that`s been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions.

  20. Deregulation of Cell Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, Filippo G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations disrupt the regulatory circuits that govern cell function, enabling tumor cells to undergo de-regulated mitogenesis, to resist to proapoptotic insults, and to invade through tissue boundaries. Cancer cell biology has played a crucial role in elucidating the signaling mechanisms by which oncogenic mutations sustain these malignant behaviors and thereby in identifying rational targets for cancer drugs. The efficacy of such targeted therapies illustrate the power of a reductionist approach to the study of cancer. PMID:24561200

  1. Airline Safety and Pilot Training Improvement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2009-07-29

    10/15/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Flight Training Technology for Regional/Commuter Airline Operations: Regional Airline Association/NASA Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T. (Editor); Lauber, J. K. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Programs which have been developed for training commercial airline pilots and flight crews are discussed. The concept of cockpit resource management and the concomitant issues of management techniques, interpersonal communication, psychological factors, and flight stress are addressed. Training devices and simulation techniques are reported.

  3. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  4. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  5. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  6. Detection of structural deterioration and associated airline maintenance problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henniker, H. D.; Mitchell, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Airline operations involving the detection of structural deterioration and associated maintenance problems are discussed. The standard approach to the maintenance and inspection of aircraft components and systems is described. The frequency of inspections and the application of preventive maintenance practices are examined. The types of failure which airline transport aircraft encounter and the steps taken to prevent catastrophic failure are reported.

  7. Regulation and deregulation of natural gas in the US: 1938-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Peter R.

    1980-06-01

    Public policy towards natural gas has swung first towards, and then away from regulation in this century. In 1906, the Congress specifically excluded natural gas from the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Three decades later, a New Deal Congress passed the Natural Gas Act of 1938 bringing pipelines under the control of the Federal Power Commission (FDC). Forty years thereafter, the Congress passed a phased decontrol bill, the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978, as part of the Carter Administration's National Energy Plan. Recently, the Congress has backed off from New Deal legislation in other markets - notably aviation and trucking. In this study, the rise and fall of economic regulation in the natural gas industry are examined to understand: (1) why public policy has followed a pendulum's path, and (2) the economic consequences of regulation and deregulation. The main part of the analysis is directed toward the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Widely viewed as a deregulation measure, the author finds that the Act is more restrictive and burdensome than the pricing policies it superceded. The path toward deregulation in natural gas and perhaps other markets is not as direct or simple as might be expected.

  8. Procedures in complex systems: the airline cockpit.

    PubMed

    Degani, A; Wiener, E L

    1997-05-01

    In complex human-machine systems, successful operations depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks done. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots and to ensure a safe, logical, efficient, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the objectives of the job. However, procedures can become a hodge-podge. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to noncompliance by operators. Based on a field study with three major airlines, the authors propose a model for procedure development called the "Four P's": philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. Using this model as a framework, the authors discuss the intricate issue of designing flight-deck procedures, and propose a conceptual approach for designing any set of procedures. The various factors, both external and internal to the cockpit, that must be considered for procedure design are presented. In particular, the paper addresses the development of procedures for automated cockpits--a decade-long, and highly controversial issue in commercial aviation. Although this paper is based on airline operations, we assume that the principles discussed here are also applicable to other high-risk supervisory control systems, such as space flight, manufacturing process control, nuclear power production, and military operations.

  9. Magnetic field exposure of commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Hood; Nicholas; Butler; Lackland; Hoel; Mohr

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Airline pilots are exposed to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical and electronic systems. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the flight deck magnetic fields to which commercial airline pilots are exposed when flying on different aircraft types over a 75-hour flight-duty month.METHODS: Magentic field measurements were taken using personal dosimeters capable of measuring magnetic fields in the 40-800 Hz frequency range. Dosimeters were carried by either the Captain or the First Officer on Boeing 737/200, Boeing 747/400, Boeing 767/300ER, and Airbus 320 aircraft. The data were analyzed by aircraft type, with statistics based on block hours. Block hours begin when the aircraft departs the gate prior to take off and end when the aircraft returns to the gate after landing.RESULTS: Approximately 1008 block hours were recorded at a sampling rate of 3 seconds. Total block time exposure to the pilots ranged from a harmonic geometric mean of 6.7 milliGauss (mG) for the Boeing 767/300ER to 12.7 mG for the Boeing 737/200.CONCLUSIONS: Measured flight deck magnetic field levels were substantially above the 0.8 to 1 mG level typically found in the home or office and suggest the need for further study to evaluate potential health effects of long-term exposure.

  10. Synthetic Vision for Airliners and General Aviaion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'Video News Release'(?) for AWIN, the Aviation Weather Information Network. Includes animations. Narration: Bad weather and poor visibility can be potentially hazardous to aircraft and flight crews. Both can contribute to deadly accidents. The NASA Aviation Safety Program is working on innovative cockpit technologies that could help pilots avoid flying into rough weather, terrain or obstacles. Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) - a 'weather channel' in the sky - would give flight crews, air-traffic controllers and airline dispatchers timely moving map displays to help them make better re-routing decisions. 'Synthetic vision' would offer pilots a clear electronic picture including topography, traffic, even airport runways. Sensors, sattellites and terrain databases would create a kind of virtual-reality of what's outside - no matter what the weather or time of day. NASA isn't working alone to make air travel safer, it is teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry to develop new systems for airliners and general aviation aircraft. Their partnership is expected to make a difference worldwide and ensure many safe and smooth landings

  11. National policy in a deregulated marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. It briefly discusses government policy issues regarding electric utility deregulation. Three major questions are examined: (1) policies and institutions required to ensure a free market, (2) allocation of stranded assets and ensuring that consumers benefit from restructuring, and (3) continuation of collateral utility activities such as low income program investments, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. Types of policy options under consideration are reviewed, and potential state and federal roles are described.

  12. Deregulation of Rho GTPases in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Andrew P.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Malliri, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In vitro and in vivo studies and evidence from human tumors have long implicated Rho GTPase signaling in the formation and dissemination of a range of cancers. Recently next generation sequencing has identified direct mutations of Rho GTPases in human cancers. Moreover, the effects of ablating genes encoding Rho GTPases and their regulators in mouse models, or through pharmacological inhibition, strongly suggests that targeting Rho GTPase signaling could constitute an effective treatment. In this review we will explore the various ways in which Rho signaling can be deregulated in human cancers. PMID:27104658

  13. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  14. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to by airlines as “tourist class,” “economy class,” or as “single class” when the airline offers only one...

  15. Energy flow for electric power system deregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung

    Over the past few years, the electric power utility industry in North America and other countries has experienced a strong drive towards deregulation. People have considered the necessity of deregulation of electric utilities for higher energy efficiency and energy saving. The vertically integrated monopolistic industry is being transferred into a horizontally integrated competitive structure in some countries. Wheeling charges are a current high priority problem throughout the power industry, for independent power producers, as well as regulators. Nevertheless the present transmission pricing mechanism fails to be adjusted by a customer loading condition. Customer loading is dynamic, but the present wheeling charge method is fixed, not real-time. A real-time wheeling charge method is developed in this dissertation. This dissertation introduces a concept of a power flow network which can be used for the calculation of power contribution factors in a network. The contribution factor is defined as the ratio of the power contributed by a particular source to a line flow or bus load to the total output of the source. Generation, transmission, and distribution companies can employ contribution factors for the calculation of energy cost, wheeling charges, and loss compensation. Based on the concept of contribution factors, a proposed loss allocation method is developed in this dissertation. Besides, counterflow condition will be given a credit in the proposed loss allocation method. A simple 22-bus example was used for evaluating the contribution factors, proposed wheeling charge method, and loss allocation method.

  16. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation forms were subjected to a descriptive analysis and compared to a sample "medical incident report" form published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Results A total of 1,318 airlines were contacted. Ten airlines agreed to participate in the study and provided a copy of their documentation forms. A descriptive analysis revealed a total of 199 different items, which were summarized into five sub-categories: non-medical data (63), signs and symptoms (68), diagnosis (26), treatment (22) and outcome (20). Conclusions The data in this study illustrate a large variation in the documentation of in-flight medical emergencies by different airlines. A higher degree of standardization is preferable to increase the data quality in epidemiologic aeromedical research in the future. PMID:22397530

  17. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  18. STATUS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF DOMESTIC FLIGHTS BY FOREIGN AIRLINES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Morichi, Shigeru

    As a regional strategy, it is very important for local cities that international flights are put into service to local airports and to increase tourists. It is problemati c for the airlines that their international flights are put into service directly between the local airport and the international airport since it is difficult for them to secure the number of passengers needed to operate the aircraft. Co ncerning 1-stop flights, there is a good possibility of securing number of passengers. Therefore, the study illustrated the possibilities of domestic airline flights by foreign airlines as international flights.

  19. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  20. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  1. Detection of Deregulated Modules Using Deregulatory Linked Path

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuxuan; Gao, Lin; Shi, Kai; Chiu, David K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of deregulated modules (such as induced by oncogenes) is a crucial step for exploring the pathogenic process of complex diseases. Most of the existing methods focus on deregulation of genes rather than the links of the path among them. In this study, we emphasize on the detection of deregulated links, and develop a novel and effective regulatory path-based approach in finding deregulated modules. Observing that a regulatory pathway between two genes might involve in multiple rather than a single path, we identify condition-specific core regulatory path (CCRP) to detect the significant deregulation of regulatory links. Using time-series gene expression, we define the regulatory strength within each gene pair based on statistical dependence analysis. The CCRPs in regulatory networks can then be identified using the shortest path algorithm. Finally, we derive the deregulated modules by integrating the differential edges (as deregulated links) of the CCRPs between the case and the control group. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply the method to expression data associated with different states of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). The experimental results show that the genes as well as the links in the deregulated modules are significantly enriched in multiple KEGG pathways and GO biological processes, most of which can be validated to suffer from impact of this oncogene based on previous studies. Additionally, we find the regulatory mechanism associated with the crucial gene SNAI1 significantly deregulated resulting from the activation of HER2. Hence, our method provides not only a strategy for detecting the deregulated links in regulatory networks, but also a way to identify concerning deregulated modules, thus contributing to the target selection of edgetic drugs. PMID:23894653

  2. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  3. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Regulation, Deregulation & Competition Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers discuss aspects of telecommunications regulation in a deregulated environment. The first paper, "Implementing Telephone Deregulation: The Political Economy of State Regulation in the Post-Divestiture Era" (Paul E. Teske), analyzed the variation in state regulation of local telephone operating companies using regression…

  4. Television News and Broadcast Deregulation in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comrie, Margie

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on broadcast deregulation and news-source diversity, tracing sourcing patterns on prime-time news across a 12-year period encompassing the deregulation of broadcasting in New Zealand. Finds that increasing commercialism resulted in shorter sound bites; reduced use of official cited sources; and a greater use of nonelite…

  5. An analysis of short haul airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The demand and supply characteristics of short haul air transportation systems are investigated in terms of airline operating costs. Direct, indirect, and ground handling costs are included. Supply models of short haul air transportation systems are constructed.

  6. Some airline experience in preventing engine rotor failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used by airlines, with the assistance of the engine manufacturers to achieve control over the type of problems which lead to uncontained failure and avoid many potential problems are discussed.

  7. The Empirical Analysis of Impact of Alliances on Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Alamdari, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    Airline alliances are dominating the current air transport industry with the largest carriers of the world belonging to one of the four alliance groupings - "Wings", Star Alliance, one world, SkyTeam - which represent 56% of world Revenue Passenger Kilometers. Although much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of alliance membership on performance of airlines, it would be of interest to ascertain the degree of impact perceived by participating airlines in alliances. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of all the airlines, belonging to the four global alliance groupings on the impact alliances have had on their traffic and on their performance in general To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management departments of airlines participating in the four global strategic alliances was carried out. With this framework the survey has examined which type of cooperation among carriers (FFP, Code Share, Strategic Alliance without antitrust immunity, Strategic Alliance with antitrust immunity) has produced the most positive impact on traffic and which type of route (short haul, long haul, hub-hub, hub-non hub, non hub-non hub) has been mostly affected. In addition, the respondent airlines quantified the effect alliances have had on specific areas of their operation, such as load factors, traffic, costs, revenue and fares. Their responses have been analysed under each global alliances grouping, under airline and under geographic region to establish which group, type of carrier and geographic region has benefited most. The results show that each of the four global alliances groupings has experienced different results according to the type of collaboration agreed amongst their member airlines.

  8. Competition and deregulation in the electric industry. A study of organizational change: The New York State Public Service Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Deborah J. Cordaro

    2000-11-01

    Public organizations are formed in response to societal needs. They collect taxes, educate children, enforce laws and provide protection to the environment, the nation and consumers. One such organization is the New York State Public Service Commission. In 1907, legislation was passed to form the New York State Public Service Commission the first regulatory body of its kind in the United States. Its mission was to provide safe, reliable and reasonably priced electricity. Subsequently, this became the model that was implemented in every state in the nation. The past decade heralds an era of competition and a lessening of regulatory control. The telephone, natural gas and airline industries are in various stages of deregulation, and the electric industry is beginning down this path as well. In an environment such as this, are regulatory organizations necessary, and if they are, how can they organize to meet the new societal requirements? The case of the New York State Public Service Commission at this point in time offers a real time study of a regulatory body immersed in an environment that is calling for competition and an end to big government. Utilizing case studies of industries that have deregulated, or are in the process of deregulating, indicates a future societal need for regulations. This result does not lead to a conclusion that organizational change is unnecessary. This Dissertation will lay out the current organizational structure of the Public Service Commission, give an overview of the environmental signals, describe the mission/core values, and illustrate general political and employee factors that are indigenous to public service. Utilizing both classic and current organizational theory, an evaluation will be made of the Commission's need for change, their ability to change, and obstacles they may encounter.

  9. Power system market implementation in a deregulated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos

    2000-10-01

    The opening of the power system markets (also known as deregulation) gives rise to issues never seen before by this industry. One of the most important is the control of information about the cost of generation. Information that used to be common knowledge is now kept private by the new agents of the system (generator companies, distribution companies, etc.). Data such as the generator cost functions are now known only by the owning companies. The result is a new system consisting of a group of independent firms seeking the maximization of their own profit. There have been many proposals to organize the new market in an economically efficient manner. Nevertheless, the uniqueness of the electric power system has prevented the development of such a market. This thesis evaluates the most common proposals using simulations in an auction setting. In addition a new methodology is proposed based on mechanism design, a common technique in economics, that solves some of the practical problems of power system markets (such as the management of limited transmission capacity). In this methodology, when each company acts in its best interest, the outcome is efficient in spite of the information problem cited above. This new methodology, along with the existing methodologies, are tested using simulation and analyzed to create a clear comparison of benefits and disadvantages.

  10. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  11. Deregulation and Nuclear Training: Cost Effective Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Coe; Patricia A. Lake

    2000-11-12

    Training is crucial to the success of any organization. It is also expensive, with some estimates exceeding $50 billion annually spent on training by U.S. corporations. Nuclear training, like that of many other highly technical organizations, is both crucial and costly. It is unlikely that the amount of training can be significantly reduced. If anything, current trends indicate that training needs will probably increase as the industry and workforce ages and changes. With the advent of energy deregulation in the United States, greater pressures will surface to make the costs of energy more cost-competitive. This in turn will drive businesses to more closely examine existing costs and find ways to do things in a more cost-effective way. The commercial nuclear industry will be no exception, and nuclear training will be equally affected. It is time for nuclear training and indeed the entire nuclear industry to begin using more aggressive techniques to reduce costs. This includes the need for nuclear training to find alternatives to traditional methods for the delivery of cost-effective high-quality training that meets regulatory requirements and produces well-qualified personnel capable of working in an efficient and safe manner. Computer-based and/or Web-based training are leading emerging technologies.

  12. [Hypothalamic inflammation and energy balance deregulations: focus on chemokines.

    PubMed

    Le Thuc, Ophélia; Rovère, Carole

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a key brain region in the regulation of energy balance. It especially controls food intake and both energy storage and expenditure through integration of humoral, neural and nutrient-related signals and cues. Hypothalamic neurons and glial cells act jointly to orchestrate, both spatially and temporally, regulated metabolic functions of the hypothalamus. Thus, the existence of a causal link between hypothalamic inflammation and deregulations of feeding behavior, such as involuntary weight-loss or obesity, has been suggested. Among the inflammatory mediators that could induce deregulations of hypothalamic control of the energy balance, chemokines represent interesting candidates. Indeed, chemokines, primarily known for their chemoattractant role of immune cells to the inflamed site, have also been suggested capable of neuromodulation. Thus, chemokines could disrupt cellular activity together with synthesis and/or secretion of multiple neurotransmitters/mediators that are involved in the maintenance of energy balance. Here, we relate, on one hand, recent results showing the primary role of the central chemokinergic signaling CCL2/CCR2 for metabolic and behavioral adaptation to high-grade inflammation, especially loss of appetite and weight, through its activity on hypothalamic neurons producing the orexigenic peptide Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH) and, on the other hand, results that suggest that chemokines could also deregulate hypothalamic neuropeptidergic circuits to induce an opposite phenotype and eventually participate in the onset/development of obesity. In more details, we will emphasize a study recently showing, in a model of high-grade acute inflammation of LPS injection in mice, that central CCL2/CCR2 signaling is of primary importance for several aspects explaining weight loss associated with inflammation: after LPS injection, animals lose weight, reduce their food intake, increase their fat oxidation (thus energy consumption from

  13. Fuel, environmental, and transmission pricing considerations in a deregulated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obessis, Emmanouil Vlassios

    The 1992 National Energy Policy Act drastically changed the traditional structure of the vertically integrated utility. To facilitate increased competition in the power utility sector, all markets related to power generation have been opened to free competition and trading. To survive in the new competitive environment, power producers need to reduce costs and increase efficiency. Fuel marketing strategies are thus, getting more aggressive and fuel markets are becoming more competitive, offering more options regarding fuel supplies and contracts. At the same time, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are taking effect. Although tightening the emission standards, this legislation offers utilities a wider flexibility in choosing compliance strategies. It also set maximum annual allowable levels replacing the traditional uniform maximum emission rates. The bill also introduced the concept of marketable emission allowances and provided for the establishment of nationwide markets where allowances may be traded, sold, or purchased. Several fuel- and emission-constrained algorithms have been historically presented, but those two classes of constraints, in general, were handled independently. The multiobjective optimization model developed in this research work, concurrently satisfies sets of detailed fuel and emission limits, modeling in a more accurate way the fuel supply and environmental limitations and their complexities in the new deregulated operational environment. Development of the implementation software is an integral part of this research project. This software may be useful for both daily scheduling activities and short-term operational planning. A Lagrangian multipliers-based variant is used to solve the problem. Single line searches are used to update the multipliers, thus offering attractive execution times. This work also investigates the applicability of cooperative games to the problem of transmission cost allocation. Interest in game theory as a powerful

  14. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  15. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  16. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  17. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    PubMed

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process.

  18. Concorde with the airlines. [operating costs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyman, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The only supersonic aircraft in airline service, Concorde, offers the first actual test of supersonic cruise feasibility and the only real experience relative to passenger, airline, and community acceptance. The dominant characteristic of Concorde operations is low aircraft utilization, due partly to the restricted route network. Operating costs, the maintenance/reliability record and associated dispatch delays are discussed. Problems with overwater operations, and the secondary boom phenomena are examined. Monthly average load factors for various routes, major causes of technical delays, aircraft technical performance, and aircraft tracks are graphically depicted.

  19. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  20. Deregulation of DUX4 and ERG in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghui; McCastlain, Kelly; Yoshihara, Hiroki; Xu, Beisi; Chang, Yunchao; Churchman, Michelle L; Wu, Gang; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Liu, Yu; Qu, Chunxu; Wen, Ji; Edmonson, Michael; Payne-Turner, Debbie; Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Takayanagi, Shin-Ichiro; Wienholds, Erno; Waanders, Esmé; Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Bakogianni, Sofia; Wang, Jingjing; Aifantis, Iannis; Roberts, Kathryn G; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Easton, John; Mulder, Heather L; Chen, Xiang; Newman, Scott; Ma, Xiaotu; Rusch, Michael; Gupta, Pankaj; Boggs, Kristy; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Dalton, James; Liu, Yanling; Valentine, Marcus L; Ding, Li; Lu, Charles; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda; Tabib, Yashodhan; Ochoa, Kerri; Devidas, Meenakshi; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Jun; Evans, William E; Relling, Mary V; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima; Harvey, Richard C; Chen, I-Ming L; Willman, Cheryl L; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Paietta, Elisabeth; Tallman, Martin S; Stock, Wendy; Foster, Matthew C; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M; Luger, Selina; Kornblau, Steven M; Shurtleff, Sheila A; Raimondi, Susana C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Dick, John E; Hunger, Stephen P; Loh, Mignon L; Downing, James R; Mullighan, Charles G

    2016-12-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements deregulating hematopoietic transcription factors are common in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Here we show that deregulation of the homeobox transcription factor gene DUX4 and the ETS transcription factor gene ERG is a hallmark of a subtype of B-progenitor ALL that comprises up to 7% of B-ALL. DUX4 rearrangement and overexpression was present in all cases and was accompanied by transcriptional deregulation of ERG, expression of a novel ERG isoform, ERGalt, and frequent ERG deletion. ERGalt uses a non-canonical first exon whose transcription was initiated by DUX4 binding. ERGalt retains the DNA-binding and transactivation domains of ERG, but it inhibits wild-type ERG transcriptional activity and is transforming. These results illustrate a unique paradigm of transcription factor deregulation in leukemia in which DUX4 deregulation results in loss of function of ERG, either by deletion or induced expression of an isoform that is a dominant-negative inhibitor of wild-type ERG function.

  1. Examining Informal Learning in Commercial Airline Pilots' Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corns, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic sequential mixed methods research methodology was used to examine commercial airline pilots' (N =156) types and frequencies of informal learning activities, perceptions of workplace informal learning, and opinions on how organizations should support workplace informal learning outside of the formal learning environment. This study…

  2. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  3. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  4. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  5. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  6. Electric Restructuring and Utilities Deregulation: A Facility Manager's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    This volume presents 12 papers offering guidelines to higher education institutions on planning for the deregulation of the electric power industry. Following an introduction (by Dorsey D. Jacobs), the papers are organized into three parts which address: the changing market, identifying opportunities and challenges, and taking advantage of…

  7. Deregulation of University Education in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Subair, S. T.; Osifila, G. I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the deregulation of university education in Nigeria, its problems and prospects. The paper commences with the recognition given to education all over the world, especially higher education. Nigeria as a country gives much credence to higher education as the means for social and economic mobility, social transformation, and as…

  8. The Impact of Television Deregulation on Private and Public Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrall, Victor E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the impact of six years (1981-1987) of television deregulation by the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Contends that the FCC's rule deletions have altered economic relations among segments of the television industry and its users, and discusses effects on the future of "free" television. (MS)

  9. U.S. Broadcast Deregulation: A Case of Dubious Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Harry J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the empirical evidence cited by the FCC in favor of increasing the allowable number of radio and TV stations owned by one group. Argues FCC was biased in favor of deregulation despite weighty evidence indicating continued need for regulation. (MS)

  10. Evaluating an Ice-Storage System in a Deregulated Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniewicz, Theodore J.; Watson, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties the electric industry's deregulation created for St. Joseph's University's (Philadelphia) development of a thermal ice-storage system as part of its HVAC design and the school's solution. A monthly equipment summary sheet with year-to-date figures is provided. (GR)

  11. Electrical Energy Service Options: Deregulation Presents New Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matterson, Gary C.

    1995-01-01

    It is noted that federal deregulation of the electrical utility industry will allow colleges and universities to buy electrical services from suppliers who provide the best reliability and cost combination. Considerations are examined for the following options: purchasing an existing electrical substation, building a new substation, using on-site…

  12. Teacher Education Policy in Canada: Beyond Professionalization and Deregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates Grimmett's (2008, 2009) thesis that recent Canadian teacher education policy is best characterized by dual forces of deregulation and professionalization resulting from a neoliberal policy environment. Specifically, we examine teacher education governance, policy reform, and political context from 2000 to 2010,…

  13. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  14. 75 FR 68321 - Forage Genetics International; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Forage Genetics International; Supplemental Request for... ``partial deregulation'' from Forage Genetics International for the planting, harvesting, and movement... submitted to the Agency from Forage Genetics International requesting a ``partial deregulation.''...

  15. Determination of the flight equipment maintenance costs of commuter airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Labor and materials costs associated with maintaining and operating 12 commuter airlines carrying an average of from 42 to 1,100 passengers daily in a variety of aircraft types were studied to determine the total direct maintenance cost per flight hour for the airframe, engine, and avionics and other instruments. The distribution of maintenance costs are analyzed for two carriers, one using turboprop aircraft and the other using piston engine aircraft.

  16. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  17. Review of the Literature Related to Screening Airline Passenger Baggage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    11 billion passengers and their carry-on items have passed through airport security checkpoints. According to the Federal Aviation Administration...Aviation Security establishes security requirements, inspects airline and airport security operations, and issues civil penalties for noncompliance with...operations areas and provide law enforcement support for the screening system and overall airport security requirements (FAA, 1991). The FAA’s role in aviation

  18. Measurement of cabin air quality aboard commercial airliners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagda, Niren L.; Koontz, Michael D.; Konheim, Arnold G.; Katharine Hammond, S.

    Between April and June 1989, 92 randomly selected flights were monitored to determine prevailing levels of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and other pollutants in the airliner cabin environment. The monitored flights included 69 smoking flights, 8 of which were international, and 23 nonsmoking flights, all of which were domestic. Selected ETS contaminants (nicotine, respirable suspended particles and carbon monoxide), as well as ozone, microbial aerosols, carbon dioxide and other environmental variables were measured in different parts of airliner cabins. Particle and nicotine concentrations were highest in the smoking section and were somewhat higher in the boundary region near smoking than in other no-smoking sections or on nonsmoking flights. Levels of these ETS tracers were correlated with smoking rates observed by field technicians, and their levels in the boundary section were higher when more proximate to the smoking section. CO 2 levels were sufficiently high and humidity levels were sufficiently low to pose potential comfort problems for aircraft occupants. Ozone levels were well within existing standards for airliner environments, and levels of microbial aerosols were below those in residential environments that have been characterized through cross-sectional studies.

  19. Molecular bacterial diversity and bioburden of commercial airliner cabin air.

    PubMed

    La Duc, Myron T; Stuecker, Tara; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2007-11-01

    Culture-independent, biomarker-targeted bacterial enumeration and identification strategies were employed to estimate total bacterial burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of 4 flights on 2 commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. The total viable microbial population ranged from below detection limits to 4.1 x 10(6) cells/m(3) of air, as assessed by the ATP assay. A gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in bacterial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. Representatives of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, as well as Gram-positive bacteria, were isolated in varying abundance. Neisseria meningitidis rRNA gene sequences were retrieved in great abundance from Airline A followed by Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Pseudomonas synxantha sequences dominated Airline B clone libraries, followed by those of N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. The cabin air samples examined herein housed low bacterial diversity and were often dominated by a particular subset of bacteria: opportunistic pathogenic inhabitants of the human respiratory tract and oral cavity.

  20. Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

  1. Strategic Classification and Examination of the Development of Current Airline Alliance Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhi H.; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Previous research argues that despite the fact that strategic alliances have become an important feature of the world airline industry, little rigorous analysis has been done on the effects of these alliances. This is partially because there is a lack of precise definitions to specify different types of airline alliances in the literature. This research identifies several categories of airline alliances through a strategic classification of the current alliance activities involving the major airlines for the period 1989 to 1999. The classification enables this research to examine how strategic alliance activities are evolving, particularly to compare how airlines in North America, the European Union and the Asia Pacific region have committed to different alliances. Findings show that there is a significant difference between the number and scope of alliances adopted in the three aviation markets. These findings facilitate research to further analyse the impact of market liberalization on various formations of strategic airline alliances.

  2. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  3. An Examination and Comparison of Airline and Navy Pilot Career Earnings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    an accurate picture of the probable average 1986 salary. This will be done in the following manner:Z6 I. The FAPA first year salary will be used. 2...984,573 $ 942,272 AOCP Source: Author 97 ’k TABLE 4$ AIRLINE PENSIONI PLANS Pension Plans 1984-1985 Majors Airlines National Airlines American 60% Airborne...May 29. Robert Joed.!cke and Mark Pin’erton The Airline Industy Picture Book, Shearson Lema-n--Brothers, (May 141 ’I 30. "Eastern Unions File Suits," A

  4. Chile: pioneer in deregulation of the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, H. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the electric power sector in Chile. Chile was the leader in Latin America in the restructuring of the electric power sector, and its case merits particular analysis. Although a small system (70% of installed capacity is hydroelectric with 2,800 MW maximum demand in 1993), its development has been observed with interest by many institutions, particularly by the World Bank and most recently by other Latin American countries, and several countries have followed its steps. The Chilean 1982 electricity law was a worldwide pioneer in deregulating the electric power sector to create market conditions where generators compete to provide electrical energy to large consumers, sharing a transmission system open to all and paying fees for that system. The law formalized what had taken place in the country since 1978, several years before market approaches were formulated in the US and implemented in the United Kingdom.

  5. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  6. Managing an evolution: Deregulation of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the emerging competitive situation in the electric power industry as deregulation of electric utilities looms on the horizon. The paper supports this change, and the competition it will bring, but urges caution as changes are instituted, and the regulatory bodies decide how and how much to free, and at what rates. The reason for his urge for caution comes from historical experience of other industries, which were smaller and had less direct impact on every American.

  7. Recurrently deregulated lncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Lei; Gu, Jin; Zhang, Hanshuo; Yuan, Jiapei; Lian, Qiuyu; Lv, Guishuai; Wang, Siqi; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yu-Cheng T.; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Yang; Tang, Jing; Luo, Guijuan; Li, Yang; Hu, Long; Sun, Xinbao; Wang, Dong; Guo, Mingzhou; Xi, Qiaoran; Xi, Jianzhong; Wang, Hongyang; Zhang, Michael Q.; Lu, Zhi John

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells often invade the portal venous system and subsequently develop into portal vein tumour thrombosis (PVTT). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with HCC, but a comprehensive analysis of their specific association with HCC metastasis has not been conducted. Here, by analysing 60 clinical samples' RNA-seq data from 20 HCC patients, we have identified and characterized 8,603 candidate lncRNAs. The expression patterns of 917 recurrently deregulated lncRNAs are correlated with clinical data in a TCGA cohort and published liver cancer data. Matched array data from the 60 samples show that copy number variations (CNVs) and alterations in DNA methylation contribute to the observed recurrent deregulation of 235 lncRNAs. Many recurrently deregulated lncRNAs are enriched in co-expressed clusters of genes related to cell adhesion, immune response and metabolic processes. Candidate lncRNAs related to metastasis, such as HAND2-AS1, were further validated using RNAi-based loss-of-function assays. Thus, we provide a valuable resource of functional lncRNAs and biomarkers associated with HCC tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:28194035

  8. Airline Chair-rest Deconditioning: Induction of Immobilization Thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Rehrer, N. J.; Mohler, S. R.; Quach, D. T.; Evans, D. G.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence hematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep various thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accomodations (via sitting immobilization), travelers' medical history (via tissue injury), cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity), and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalized patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilization of prolonged air travel. In the healthy flying population immobilization factors associated with prolonged (> 5 hr) C-RID such as total body dehydration, hypovolemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced various blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DART, but factors such as history of vascular thromboemboli, various insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than 3 pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest- or bed- rest-deconditioning treatments cause deep various thromboemboli in healthy people.

  9. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Rehrer, Nancy J.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Quach, David T.; Evans, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accommodations (via sitting immobilisation); travellers' medical history (via tissue injury); cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity); and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalised patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilisation of prolonged air travel.In the healthy flying population, immobilisation factors associated with prolonged (>5 hours) C-RD such as total body dehydration, hypovolaemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced venous blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DVT, but factors such as a history of vascular thromboemboli, venous insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than three pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest or bed-rest deconditioning treatments cause DVT in healthy people.

  10. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  11. Translating Research Into Airline Practice: Case Studies In Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Chappell, Sherry; Daniel, Doug; Mancuso, Vince; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Airline training departments are avid customers for research that will help them enhance the effectiveness of training and the safety of flight operations. However, various factors often make it difficult for training department managers to draw upon the large body of human factors research, e.g.: research may not address the specific questions facing the training departments, the research literature may not be in a form that training managers can readily interpret, researchers' recommendations may be too expensive or impractical to implement, etc. This panel will discuss ways in which researchers can work with training departments to design research and translate findings into products that airlines can use readily. This collaboration is most effective when it is an integral part of the study from its inception. To illustrate the process of collaboration we will use as a case study the recently completed LOFT (Line Oriented Flight Training) Debriefing research project. We will summarize the findings from that study and discuss how we translated those findings into two training tools: a manual on how to facilitate LOFT debriefings and a video that illustrates facilitation techniques in a realistically enacted debriefing. In some cases, instead of starting a new research project, training department needs can be addressed by reviewing the existing research literature and using expert opinion to develop products that specifically address those needs. To illustrate this approach we will discuss a recent informal working group of scientists and airline personnel that met to develop training material to enhance situation awareness. This group reviewed scientific literature and ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System) reports, analyzed contributing factors, and produced a model for managing situation awareness.

  12. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-07-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.

  13. An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Skourias, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of airline alliances on the allied partners output by comparing the traffic change observed between the pre- and the post-alliance period. First, a simple methodology based on traffic passenger modelling is developed, and then an empirical analysis is conducted using time series from four global strategic alliances (Wings, Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) and 124 alliance routes. The analysis concludes that, all other things being equal, strategic alliances do lead to a 9.4%, on average, improvement in passenger volume.

  14. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines: an update.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony

    2007-12-01

    In 1998, the Air Transport Medicine (ATM) Committee of the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) made its first recommendations concerning medical kits for commercial airlines. These were updated in 2002 and the ATM has continued to monitor medical kit usage, as well as pharmaceutical developments, and a further revision is now needed. This has taken into account ongoing work of the International Civil Aviation Organization and recommendations of the International Air Transport Association in the field of passenger and crew health. Based on the above, the Committee proposes the following update to its 2002 recommendations.

  15. Cultural changes (1986-96) in a Norwegian airline company.

    PubMed

    Mjøs, Kjell

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate cultural changes in a Norwegian airline company over a time span of 10 years. A questionnaire including parameters characterizing culture was administered to air crews in 1986 (n = 137) and in 1996 (n = 50). The performance part of a simulator study in 1996 indicated a significant reduction in operational failures compared with the 1986 study. The data further demonstrated significant changes in cultural variables, such as reduced Dominance and Masculinity, and improved Social climate and Communication. The direction of change in scores on the cultural variables corresponded with the principles on which the remedial actions were based.

  16. Tweeting the Friendly Skies: Investigating Information Exchange among Twitter Users about Airlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasan, Nirupama Dharmavaram; Lee, Chei Sian; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate airline users' microblog postings pertaining to their travel-related information exchange so as to assess their wants, preferences and feedback about airline products and services. Examining such real-time information exchange is important as users rely on this for various purposes such as…

  17. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  18. "American Way's" Flight Pattern: A Profile of American Airline's In-Flight Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rising, Suzanne

    The success of "American Way," American Airline's in-flight magazine, comes from three major factors: the success of American Airlines itself, the high advertising revenue of the magazine, and the quality editorial material produced. Beginning in 1966, "American Way" has evolved from a brochure of flight information and travel…

  19. Don't Plan Another Meeting--Without Calling An Airline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Delaine R.

    1977-01-01

    An increasing number of training managers and other meeting planners are taking advantage of the free meeting planning help--plus discounts on car rentals, meeting speakers, AV productions, and more--that the major airlines have begun to provide. The article presents a look at these services along with material from several airlines. (MF)

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of airline accommodations are available? 301-10.121 Section 301-10.121 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to...

  1. Why do airlines want and use thrust reversers? A compilation of airline industry responses to a survey regarding the use of thrust reversers on commercial transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Although thrust reversers are used for only a fraction of the airplane operating time, their impact on nacelle design, weight, airplane cruise performance, and overall airplane operating and maintenance expenses is significant. Why then do the airlines want and use thrust reversers? In an effort to understand the airlines need for thrust reversers, a survey of the airline industry was made to determine why and under what situations thrust reversers are currently used or thought to be needed. The survey was intended to help establish the cost/benefits trades for the use of thrust reversers and airline opinion regarding alternative deceleration devices. A compilation and summary of the responses given to the survey questionnaire is presented.

  2. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  3. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  4. Operational flight evaluation of the two-segment approach for use in airline service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwind, G. K.; Morrison, J. A.; Nylen, W. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    United Airlines has developed and evaluated a two-segment noise abatement approach procedure for use on Boeing 727 aircraft in air carrier service. In a flight simulator, the two-segment approach was studied in detail and a profile and procedures were developed. Equipment adaptable to contemporary avionics and navigation systems was designed and manufactured by Collins Radio Company and was installed and evaluated in B-727-200 aircraft. The equipment, profile, and procedures were evaluated out of revenue service by pilots representing government agencies, airlines, airframe manufacturers, and professional pilot associations. A system was then placed into scheduled airline service for six months during which 555 two-segment approaches were flown at three airports by 55 airline pilots. The system was determined to be safe, easy to fly, and compatible with the airline operational environment.

  5. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  6. Estimation of tuberculosis risk on a commercial airliner.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gwangpyo; Thompson, Kimberly M; Nardell, Edward A

    2004-04-01

    This article estimates the risk of tuberculosis (TB) transmission on a typical commercial airliner using a simple one box model (OBM) and a sequential box model (SBM). We used input data derived from an actual TB exposure on an airliner, and we assumed a hypothetical scenario that a highly infectious TB source case (i.e., 108 infectious quanta per hour) travels as a passenger on an 8.7-hour flight. We estimate an average risk of TB transmission on the order of 1 chance in 1,000 for all passengers using the OBM. Applying the more realistic SBM, we show that the risk and incidence decrease sharply in a stepwise fashion in cabins downstream from the cabin containing the source case assuming some potential for airflow from more contaminated to less contaminated cabins. We further characterized spatial variability in the risk within the cabin by modeling a previously reported TB outbreak in an airplane to demonstrate that the TB cases occur most likely within close proximity of the source TB patient.

  7. Airliner cabin ozone: An updated review. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, C.E.

    1989-12-01

    The recent literature pertaining to ozone contamination of airliner cabins is reviewed. Measurements in airliner cabins without filters showed that ozone levels were about 50 percent of atmospheric ozone. Filters were about 90 percent effective in destroying ozone. Ozone (0.12 to 0.14 ppmv) caused mild subjective respiratory irritation in exercising men, but 0.20 to 0.30 ppmv did not have adverse effects on patients with chronic heart or lung disease. Ozone (1.0 to 2.0 ppmv) decreased survival time of influenza-infected rats and mice and suppressed the capacity of lung macrophages to destroy Listeria. Airway responses to ozone are divided into an early parasympathetically mediated bronchoconstrictive phase and a later histamine-mediated congestive phase. Evidence indicates that intracellular free radicals are responsible for ozone damage and that the damage may be spread to other cells by toxic intermediate products: Antioxidants provide some protection to cells in vitro from ozone but dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins by humans has only a weak effect, if any. This review indicates that earlier findings regarding ozone toxicity do not need to be corrected. Compliance with existing FAA ozone standards appears to provide adequate protection to aircrews and passengers.

  8. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  9. Will deregulating natural gas increase its price to consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.

    1983-07-01

    Although it is likely that deregulation will increase the price consumers must pay for natural gas, this increase will occur only if the supply of gas contracts. Decontrol will result in higher wellhead prices and increased production for some categories of gas and lower wellhead prices and decreased production for others. The net effect on the supply of gas and, hence, on the consumer price of gas is not completely clear. However, an analysis of the limited data available suggests that decontrol will probably yield a reduced supply and a higher consumer price. 6 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Deregulated HOX genes in ameloblastomas are located in physical contiguity to keratin genes.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Giulia; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Cantile, Monica; Procino, Alfredo; Di Giovanni, Stefano; Valletta, Rossella; Terracciano, Luigi; Baumhoer, Daniel; Jundt, Gernot; Cillo, Clemente

    2011-11-01

    The expression of the HOX gene network in mid-stage human tooth development mostly concerns the epithelial tooth germ compartment and involves the C and D HOX loci. To further dissect the HOX gene implication with tooth epithelium differentiation we compared the expression of the whole HOX network in human ameloblastomas, as paradigm of epithelial odontogenic tumors, with tooth germs. We identified two ameloblastoma molecular types with respectively low and high number of active HOX C genes. The highly expressing HOX C gene ameloblastomas were characterized by a strong keratinized phenotype. Locus C HOX genes are located on chromosome 12q13-15 in physical contiguity with one of the two keratin gene clusters included in the human genome. The most posterior HOX C gene, HOX C13, is capable to interact with hair keratin genes located on the other keratin gene cluster in physical contiguity with the HOX B locus on chromosome 17q21-22. Inside the HOX C locus, a 2.2 kb ncRNA (HOTAIR) able to repress transcription, in cis, along the entire HOX C locus and, in trans, at the posterior region of the HOX D locus has recently been identified. Interestingly both loci are deregulated in ameloblastomas. Our finding support an important role of the HOX network in characterizing the epithelial tooth compartment. Furthermore, the physical contiguity between locus C HOX and keratin genes in normal tooth epithelium and their deregulation in the neoplastic counterparts suggest they may act on the same mechanism potentially involved with epithelial tumorigenesis.

  11. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  12. A Total Factor Productivity Based Structure for Tactical Cluster Assessment: Empirical Investigation in the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Fleming, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and assess the efficiency of the United States (U.S.) airline industry through the total factor productivity (TFP) method. While airlines use various resources to produce a heterogeneous group of outputs, this article focuses on certain fundamental outputs as final products of selected airlines. The results from this analysis indicate that the national airlines (US. domestic carriers) have higher TFP as compared to the major airlines. While major airlines have drastically cut costs in the past few years, they also need to improve efficiency or risk going out of business. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency and productivity of a selection of U.S. airlines for the years 1996 through 2001. These years have been chosen as a good example of years in which the industry experienced normal growth and generally positively returns. Subsequent to 2001 the industry experienced two severe external shocks, namely, the September 11, 2001. terrorist attacks and the Iraq war. These anomalous shocks make the years after 2001 inconsistent with respect to the type of index developed in this article.

  13. Fuel supply and distribution. Fixed base operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Aviation gasoline versus other products, a changing marketplace, the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, aviation fuel credit card purchases, strategic locations, storage, co-mingling of fuel, and transportation to/from central storage are discussed.

  14. Cell cycle deregulation by methyl isocyanate: Implications in liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Hariom; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Ahirwar, Alok K; Khan, Saba; Jain, Subodh K; Pathak, Neelam; Banerjee, Smita; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

    2014-03-01

    Liver is often exposed to plethora of chemical toxins. Owing to its profound physiological role and central function in metabolism and homeostasis, pertinent succession of cell cycle in liver epithelial cells is of prime importance to maintain cellular proliferation. Although recent evidence has displayed a strong association between exposures to methyl isocyanate (MIC), one of the most toxic isocyanates, and neoplastic transformation, molecular characterization of the longitudinal effects of MIC on cell cycle regulation has never been performed. Here, we sequentially delineated the status of different proteins arbitrating the deregulation of cell cycle in liver epithelial cells treated with MIC. Our data reaffirms the oncogenic capability of MIC with elevated DNA damage response proteins pATM and γ-H2AX, deregulation of DNA damage check point genes CHK1 and CHK2, altered expression of p53 and p21 proteins involved in cell cycle arrest with perturbation in GADD-45 expression in the treated cells. Further, alterations in cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 levels along with overexpression of mitotic spindle checkpoints proteins Aurora A/B, centrosomal pericentrin protein, chromosomal aberrations, and loss of Pot1a was observed. Thus, MIC impacts key proteins involved in cell cycle regulation to trigger genomic instability as a possible mechanism of developmental basis of liver carcinogenesis.

  15. Electric utility mergers: Competition, deregulation and the evolving federal policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, David Baird

    As the electric utility industry moves from a regulated monopoly structure to a deregulated competitive market, horizontal and vertical merger activity has increased substantially. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") generally takes the lead at the federal level for reviewing the competitive effects of electric utility mergers. Shortly after it issued its order open access order requiring utilities to allow others to use their transmission systems in 1996, FERC issued a merger policy statement outlining a new analytic approach that more accurately reflects the physical and economic realities of competition in a deregulated electric industry. This study will critically examine the federal merger review process and policies seeking to determine whether (1) the Commission's methodology provides an accurate and reliable measure of the effects of a merger on competition, (2) the market power remedies that the Commission has required from merger applicants mitigate potential market power and improve economic efficiency, and (3) transactions costs provide an alternative explanation for horizontal electric utility mergers. In addition to the economic analysis of these issues, the study includes an empirical analysis of the effects of three recent mergers.

  16. A graph-theoretic method to quantify the airline route authority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces a graph-theoretic method to quantify the legal statements in route certificate which specifies the airline routing restrictions. All the authorized nonstop and multistop routes, including the shortest time routes, can be obtained, and the method suggests profitable route structure alternatives to airline analysts. This method to quantify the C.A.B. route authority was programmed in a software package, Route Improvement Synthesis and Evaluation, and demonstrated in a case study with a commercial airline. The study showed the utility of this technique in suggesting route alternatives and the possibility of improvements in the U.S. route system.

  17. Addressing the Influence of Space Weather on Airline Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite-based augmentation systems has made it possible to navigate aircraft safely using radio signals emitted by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System. As a signal propagates through the earth's ionosphere, it suffers delay that is proportional to the total electron content encountered along the raypath. Since the magnitude of this total electron content is strongly influenced by space weather, the safety and reliability of GNSS for airline navigation requires continual monitoring of the state of the ionosphere and calibration of ionospheric delay. This paper examines the impact of space weather on GNSS-based navigation and provides an overview of how the Wide Area Augmentation System protects its users from positioning error due to ionospheric disturbances

  18. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  19. Airline pilot scan patterns during simulated ILS approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of instrument landing system approaches were conducted using seven airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in a Federal Aviation Administration qualified simulator. The test matrix included both manual and coupled approaches with and without atmospheric turbulence in Category II visibility conditions. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use different scan techniques for the manual and coupled conditions and that the introduction of atmospheric turbulence does not greatly affect the scan behavior in either case. The pilots consistently ranked the instruments in terms of most used to least used. The ranking obtained from the oculometer data agrees with the pilot ranking for the flight director and airspeed, the most important instruments. However, the pilots apparently ranked the other instruments in terms of their concern for information rather than according to their actual scanning behavior.

  20. On the treatment of airline travelers in mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin; Gallagher, Nancy; Marano, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of infectious diseases is facilitated by the ability of infected humans to travel thousands of miles in short time spans, rapidly transporting pathogens to distant locations. Mathematical models of the actual and potential spread of specific pathogens can assist public health planning in the case of such an event. Models should generally be parsimonious, but must consider all potentially important components of the system to the greatest extent possible. We demonstrate and discuss important assumptions relative to the parameterization and structural treatment of airline travel in mathematical models. Among other findings, we show that the most common structural treatment of travelers leads to underestimation of the speed of spread and that connecting travel is critical to a realistic spread pattern. Models involving travelers can be improved significantly by relatively simple structural changes but also may require further attention to details of parameterization.

  1. Disorders of the menstrual cycle in airline stewardesses.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, R; Terrés, A; Chavarria, A

    1980-05-01

    Of 200 airline stewardesses, 39% underwent unfavourable changes in the menstrual cycle after commencing aeronautical activities while 11% who had previous disorders healed soon after joining the company. Although 48% of the stewardesses underwent changes in menstruation during flight, in about half of these the menstrual flow increased and in the other half it decreased or disappeared, only to reappear with greater intensity after the flight; 38% of the stewardesses manifected suffering from pelvic discomfort after long flights. Sufficient research in this field has not been done. Therefore, it is difficult to trace the exact origin and mechanism of these changes in the menstrual cycle. Stress and internal desynchronitation due to disruption of circadian rhythm may intervene in generating these disorders.

  2. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  3. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day.

    PubMed

    de Mello, M T; Esteves, A M; Pires, M L N; Santos, D C; Bittencourt, L R A; Silva, R S; Tufik, S

    2008-12-01

    Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airline presented major errors. Errors made by 515 captains and 472 co-pilots were analyzed using data from flight operation quality assurance systems. To analyze the times of day (shifts) during which incidents occurred, we divided the light-dark cycle (24:00) in four periods: morning, afternoon, night, and early morning. The differences of risk during the day were reported as the ratio of morning to afternoon, morning to night and morning to early morning error rates. For the purposes of this research, level 3 events alone were taken into account, since these were the most serious in which company operational limits were exceeded or when established procedures were not followed. According to airline flight schedules, 35% of flights take place in the morning period, 32% in the afternoon, 26% at night, and 7% in the early morning. Data showed that the risk of errors increased by almost 50% in the early morning relative to the morning period (ratio of 1:1.46). For the period of the afternoon, the ratio was 1:1.04 and for the night a ratio of 1:1.05 was found. These results showed that the period of the early morning represented a greater risk of attention problems and fatigue.

  4. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  5. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  6. Fuzzification of Electromagnetic Interference Patterns Onboard Commercial Airliners Due to Wireless Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The use of portable wireless technology has increased dramatically over the past few years. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). Personnel from NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes. In previous work, the IPL data collected was graphically plotted and presented using MATLAB. This paper provides an introductory result of modeling EMI patterns using Fuzzy Logic, using the graphical analysis of the IPL data summarized. The application of fuzzy logic seeks to provide a means of estimating IPL at various locations within an airplane passenger cabin using simple modeling parameters. Fuzzy logic methods may provide a means to assess IPL characteristics of aircraft that have not been subject to expensive measurement or modeling processes and may also be useful for estimating the merit of aircraft design changes intended to minimize the potential for EMI.

  7. "A brilliant ball of fire." The sabotage of United Airlines Flight 629.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G K

    1986-03-01

    Among the known causes of aircraft disasters, sabotage is perhaps the most terrifying and difficult to comprehend. Bombs have been exploded in at least 34 commercial aircraft, with the resultant loss of more than 300 lives. Motives for these acts include profit, the deaths of certain persons, and politics. On November 1, 1955, United Airlines Flight 629, bound to Denver-Portland, exploded and burned in flight near Longmont, Colorado, a few minutes after takeoff, with the loss of all 44 on board. Investigation revealed that the plane had been destroyed by the explosion of a bomb that had been placed in the rear luggage hold in Denver. Twelve days after the disaster, John Gilbert Graham, the son of one of the female passengers, was arrested and charged with murder. He reportedly admitted placing a time bomb on board the aircraft, apparently in order to collect $37,500.00 in life insurance that he had taken on his mother's life. Though he soon recanted, he was convicted of murder and was executed. The potential for additional such crimes remains.

  8. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity.

  9. Regional copy number-independent deregulation of transcription in cancer.

    PubMed

    Stransky, Nicolas; Vallot, Céline; Reyal, Fabien; Bernard-Pierrot, Isabelle; de Medina, Sixtina Gil Diez; Segraves, Rick; de Rycke, Yann; Elvin, Paul; Cassidy, Andrew; Spraggon, Carolyn; Graham, Alexander; Southgate, Jennifer; Asselain, Bernard; Allory, Yves; Abbou, Claude C; Albertson, Donna G; Thiery, Jean Paul; Chopin, Dominique K; Pinkel, Daniel; Radvanyi, François

    2006-12-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified that lead to transcriptional deregulation in cancers. Genetic mechanisms may affect single genes or regions containing several neighboring genes, as has been shown for DNA copy number changes. It was recently reported that epigenetic suppression of gene expression can also extend to a whole region; this is known as long-range epigenetic silencing. Various techniques are available for identifying regional genetic alterations, but no large-scale analysis has yet been carried out to obtain an overview of regional epigenetic alterations. We carried out an exhaustive search for regions susceptible to such mechanisms using a combination of transcriptome correlation map analysis and array CGH data for a series of bladder carcinomas. We validated one candidate region experimentally, demonstrating histone methylation leading to the loss of expression of neighboring genes without DNA methylation.

  10. Game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Manho

    This dissertation examines game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets. In particular, three specific applications are discussed: analyzing the competitive effects of ownership of financial transmission rights, developing a dynamic game model considering the ramp rate constraints of generators, and analyzing strategic behavior in electricity capacity markets. In the financial transmission right application, an investigation is made of how generators' ownership of financial transmission rights may influence the effects of the transmission lines on competition. In the second application, the ramp rate constraints of generators are explicitly modeled using a dynamic game framework, and the equilibrium is characterized as the Markov perfect equilibrium. Finally, the strategic behavior of market participants in electricity capacity markets is analyzed and it is shown that the market participants may exaggerate their available capacity in a Nash equilibrium. It is also shown that the more conservative the independent system operator's capacity procurement, the higher the risk of exaggerated capacity offers.

  11. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the

  12. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... re-exported aircraft bore the livery, colors and logos of Syrian Pearl Airlines, a national of Syria.... Coast Guard ALJ Docketing Center, 40 South Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202-4022. BIS may...

  13. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  14. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration..., DC, on May 31, 2012. Patricia Hu, Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research...

  15. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology...

  16. 77 FR 18306 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau... 20, 2012. Patricia Hu Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research and...

  17. Ras-Mediated Deregulation of the Circadian Clock in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Relógio, Angela; Thomas, Philippe; Medina-Pérez, Paula; Reischl, Silke; Bervoets, Sander; Gloc, Ewa; Riemer, Pamela; Mang-Fatehi, Shila; Maier, Bert; Schäfer, Reinhold; Leser, Ulf; Herzel, Hanspeter; Kramer, Achim; Sers, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are essential to the temporal regulation of molecular processes in living systems and as such to life itself. Deregulation of these rhythms leads to failures in biological processes and eventually to the manifestation of pathological phenotypes including cancer. To address the questions as to what are the elicitors of a disrupted clock in cancer, we applied a systems biology approach to correlate experimental, bioinformatics and modelling data from several cell line models for colorectal and skin cancer. We found strong and weak circadian oscillators within the same type of cancer and identified a set of genes, which allows the discrimination between the two oscillator-types. Among those genes are IFNGR2, PITX2, RFWD2, PPARγ, LOXL2, Rab6 and SPARC, all involved in cancer-related pathways. Using a bioinformatics approach, we extended the core-clock network and present its interconnection to the discriminative set of genes. Interestingly, such gene signatures link the clock to oncogenic pathways like the RAS/MAPK pathway. To investigate the potential impact of the RAS/MAPK pathway - a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis - on the circadian clock, we used a computational model which predicted that perturbation of BMAL1-mediated transcription can generate the circadian phenotypes similar to those observed in metastatic cell lines. Using an inducible RAS expression system, we show that overexpression of RAS disrupts the circadian clock and leads to an increase of the circadian period while RAS inhibition causes a shortening of period length, as predicted by our mathematical simulations. Together, our data demonstrate that perturbations induced by a single oncogene are sufficient to deregulate the mammalian circadian clock. PMID:24875049

  18. First Encounters of the Close Kind: The Formation Process of Airline Flight Crews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Everyday there are over 16,500 major commercial airline flights (DC-9, 737 or larger) departing in the United States (G. Mercer, personal communication...ten persons . Yet despite these design and regulatory imperative, the majority of behavioral research in the airline industry has been directed at topics...Flight 90 came back down, hitting the 14th Street Bridge before it crashed into the ice covered Potomac River, killing 74 persons on the aircraft and

  19. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  20. The impact of Southwest Airline's contribution to atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide totals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Cody L.

    Over the last century, aviation has grown to become an economical juggernaut. The industry creates innovation, connects people, and maintains a safety goal unlike any other field. However, as the world becomes more populated with technology and individuals, a general curiosity as to how human activity effects the planet is becoming of greater interest. This study presents what one domestic airline in the United States, Southwest Airlines, contributes to the atmospheric make-up of the planet. Utilizing various sources of quantifiable data, an outcome was reached that shows the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide produced by Southwest Airlines from 2002 to 2013. This topic was chosen due to the fact that there are no real quantifiable values of emission statistics from airlines available to the public. Further investigation allowed for Southwest Airlines to be compared to the overall Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide contributions of the United States for the year 2011. The results showed that with the absence of any set standard on emissions, it is vital that one should be established. The data showed that the current ICAO standard emission values showed a higher level of emissions than when Southwest Airline's fleet was analyzed using their actual fleet mix.

  1. 76 FR 6759 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Decision With Respect to the Petition for Partial Deregulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Petition for Partial Deregulation of Genetically Engineered Roundup Ready Sugar Beets AGENCY: Animal and... decision to ``partially deregulate'' Roundup Ready sugar beets developed by the Monsanto Company (Monsanto... root crop production activities when conducted under certain mandatory conditions. APHIS has...

  2. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  3. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  4. CDX2-driven leukemogenesis involves KLF4 repression and deregulated PPARγ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Katrin; Bullinger, Lars; Ragu, Christine; Garding, Angela; Mertens, Daniel; Miller, Christina; Martin, Daniela; Walcher, Daniel; Döhner, Konstanze; Döhner, Hartmut; Claus, Rainer; Plass, Christoph; Sykes, Stephen M.; Lane, Steven W.; Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the homeodomain transcription factor CDX2 occurs in most cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and promotes leukemogenesis, making CDX2, in principle, an attractive therapeutic target. Conversely, CDX2 acts as a tumor suppressor in colonic epithelium. The effectors mediating the leukemogenic activity of CDX2 and the mechanism underlying its context-dependent properties are poorly characterized, and strategies for interfering with CDX2 function in AML remain elusive. We report data implicating repression of the transcription factor KLF4 as important for the oncogenic activity of CDX2, and demonstrate that CDX2 differentially regulates KLF4 in AML versus colon cancer cells through a mechanism that involves tissue-specific patterns of promoter binding and epigenetic modifications. Furthermore, we identified deregulation of the PPARγ signaling pathway as a feature of CDX2-associated AML and observed that PPARγ agonists derepressed KLF4 and were preferentially toxic to CDX2+ leukemic cells. These data delineate transcriptional programs associated with CDX2 expression in hematopoietic cells, provide insight into the antagonistic duality of CDX2 function in AML versus colon cancer, and suggest reactivation of KLF4 expression, through modulation of PPARγ signaling, as a therapeutic modality in a large proportion of AML patients. PMID:23202735

  5. Microbial assessment of cabin air quality on commercial airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Stuecker, Tara; Bearman, Gregory; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    The microbial burdens of 69 cabin air samples collected from commercial airliners were assessed via conventional culture-dependent, and molecular-based microbial enumeration assays. Cabin air samples from each of four separate flights aboard two different carriers were collected via air-impingement. Microbial enumeration techniques targeting DNA, ATP, and endotoxin were employed to estimate total microbial burden. The total viable microbial population ranged from 0 to 3.6 x10 4 cells per 100 liters of air, as assessed by the ATP-assay. When these same samples were plated on R2A minimal medium, anywhere from 2% to 80% of these viable populations were cultivable. Five of the 29 samples examined exhibited higher cultivable counts than ATP derived viable counts, perhaps a consequence of the dormant nature (and thus lower concentration of intracellular ATP) of cells inhabiting these air cabin samples. Ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed these samples to consist of a moderately diverse group of bacteria, including human pathogens. Enumeration of ribosomal genes via quantitative-PCR indicated that population densities ranged from 5 x 10 1 ' to IO 7 cells per 100 liters of air. Each of the aforementioned strategies for assessing overall microbial burden has its strengths and weaknesses; this publication serves as a testament to the power of their use in concert.

  6. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    PubMed Central

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their relevance, more than 90% of the world airports are still interconnected upon removal of this core. With standard and unconventional removal measures we compare both empirical and topological perceptions for the fragmentation of the world. We identify how the WAN is organized into different classes of clusters based on the physical proximity of airports and analyze the consequence of this fragmentation. PMID:25005934

  7. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  8. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ahmet; Al-Deleamy, Louai S; Kendirli, Tansel M

    2007-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common types of peripheral vertigo, characterized by violent whirling vertigo after a positional change. Although the condition is termed "benign," the clinical presentation can be incapacitating for pilots in certain maneuvers. We present a case of an airline transport pilot with the complaint of vertigo for 5 d. The vertigo was aggravated by head movements when looking up or rolling over, lasting for a few seconds. The patient was diagnosed with BPPV, and he was treated with physical therapy with the use of Epley maneuver. The airman applied for his First-Class medical examination after the treatment was successfully completed. The aviation medical examiner (AME) issued the airman medical certificate after contacting and receiving verbal approval from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Aerospace Medical Certification Division (AMCD). While evaluating aviators who have had BPPV, AMEs should not issue medical certificates for any class until the condition is fully resolved. Although the AME Guide states that certification of pilots with other types of vertigo requires an FAA decision, once the patient is successfully treated and free of symptoms, approval for issuing the medical certificate can be obtained through contacting AMCD and by submitting all information and documentation pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  10. [Deregulation and equity: the Obras Sociales reconversion process in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Findling, Liliana; Arrunada, María; Klimovsky, Ezequiel

    2002-01-01

    The health care services managed by trade unions and known as "Obras Sociales" form the groundwork for Argentina's Social Security and Health system. However, far from taking an equitable approach, these institutions highlight the country's prevailing income disparities, which in turn lead to major differences in access to care. The main focus of this study was the reformulation of social security health policies within the framework of deregulation from 1998 to 2000, analyzing the effects on availability of health care services from an equity perspective. The methodology used two related analytical levels: (1) a macro level viewing the process from the various players' strategies and (2) a micro level featuring the changes within a well-known trade union social security organization during its reconversion process, emphasizing its institutional scope and the opinions of its membership. The results thus pointed to the slow implementation of reforms initiated by the public sector, hindered by constant negotiations among the main corporate actors seeking to serve their particular interests, along with increased inequity and fragmentation due to the limited opening of free choice by members.

  11. Deregulation of dicer and mir-155 expression in liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Iuliani, Michele; Zoccoli, Alice; Pantano, Francesco; Fioramonti, Marco; De Lisi, Delia; Frezza, Anna Maria; Rabitti, Carla; Perrone, Giuseppe; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Russo, Antonio; Giordano, Antonio; Santini, Daniele; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma. It has been demonstrated that mir-155 was the most overexpressed miRNA in well-differentiated LPS(WDLPS)/dedifferentiated LPS (DDLPS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the involvement of Dicer, Drosha and mir-155 in development of LPS and their possible role in stratification of different histological subtypes. Dicer, Drosha and mir-155 mRNA levels were analyzed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients diagnosed with 62 LPS and compared with samples of adipose tissues of healthy donors. The experimental data were obtained using qRT-PCR comparing Dicer, Drosha and mir-155 expression levels in tumor samples versus normal fat. The tumor samples from LPS patients showed a significantly lower Dicer expression versus normal adipose tissue, while Drosha levels did not differ. Concerning mir155 expression levels, our results demonstrated a significant mir-155 up-regulation in all LPS subtypes versus normal adipose tissue except for WDLS. These findings demonstrate for the first time that Dicer is deregulated in LPS and show that mir-155 is differentially expressed in LPS subgroups and it could be a promising tool to improve LPS disease stratification and differential diagnosis. PMID:25888631

  12. Hypermutation of DPYD Deregulates Pyrimidine Metabolism and Promotes Malignant Progression

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lauren; Gupta, Rohit; Filipp, Fabian V.

    2016-01-01

    New strategies are needed to diagnose and target human melanoma. To this end, genomic analyses was performed to assess somatic mutations and gene expression signatures using a large cohort of human skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project to identify critical differences between primary and metastatic tumors. Interestingly, pyrimidine metabolism is one of the major pathways to be significantly enriched and deregulated at the transcriptional level in melanoma progression. In addition, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and other important pyrimidine-related genes: DPYS, AK9, CAD, CANT1, ENTPD1, NME6, NT5C1A, POLE, POLQ, POLR3B, PRIM2, REV3L, and UPP2 are significantly enriched in somatic mutations relative to the background mutation rate. Structural analysis of the DPYD protein dimer reveals a potential hotspot of recurring somatic mutations in the ligand binding sites as well as the interfaces of protein domains that mediated electron transfer. Somatic mutations of DPYD are associated with upregulation of pyrimidine degradation, nucleotide synthesis, and nucleic acid processing while salvage and nucleotide conversion is downregulated in TCGA SKCM. PMID:26609109

  13. Deregulation of lipid metabolism pathway genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    DAKER, MAELINDA; BHUVANENDRAN, SAATHEEYAVAANE; AHMAD, MUNIRAH; TAKADA, KENZO; KHOO, ALAN SOO-BENG

    2012-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique tumour of epithelial origin with a distinct geographical distribution, closely associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) are small non-polyadenylated RNAs that are abundantly expressed in latent EBV-infected NPC cells. To study the role of EBERs in NPC, we established stable expression of EBERs in HK1, an EBV-negative NPC cell line. Cells expressing EBERs consistently exhibited an increased growth rate. However, EBERs did not confer resistance towards cisplatin-induced apoptosis or promote migration or invasion ability in the cells tested. Using microarray gene expression profiling, we identified potential candidate genes that were deregulated in NPC cells expressing EBERs. Gene Ontology analysis of the data set revealed that EBERs upregulate the cellular lipid metabolic process. Upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) was observed in EBER-expressing cells. NPC cells exhibited LDL-dependent cell proliferation. In addition, a polyphenolic flavonoid compound, quercetin, known to inhibit FASN, was found to inhibit proliferation of NPC cells. PMID:23292678

  14. Issues in the deregulation of the electric industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Cleve Brent

    The electric industry is undergoing a major restructuring which allows competition in the generation portion of the industry. This dissertation explores several pricing issues relevant to this restructuring. First, an extensive overview examines the industry's history, discusses major regulation theories, and relays the major issues of deregulation. Second, a literature review recounts major works in the economics literature on price discrimination, pricing efficiency, and cost estimation. Then, customer specific generation, transmission, distribution, and general and administration costs are estimated for each company. The customer classes are residential, general service, large general service, and large industrial, representing a finer division of customer classes than found in previous studies. Average prices are compiled and marginal prices are determined from a set of utility schedules. Average and marginal price/cost ratios are computed for each customer class. These ratios show that larger use customers face relative price discrimination but operate under more efficient price structures than small use consumers. Finally, issues in peak load pricing are discussed using a model which predicts inefficient capital choice by regulated utilities. Efficiency losses are estimated to be $620 million dollars a year from the lack of peak load prices under regulation. This result is based on the time-of-use pricing predictions from the Department of Energy.

  15. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to determine if improved operations technologies are economically viable for US airlines, and to determine the level of environmental benefits available from such technologies. Though these operational changes are being implemented primarily with the reduction of delay and improvement of throughput in mind, economic factors will drive the rate of airline adoption. In addition, the increased awareness of environmental impacts makes these effects an important aspect of decision-making. Understanding this relationship may help policymakers make decisions regarding implementation of these advanced technologies at airports, and help airlines determine appropriate levels of support to provide for these new technologies. In order to do so, the author models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline in response to the introduction of advanced equipage allowing improved operations procedures. The airline response included changes in deployed fleet, assignment of aircraft to routes, and acquisition of new aircraft. From these responses, changes in total fleet-level CO2 emissions and airline profit were tallied. As awareness of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions has grown, several agencies (ICAO, NASA) have moved to place goals for emissions reduction. NASA, in particular, has set goals for emissions reduction through several areas of aircraft technology. Among these are "Operational Improvements," technologies available in the short-term through avionics and airport system upgrades. The studies in this thesis make use of the Fleet-Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a simulation tool developed by Purdue University in support of a NASA-sponsored research effort. This tool models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline through an allocation problem. The problem is contained within a systems dynamics type approach that allows feedback between passenger demand, ticket price, and the airline fleet composition

  16. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  17. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  18. Cancer incidence in airline cabin crew: experience from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Linnersjo, A; Hammar, N; Dammstrom, B; Johansson, M; Eliasch, H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the cancer incidence in Swedish cabin crew. Methods: Cancer incidence of cabin crew at the Swedish Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) (2324 women and 632 men) employed from 1957 to 1994 was determined during 1961–96 from the Swedish National Cancer Register. The cancer incidence in cabin crew was compared with that of the general Swedish population by comparing observed and expected number of cases through standardised incidence ratios (SIR). A nested case-control study was performed, including cancer cases diagnosed after 1979 and four controls per case matched by gender, age, and calendar year. Results: The SIR for cancer overall was 1.01 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.24) for women and 1.16 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.55) for men. Both men and women had an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin (SIR 2.18 and 3.66 respectively) and men of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 4.42). Female cabin attendants had a non-significant increase of breast cancer (SIR 1.30; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.74). No clear associations were found between length of employment or cumulative block hours and cancer incidence. Conclusions: Swedish cabin crew had an overall cancer incidence similar to that of the general population. An increased incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer may be associated with exposure to UV radiation, either at work or outside work. An increased risk of breast cancer in female cabin crew is consistent with our results and may in part be due to differences in reproductive history. PMID:14573710

  19. Early2 factor (E2F) deregulation is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Kurtyka, Courtney A; Welsh, Eric A; Engel, Brienne E; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Yoder, Sean J; Eschrich, Steven A; Creelan, Ben C; Chiappori, Alberto A; Gray, Jhanelle E; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Rosell, Rafael; Schabath, Matthew B; Haura, Eric B; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Cress, Douglas W

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians routinely prescribe adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) for resected non-small cell lung cancer patients. However, ACT only improves five-year disease-free survival in stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer by 5-15%, with most patients deriving no benefit. Herein, deregulation of the E2F pathway was explored as a biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma patients. An E2F pathway scoring system, based on 74 E2F-regulated genes, was trained for RNA from two platforms: fresh-frozen (FF) or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The E2F score was tested as a prognostic biomarker in five FF-based cohorts and two FFPE-based cohorts. The E2F score was tested as a predictive biomarker in two randomized clinical trials; JBR10 and the NATCH (Neo-Adjuvant Taxol-Carboplatin Hope) trial. The E2F score was prognostic in untreated patients in all seven datasets examined (p < 0.05). Stage-specific analysis of combined cohorts demonstrated that the E2F score was prognostic in stage I patients (p = 0.0495 to <0.001; hazard ratio, HR, =2.04- 2.22) with a similar trend in other stages. The E2F score was strongly predictive in stage II patients from the two combined randomized clinical trials with a significant differential treatment effect (p = 0.015). Specifically, ACT improved survival in stage II patients with high E2F (p = 0.01; HR= 0.21). The 5-year survival increased from 18% to 81%. In contrast, in patients with low E2F, 5-year survival was 57% in untreated patients and 41% in ACT-treated patients with a HR of 1.55 (p = 0.47). In summary, the E2F score provides valuable prognostic information for Stage I and predictive information for Stage II lung adenocarcinoma patients and should be further explored as a decision support tool for their treatment. PMID:27756884

  20. EGFR gene deregulation mechanisms in lung adenocarcinoma: A molecular review.

    PubMed

    Tsiambas, Evangelos; Lefas, Alicia Y; Georgiannos, Stavros N; Ragos, Vasileios; Fotiades, Panagiotis P; Grapsa, Dimitra; Stamatelopoulos, Athanasios; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    For the last two decades, evolution in molecular biology has expanded our knowledge in decoding a broad spectrum of genomic imbalances that progressively lead normal cells to a neoplastic state and finally to complete malignant transformation. Concerning oncogenes and signaling transduction pathways mediated by them, identification of specific gene alterations remains a critical process for handling patients by applying targeted therapeutic regimens. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in normal cells. EGFR mutations and amplification represent the gene's main deregulation mechanisms in cancers of different histo-genetic origin. Furthermore, intra-cancer molecular heterogeneity due to clonal rise and expansion mainly explains the variable resistance to novel anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb), and also tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). According to recently published 2015 WHO new classification, lung cancer is the leading cause of death related to cancer and its incidence is still on the increase worldwide. The majority of patients suffering from lung cancer are diagnosed with epithelial tumors (adenocarcinoma predominantly and squamous cell carcinoma represent ∼85% of all pathologically defined lung cancer cases). In those patients, EGFR-activating somatic mutations in exons 18/19/20/21 modify patients' sensitivity (i.e. exon 21 L858R, exon 19 LREA deletion) or resistance (ie exon 20 T790M and/or insertion) to TKI mediated targeted therapeutic strategies. Additionally, the role of specific micro-RNAs that affect EGFR regulation is under investigation. In the current review, we focused on EGFR gene/protein structural and functional aspects and the corresponding alterations that occur mainly in lung adenocarcinoma to critically modify its molecular landscape.

  1. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  2. A Comparison of Center/TRACON Automation System and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Benefits from information sharing between an air traffic service provider and a major air carrier are evaluated. Aircraft arrival time schedules generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) were provided to the American Airlines System Operations Control Center in Fort Worth, Texas, during a field trial of a specialized CTAS display. A statistical analysis indicates that the CTAS schedules, based on aircraft trajectories predicted from real-time radar and weather data, are substantially more accurate than the traditional airline arrival time estimates, constructed from flight plans and en route crew updates. The improvement offered by CTAS is especially advantageous during periods of heavy traffic and substantial terminal area delay, allowing the airline to avoid large predictive errors with serious impact on the efficiency and profitability of flight operations.

  3. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  4. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  5. Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the accounting and stock price performance of two Canadian airlines, WestJet and Air Canada, over a five year period, taking into account the aftermath of the systemic shock to the airline industry produced by the September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorist attacks and subsequent events such as the 2002 SARS outbreak, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the accompanying rise in jet fuel prices. Our study focuses on the viability of low-cost versus conventional-cost business models in Canada under the current business environment and the ability of airlines to withstand and effectively respond to catastrophic industry events. Furthermore, we link the effectiveness of the airlines responses to these events to specific elements of their respective business models. We test our hypothesis through a case study. We focus on WestJet as a typical low-cost airline and compare its accounting and stock performance to Air Canada, a legacy carrier and rival in several business sectors. We find WestJet to be much less affected by catastrophic industry events. By decomposing each airline s return volatility, we observe that WestJet s systematic and unsystematic risk increased only slightly during the industry's post-9-11 turmoil when compared to Air Canada. In addition, we find that both WestJet s accounting and stock performance have been highly superior to those of Air Canada. We argue that WestJet s business model provides the firm with significantly more financial and operational flexibility than its legacy rival, Air Canada. WestJet's lower operating costs, high consumer trust, product offering, corporate structure, workforce and work practices, as well as operational procedures are all factors that appear to contribute to its relative success.

  6. An explosives detection system for airline security using coherent x-ray scattering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert W.; Mahdavieh, Jacob; Smith, Richard C.; Subramanian, Ravi

    2008-08-01

    L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems (SDS) has developed a new system for automated alarm resolution in airline baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on coherent x-ray scattering spectroscopy. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated in tests with concealed explosives at the Transportation Security Laboratory and airline passenger baggage at Orlando International Airport. The system uses x-ray image information to identify suspicious objects and performs targeted diffraction measurements to classify them. This extra layer of detection capability affords a significant reduction in the rate of false alarm objects that must presently be resolved by opening passenger bags for hand inspection.

  7. Simulated airline service experience with laminar-flow control leading-edge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Fisher, David F.; Jennett, Lisa A.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The first JetStar leading edge flight test was made November 30, 1983. The JetStar was flown for more than 3 years. The titanium leading edge test articles today remain in virtually the same condition as they were in on that first flight. No degradation of laminar flow performance has occurred as a result of service. The JetStar simulated airline service flights have demonstrated that effective, practical leading edge systems are available for future commercial transports. Specific conclusions based on the results of the simulated airline service test program are summarized.

  8. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  9. ACTS broadband aeronautical experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Estabrook, Polly; Agan, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, the demand for reliable data, voice, and video satellite communication links between aircraft and ground to improve air traffic control, airline management, and to meet the growing demand for passenger communications has increased significantly. It is expected that in the near future, the spectrum required for aeronautical communication services will grow significantly beyond that currently available at L-band. In anticipation of this, JPL is developing an experimental broadband aeronautical satellite communications system that will utilize NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as a satellite of opportunity and the technology developed under JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) Task to evaluate the feasibility of using K/Ka-band for these applications. The application of K/Ka-band for aeronautical satellite communications at cruise altitudes is particularly promising for several reasons: (1) the minimal amount of signal attenuation due to rain; (2) the reduced drag due to the smaller K/Ka-band antennas (as compared to the current L-band systems); and (3) the large amount of available bandwidth. The increased bandwidth available at these frequencies is expected to lead to significantly improved passenger communications - including full-duplex compressed video and multiple channel voice. A description of the proposed broadband experimental system will be presented including: (1) applications of K/Ka-band aeronautical satellite technology to U.S. industry; (2) the experiment objectives; (3) the experiment set-up; (4) experimental equipment description; and (5) industrial participation in the experiment and the benefits.

  10. Formulation and demonstration of a robust mean variance optimization approach for concurrent airline network and aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendralingam, Navindran

    Conceptual design of aircraft and the airline network (routes) on which aircraft fly on are inextricably linked to passenger driven demand. Many factors influence passenger demand for various Origin-Destination (O-D) city pairs including demographics, geographic location, seasonality, socio-economic factors and naturally, the operations of directly competing airlines. The expansion of airline operations involves the identificaion of appropriate aircraft to meet projected future demand. The decisions made in incorporating and subsequently allocating these new aircraft to serve air travel demand affects the inherent risk and profit potential as predicted through the airline revenue management systems. Competition between airlines then translates to latent passenger observations of the routes served between OD pairs and ticket pricing---this in effect reflexively drives future states of demand. This thesis addresses the integrated nature of aircraft design, airline operations and passenger demand, in order to maximize future expected profits as new aircraft are brought into service. The goal of this research is to develop an approach that utilizes aircraft design, airline network design and passenger demand as a unified framework to provide better integrated design solutions in order to maximize expexted profits of an airline. This is investigated through two approaches. The first is a static model that poses the concurrent engineering paradigm above as an investment portfolio problem. Modern financial portfolio optimization techniques are used to leverage risk of serving future projected demand using a 'yet to be introduced' aircraft against potentially generated future profits. Robust optimization methodologies are incorporated to mitigate model sensitivity and address estimation risks associated with such optimization techniques. The second extends the portfolio approach to include dynamic effects of an airline's operations. A dynamic programming approach is

  11. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  12. A study of the financial history of the U.S. scheduled airlines and the improvement of airline profitability through technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The financial history of the U.S. scheduled airline industry was investigated to determine the causes of the erratic profit performance of the industry and to evaluate potential economic gains from technology advances of recent years. Operational and economic factors affecting past and future profitability of the industry are discussed, although no attempt was made to examine the profitability of individual carriers. The results of the study indicate that the profit erosion of the late 1960's and early 1970's was due more to excess capacity than to inadequate fare levels, but airline problems were severely compounded by the rapid fuel price escalation in 1974 and 1975. Near-term solutions to the airline financial problems depend upon the course of action by the industry and the CAB and the general economic health of the nation. For the longer term, the only acceptable alternative to continued fare increases is a reduction in unit operating costs through technological advance. The next generation of transports is expected to incorporate technologies developed under Government sponsorship in the 1960's and 1970's with significant improvements in fuel consumption and operating costs.

  13. MiR-194 Deregulation Contributes To Colorectal Carcinogenesis via Targeting AKT2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui-Jun; Ren, Lin-Lin; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Tian-Tian; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ying-Chao; Yan, Ting-Ting; Zou, Weiping; He, Jie; Zhang, Yaou; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Recent studies have increasingly linked microRNAs to colorectal cancer (CRC). MiR-194 has been reported deregulated in different tumor types, whereas the function of miR-194 in CRC largely remains unexplored. Here we investigated the biological effects, mechanisms and clinical significance of miR-194. Functional assay revealed that overexpression of miR-194 inhibited CRC cell viability and invasion in vitro and suppressed CRC xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, block of miR-194 in APCMin/+ mice promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, miR-194 reduced the expression of AKT2 both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, the expression of miR-194 gradually decreased from 20 normal colorectal mucosa (N-N) cases through 40 colorectal adenomas (CRA) cases and then to 40 CRC cases, and was negatively correlated with AKT2 and pAKT2 expression. Furthermore, expression of miR-194 in stool samples was gradually decreased from 20 healthy cases, 20 CRA cases, then to 28 CRC cases. Low expression of miR-194 in CRC tissues was associated with large tumor size (P=0.006), lymph node metastasis (P=0.012) and shorter survival (HR =2.349, 95% CI = 1.242 to 4.442; P=0.009). In conclusion, our data indicated that miR-194 acted as a tumor suppressor in the colorectal carcinogenesis via targeting PDK1/AKT2/XIAP pathway, and could be a significant diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for CRC. PMID:25285168

  14. An automated system for global atmospheric sampling using B-747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, K. Q.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.; Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The global air sampling program utilizes commercial aircrafts in scheduled service to measure atmospheric constituents. A fully automated system designed for the 747 aircraft is described. Airline operational constraints and data and control subsystems are treated. The overall program management, system monitoring, and data retrieval from four aircraft in global service is described.

  15. Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel…

  16. Newspaper Front Page Coverage of "the Korean Airliner Boeing 747 Massacre" in Six Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jong Geun

    A study investigated three United States and three foreign newspapers to determine the direction or bias of coverage of the 1983 Korean Airline (KAL) incident and any differences in coverage. It was hypothesized (1) that the amount of space allotted to the story in U. S. newspapers would be greater than that in foreign newspapers; (2) that there…

  17. Pilot's Guide to an Airline Career, Including Sample Pre-Employment Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, W.L.

    Occupational information for persons considering a career as an airline pilot includes a detailed description of the pilot's duties and material concerning preparation for occupational entry and determining the relative merits of available jobs. The book consists of four parts: Part I, The Job, provides an overview of a pilot's duties in his daily…

  18. Sur une ligne aerienne. Carrieres bilinques (On an Airline. Bilingual Careers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argue, Valerie; Ullmann, Rebecca

    This multimedia kit for French instruction at the secondary level aims to acquaint students with some basic airline terminology in French. One goal of the modular course is to show students the practical link that exists between the study of French and the work world. The kit is represented by a teacher's guide, a student handbook, and a…

  19. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.9 Arranging for entry...

  20. Customers' attributional judgments towards complaint handling in airline service: a confirmatory study based on attribution theory.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-06-01

    Besides flight safety, complaint handling plays a crucial role in airline service. Based upon Kelley's attribution theory, in the present study customers' attributions were examined under different conditions of complaint handling by the airlines. There were 531 passengers (216 women; ages 21 to 63 years, M = 41.5, SD = 11.1) with experiences of customer complaints who were recruited while awaiting boarding. Participants received one hypothetical scenario of three attributional conditions about complaint handling and then reported their attributional judgments. The findings indicated that the passengers were most likely to attribute the company's complaint handling to unconditional compliance when the airline company reacted to customer complaints under low distinctiveness, high consistency, and when consensus among the airlines was low. On the other hand, most passengers attributed the company's complaint handling to conditional compliance under the conditions in which distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus were all high. The results provide further insights into how different policies of complaint management affect customers' attributions. Future directions and managerial implications are also discussed.

  1. Development and Preliminary Results of CTAS on Airline Operational Control Center Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard; Beatty, Roger; Falcone, Richard; Engelland, Shawn; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Continued growth and expansion of air traffic and increased air carrier economic pressures have mandated greater flexibility and collaboration in air traffic management. The ability of airspace users to select their own routes, so called "free-flight", and to more actively manage their fleet operations for maximum economic advantage are receiving great attention. A first step toward greater airspace user and service provider collaboration is information sharing. In this work, arrival scheduling and airspace management data generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and used by the FAA service provider is shared with an airline with extensive operations within the CTAS operational domain. The design and development of a specialized airline CTAS "repeater" system is described, as well as some preliminary results of the impact and benefits of this information on the air carrier's operations. FAA controller per aircraft scheduling information, such as that provided by CTAS, has never before been shared in real-time with an airline. Expected airline benefits include improved fleet planning and arrival gate management, more informed "hold-go" decisions, and avoidance of costly aircraft diversions to alternate airports when faced with uncertain airborne arrival delays.

  2. Development and Preliminary Results of CTAS on Airline Operational Control Center Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard; Beatty, Roger; Engelland, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Continued growth and expansion of air traffic and increased air carrier economic pressures have mandated greater flexibility and collaboration in air traffic management. The ability of airspace users to select their own routes, so called "free-flight", and to more actively manage their fleet operations for maximum economic advantage are receiving great attention. A first step toward greater airspace user and service provider collaboration is information sharing. In this work, arrival scheduling and airspace management data generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and used by the FAA service provider is shared with an airline with extensive operations within the CTAS operational domain. The design and development of a specialized airline CTAS "repeater" system is described, as well as some preliminary results of the impact and benefits of this information on the air carrier's operations. FAA controller per aircraft scheduling information, such as that provided by CTAS, has never before been shared in real-time with an airline. Expected airline benefits include improved fleet planning and arrival gate management, more informed "hold-go decisions, and avoidance of costly aircraft diversions to alternate airports when faced with uncertain airborne arrival delays.

  3. Field Evaluation of Whole Airliner Decontamination Technologies for Narrow-Body Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Field Evaluation of Whole Airliner Decontamination Technologies for Narrow- Body Aircraft William F. Gale Hyacinth S. Gale Air Transportation...be the case with most decontamination chemistries, as VHP breaks down readily to water and oxygen. Nonetheless, the use of a fully closed-loop

  4. 14 CFR 135.336 - Airline transport pilot certification training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Instructor duties, privileges, responsibilities, and limitations; (iv) Training policies and procedures; and... training program. 135.336 Section 135.336 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.336 Airline transport pilot certification training program. (a)...

  5. 75 FR 17050 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay Data on Web Sites AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This extension is in response to... requirement to display flight delay data on Web sites in view of the extensive changes to carriers'...

  6. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  7. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... director: (1) A list of names of all airline employees authorized to break Customs seals on liquor kits in... the seals on aircraft liquor kits shall check the contents at once. The employees shall immediately... on the liquor kits and those recorded on the stores list; and (3) Differences in quantity as shown...

  8. A summary of investigations of severe turbulence incidents using airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, P. F.; Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Work done on the NASA-Ames data base of digital flight records from airliners involved in severe turbulence incidences is summarized. The summary includes descriptions of the archived cases, data processing procedures, estimated errors, analysis procedures, and significant results to date. Thirteen severe turbulence cases are listed.

  9. "Checklist Complete". Or Is It? Closing a Task in the Airline Cockpit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    For airline pilots, the call of "checklist complete" is officially prescribed talk to claim that the crew's joint conduct of a checklist is over, and the task can be understood as closed. However, very often this call is not the final talk for the task. This paper uses naturally occurring data, transcriptions of pilots interacting on actual…

  10. Linking deregulation of non-coding RNA to the core pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Millan, Mark J

    2017-03-17

    The human genome encodes a vast repertoire of protein non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), some specific to the brain. MicroRNAs, which interfere with the translation of target mRNAs, are of particular interest since their deregulation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains challenging to link the complex body of observations on miRNAs and AD into a coherent framework. Using extensive graphical support, this article discusses how a diverse panoply of miRNAs convergently and divergently impact (and are impacted by) core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; aberrant generation of β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42); anomalies in the production, cleavage and post-translational marking of Tau; impaired clearance of Aβ42 and Tau; perturbation of axonal organisation; disruption of synaptic plasticity; endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response; mitochondrial dysfunction; aberrant induction of cell cycle re-entry; and apoptotic loss of neurons. Intriguingly, some classes of miRNA provoke these cellular anomalies, whereas others act in a counter-regulatory, protective mode. Moreover, changes in levels of certain species of miRNA are a consequence of the above-mentioned anomalies. In addition to miRNAs, circular RNAs, piwiRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other types of ncRNA are being increasingly implicated in AD. Overall, a complex mesh of deregulated and multi-tasking ncRNAs reciprocally interacts with pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. Alterations in ncRNAs can be detected in CSF and the circulation as well as the brain, and are showing promise as biomarkers, with the ultimate goal clinical exploitation as targets for novel modes of symptomatic and course-altering therapy.

  11. Clearing the airways: advocacy and regulation for smoke-free airlines

    PubMed Central

    Holm, A; Davis, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the advocacy and regulatory history surrounding bans on smoking in commercial airliners. Methods: Review of historical documents, popular press articles, and other sources to trace the timeline of events leading up to the US ban on smoking in airliners and subsequent efforts by airlines and other nations. Results: In early years, efforts by flight attendants and health advocates to make commercial airliners smoke-free were not productive. Advocacy efforts between 1969 and 1984 resulted in maintenance of the status quo, with modest exceptions (creation of smoking and non-smoking sections of aircraft, and a ban on cigar and pipe smoking). Several breakthrough events in the mid 1980s, however, led to an abrupt turnaround in regulatory efforts. The first watershed event was the publication in 1986 of the National Academy of Science's report on the airliner cabin environment, which recommended banning smoking on all commercial flights. Subsequently, following concerted lobbying efforts by health advocates, Congress passed legislation banning smoking on US domestic flights of less than two hours, which became effective in 1988. The law was made permanent and extended to flights of less than six hours in 1990. This landmark legislation propelled the adoption of similar rules internationally, both by airlines and their industry's governing bodies. Though the tobacco industry succeeded in stalling efforts to create smoke-free airways, it was ultimately unable to muster sufficient grassroots support or scientific evidence to convince the general public or policymakers that smoking should continue to be allowed on airlines. Conclusions: The movement to ban smoking in aircraft represents a case study in effective advocacy for smoke-free workplaces. Health advocates, with crucial assistance from flight attendants, used an incremental advocacy process to push for smoking and non-smoking sections on US commercial flights, then for smoking bans on short

  12. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  13. [Deregulation of pre-messenger RNA splicing and rare diseases].

    PubMed

    de la Grange, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Most of protein-coding human genes are subjected to alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This mechanism is highly regulated to precisely modulate detection of specific splice sites. This regulation is under control of the spliceosome and several splicing factors are also required to modulate the alternative usage of splice sites. Splicing factors and spliceosome components recognize splicing signals and regulatory sequences of the pre-mRNAs. These splicing sequences make splicing susceptible to polymorphisms and mutations. Examples of associations between human rare diseases and defects in pre-messenger RNA splicing are accumulating. Although many alterations are caused by mutations in splicing sequence (i.e., cis acting mutations), recent studies described the disruptive impact of mutations within spliceosome components or splicing factors (i.e., trans acting mutations). Following growing of knowledge regarding splicing regulation, several approaches have been developed to compensate for the effect of deleterious mutations and to restore sufficient amounts of functional protein.

  14. Posttranscriptional deregulation of signaling pathways in meningioma subtypes by differential expression of miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Nicole; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Mueller, Sabine C.; Backes, Christina; Werner, Tamara V.; Galata, Valentina; Sartorius, Elke; Bohle, Rainer M.; Keller, Andreas; Meese, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Background Micro (mi)RNAs are key regulators of gene expression and offer themselves as biomarkers for cancer development and progression. Meningioma is one of the most frequent primary intracranial tumors. As of yet, there are limited data on the role of miRNAs in meningioma of different histological subtypes and the affected signaling pathways. Methods In this study, we compared expression of 1205 miRNAs in different meningioma grades and histological subtypes using microarrays and independently validated deregulation of selected miRNAs with quantitative real-time PCR. Clinical utility of a subset of miRNAs as biomarkers for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II meningioma based on quantitative real-time data was tested. Potential targets of deregulated miRNAs were discovered with an in silico analysis. Results We identified 13 miRNAs deregulated between different subtypes of benign meningiomas, and 52 miRNAs deregulated in anaplastic meningioma compared with benign meningiomas. Known and putative target genes of deregulated miRNAs include genes involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition for benign meningiomas, and Wnt, transforming growth factor–β, and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling for higher-grade meningiomas. Furthermore, a 4-miRNA signature (miR-222, -34a*, -136, and -497) shows promise as a biomarker differentiating WHO grade II from grade I meningiomas with an area under the curve of 0.75. Conclusions Our data provide novel insights into the contribution of miRNAs to the phenotypic spectrum in benign meningiomas. By deregulating translation of genes belonging to signaling pathways known to be important for meningioma genesis and progression, miRNAs provide a second in line amplification of growth promoting cellular signals. MiRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis of aggressive meningiomas might prove useful and should be explored further in a prospective manner. PMID:25681310

  15. Escape from Cbl-mediated downregulation: a recurrent theme for oncogenic deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Peschard, Pascal; Park, Morag

    2003-06-01

    Deregulation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is linked to a large number of malignancies. This occurs through a variety of mechanisms that result in enhanced activity of the receptor. Considerable evidence now supports the idea that loss of negative regulation plays an important role in receptor deregulation. RTKs are removed from the cell surface via endocytosis and many are subsequently degraded in the lysosome. Lysosomal targeting has recently been linked with receptor ubiquitination. We review here molecular alterations that uncouple RTKs from ubiquitination and implicate loss of ubiquitination as a process that plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of cancer.

  16. 77 FR 59391 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways Corporation, United Air Lines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...] Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways Corporation, United Air Lines, Inc...'s Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.1(a) and 343.2(c); Delta...

  17. Customers' expectations of complaint handling by airline service: privilege status and reasonability of demands from a social learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2009-04-01

    In the airline industry, membership and cabin class are noticeable servicescape features of customers' privilege status. Customers may learn that higher privilege customers are more desired and endured by the airline. From the customers' point of view, those with higher privilege may expect their demands to be complied with when they complain. The present study employed hypothetical scenarios to investigate how the privilege status of passengers and reasonability of their demands influenced their expectations toward the compliance of airline personnel. Analysis showed that higher privilege customers were more likely to expect airline personnel to comply with their demands. Moreover, participants with medium or high levels of privilege status had greater expectations of compliance even when demands were unreasonable. In sum, customer expectations toward complaint handling reflected predictions based on social learning.

  18. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... re-exported aircraft bore the livery, colors and logos of Syrian Pearl Airlines, a national of Syria... with the Office of the Administrative Law Judge, U.S. Coast Guard ALJ Docketing Center, 40 South...

  19. An integer linear programming approach for finding deregulated subgraphs in regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Backes, Christina; Rurainski, Alexander; Klau, Gunnar W; Müller, Oliver; Stöckel, Daniel; Gerasch, Andreas; Küntzer, Jan; Maisel, Daniela; Ludwig, Nicole; Hein, Matthias; Keller, Andreas; Burtscher, Helmut; Kaufmann, Michael; Meese, Eckart; Lenhof, Hans-Peter

    2012-03-01

    Deregulation of cell signaling pathways plays a crucial role in the development of tumors. The identification of such pathways requires effective analysis tools that facilitate the interpretation of expression differences. Here, we present a novel and highly efficient method for identifying deregulated subnetworks in a regulatory network. Given a score for each node that measures the degree of deregulation of the corresponding gene or protein, the algorithm computes the heaviest connected subnetwork of a specified size reachable from a designated root node. This root node can be interpreted as a molecular key player responsible for the observed deregulation. To demonstrate the potential of our approach, we analyzed three gene expression data sets. In one scenario, we compared expression profiles of non-malignant primary mammary epithelial cells derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers and of epithelial cells without BRCA1 mutation. Our results suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in epithelial cells of BRCA1 mutation carriers and that the activation of stress proteins may result in avoidance of apoptosis leading to an increased overall survival of cells with genetic alterations. In summary, our approach opens new avenues for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms and for the detection of molecular key players.

  20. Internationalization, Deregulation and the Extension of Higher Education in Korea: A Further Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jang C.

    2015-01-01

    The Korean government implemented several educational policies to enhance internationalization of higher education such as deregulation of higher education, classroom instructions in English, and faculty publications in international refereed journals. However, the speed of globalization has been lagging behind (Green, 2015). Alternatively, this…

  1. Electric Deregulation: Don't Get the Cart before the Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Statton C.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the development of a campus energy-monitoring system and three energy strategies to help control energy costs in a deregulated environment. Strategies discussed involve purchasing off-campus electric energy, modifying power-plant technology, and considering third-party ownership of the power plant. (GR)

  2. Deregulating the electric utility industry: financial dislocations and implicit regulatory rents

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    A framework was developed that lends itself to both order-of-magnitude estimates of the aggregate impact of deregulation and an approach to structuring the debate about the equity of the financial dislocations that deregulation will create. This approach involves calculating what one can term implicit regulatory rents. Implicit regulatory rents are the present value of regulatory policies that cause derivations from outcomes consistent with long-run competitive equilibrium. Using this approach, it was found that up to $196 billion dollars in present value might be transferred from customers to existing utilities through the loss of implicit regulatory rents. This figure is not, however, appropriate for use as a substitute for the financial dislocations referred to above. It permits two important observations: (1) deregulation of the electric utility industry does have the potential to create huge financial gains and losses; and (2) any deregulation proposal must be concerned with the details of the prior regulatory regime since some very large sums of money, such as deferred taxes and outstanding long-term bonds, may mean very different things depending upon how the regulatory process defined them. A financial simulation model is used to illustrate how implicit regulatory rents can be calculated at the level of an individual firm. 51 references.

  3. The Italian Middle School in a Deregulation Era: Modernity through Path-Dependency and Global Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincu, Monica E.

    2015-01-01

    In the current context of intensified moves towards educational deregulation, the configuration of the Italian middle school and its relationship to education governance is an interesting case. Historically, it represents a unique example of the successful "decision-making" model of the welfarist era. Despite some internal constraints,…

  4. Short-Term Effects of State Deregulation on the Adequacy and Equity of School Facility Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Decman, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the Indiana Legislature deregulated state controls over public-school construction projects by reducing the status of required specifications to guidelines. Also, local taxpayers were given greater authority to prevent proposed projects. This study examines the short-term effects of this policy shift. (Contains 5 tables and 16…

  5. Internationalization, Deregulation and the Expansion of Higher Education in Korea: An Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of internationalization policies in Korean higher education since 1993. Deregulation was a key strategy of Korean governments, but this strategy has led to an increasing oversupply of enrolment capacity. In response, the current government is implementing a system of reregulation to reduce the…

  6. Job Placement in Germany: Developments before and after Deregulation. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwei, Ulrich

    Since 1994, the German public employment service has not had a monopoly on placement. A new law permits private job placement as an independent activity, but only with a license from the public employment service. Since deregulation, the number of job placement licenses has increased continuously, but the number of placements made by private…

  7. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  8. Collective efficacy in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkerson, Shanna

    This study investigated the relationships between collective efficacy, teamwork, and team performance. Participants were placed into teams, where they worked together in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center. Each individual was assigned a different role to represent different jobs within an airline (Flight Operations Coordinator, Crew Scheduling, Maintenance, Weather, Flight Scheduling, or Flight Planning.) Participants completed a total of three simulations with an After Action Review between each. Within this setting, both team performance and teamwork behaviors were shown to be positively related to expectations for subsequent performance (collective efficacy). Additionally, teamwork and collective efficacy were not shown to be concomitantly related to subsequent team performance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate existence of performance spirals, and they were not supported. The results of this study were likely impacted by lack of power, as well as a lack of consistency across the three simulations.

  9. Assessing the status of airline safety culture and its relationship to key employee attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Edward L.

    The need to identify the factors that influence the overall safety environment and compliance with safety procedures within airline operations is substantial. This study examines the relationships between job satisfaction, the overall perception of the safety culture, and compliance with safety rules and regulations of airline employees working in flight operations. A survey questionnaire administered via the internet gathered responses which were converted to numerical values for quantitative analysis. The results were grouped to provide indications of overall average levels in each of the three categories, satisfaction, perceptions, and compliance. Correlations between data in the three sets were tested for statistical significance using two-sample t-tests assuming equal variances. Strong statistical significance was found between job satisfaction and compliance with safety rules and between perceptions of the safety environment and safety compliance. The relationship between job satisfaction and safety perceptions did not show strong statistical significance.

  10. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, C

    1998-11-01

    While it has been of general interest for a long time, the issue of a Medical Kit for Commercial Airlines is now close to the top of the priority list because of recent activities in Europe within the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and in the United States at the Congressional Level. The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) requested its Air Transport Medicine Committee to review the situation and make recommendations for a basic medical kit for international airlines. After reviewing the contents of existing kits, and the limited amount of available data, a proposal was submitted to and accepted by the AsMA Council. This is just a beginning. The Air Transport Medicine Committee will continue to follow the evolution and periodically adapt the kit accordingly.

  11. Grounded for an ethical dilemma: disequilibrium in a commercial airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Friedlander, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the case of a 41-year-old airline pilot with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who requests that his diagnosis not be disclosed to his commercial airline employer or his aviation medical examiner because it may result in the suspension of medical certification. The legal and ethical requirements for physicians reporting impaired pilots are discussed as well as practical recommendations for handling such situations. The argument is made that a physician's obligation to honor patient confidentiality should not take precedence over his or her duty to protect the safety and well-being of the airplane passengers and the general public. If the patient chooses not to self-report, a physician has an ethical obligation to report the patient's medical condition to the Federal Aviation Administration.

  12. An Examination of the U.S. Regional Airline Policies Regarding Child Restraint Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carstenson, Larry; Sluti, Donald; Luedtke, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    A prior study examined the policies of U.S. air carriers with regard to the use of infant restraint systems on board commercial aircraft. This study expands on that earlier study by examining the policies of commuter air carriers in the United States regarding the use of infant restraint systems. The management policy of the commuter air carriers has been investigated and officials of the commuter air carriers were surveyed to determine how the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft varied among commuter airlines. The topics investigated included seat space for infants, restraint systems for infants, and amenities for infant passengers. The results of this study have been analyzed to ascertain if any recommendations can be made to the commuter airlines regarding the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft.

  13. IOPS advisor: Research in progress on knowledge-intensive methods for irregular operations airline scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borse, John E.; Owens, Christopher C.

    1992-01-01

    Our research focuses on the problem of recovering from perturbations in large-scale schedules, specifically on the ability of a human-machine partnership to dynamically modify an airline schedule in response to unanticipated disruptions. This task is characterized by massive interdependencies and a large space of possible actions. Our approach is to apply the following: qualitative, knowledge-intensive techniques relying on a memory of stereotypical failures and appropriate recoveries; and quantitative techniques drawn from the Operations Research community's work on scheduling. Our main scientific challenge is to represent schedules, failures, and repairs so as to make both sets of techniques applicable to the same data. This paper outlines ongoing research in which we are cooperating with United Airlines to develop our understanding of the scientific issues underlying the practicalities of dynamic, real-time schedule repair.

  14. A Conceptual Design of a Short Takeoff and Landing Regional Jet Airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Most jet airliner conceptual designs adhere to conventional takeoff and landing performance. Given this predominance, takeoff and landing performance has not been critical, since it has not been an active constraint in the design. Given that the demand for air travel is projected to increase dramatically, there is interest in operational concepts, such as Metroplex operations that seek to unload the major hub airports by using underutilized surrounding regional airports, as well as using underutilized runways at the major hub airports. Both of these operations require shorter takeoff and landing performance than is currently available for airliners of approximately 100-passenger capacity. This study examines the issues of modeling performance in this now critical flight regime as well as the impact of progressively reducing takeoff and landing field length requirements on the aircraft s characteristics.

  15. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  16. United States Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Europe everything above 5,000 or 6,000 or whatever is reported in flight level, for example, “flight level five zero.” In a romance language ...United States Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation DOT/FAA/AM-10/7 Office of...International Flight Language Experiences Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing

  17. Fractographic Examination of the Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder from American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Matthew R.; Schultheisz, Carl R.; Reeder, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The first major structural component failure of a composite part on a commercial airplane occurred during the crash of American Airlines Flight 587. The fractured composite lugs that attached the vertical stabilizer to the aircraft tail and the fractured composite honeycomb rudder were examined as part of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the accident. In this paper the composite fractures are described and the resulting clues to the failure events are discussed.

  18. The market for airline aircraft: A study of process and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The key variables accounting for the nature, timing and magnitude of the equipment and re-equipment cycle are identified and discussed. Forecasts of aircraft purchases by U.S. trunk airlines over the next 10 years are included to examine the anatomy of equipment forecasts in a way that serves to illustrate how certain of these variables or determinants of aircraft demand can be considered in specific terms.

  19. Assessing the Relationship between Airlines' Maintenance Outsourcing and Aviation Professionals' Job Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCamey, Rotorua

    The current economic and security challenges placed an additional burden on U.S. airlines to provide optimum service at reasonable costs to the flying public. In efforts to stay competitive, U.S. airlines increased foreign-based outsourcing of aircraft major repair and overhaul (MRO) mainly to reduce labor costs and conserve capital. This concentrated focus on outsourcing and restructuring, ignored job dissatisfaction among remaining employees which could reduce and or eliminate an airline's competitiveness. The purpose of this quantitative study was (a) to assess the relationship between increased levels of foreign-based MRO outsourcing and aviation professionals' job satisfaction (Y1); (b) to assess the influence of increased levels of foreign-based outsourcing on MRO control (Y2), MRO error rate (Y3), and MRO technical punctuality (Y4) as perceived by aviation professionals; and (c) to assess the influence of increased levels of foreign-based MRO outsourcing on technical skills (Y5) and morale ( Y6) as perceived by aviation professionals. The survey instrument was utilized based on Paul Spector's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and MRO specific questions. A random sample of 300 U.S. airline participants was requested via MarketTools to meet required sample size of 110 as determined through a priori power analysis. Study data rendered 198 useable surveys of 213 total responses, and correlation, multiple regression, and ANOVA methods were used to test study hypotheses. The Spearman's rho for (Y 1) was statistically significant, p = .010 and multiple regression was statistically significant, p < .001. A one-way ANOVA indicated participants differed in their opinions of (Y2) through (Y6), Recommendations for future research include contrasting domestic and global MRO providers, and examining global aircraft parts suppliers and aviation technical training.

  20. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  1. A tobacco industry study of airline cabin air quality: dropping inconvenient findings

    PubMed Central

    Neilsen, K; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine an industry funded and controlled study of in flight air quality (IFAQ). Methods: Systematic search of internal tobacco industry documents available on the internet and at the British American Tobacco Guildford Depository. Results: Individuals from several tobacco industry companies, led by Philip Morris, designed, funded, conducted, and controlled the presentation of results of a study of IFAQ for the Scandinavian airline SAS in 1988 while attempting to minimise the appearance of industry control. Industry lawyers and scientists deleted results unfavourable to the industry's position from the study before delivering it to the airline. The published version of the study further downplayed the results, particularly with regard to respirable suspended particulates. The study ignored the health implications of the results and instead promoted the industry position that ventilation could solve problems posed by secondhand smoke. Conclusions: Sponsoring IFAQ studies was one of several tactics the tobacco industry employed in attempts to reverse or delay implementation of in-flight smoking restrictions. As a result, airline patrons and employees, particularly flight attendants, continued to be exposed to pollution from secondhand smoke, especially particulates, which the industry's own consultants had noted exceeded international standards. This case adds to the growing body of evidence that scientific studies associated with the tobacco industry cannot be taken at face value. PMID:14985613

  2. Research and guidelines for implementing Fatigue Risk Management Systems for the French regional airlines.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Philippe; Deharvengt, Stephane; Grau, Jean Yves; Maille, Nicolas; Berechet, Ion; Mollard, Régis

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes research that aims to provide the overall scientific basis for implementation of a Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) for French regional airlines. The current research has evaluated the use of different tools and indicators that would be relevant candidates for integration into the FRMS. For the Fatigue Risk Management component, results show that biomathematical models of fatigue are useful tools to help an airline to prevent fatigue related to roster design and for the management of aircrew planning. The Fatigue Safety assurance includes two monitoring processes that have been evaluated during this research: systematic monitoring and focused monitoring. Systematic monitoring consists of the analysis of existing safety indicators such as Air Safety Reports (ASR) and Flight Data Monitoring (FDM). Results show a significant relationship between the hours of work and the frequency of ASR. Results for the FDM analysis show that some events are significantly related to the fatigue risk associated with the hours of works. Focused monitoring includes a website survey and specific in-flight observations and data collection. Sleep and fatigue measurements have been collected from 115 aircrews over 12-day periods (including rest periods). Before morning duties, results show a significant sleep reduction of up to 40% of the aircrews' usual sleep needs leading to a clear increase of fatigue during flights. From these results, specific guidelines are developed to help the airlines to implement the FRMS and for the airworthiness to oversight the implementation of the FRMS process.

  3. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company.

    PubMed

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population.

  4. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    PubMed Central

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  5. Deregulation of FOXO3A During Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Shukla, Meenakshi; MacLennan, Gregory T; Fu, Pingfu; Gupta, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3A is an important regulator of cellular function, is thought to act as a tumor suppressor. We studied whether alterations in FOXO3A activity occur in prostate tumorigenesis. Our studies demonstrate that FOXO3A activity is negatively regulated by Akt/PKB through posttranslational modifications. In prostate cancer cells, Akt activation causes increased accumulation of FOXO3A and its binding chaperone protein 14-3-3 in the cytosol. Higher levels of FOXO3A in the cytosol correlated with phosphorylation at Ser253, which accounted for its nuclear exclusion. Dominant negative Akt approach in PC-3 cells increased FOXO3A accumulation in the nucleus, causing upregulation of the downstream target, MnSOD. Conversely, stable DU145-Akt over-expressing cells exhibited decreased FOXO3A levels in the nucleus. Similar findings were noted in prostate tumor specimens, in which marked cytoplasmic accumulation of FOXO3A and 14-3-3 in prostate tumors was observed with increasing Gleason grade, in contrast to exclusively nuclear accumulation in benign prostate cells. These findings correlate with decreased FOXO3A DNA binding activity along with down modulation of FOXO3A transcriptional activity with increasing tumor grade. Our findings demonstrate that tumor associated alterations and redistribution of FOXO3A are frequent events in the etiology of prostate cancer. PMID:19424579

  6. Privacy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  7. Essays on wholesale auctions in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltaduonis, Rimvydas

    2007-12-01

    The early experience in the restructured electric power markets raised several issues, including price spikes, inefficiency, security, and the overall relationship of market clearing prices to generation costs. Unsatisfactory outcomes in these markets are thought to have resulted in part from strategic generator behaviors encouraged by inappropriate market design features. In this dissertation, I examine the performance of three auction mechanisms for wholesale power markets - Offer Cost Minimization auction, Payment Cost Minimization auction and Simple-Offer auction - when electricity suppliers act strategically. A Payment Cost Minimization auction has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional Offer Cost Minimization auction with the intention to solve the problem of inflated wholesale electricity prices. Efficiency concerns for this proposal were voiced due to insights predicated on the assumption of true production cost revelation. Using a game theoretic approach and an experimental method, I compare the two auctions, strictly controlling for the level of unilateral market power. A specific feature of these complex-offer auctions is that the sellers submit not only the quantities and the minimum prices that they are willing to sell at, but also the start-up fees, which are designed to reimburse the fixed start-up costs of the generation plants. I find that the complex structure of the offers leaves considerable room for strategic behavior, which consequently leads to anti-competitive and inefficient market outcomes. In the last chapter of my dissertation, I use laboratory experiments to contrast the performance of two complex-offer auctions against the performance of a simple-offer auction, in which the sellers have to recover all their generation costs - fixed and variable - through a uniform market-clearing price. I find that a simple-offer auction significantly reduces consumer prices and lowers price volatility. It mitigates anti-competitive effects

  8. Expression of a deregulated tobacco nitrate reductase gene in potato increases biomass production and decreases nitrate concentration in all organs.

    PubMed

    Djennane, Samia; Quilleré, Isabelle; Leydecker, Marie-Thérèse; Meyer, Christian; Chauvin, Jean-Eric

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the physiological consequences for nitrogen metabolism and growth of the deregulated expression of an N-terminal-deleted tobacco nitrate reductase in two lines of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Safrane). The transgenic plants showed a higher biomass accumulation, especially in tubers, but a constant nitrogen content per plant. This implies that the transformed lines had a reduced nitrogen concentration per unit of dry weight. A severe reduction in nitrate concentrations was also observed in all organs, but was more apparent in tubers where nitrate was almost undetectable in the transgenic lines. In leaves and roots, but not tubers, this nitrate decrease was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in the level of malate, which acts as a counter-anion for nitrate reduction. Apart from glutamine in tubers, no major changes in amino acid concentration were seen in leaves, roots or tubers. We conclude that enhancement of nitrate reduction rate leads to higher biomass production, probably by allowing a better allocation of N-resources to photosynthesis and C-metabolism.

  9. WNT10B functional dualism: beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent growth promotion or independent suppression with deregulated expression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hirohide; Matsubara, Kenichi; Zhou, Xiaoling; Okamura, Shu; Kubo, Takahiko; Murase, Yaeko; Shikauchi, Yuko; Esteller, Manel; Herman, James G; Wei Wang, Xin; Harris, Curtis C

    2007-11-01

    We found aberrant DNA methylation of the WNT10B promoter region in 46% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 15% of colon cancer samples. Three of 10 HCC and one of two colon cancer cell lines demonstrated low or no expression, and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine reactivated WNT10B expression with the induction of demethylation, indicating that WNT10B is silenced by DNA methylation in some cancers, whereas WNT10B expression is up-regulated in seven of the 10 HCC cell lines and a colon cancer cell line. These results indicate that WNT10B can be deregulated by either overexpression or silencing in cancer. We found that WNT10B up-regulated beta-catenin/Tcf activity. However, WNT10B-overexpressing cells demonstrated a reduced growth rate and anchorage-independent growth that is independent of the beta-catenin/Tcf activation, because mutant beta-catenin-transduced cells did not suppress growth, and dominant-negative hTcf-4 failed to alleviate the growth suppression by WNT10B. Although WNT10B expression alone inhibits cell growth, it acts synergistically with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to stimulate cell growth. WNT10B is bifunctional, one function of which is involved in beta-catenin/Tcf activation, and the other function is related to the down-regulation of cell growth through a different mechanism. We suggest that FGF switches WNT10B from a negative to a positive cell growth regulator.

  10. Deregulation of TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis triggers nuclear factor κB–mediated pathogenic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Vivek; Phaneuf, Daniel; Dupré, Nicolas; Petri, Susanne; Strong, Michael; Kriz, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) inclusions are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we report that TDP-43 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 messenger RNA and protein expression is higher in spinal cords in ALS patients than healthy individuals. TDP-43 interacts with and colocalizes with p65 in glial and neuronal cells from ALS patients and mice expressing wild-type and mutant TDP-43 transgenes but not in cells from healthy individuals or nontransgenic mice. TDP-43 acted as a co-activator of p65, and glial cells expressing higher amounts of TDP-43 produced more proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic mediators after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or reactive oxygen species. TDP-43 overexpression in neurons also increased their vulnerability to toxic mediators. Treatment of TDP-43 mice with Withaferin A, an inhibitor of NF-κB activity, reduced denervation in the neuromuscular junction and ALS disease symptoms. We propose that TDP-43 deregulation contributes to ALS pathogenesis in part by enhancing NF-κB activation and that NF-κB may constitute a therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:22084410

  11. Analysis of Deregulated microRNAs and Their Target Genes in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kupcinskas, Juozas; Link, Alexander; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Jonaitis, Laimas; Jarmalaite, Sonata; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Skieceviciene, Jurgita

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely studied non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression. MiRNAs are deregulated in different tumors including gastric cancer (GC) and have potential diagnostic and prognostic implications. The aim of our study was to determine miRNA profile in GC tissues, followed by evaluation of deregulated miRNAs in plasma of GC patients. Using available databases and bioinformatics methods we also aimed to evaluate potential target genes of confirmed differentially expressed miRNA and validate these findings in GC tissues. Methods The study included 51 GC patients and 51 controls. Initially, we screened miRNA expression profile in 13 tissue samples of GC and 12 normal gastric tissues with TaqMan low density array (TLDA). In the second stage, differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in a replication cohort using qRT-PCR in tissue and plasma samples. Subsequently, we analyzed potential target genes of deregulated miRNAs using bioinformatics approach, determined their expression in GC tissues and performed correlation analysis with targeting miRNAs. Results Profiling with TLDA revealed 15 deregulated miRNAs in GC tissues compared to normal gastric mucosa. Replication analysis confirmed that miR-148a-3p, miR-204-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 were consistently deregulated in GC tissues. Analysis of GC patients’ plasma samples showed significant down-regulation of miR-148a-3p, miR-375 and up-regulation of miR-223-3p compared to healthy subjects. Further, using bioinformatic tools we identified targets of replicated miRNAs and performed disease-associated gene enrichment analysis. Ultimately, we evaluated potential target gene BCL2 and DNMT3B expression by qRT-PCR in GC tissue, which correlated with targeting miRNA expression. Conclusions Our study revealed miRNA profile in GC tissues and showed that miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 are deregulated in GC plasma samples, but these circulating miRNAs showed relatively weak diagnostic

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of p53 Deregulation in Cancer: An Overview in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Ana B.; Rojas, Elizabeta A.; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Krzeminski, Patryk; Gutiérrez, Norma C.

    2016-01-01

    The p53 pathway is inactivated in the majority of human cancers. Although this perturbation frequently occurs through the mutation or deletion of p53 itself, there are other mechanisms that can attenuate the pathway and contribute to tumorigenesis. For example, overexpression of important p53 negative regulators, such as murine double minute 2 (MDM2) or murine double minute 4 (MDM4), epigenetic deregulation, or even alterations in TP53 mRNA splicing. In this work, we will review the different mechanisms of p53 pathway inhibition in cancer with special focus on multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematological malignancy, with low incidence of p53 mutations/deletions but growing evidence of indirect p53 pathway deregulation. Translational implications for MM and cancer prognosis and treatment are also reviewed. PMID:27916892

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of p53 Deregulation in Cancer: An Overview in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Ana B; Rojas, Elizabeta A; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Krzeminski, Patryk; Gutiérrez, Norma C

    2016-11-30

    The p53 pathway is inactivated in the majority of human cancers. Although this perturbation frequently occurs through the mutation or deletion of p53 itself, there are other mechanisms that can attenuate the pathway and contribute to tumorigenesis. For example, overexpression of important p53 negative regulators, such as murine double minute 2 (MDM2) or murine double minute 4 (MDM4), epigenetic deregulation, or even alterations in TP53 mRNA splicing. In this work, we will review the different mechanisms of p53 pathway inhibition in cancer with special focus on multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematological malignancy, with low incidence of p53 mutations/deletions but growing evidence of indirect p53 pathway deregulation. Translational implications for MM and cancer prognosis and treatment are also reviewed.

  14. Application of games with incomplete information for pricing electricity in deregulated power pools

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrero, R.W.; Rivera, J.F.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a game theoretical approach to the problem of pricing electricity in deregulated energy marketplaces. They assume that an Independent System Operator receives bids by Pool participants and defines transactions among participants by looking for the minimum price that satisfies the demand in the Pool. The competition among Pool participants is modeled as a non-cooperative game with incomplete information. They assume that each Pool participant knows its own operation costs but does not know his opponents` operation costs. The game with incomplete information is transformed into a game with complete, but imperfect, information and solved using the Nash equilibrium idea. The approach presented in this paper is geared towards providing support for pricing electricity in deregulated Pools.

  15. Deregulated lncRNAs in B Cells from Patients with Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yurong; Xu, Xianqin; Xue, Junfang; Duan, Wenping; Yi, Zhengjun

    2017-01-01

    Role of lncRNAs in human adaptive immune response to TB infection is largely unexplored. To address this issue, here we characterized lncRNA expression profile in primary human B cell response to TB infection using microarray assay. Several lncRNAs and mRNAs were chosen for RT-qPCR validation. Bioinformatics prediction was applied to delineate function of the deregulated mRNAs. We found that 844 lncRNAs and 597 mRNAs were differentially expressed between B cell samples from individuals with or without TB. KEGG pathway analysis for the deregulated mRNAs indicated a number of pathways, such as TB, TLR signaling pathway and antigen processing and presentation. Moreover, corresponding to the dysregulation of many lncRNAs, we also found that their adjacent protein-coding genes were also deregulated. Functional annotation for the corresponding mRNAs showed that these lncRNAs were mainly associated with TLR signaling, TGF-β signaling. Interestingly, SOCS3, which is a critical negative regulator of cytokine response to TB infection and its nearby lncRNA XLOC_012582, were highly expressed in active TB B cells. Subsequent RT-qPCR results confirmed the changes. Whether upregulated XLOC_012582 causes SOCS3 overexpression and is eventually involved in the context of exacerbations of active TB represents an interesting issue that deserves to be further explored. Taken together, for the first time, we identified a set of deregulated lncRNAs in active TB B cells and their functions were predicted. Such findings provided novel insight into the pathogenesis of TB and further studies should focus on the function and pathogenic mechanisms of the lncRNAs involved in active TB. PMID:28125665

  16. Identification of Long Non-Coding RNAs Deregulated in Multiple Myeloma Cells Resistant to Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ehsan; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Driscoll, James J.

    2016-01-01

    While the clinical benefit of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and the inevitable emergence of drug resistance limit their long-term utility. Disease eradication is compromised by drug resistance that is either present de novo or therapy-induced, which accounts for the majority of tumor relapses and MM-related deaths. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a broad class of RNA molecules, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), that do not encode proteins but play a major role in regulating the fundamental cellular processes that control cancer initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. While lncRNAs have recently attracted significant attention as therapeutic targets to potentially improve cancer treatment, identification of lncRNAs that are deregulated in cells resistant to PIs has not been previously addressed. We have modeled drug resistance by generating three MM cell lines with acquired resistance to either bortezomib, carfilzomib, or ixazomib. Genome-wide profiling identified lncRNAs that were significantly deregulated in all three PI-resistant cell lines relative to the drug-sensitive parental cell line. Strikingly, certain lncRNAs deregulated in the three PI-resistant cell lines were also deregulated in MM plasma cells isolated from newly diagnosed patients compared to healthy plasma cells. Taken together, these preliminary studies strongly suggest that lncRNAs represent potential therapeutic targets to prevent or overcome drug resistance. More investigations are ongoing to expand these initial studies in a greater number of MM patients to better define lncRNAs signatures that contribute to PI resistance in MM. PMID:27782060

  17. Psychology of change: Models and implications for nuclear plants in an era of deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.G.; Stark, J.A.

    1999-09-01

    This presentation explores the psychology of change in the implications that it has for nuclear plants during this era of deregulation. The authors analyze models that work, models that have failed in the past, and specific findings and applications based on 2 yr of research, as well as the results regarding the impact of the psychology of change on the Fort Calhoun nuclear station in Nebraska.

  18. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  19. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  20. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  1. The impact of a deregulated European electricity market on Volvo in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dag, S.

    1998-07-01

    The member countries within the European Union (EU) have agreed to open all national electricity markets for competition, starting January 1, 1999. The electricity market in Sweden is deregulated since January 1, 1996. The deregulation of the electricity markets will gradually shift the electricity price levels in different countries towards an equal price level, which will most likely be close to the levels on the Continental Europe. A deregulated European electricity market may change the competition situation for Swedish industries dramatically. The capacity in electric generation with low operating costs in Sweden has led to very low electricity prices and high usage level compared to other EU countries. The consumption level of electric energy per capita is nearly three times higher in Sweden than the average per capita EU usage. The high level of electricity consumption is typical also of industrial customers in Sweden. Studies of Volvo Car Corporation have shown that the Volvo car plant in Torslanda, Sweden utilizes substantially more electric energy per manufactured car than the Volvo car plant in Gent, Belgium. A method is developed to transform the Torslanda plant from a low energy efficiency state to a higher energy efficiency state by modeling. The method is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) concept and includes optimization models of the two plants with mixed integer linear programming (MILP).

  2. The Role of Virus Infection in Deregulating the Cytokine Response to Secondary Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Divya; Petes, Carlene; Gee, Katrina; Basta, Sameh

    2015-12-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are produced by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) after infection to stimulate T helper (Th) cells, linking innate and adaptive immunity. Virus infections can deregulate the proinflammatory cytokine response like tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-2, making the host more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. Studies using various viruses such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, influenza A virus, and human immunodeficiency virus have revealed several intriguing mechanisms that account for the increased susceptibility to several prevalent bacterial infections. In particular, type I interferons induced during a virus infection have been observed to play a role in suppressing the production of some key antibacterial proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-23 and IL-17. Other suppressive mechanisms as a result of cytokine deregulation by viral infections include reduced function of immune cells such as DC, macrophage, natural killer, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells leading to impaired clearance of secondary bacterial infections. In this study, we highlight some of the immune mechanisms that become deregulated by viral infections, and can thus become defective during secondary bacterial infections.

  3. Multi-objective Decision Based Available Transfer Capability in Deregulated Power System Using Heuristic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasam, Gopi Krishna; Manohar, T. Gowri

    2016-09-01

    Determination of available transfer capability (ATC) requires the use of experience, intuition and exact judgment in order to meet several significant aspects in the deregulated environment. Based on these points, this paper proposes two heuristic approaches to compute ATC. The first proposed heuristic algorithm integrates the five methods known as continuation repeated power flow, repeated optimal power flow, radial basis function neural network, back propagation neural network and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system to obtain ATC. The second proposed heuristic model is used to obtain multiple ATC values. Out of these, a specific ATC value will be selected based on a number of social, economic, deregulated environmental constraints and related to specific applications like optimization, on-line monitoring, and ATC forecasting known as multi-objective decision based optimal ATC. The validity of results obtained through these proposed methods are scrupulously verified on various buses of the IEEE 24-bus reliable test system. The results presented and derived conclusions in this paper are very useful for planning, operation, maintaining of reliable power in any power system and its monitoring in an on-line environment of deregulated power system. In this way, the proposed heuristic methods would contribute the best possible approach to assess multiple objective ATC using integrated methods.

  4. Epigenetic and genetic deregulation in cancer target distinct signaling pathway domains

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is characterized by both genetic and epigenetic alterations. While cancer driver mutations and copy-number alterations have been studied at a systems-level, relatively little is known about the systems-level patterns exhibited by their epigenetic counterparts. Here we perform a pan-cancer wide systems-level analysis, mapping candidate cancer-driver DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations onto a human interactome. We demonstrate that functional DNAm alterations in cancer tend to map to nodes of lower connectivity and inter-connectivity, compared to the corresponding alterations at the genomic level. We find that epigenetic alterations are relatively over-represented in extracellular and transmembrane signaling domains, whereas cancer genes undergoing amplification or deletion tend to be enriched within the intracellular domain. A pan-cancer wide meta-analysis identifies WNT and chemokine signaling, as two key pathways where epigenetic deregulation preferentially targets extracellular components. We further pinpoint specific chemokine ligands/receptors whose epigenetic deregulation associates with key epigenetic enzymes, representing potential targets for epigenetic therapy. Our results suggest that epigenetic deregulation in cancer not only targets tissue-specific transcription factors, but also modulates signaling within the extra-cellular domain, providing novel system-level insight into the potential distinctive role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer. PMID:27899617

  5. Deregulation of purine pathway in Bacillus subtilis and its use in riboflavin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Purine nucleotides are essential metabolites for living organisms because they are involved in many important processes, such as nucleic acid synthesis, energy supply, and biosynthesis of several amino acids and riboflavin. Owing to the pivotal roles of purines in cell physiology, the pool of intracellular purine nucleotides must be maintained under strict control, and hence the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway is tightly regulated by transcription repression and inhibition mechanism. Deregulation of purine pathway is essential for this pathway engineering in Bacillus subtilis. Results Deregulation of purine pathway was attempted to improve purine nucleotides supply, based on a riboflavin producer B. subtilis strain with modification of its rib operon. To eliminate transcription repression, the pur operon repressor PurR and the 5’-UTR of pur operon containing a guanine-sensing riboswitch were disrupted. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the relative transcription levels of purine genes were up-regulated about 380 times. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis was successfully introduced into PRPP amidotransferase (encoded by purF) to remove feedback inhibition by homologous alignment and analysis. Overexpression of the novel mutant PurF (D293V, K316Q and S400W) significantly increased PRPP amidotransferase activity and triggered a strong refractory effect on purine nucleotides mediated inhibition. Intracellular metabolite target analysis indicated that the purine nucleotides supply in engineered strains was facilitated by a stepwise gene-targeted deregulation. With these genetic manipulations, we managed to enhance the metabolic flow through purine pathway and consequently increased riboflavin production 3-fold (826.52 mg/L) in the purF-VQW mutant strain. Conclusions A sequential optimization strategy was applied to deregulate the rib operon and purine pathway of B. subtilis to create genetic diversities and to improve riboflavin production

  6. Multi-Objective Differential Evolution for Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow in Deregulated Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselyn, J. Preetha; Devaraj, D.; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar

    2013-11-01

    Voltage stability is an important issue in the planning and operation of deregulated power systems. The voltage stability problems is a most challenging one for the system operators in deregulated power systems because of the intense use of transmission line capabilities and poor regulation in market environment. This article addresses the congestion management problem avoiding offline transmission capacity limits related to voltage stability by considering Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSCOPF) problem in deregulated environment. This article presents the application of Multi Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) algorithm to solve the VSCOPF problem in new competitive power systems. The maximum of L-index of the load buses is taken as the indicator of voltage stability and is incorporated in the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The proposed method in hybrid power market which also gives solutions to voltage stability problems by considering the generation rescheduling cost and load shedding cost which relieves the congestion problem in deregulated environment. The buses for load shedding are selected based on the minimum eigen value of Jacobian with respect to the load shed. In the proposed approach, real power settings of generators in base case and contingency cases, generator bus voltage magnitudes, real and reactive power demands of selected load buses using sensitivity analysis are taken as the control variables and are represented as the combination of floating point numbers and integers. DE/randSF/1/bin strategy scheme of differential evolution with self-tuned parameter which employs binomial crossover and difference vector based mutation is used for the VSCOPF problem. A fuzzy based mechanism is employed to get the best compromise solution from the pareto front to aid the decision maker. The proposed VSCOPF planning model is implemented on IEEE 30-bus system, IEEE 57 bus practical system and IEEE 118 bus system. The pareto optimal

  7. Materials Examination of the Vertical Stabilizer from American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Matthew R.; Schultheisz, Carl R.; Reeder, James R.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The first in-flight failure of a primary structural component made from composite material on a commercial airplane led to the crash of American Airlines Flight 587. As part of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the accident, the composite materials of the vertical stabilizer were tested, microstructure was analyzed, and fractured composite lugs that attached the vertical stabilizer to the aircraft tail were examined. In this paper the materials testing and analysis is presented, composite fractures are described, and the resulting clues to the failure events are discussed.

  8. Comparative Qualitative Research Distinguishing Safety Features Among Aviation Safety Action Programs in the United States Airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilakalapudi, Naga Swathi Kiran

    Over the years, aviation safety has been influenced by continuous implementations of both proactive and reactive policies by both regulatory boards and also, aviation service providers. This achievement has been possible mainly because of the safety management tools like the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) which derives its roots from the much earlier Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides guidelines and procedures for installation and development of an ASAP, for every airline in the United States. In this study, how different United States air carriers apply ASAP in their organizations is investigated.

  9. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  10. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  11. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  12. What does the law say to Good Samaritans?: A review of Good Samaritan statutes in 50 states and on US airlines.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Patricia H; Agin, William S; Douglas, Sharon P

    2013-06-01

    Physicians may encounter medical emergencies outside a hospital or clinical setting, such as on an airplane or at a sporting event. Physicians, particularly critical care physicians, should feel a call of duty to assist in a medical emergency and may do so without complete knowledge of existing laws for protection. The intent of this article is to encourage physicians to have a detailed awareness of Good Samaritan laws in the United States. The authors reviewed and summarized the Aviation Medical Assistance Act (AMAA) as well as the Good Samaritan laws and external defibrillator laws in 50 states and the District of Columbia. Physicians have an ethical duty to provide appropriate emergency care outside hospital or clinical settings and, therefore, should be aware of applicable protective laws. On airplanes, the AMAA provides protection to those physicians acting in Good Samaritan roles on airlines registered in the United States. On the ground, physicians should understand that statutes exist in all jurisdictions to protect Good Samaritans from liability in medical emergencies and in the use of defibrillators. Although there are common elements, each state has its own unique statutory language protecting physicians licensed in that state. All states except Kentucky have statutory language providing immunity to physicians licensed in any other state as well. Some states have interesting statutes relative to other aspects of medical emergency care. A physician entrusted to practice medicine by society and law should be willing to provide appropriate medical care wherever needed.

  13. Differential impact of immediate total deregulation of wellhead prices of natural gas on minority and low-income homeowners: a general review and a case study in the Washington, DC area

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.D.; Gilbert, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate the impact of total deregulation of wellhead prices of natural gas on various strata of the residential consuming population, and compare it to the baseline impact of a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. They found that minority and poverty homeowners will suffer greater relative welfare losses than their white and non-poverty counterparts. They developed quantitative estimates of the extent of these differentials, and offered some policy proposals suggested by these findings. 54 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  14. The effects of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in airline maintenance: Results following three year's experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.; Robertson, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    An airline maintenance department undertook a CRM training program to change its safety and operating culture. In 2 1/2 years this airline trained 2200 management staff and salaried professionals. Participants completed attitude surveys immediately before and after the training, as well as two months, six months, and one year afterward. On-site interviews were conducted to test and confirm the survey results. Comparing managers' attitudes immediately after their training with their pretraining attitudes showed significant improvement for three attitudes. A fourth attitude, assertiveness, improved significantly above the pretraining levels two months after training. The expected effect of the training on all four attitude scales did not change significantly thereafter. Participants' self-reported behaviors and interview comments confirmed their shift from passive to more active behaviors over time. Safety, efficiency, and dependability performance were measured before the onset of the training and for some 30 months afterward. Associations with subsequent performance were strongest with positive attitudes about sharing command (participation), assertiveness, and stress management when those attitudes were measured 2 and 12 months after the training. The two month follow-up survey results were especially strong and indicate that active behaviors learned from the CRM training consolidate and strengthen in the months immediately following training.

  15. Development of diagnostics in the search of an explanation for toxic airline syndrome 1

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Furlong, Clement E.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    Toxic airline syndrome is assumed to be caused by exposure to tri-cresyl phosphate, an additive in engine lubricants and hydraulic fluids, which is activated to the toxic 2-(o-cresyl)-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (CBDP). At present there is no laboratory evidence to support intoxication of airline crew by CBDP. Our goal was to develop methods for testing in vivo exposure by identifying and characterizing biomarkers. Mass spectrometry was used to study the reaction of CBDP with human albumin, free tyrosine, and human butyrylcholinesterase. Human albumin made a covalent bond with CBDP, adding a mass of 170 to tyrosine 411 to yield the ortho-cresyl phosphotyrosine derivative. Human butyrylcholinesterase made a covalent bond with CBDP on serine 198 to yield 5 adducts with added masses of 80, 108, 156, 170, and 186. The most abundant adduct had an added mass of 80 from phosphate (HPO3), a surprising result since no pesticide or nerve agent is known to yield phosphorylated serine with an added mass of 80. The next most abundant adduct had an added mass of 170 to form ortho-cresyl phosphoserine. It is concluded that toxic gases or oil mists in cabin air may form adducts on plasma butyrylcholinesterase and albumin, detectable by mass spectrometry. PMID:20447373

  16. Neurobiological differences in mental rotation and instrument interpretation in airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Sladky, Ronald; Stepniczka, Irene; Boland, Edzard; Tik, Martin; Lamm, Claus; Hoffmann, André; Buch, Jan-Philipp; Niedermeier, Dominik; Field, Joris; Windischberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Airline pilots and similar professions require reliable spatial cognition abilities, such as mental imagery of static and moving three-dimensional objects in space. A well-known task to investigate these skills is the Shepard and Metzler mental rotation task (SMT), which is also frequently used during pre-assessment of pilot candidates. Despite the intuitive relationship between real-life spatial cognition and SMT, several studies have challenged its predictive value. Here we report on a novel instrument interpretation task (IIT) based on a realistic attitude indicator used in modern aircrafts that was designed to bridge the gap between the abstract SMT and a cockpit environment. We investigated 18 professional airline pilots using fMRI. No significant correlation was found between SMT and IIT task accuracies. Contrasting both tasks revealed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and medial precuneus for IIT, whereas SMT elicited significantly stronger activation in pre- and supplementary motor areas, as well as lateral precuneus and superior parietal lobe. Our results show that SMT skills per se are not sufficient to predict task accuracy during (close to) real-life instrument interpretation. While there is a substantial overlap of activation across the task conditions, we found that there are important differences between instrument interpretation and non-aviation based mental rotation. PMID:27323913

  17. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  18. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  19. Inter-annual variations of CO2 observed by commercial airliner in the CONTRAIL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Niwa, Yosuke; Umezawa, Taku

    2016-04-01

    Since 2005, we have conducted an observation program for greenhouse gases using the passenger aircraft of the Japan Airlines named Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL). Over the past 10 years, successful operation of Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) has delivered more than 6 million in-situ CO2 data from about 12000 flights between Japan and Europe, Australia, North America, or Asia. The large number of CME data enable us to well characterize spatial distributions and seasonal changes of CO2 in wide regions of the globe especially the Asia-Pacific regions. While the mean growth rates for the past 10 years were about 2 ppm/year, large growth rates of about 3 ppm/year were found in the wide latitudinal bands from 30S to 70N from the second half of 2012 to the first half of 2013. The multiyear data sets have the potential to help understand the global/regional CO2 budget. One good example is the significant inter-annual difference in CO2 vertical profiles observed over Singapore between October 2014 and October 2015, which is attributable to the massive biomass burnings in Indonesia in 2015.

  20. Evaluation of Improved Pushback Forecasts Derived from Airline Ground Operations Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Theis, Georg; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Accurate and timely predictions of airline pushbacks can potentially lead to improved performance of automated decision-support tools for airport surface traffic, thus reducing the variability and average duration of costly airline delays. One factor which affects the realization of these benefits is the level of uncertainty inherent in the turn processes. To characterize this inherent uncertainty, three techniques are developed for predicting time-to-go until pushback as a function of available ground-time; elapsed ground-time; and the status (not-started/in-progress/completed) of individual turn processes (cleaning, fueling, etc.). These techniques are tested against a large and detailed dataset covering approximately l0(exp 4) real-world turn operations obtained through collaboration with Deutsche Lufthansa AG. Even after the dataset is filtered to obtain a sample of turn operations with minimal uncertainty, the standard deviation of forecast error for all three techniques is lower-bounded away from zero, indicating that turn operations have a significant stochastic component. This lower-bound result shows that decision-support tools must be designed to incorporate robust mechanisms for coping with pushback demand stochasticity, rather than treating the pushback demand process as a known deterministic input.

  1. Deregulation of apoplastic polyamine oxidase affects development and salt response of tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Gémes, Katalin; Mellidou, Ιfigeneia; Karamanoli, Katerina; Beris, Despoina; Park, Ky Young; Matsi, Theodora; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Constantinidou, Helen-Isis; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A

    2017-04-01

    Polyamine (PA) homeostasis is associated with plant development, growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stresses. Apoplastic PA oxidase (PAO) catalyzes the oxidation of PAs contributing to cellular homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PAs. In tobacco, PAs decrease with plant age, while apoplastic PAO activity increases. Our previous results with young transgenic tobacco plants with enhanced/reduced apoplastic PAO activity (S-ZmPAO/AS-ZmPAO, respectively) established the importance of apoplastic PAO in controlling tolerance to short-term salt stress. However, it remains unclear if the apoplastic PAO pathway is important for salt tolerance at later stages of plant development. In this work, we examined whether apoplastic PAO controls also plant development and tolerance of adult plants during long-term salt stress. The AS-ZmPAO plants contained higher Ca(2+) during salt stress, showing also reduced chlorophyll content index (CCI), leaf area and biomass but taller phenotype compared to the wild-type plants during salt. On the contrary, the S-ZmPAO had more leaves with slightly greater size compared to the AS-ZmPAO and higher antioxidant genes/enzyme activities. Accumulation of proline in the roots was evident at prolonged stress and correlated negatively with PAO deregulation as did the transcripts of genes mediating ethylene biosynthesis. In contrast to the strong effect of apoplastic PAO to salt tolerance in young plants described previously, the effect it exerts at later stages of development is rather moderate. However, the different phenotypes observed in plants deregulating PAO reinforce the view that apoplastic PAO exerts multifaceted roles on plant growth and stress responses. Our data suggest that deregulation of the apoplastic PAO can be further examined as a potential approach to breed plants with enhanced/reduced tolerance to abiotic stress with minimal associated trade-offs.

  2. Policy and research on health manpower regulation: never too late to deregulate?

    PubMed

    Begun, J W; Feldman, R

    1990-01-01

    Research on health manpower regulation has reached a consistent conclusion for the last two decades that is likely to carry into the 1990s: deregulate. Research has progressed in recent years, however, and research in the 1990s will be quite different from that of the past two decades. While the battle cry "never too late to deregulate" will continue to be heard, the "easy" targets, those markets with the least extensive or least important information asymmetry, have already been attacked. What is (or should be) finally emerging in the 1990s is a more challenging appraisal of health manpower regulation, one that recognizes greater complexity in health care markets and consumer preferences than has been recognized in past research. Lessons for the 1990s include the need to recognize, accept, and study information asymmetry and its consequences, and to more closely analyze the hypothesis that occupational interest groups, while meeting their self-interest, also may be serving the commonwealth. Such a reorientation leads us to ask different questions of regulation in future research, all directing attention to the informational attributes of markets: (1) How much information asymmetry exists in different health care markets, and how important is it? In which information-asymmetric markets is manpower regulation most likely to benefit consumers? (2) How can information asymmetry between consumers and providers be reduced, thereby facilitating deregulation? (3) How many regulations, of what type, are consumers willing to eliminate, for what benefits? Simplistic policy recommendations are less likely with this new orientation, and there is a great deal of interesting research awaiting health services researchers.

  3. Implications of deregulation in natural gas industry on utility risks and returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addepalli, Rajendra P.

    This thesis examines the changes in risk and required return on capital for local distribution utility companies in the increasingly competitive natural gas industry. The deregulation in the industry impacts the LDCs in several ways. First, with the introduction of competition consumers have been given choices among suppliers besides the traditional monopoly, the local utility, for purchasing their natural gas supply needs. Second, with the introduction of competition, some of the interstate pipelines were stuck with 'Take Or Pay' contracts and other costs that resulted in 'stranded costs', which have been passed on to customers of the pipeline including the LDCs. Third, the new obligation for the LDCs to purchase gas from the market, as opposed to buying it from pipelines and passing on the costs to its customers, brought opportunities and risks as well. Finally, with the introduction of competition, in some states LDCs have been allowed to enter into unregulated ventures to increase their profits. In the thesis we first develop a multifactor model (MFM) to explain historical common stock returns of individual utilities and of utility portfolios. We use 'rolling regression' analysis to analyze how different variables explain the variation in stock returns over time. Second, we conduct event studies to analyze the events in the deregulation process that had significant impacts on the LDC returns. Finally we assess the changes in risk and required return on capital for the LDCs over a 15 year time frame, covering the deregulation period. We employ four aspects in the examination of risk and return profile of the utilities: measuring (a) changes in required return on common equity and Weighted Average Cost of Capital, (b) changes in risk premium (WACC less an interest rate proxy), (c) changes in utility bond ratings, and (d) changes in dividend payments, new debt and equity issuances. We perform regression analysis to explain the changes in the required WACC using

  4. Deregulation of Adenosine Receptors in Psoriatic Epidermis: An Option for Therapeutic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is involved in psoriasis, a chronic skin disease characterized by increased epidermis cell growth. In particular, Andrés et al. focus on the keratinocyte biology modulated by adenosine receptors providing evidence that the A2B subtype plays a prominent role in the reduction of keratinocyte proliferation whereas A2A and A2B agonists have antiinflammatory effects independent of adenosine receptors. The authors report that psoriatic epidermis presents a deregulated adenosine receptor expression profile with reduced A2B and increased A2A.

  5. Deregulation of F-box proteins and its consequence on cancer development, progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinho; Eki, Rebeka; Abbas, Tarek

    2016-02-01

    F-box proteins are substrate receptors of the SCF (SKP1-Cullin 1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase that play important roles in a number of physiological processes and activities. Through their ability to assemble distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases and target key regulators of cellular activities for ubiquitylation and degradation, this versatile group of proteins is able to regulate the abundance of cellular proteins whose deregulated expression or activity contributes to disease. In this review, we describe the important roles of select F-box proteins in regulating cellular activities, the perturbation of which contributes to the initiation and progression of a number of human malignancies.

  6. p27: a barometer of signaling deregulation and potential predictor of response to targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Wander, Seth A; Zhao, Dekuang; Slingerland, Joyce M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 by upstream mitogenic signaling pathways regulates its stability, localization, and biological function. In human cancers, loss of the antiproliferative action of p27 can arise through reduced protein levels and/or cytoplasmic mislocalization, leading to increased cell proliferation and/or cell migration, respectively. Reduced p27 expression levels and p27 mislocalization have potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in various types of human cancers. This review highlights mechanisms of functional deregulation of p27 by oncogenic signaling that provide an important molecular rationale for pathway targeting in cancer treatment.

  7. MicroRNA deregulation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Calin, George A.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a key component of the noncoding RNA family. The underlying mechanisms involved in the interplay between the tumor microenvironment and cancer cells involve highly dynamic factors such as hypoxia and cell types such as cancer-associated fibroblasts and macrophages. Although miRNA levels are known to be altered in cancer cells, recent evidence suggests a critical role for the tumor microenvironment in regulating miRNA biogenesis, methylation, and transcriptional changes. Here, we discuss the complex pro-tumorigenic symbiotic role between tumor cells, the tumor microenvironment, and miRNA deregulation. PMID:26865249

  8. The Construction, Enactment, and Maintenance of Power-as-Domination through an Acquisition: The Case of TWA and Ozark Airlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Tamyra; Dougherty, Debbie S.

    2002-01-01

    Explores how domination was created, enacted, and maintained in the acquisition of Ozark Airlines by TWA. Uses the concepts of resources, hegemony, and resistance from the functionalist, Marxist, and postmodern traditions, respectively, to understand power-as-domination as a complex communication process. Reveals how communication practices were…

  9. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  10. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  11. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  12. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  13. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  14. Investigating the Use of Google Translate in "Terms and Conditions" in an Airline's Official Website: Errors and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidhayasai, Tya; Keyuravong, Sonthida; Bunsom, Thanis

    2015-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the Internet is regarded as one of the most popular sources of information given the number of on-line browsers who have access to websites. The tourism industry, be it hotels or airlines, in the 21st century relies heavily on the provision of information via its official websites. Thus, it is crucial that the…

  15. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than...

  16. On-the-Spot Problem Solving of Airline Professionals: A Case Study of Sky Business School Personnel Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This research explores how chief cabin crew members of major airlines made their decisions on-the-spot when they had unexpected problems. This research also presents some insights that may improve personnel training programs for future stewardesses and stewards based on the investigation of their decision-making styles. The theoretical framework…

  17. Public health response to commercial airline travel of a person with Ebola virus infection - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Regan, Joanna J; Jungerman, Robynne; Montiel, Sonia H; Newsome, Kimberly; Objio, Tina; Washburn, Faith; Roland, Efrosini; Petersen, Emily; Twentyman, Evelyn; Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Naughton, Mary; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Lippold, Susan A; Tabony, Laura; McCarty, Carolyn L; Kinsey, Cara Bicking; Barnes, Meghan; Black, Stephanie; Azzam, Ihsan; Stanek, Danielle; Sweitzer, John; Valiani, Anita; Kohl, Katrin S; Brown, Clive; Pesik, Nicki

    2015-01-30

    Before the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, there were few documented cases of symptomatic Ebola patients traveling by commercial airline, and no evidence of transmission to passengers or crew members during airline travel. In July 2014 two persons with confirmed Ebola virus infection who were infected early in the Nigeria outbreak traveled by commercial airline while symptomatic, involving a total of four flights (two international flights and two Nigeria domestic flights). It is not clear what symptoms either of these two passengers experienced during flight; however, one collapsed in the airport shortly after landing, and the other was documented to have fever, vomiting, and diarrhea on the day the flight arrived. Neither infected passenger transmitted Ebola to other passengers or crew on these flights. In October 2014, another airline passenger, a U.S. health care worker who had traveled domestically on two commercial flights, was confirmed to have Ebola virus infection. Given that the time of onset of symptoms was uncertain, an Ebola airline contact investigation in the United States was conducted. In total, follow-up was conducted for 268 contacts in nine states, including all 247 passengers from both flights, 12 flight crew members, eight cleaning crew members, and one federal airport worker (81 of these contacts were documented in a report published previously). All contacts were accounted for by state and local jurisdictions and followed until completion of their 21-day incubation periods. No secondary cases of Ebola were identified in this investigation, confirming that transmission of Ebola during commercial air travel did not occur.

  18. CpaA a novel protease from Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates deregulates blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Derek; Law, Robert; Warren, Sarah; Samis, John A; Kumar, Ayush

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that displays high antibiotic resistance. It causes a variety of infections including pneumonias and sepsis which may result in disseminated intravascular coagulation. In this work, we identify and characterize a novel secreted, zinc-dependent, metallo-endopeptidase CpaA (coagulation targeting metallo-endopeptidase of Acinetobacter baumannii) which deregulates human blood coagulation in vitro and thus is likely to contribute to A. baumannii virulence. Three quarters of the clinical isolates tested (n = 16) had the cpaA gene; however, it was absent from two type strains, A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and A. baumannii ATCC 19606. The CpaA protein was purified from one clinical isolate and was able to cleave purified factor (F) V and fibrinogen and reduce the coagulation activity of FV in human plasma. CpaA-treated plasma showed reduced clotting activity in contact pathway-activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assays, but increased clotting activity in tissue factor pathway prothrombin time (PT) assays. A significant portion of clinically relevant A. baumannii isolates secrete a protease which targets and deregulates the coagulation system.

  19. HTLV-1 Tax deregulates autophagy by recruiting autophagic molecules into lipid raft microdomains.

    PubMed

    Ren, T; Takahashi, Y; Liu, X; Loughran, T P; Sun, S-C; Wang, H-G; Cheng, H

    2015-01-15

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an etiological factor that causes adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma, has a crucial role in initiating T-lymphocyte transformation by inducing oncogenic signaling activation. We here report that Tax is a determining factor for dysregulation of autophagy in HTLV-1-transformed T cells and Tax-immortalized CD4 memory T cells. Tax facilitated autophagic process by activating inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) complex, which subsequently recruited an autophagy molecular complex containing Beclin1 and Bif-1 to the lipid raft microdomains. Tax engaged a crosstalk between IKK complex and autophagic molecule complex by directly interacting with both complexes, promoting assembly of LC3+ autophagosomes. Moreover, expression of lipid raft-targeted Bif-1 or Beclin1 was sufficient to induce formation of LC3+ autophagosomes, suggesting that Tax recruitment of autophagic molecules to lipid rafts is a dominant strategy to deregulate autophagy in the context of HTLV-1 transformation of T cells. Furthermore, depletion of autophagy molecules such as Beclin1 and PI3 kinase class III resulted in impaired growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, indicating a critical role of Tax-deregulated autophagy in promoting survival and transformation of virally infected T cells.

  20. Exposure to endocrine disruptor induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of microRNAs in primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Brieño-Enríquez, Miguel A; García-López, Jesús; Cárdenas, David B; Guibert, Sylvain; Cleroux, Elouan; Děd, Lukas; Hourcade, Juan de Dios; Pěknicová, Jana; Weber, Michael; Del Mazo, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, germ cell differentiation is initiated in the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) during fetal development. Prenatal exposure to environmental toxicants such as endocrine disruptors may alter PGC differentiation, development of the male germline and induce transgenerational epigenetic disorders. The anti-androgenic compound vinclozolin represents a paradigmatic example of molecule causing transgenerational effects on germ cells. We performed prenatal exposure to vinclozolin in mice and analyzed the phenotypic and molecular changes in three successive generations. A reduction in the number of embryonic PGCs and increased rate of apoptotic cells along with decrease of fertility rate in adult males were observed in F1 to F3 generations. Blimp1 is a crucial regulator of PGC differentiation. We show that prenatal exposure to vinclozolin deregulates specific microRNAs in PGCs, such as miR-23b and miR-21, inducing disequilibrium in the Lin28/let-7/Blimp1 pathway in three successive generations of males. As determined by global maps of cytosine methylation, we found no evidence for prominent changes in DNA methylation in PGCs or mature sperm. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of expression of microRNAs affecting key regulatory pathways of germ cells differentiation.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Recurrently Deregulated Genes across Multiple Cancers Identifies New Pan-Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Tanaka, Yuji; Kawaji, Hideya; Sandelin, Albin; Andersson, Robin; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R

    2016-01-15

    Genes that are commonly deregulated in cancer are clinically attractive as candidate pan-diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. To globally identify such targets, we compared Cap Analysis of Gene Expression profiles from 225 different cancer cell lines and 339 corresponding primary cell samples to identify transcripts that are deregulated recurrently in a broad range of cancer types. Comparing RNA-seq data from 4,055 tumors and 563 normal tissues profiled in the The Cancer Genome Atlas and FANTOM5 datasets, we identified a core transcript set with theranostic potential. Our analyses also revealed enhancer RNAs, which are upregulated in cancer, defining promoters that overlap with repetitive elements (especially SINE/Alu and LTR/ERV1 elements) that are often upregulated in cancer. Lastly, we documented for the first time upregulation of multiple copies of the REP522 interspersed repeat in cancer. Overall, our genome-wide expression profiling approach identified a comprehensive set of candidate biomarkers with pan-cancer potential, and extended the perspective and pathogenic significance of repetitive elements that are frequently activated during cancer progression.

  2. N-Myc overexpression increases cisplatin resistance in neuroblastoma via deregulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Casinelli, Gabriella; LaRosa, Jeff; Sharma, Manika; Cherok, Edward; Banerjee, Swati; Branca, Maria; Edmunds, Lia; Wang, Yudong; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Churley, Luke; Kelly, Samantha; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna; Graves, J Anthony

    2016-01-01

    N-Myc is a global transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in a number of essential cellular processes including: ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle and apoptosis. Upon deregulation, N-Myc can drive pathologic expression of many of these genes, which ultimately defines its oncogenic potential. Overexpression of N-Myc has been demonstrated to contribute to tumorigenesis, most notably for the pediatric tumor, neuroblastoma. Herein, we provide evidence that deregulated N-Myc alters the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics. We found that N-Myc overexpression leads to increased fusion of the mitochondrial reticulum secondary to changes in protein expression due to aberrant transcriptional and post-translational regulation. We believe the structural changes in the mitochondrial network in response to N-Myc amplification in neuroblastoma contributes to two important aspects of tumor development and maintenance—bioenergetic alterations and apoptotic resistance. Specifically, we found that N-Myc overexpressing cells are resistant to programmed cell death in response to exposure to low doses of cisplatin, and demonstrated that this was dependent on increased mitochondrial fusion. We speculate that these changes in mitochondrial structure and function may contribute significantly to the aggressive clinical ph9enotype of N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma. PMID:28028439

  3. Deregulation of the miRNAs Expression in Cervical Cancer: Human Papillomavirus Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gómez, Yazmín; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Gariglio, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non coding RNAs of 18–25 nucleotides in length. The temporal or short-lived expression of the miRNAs modulates gene expression post transcriptionally. Studies have revealed that miRNAs deregulation correlates and is involved with the initiation and progression of human tumors. Cervical cancer (CC) displays notably increased or decreased expression of a large number of cellular oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs, respectively. However, understanding the potential role of miRNAs in CC is still limited. In CC, the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) infection can affect the miRNAs expression through oncoprotein E6 and E7 that contribute to viral pathogenesis, although other viral proteins might also be involved. This deregulation in the miRNAs expression has an important role in the hallmarks of CC. Interestingly, the miRNA expression profile in CC can discriminate between normal and tumor tissue and the extraordinary stability of miRNAs makes it suitable to serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancer. In this review, we will summarize the role of the HR-HPVs in miRNA expression, the role of miRNAs in the hallmarks of CC, and the use of miRNAs as potential prognostic biomarkers in CC. PMID:24490161

  4. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-02-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism.

  5. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism. PMID:26911650

  6. And deregulation shall lead me to lie down in green pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Weidinger, G.

    1995-06-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the history of the IPP industry, the current state of competition, and potential opportunities for IPPs in a deregulated environment. Since the beginning of the PURPA created IPP industry, we have experienced many market phases. These began with {open_quotes}beat avoided cost,{close_quotes} followed by {open_quotes}find a need and fill it,{close_quotes} followed by {open_quotes}the bid fest,{close_quotes} to today`s {open_quotes}anything goes.{close_quotes} During this time, market clearing prices have declined from over 80/KwHr to 2-40/KwHr. Today`s partially deregulated electric market includes fierce competition and several new players in the game. Where surplus capacity exists, IPPs must compete with subsidized power. Long-term contracts are no longer widely available. Access to markets is constrained by less than open transmission. Even with these challenges, opportunities remain for the IPP supplier. Opportunities for advanced coal-fired power systems will be explored.

  7. MicroRNA deregulation in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia patients.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Huichun; Cardozo, Christopher; Yu, Wayne; Wang, Antai; Moliterno, Alison R; Dang, Chi V; Spivak, Jerry L

    2013-03-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are the two most common myeloproliferative neoplasms. The same JAK2(V617F) mutation can be found in both disorders and is able to recapitulate many of the phenotypic abnormalities of these diseases in the murine models. The disease phenotype is also influenced by other unknown genetic or epigenetic factors. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are 18-24 nucleotides single-stranded non-protein-coding RNAs that function primarily as gene repressors by binding to their target messenger RNAs. We performed miRNA expression profiling by oligonucleotide microarray analysis in purified peripheral blood CD34+ cells from eight JAK2(V617F)-positive PV patients and six healthy donors. A quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to verify differential miRNA expression. Since erythrocytosis is the only feature that distinguishes PV from ET, we also compared specific miRNA expression in the nucleated erythroid cells directly descended from the early erythroid progenitor cells of PV and ET patients. Our data indicate that significant miRNA deregulation occurs in PV CD34+ cells and confirm a genetic basis for the gender-specific differences that characterize PV with respect to miRNA. The results of our study also suggest that deregulated miRNAs may represent an important mechanism by which the PV erythrocytosis and ET thrombocytosis phenotypes are determined.

  8. Deregulation of Genes Related to Iron and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Refractory Anemia with Ring Sideroblasts

    PubMed Central

    del Rey, Mónica; Benito, Rocío; Fontanillo, Celia; Campos-Laborie, Francisco J.; Janusz, Kamila; Velasco-Hernández, Talía; Abáigar, María; Hernández, María; Cuello, Rebeca; Borrego, Daniel; Martín-Zanca, Dionisio; De Las Rivas, Javier; Mills, Ken I.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of SF3B1 gene mutations is a hallmark of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS). However, the mechanisms responsible for iron accumulation that characterize the Myelodysplastic Syndrome with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS) are not completely understood. In order to gain insight in the molecular basis of MDS-RS, an integrative study of the expression and mutational status of genes related to iron and mitochondrial metabolism was carried out. A total of 231 low-risk MDS patients and 81 controls were studied. Gene expression analysis revealed that iron metabolism and mitochondrial function had the highest number of genes deregulated in RARS patients compared to controls and the refractory cytopenias with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD). Thus mitochondrial transporters SLC25 (SLC25A37 and SLC25A38) and ALAD genes were over-expressed in RARS. Moreover, significant differences were observed between patients with SF3B1 mutations and patients without the mutations. The deregulation of genes involved in iron and mitochondrial metabolism provides new insights in our knowledge of MDS-RS. New variants that could be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases have been identified. PMID:25955609

  9. An analysis of airline landing flare data based on flight and training simulator measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Schulman, T. M.; Clement, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Landings by experienced airline pilots transitioning to the DC-10, performed in flight and on a simulator, were analyzed and compared using a pilot-in-the-loop model of the landing maneuver. By solving for the effective feedback gains and pilot compensation which described landing technique, it was possible to discern fundamental differences in pilot behavior between the actual aircraft and the simulator. These differences were then used to infer simulator fidelity in terms of specific deficiencies and to quantify the effectiveness of training on the simulator as compared to training in flight. While training on the simulator, pilots exhibited larger effective lag in commanding the flare. The inability to compensate adequately for this lag was associated with hard or inconsistent landings. To some degree this deficiency was carried into flight, thus resulting in a slightly different and inferior landing technique than exhibited by pilots trained exclusively on the actual aircraft.

  10. Could U.S. hospitals go the way of U.S. airlines?

    PubMed

    Altman, Stuart H; Shactman, David; Eilat, Efrat

    2006-01-01

    The market for hospital services, like global markets in general, is becoming more competitive. Increased price transparency and focused competition can squeeze out inefficiencies, restraining prices and making some consumers better off. But competition can have a dark side. U.S. hospitals can treat Medicare and Medicaid patients at less than cost, care for the uninsured, and provide other money-losing services because they can cross-subsidize. By 2025 the need for general hospitals to cross-subsidize will greatly in-crease, but their ability to do so will be diminished. U.S. hospitals could begin to resemble U.S. airlines: severely cutting costs, eliminating services, and suffering financial instability.

  11. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.

  12. Procedures for estimating the frequency of commercial airline flights encountering high cabin ozone levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Three analytical problems in estimating the frequency at which commercial airline flights will encounter high cabin ozone levels are formulated and solved: namely, estimating flight-segment mean levels, estimating maximum-per-flight levels, and estimating the maximum average level over a specified flight interval. For each problem, solution procedures are given for different levels of input information - from complete cabin ozone data, which provides a direct solution, to limited ozone information, such as ambient ozone means and standard deviations, with which several assumptions are necessary to obtain the required estimates. Each procedure is illustrated by an example case calculation that uses simultaneous cabin and ambient ozone data obtained by the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program. Critical assumptions are discussed and evaluated, and the several solutions for each problem are compared. Example calculations are also performed to illustrate how variations in lattitude, altitude, season, retention ratio, flight duration, and cabin ozone limits affect the estimated probabilities.

  13. Toward the Identification of Two Glycoproteins Involved in the Stomatal Deregulation of Downy Mildew-Infected Grapevine Leaves.

    PubMed

    Guillier, Christelle; Gamm, Magdalena; Lucchi, Géraldine; Truntzer, Caroline; Pecqueur, Delphine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Adrian, Marielle; Héloir, Marie-Claire

    2015-11-01

    Stomata remain abnormally opened and unresponsive to abscisic acid in grapevine leaves infected by downy mildew. This deregulation occurs from 3 days postinoculation and increases concomitantly with leaf colonization by the pathogen. Using epidermal peels, we demonstrated that the active compound involved in this deregulation is located in the apoplast. Biochemical assays showed that the active compound present in the apoplastic fluids isolated from Plasmopara viticola-infected grapevine leaves (IAF) is a CysCys bridge-independent, thermostable and glycosylated protein. Fractionation guided assays based on chromatography coupled to stomatal response and proteomic analysis allowed the identification of both plant and pathogen proteins in the active fraction obtained from IAF. Further in silico analysis and discriminant filtrations based on the comparison between predictions and experimental indications lead to the identification of two Vitis vinifera proteins as candidates for the observed stomatal deregulation.

  14. The impact of deregulation and restructuring: An empirical case study of the electric utility industry from 1998 through 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Deborah E.

    This qualitative study analyzed the residential electricity prices in the competitive U.S. electric market from 1998 to 2007. This analysis revealed that electricity restructuring has not yet resulted in lower prices for the majority of residential consumers in areas open to competition. This study reviewed actual experiences of eight states in the deregulated and restructured electricity markets: Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The study began with a historical look at the deregulated and restructured electricity market from 1990 to 2007. The electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition and price caps. The results indicated that both had an effect on residential prices. This study used data from the Energy Information Administration and the 8 public utility commissions. Contrary to common expectations, residential electricity costs for consumers have increased rather than decreased.

  15. The effects of Crew Resource Mangement (CRM) training in airline maintenance: Results following three years' experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.; Robertson, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes three years' evaluation of the effects of one airline's Crew Resources Management (CRM) training operation for maintenance. This evaluation focuses on the post-training attitudes of maintenance managers' and technical support professionals, their reported behaviors, and the safety, efficiency and dependable maintenance performance of their units. The results reveal a strong positive effect of the training. The overall program represents the use of CRM training as a long-term commitment to improving performance through effective communication at all levels in airline maintenance operations. The initial findings described in our previous progress reports are reinforced and elaborated here. The current results benefit from the entire pre-post training survey, which now represents total attendance of all managers and staff professionals. Additionally there are now full results from the two-month, six-month, and 12-month follow-up questionnaires, together with as many as 33 months of post-training performance data, using several indicators. In this present report, we examine participants' attitudes, their reported behaviors following the training, the performance of their work units, and the relationships among these variables. Attitudes include those measured immediately before and after the training as well as participants' attitudes months after their training. Performance includes measures, by work units, of on-time flight departures, on-schedule maintenance releases, occupational and aircraft safety, and efficient labor costs. We report changes in these performance measures following training, as well their relationships with the training participants' attitudes. Highlights of results from this training program include increased safety and improved costs associated with positive attitudes about the use of more assertive communication, and the improved management of stress. Improved on-time performance is also related to those improved

  16. Projecting Future Scheduled Airline Demand, Schedules and NGATS Benefits Using TSAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Viken, Jeff; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nickolas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) developed by Virginia Tech s Air Transportation Systems Lab and NASA Langley can provide detailed analysis of the effects on the demand for air travel of a full range of NASA and FAA aviation projects. TSAM has been used to project the passenger demand for very light jet (VLJ) air taxi service, scheduled airline demand growth and future schedules, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) benefits, and future passenger revenues for the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. TSAM can project the resulting demand when new vehicles and/or technology is inserted into the long distance (100 or more miles one-way) transportation system, as well as, changes in demand as a result of fare yield increases or decreases, airport transit times, scheduled flight times, ticket taxes, reductions or increases in flight delays, and so on. TSAM models all long distance travel in the contiguous U.S. and determines the mode choice of the traveler based on detailed trip costs, travel time, schedule frequency, purpose of the trip (business or non-business), and household income level of the traveler. Demand is modeled at the county level, with an airport choice module providing up to three airports as part of the mode choice. Future enplanements at airports can be projected for different scenarios. A Fratar algorithm and a schedule generator are applied to generate future flight schedules. This paper presents the application of TSAM to modeling future scheduled air passenger demand and resulting airline schedules, the impact of NGATS goals and objectives on passenger demand, along with projections for passenger fee receipts for several scenarios for the FAA Airport and Airway Trust Fund.

  17. Phenotypic impact of deregulated expression of class I histone deacetylases in urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Junqueira-Neto, Susana; Vieira, Filipa Q; Montezuma, Diana; Costa, Natália R; Antunes, Luís; Baptista, Tiago; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Graça, Inês; Rodrigues, Ângelo; Magalhães, José S; Oliveira, Jorge; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Deregulated expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Herein, we investigated class I HDACs expression in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (BUCC), its prognostic value and biological significance. Significantly increased transcript levels of all HDACs were found in BUCC compared to 20 normal mucosas, and these were higher in lower grade and stage tumors. Increased HDAC3 levels were associated with improved patient survival. SiRNA experiments showed decrease cell viability and motility, and increased apoptosis. We concluded that class I HDACs play an important role in bladder carcinogenesis through deregulation of proliferation, migration and apoptosis, constituting putative therapeutic targets.

  18. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  19. 75 FR 66728 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... evidence that the re-exported aircraft bore the livery, colors and logos of Syrian Pearl Airlines, a... Law Judge, U.S. Coast Guard ALJ Docketing Center, 40 South Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland...

  20. 75 FR 43564 - TA-W-71,483, Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Houston, TX; TA-W-71,483A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ..., Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Salt Lake City, UT; Notice of Negative Determination...., Reservations Division, Salt Lake City, Utah, was based on the findings that the subject firm did not,...

  1. Allocation of Transaction Cost to Market Participants Using an Analytical Method in Deregulated Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasankari, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Charles Raja, S.; Venkatesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    Transmission cost allocation is one of the major challenges in transmission open access faced by the electric power sector. The purpose of this work is to provide an analytical method for allocating transmission transaction cost in deregulated market. This research work provides a usage based transaction cost allocation method based on line-flow impact factor (LIF) which relates the power flow in each line with respect to transacted power for the given transaction. This method provides the impact of line flows without running iterative power flow solution and is well suited for real time applications. The proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson (NR) method of cost allocation on sample six bus and practical Indian utility 69 bus systems by considering multilateral transaction.

  2. Cell cycle-regulatory cyclins and their deregulation in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajakishore

    2013-06-01

    Oral cancer is a growth-related disorder, and cyclins are the prime regulators of cell division. Cyclins are associated with the pathogenesis of oral cancer and are considered valuable biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. These important molecules are regulated in many ways to achieve a gain in function and are involved in promoting neoplastic growth. While the causes of most cyclin overexpression are varied, these cyclins may be induced by buccal mucosal insult mainly with carcinogens that alter various pathways propelling oral cancer. Substantial experimental evidences support a link between oncogenic signaling pathways and the deregulation of cyclins in oral cancer. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which cyclins are regulated and promote oral oncogenesis.

  3. A deregulated intestinal cell cycle program disrupts tissue homeostasis without affecting longevity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Petkau, Kristina; Parsons, Brendon D; Duggal, Aashna; Foley, Edan

    2014-10-10

    Recent studies illuminate a complex relationship between the control of stem cell division and intestinal tissue organization in the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Host and microbial signals drive intestinal proliferation to maintain an effective epithelial barrier. Although it is widely assumed that proliferation induces dysplasia and shortens the life span of the host, the phenotypic consequences of deregulated intestinal proliferation for an otherwise healthy host remain unexplored. To address this question, we genetically isolated and manipulated the cell cycle programs of adult stem cells and enterocytes. Our studies revealed that cell cycle alterations led to extensive cell death and morphological disruptions. Despite the extensive tissue damage, we did not observe an impact on longevity, suggesting a remarkable degree of plasticity in intestinal function.

  4. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  5. CCT`s in a deregulated environment: A producer`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, R.F. Jr.; Fayssoux, J.O.

    1997-12-31

    The US electric industry will be deregulated (or substantially re-regulated) within 5 years. Several states, including California, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, already have passed legislation to introduce competition into the electric markets before the year 2000. As this trend sweeps across the country, the resulting competitive market for generation will reward the lowest cost producers and force high cost producers out of the market. As a result, at least in the short run, it may be very difficult for new power plants employing Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) to compete. This paper discusses a producer`s perspective of the new competitive market, and suggests several short and long term strategies and niches for CCTs.

  6. Deregulated MicroRNAs in Biliary Tract Cancer: Functional Targets and Potential Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Beyreis, Marlena; Wagner, Andrej; Pichler, Martin; Neureiter, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is still a fatal disease with very poor prognosis. The lack of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis and of effective therapeutic targets is a major demanding problem in diagnosis and management of BTC. Due to the clinically silent and asymptomatic characteristics of the tumor, most patients are diagnosed at an already advanced stage allowing only for a palliative therapeutic approach. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs well known to regulate various cellular functions and pathologic events including the formation and progression of cancer. Over the last years, several studies have shed light on the role of microRNAs in BTC, making them potentially attractive therapeutic targets and candidates as biomarkers. In this review, we will focus on the role of oncogenic and tumor suppressor microRNAs and their direct targets in BTC. Furthermore, we summarize and discuss data that evaluate the diagnostic power of deregulated microRNAs as possible future biomarkers for BTC. PMID:27957497

  7. Deregulation of protein translation control, a potential game-changing hypothesis for Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taymans, Jean-Marc; Nkiliza, Aurore; Chartier-Harlin, Marie-Christine

    2015-08-01

    Protein translation is one of the most fundamental and exquisitely controlled processes in biology, and is energetically demanding. The deregulation of this process is deleterious to cells, as demonstrated by several diseases caused by mutations in protein translation machinery. Emerging evidence now points to a role for protein translation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); a debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder. In this paper, we propose a hypothesis that protein translation machinery, PD-associated proteins and PD pathology are connected in a functional network linking cell survival to protein translation control. This hypothesis is a potential game changer in the field of the molecular pathogenesis of PD, with implications for the development of PD diagnostics and disease-modifying therapies.

  8. IODNE: An integrated optimization method for identifying the deregulated subnetwork for precision medicine in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mounika Inavolu, S; Renbarger, J; Radovich, M; Vasudevaraja, V; Kinnebrew, GH; Zhang, S

    2017-01-01

    Subnetwork analysis can explore complex patterns of entire molecular pathways for the purpose of drug target identification. In this article, the gene expression profiles of a cohort of patients with breast cancer are integrated with protein‐protein interaction (PPI) networks using, simultaneously, both edge scoring and node scoring. A novel optimization algorithm, integrated optimization method to identify deregulated subnetwork (IODNE), is developed to search for the optimal dysregulated subnetwork of the merged gene and protein network. IODNE is applied to select subnetworks for Luminal‐A breast cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. A large fraction of cancer‐related genes and the well‐known clinical targets, ER1/PR and HER2, are found by IODNE. This validates the utility of IODNE. When applying IODNE to the triple‐negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype data, we identified subnetworks that contain genes such as ERBB2, HRAS, PGR, CAD, POLE, and SLC2A1. PMID:28266149

  9. Deregulation of intestinal anti-microbial defense by the dietary additive, maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Kourtney P; Chanin, Rachael; McDonald, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex, multi-factorial disease thought to arise from an inappropriate immune response to commensal bacteria in a genetically susceptible person that results in chronic, cyclical, intestinal inflammation. Dietary and environmental factors are implicated in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD; however, a singular causative agent has not been identified. As of now, the role of environmental priming or triggers in IBD onset and pathogenesis are not well understood, but these factors appear to synergize with other disease susceptibility factors. In previous work, we determined that the polysaccharide dietary additive, maltodextrin (MDX), impairs cellular anti-bacterial responses and suppresses intestinal anti-microbial defense mechanisms. In this addendum, we review potential mechanisms for dietary deregulation of intestinal homeostasis, postulate how dietary and genetic risk factors may combine to result in disease pathogenesis, and discuss these ideas in the context of recent findings related to dietary interventions for IBD.

  10. Limits of Expertise: Rethinking Pilot Error and the Causes of Airline Accidents. CRM/HF Conference, Held in Denver, Colorado on April 16-17, 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, Key; Berman, Ben; Loukopoulos, Loukisa

    2007-01-01

    Reviewed NTSB reports of the 19 U.S. airline accidents between 1991-2000 attributed primarily to crew error. Asked: Why might any airline crew in situation of accident crew--knowing only what they knew--be vulnerable. Can never know with certainty why accident crew made specific errors but can determine why the population of pilots is vulnerable. Considers variability of expert performance as function of interplay of multiple factors.

  11. Aberrantly Expressed OTX Homeobox Genes Deregulate B-Cell Differentiation in Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently reported that deregulated homeobox gene MSX1 mediates repression of the B-cell specific transcription factor ZHX2. In this study we investigated regulation of MSX1 in this B-cell malignancy. Accordingly, we analyzed expression and function of OTX homeobox genes which activate MSX1 transcription during embryonal development in the neural plate border region. Our data demonstrate that OTX1 and OTX2 are aberrantly expressed in both HL patients and cell lines. Moreover, both OTX loci are targeted by genomic gains in overexpressing cell lines. Comparative expression profiling and subsequent pathway modulations in HL cell lines indicated that aberrantly enhanced FGF2-signalling activates the expression of OTX2. Downstream analyses of OTX2 demonstrated transcriptional activation of genes encoding transcription factors MSX1, FOXC1 and ZHX1. Interestingly, examination of the physiological expression profile of ZHX1 in normal hematopoietic cells revealed elevated levels in T-cells and reduced expression in B-cells, indicating a discriminatory role in lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, two OTX-negative HL cell lines overexpressed ZHX1 in correlation with genomic amplification of its locus at chromosomal band 8q24, supporting the oncogenic potential of this gene in HL. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulated homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 respectively impact transcriptional inhibition of (B-cell specific) ZHX2 and activation of (T-cell specific) ZHX1. Thus, we show how reactivation of a specific embryonal gene regulatory network promotes disturbed B-cell differentiation in HL. PMID:26406991

  12. Regulation and deregulation of cholesterol homeostasis: The liver as a metabolic “power station”

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Pallottini, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays several structural and metabolic roles that are vital for human biology. It spreads along the entire plasma membrane of the cell, modulating fluidity and concentrating in specialized sphingolipid-rich domains called rafts and caveolae. Cholesterol is also a substrate for steroid hormones. However, too much cholesterol can lead to pathological pictures such as atherosclerosis, which is a consequence of the accumulation of cholesterol into the cells of the artery wall. The liver is considered to be the metabolic power station of mammalians, where cholesterol homeostasis relies on an intricate network of cellular processes whose deregulations can lead to several life-threatening pathologies, such as familial and age-related hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol homeostasis maintenance is carried out by: biosynthesis, via 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) activity; uptake, through low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLr); lipoprotein release in the blood; storage by esterification; and degradation and conversion into bile acids. Both HMGR and LDLr are transcribed as a function of cellular sterol amount by a family of transcription factors called sterol regulatory element binding proteins that are responsible for the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis through an intricate mechanism of regulation. Cholesterol obtained by hepatic de novo synthesis can be esterified and incorporated into apolipoprotein B-100-containing very low density lipoproteins, which are then secreted into the bloodstream for transport to peripheral tissues. Moreover, dietary cholesterol is transferred from the intestine to the liver by high density lipoproteins (HDLs); all HDL particles are internalized in the liver, interacting with the hepatic scavenger receptor (SR-B1). Here we provide an updated overview of liver cholesterol metabolism regulation and deregulation and the causes of cholesterol metabolism-related diseases. Moreover, current pharmacological

  13. Regulation and deregulation of cholesterol homeostasis: The liver as a metabolic "power station".

    PubMed

    Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Pallottini, Valentina

    2012-06-27

    Cholesterol plays several structural and metabolic roles that are vital for human biology. It spreads along the entire plasma membrane of the cell, modulating fluidity and concentrating in specialized sphingolipid-rich domains called rafts and caveolae. Cholesterol is also a substrate for steroid hormones. However, too much cholesterol can lead to pathological pictures such as atherosclerosis, which is a consequence of the accumulation of cholesterol into the cells of the artery wall. The liver is considered to be the metabolic power station of mammalians, where cholesterol homeostasis relies on an intricate network of cellular processes whose deregulations can lead to several life-threatening pathologies, such as familial and age-related hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol homeostasis maintenance is carried out by: biosynthesis, via 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) activity; uptake, through low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLr); lipoprotein release in the blood; storage by esterification; and degradation and conversion into bile acids. Both HMGR and LDLr are transcribed as a function of cellular sterol amount by a family of transcription factors called sterol regulatory element binding proteins that are responsible for the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis through an intricate mechanism of regulation. Cholesterol obtained by hepatic de novo synthesis can be esterified and incorporated into apolipoprotein B-100-containing very low density lipoproteins, which are then secreted into the bloodstream for transport to peripheral tissues. Moreover, dietary cholesterol is transferred from the intestine to the liver by high density lipoproteins (HDLs); all HDL particles are internalized in the liver, interacting with the hepatic scavenger receptor (SR-B1). Here we provide an updated overview of liver cholesterol metabolism regulation and deregulation and the causes of cholesterol metabolism-related diseases. Moreover, current pharmacological

  14. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  15. Deregulating School Aid in California: How 10 Districts Responded to Fiscal Flexibility, 2009-2010. Research Report Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Marsh, Julie A.; Stecher, Brian M.; Timar, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, California state legislators freed local educators from the specific guidelines that previously regulated spending on 40 categorical-aid programs known as Tier 3 programs. This Tier 3 flexibility reform, which deregulates $4.5 billion in education funding, was enacted at the same time the legislature made cuts in education spending in…

  16. Airlines Performance and Eflciency Evaluation using a MCDA Methodology. The Case for Low Cost Carriers vs Legacy Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Miguel; Baltazar, Maria E.; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The air transport has suffered a remarkable transformation over the past decade. Thewaywe travel today is quite different from how we did ten years ago. Due to the rise of low cost carriers, the market of air transportation has been constantly changing and presently witnessing the transformation of legacy carriers in order to manage to continue operating. The main purpose of thiswork is to show the differences in efficiency for different performance areas on a case study comprised of six different airline carriers, legacy and low cost, using a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDA) tool - Measuring Attractiveness by a Category Based Evaluation Technique (MACBETH). With the results obtained in this study, it is expected to show the work that is being carried out to obtain a model that would measure the efficiency of one or various airline companies in a defined period of time, using a set of performance indicators, to which specialists in the area previously have given weights.

  17. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  18. The Career Cost: Does It Pay for a Military Pilot to Leave the Service for the Airlines?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    DOES IT PAY FOR A MILITARY PILOT TO LEAVE THE SERVICE FOR THE AIRLINES? by Jeffrey A. Hodges June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Thomas Albright...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE CAREER COST: DOES IT PAY FOR A MILITARY PILOT TO LEAVE THE SERVICE FOR... it is financially prudent for military pilots to remain in the service until retirement. The current policies enable a retired military pilot to

  19. Can the Air Force and Airlines Collaborate for Mutual Benefit An Exploration of Pilot and Maintenance Workforce Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    for unpredictable lengths of time. The Air Force active and reserve component leaders want to retain a quality workforce to maintain readiness...duty retirement. While this doesn’t account for quality of life or income security, the largest fiscal payoff for a pilot in the active duty Air Force...Summary Report Can the Air Force and Airlines Collaborate for Mutual Benefit? An Exploration of Pilot and Maintenance Workforce Options Anthony

  20. Confidence in Airline Performance in Difficult Market Conditions: An Analysis of JetBlue's Financial Market Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the stock market s reaction to JetBlue s Initial Public Offering (1PO) and subsequent price movements of the stock. In particular, w e examine whether the euphoria surrounding JetBlue s IPO carried over to other firms in the sector by testing whether the shares of JetBlue s competitors showed a significant price reaction to JetBlue s IPO. JetBlue's IPO took place just a few months following September 11, 2001. These events resulted in dramatic changes in the airline industry and had significant implications on the economic gains of airlines. We examine JetBlue s accounting and stock performance and compare it to the relative performance of Southwest Airlines (SWA), a representative of the loa-cost carrier group. In addition, we compare both JetBlue's and SWA's financial condition and the relative performance of their stock to two mainline U S. carriers, Continental and Northwest. representatives of the conventional-cost carrier group. We analyze whether there are any performance differences among the low-cost carriers and between low-cost carriers and conventional-cost carriers. In particular, we examine whether low-cost carriers were able to sustain the economic impacts of 9/11 better than the conventional-cost carriers.

  1. Metroplex Optimization Model Expansion and Analysis: The Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Hoffman, Karla; Donohue, George; Beradino, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM) that is designed to provide insights into airline decision-making with regards to markets served, schedule of flights on these markets, the type of aircraft assigned to each scheduled flight, load factors, airfares, and airline profits. The main inputs to the model are hedged fuel prices, airport capacity limits, and candidate markets. Embedded in the model are aircraft performance and associated cost factors, and willingness-to-pay (i.e. demand vs. airfare curves). Case studies demonstrate the application of the model for analysis of the effects of increased capacity and changes in operating costs (e.g. fuel prices). Although there are differences between airports (due to differences in the magnitude of travel demand and sensitivity to airfare), the system is more sensitive to changes in fuel prices than capacity. Further, the benefits of modernization in the form of increased capacity could be undermined by increases in hedged fuel prices

  2. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  3. The Risk of Melanoma in Airline Pilots and Cabin Crew A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R.; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T.; EE; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E.; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Importance Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. Objective To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. Data Sources PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). Study Selection All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Data Extraction and Synthesis Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Main Outcomes and Measures Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Results Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Conclusions and Relevance Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational

  4. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR) tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR), to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya) and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network

  5. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For some administrators and planners, designing and building education facilities may sometimes seem like a circus act--trying to project a persona of competence and confidence while juggling dozens of issues. Meanwhile, the audience--students, staff members and taxpayers--watch and wait with anticipation in hopes of getting what they paid for and…

  6. Cascading Delay Risk of Airline Workforce Deployments with Crew Pairing and Schedule Optimization.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sai Ho; Ma, Hoi Lam; Chan, Hing Kai

    2016-12-09

    This article concerns the assignment of buffer time between two connected flights and the number of reserve crews in crew pairing to mitigate flight disruption due to flight arrival delay. Insufficient crew members for a flight will lead to flight disruptions such as delays or cancellations. In reality, most of these disruption cases are due to arrival delays of the previous flights. To tackle this problem, many research studies have examined the assignment method based on the historical flight arrival delay data of the concerned flights. However, flight arrival delays can be triggered by numerous factors. Accordingly, this article proposes a new forecasting approach using a cascade neural network, which considers a massive amount of historical flight arrival and departure data. The approach also incorporates learning ability so that unknown relationships behind the data can be revealed. Based on the expected flight arrival delay, the buffer time can be determined and a new dynamic reserve crew strategy can then be used to determine the required number of reserve crews. Numerical experiments are carried out based on one year of flight data obtained from 112 airports around the world. The results demonstrate that by predicting the flight departure delay as the input for the prediction of the flight arrival delay, the prediction accuracy can be increased. Moreover, by using the new dynamic reserve crew strategy, the total crew cost can be reduced. This significantly benefits airlines in flight schedule stability and cost saving in the current big data era.

  7. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  8. Climatic similarity and biological exchange in the worldwide airline transportation network

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I

    2007-01-01

    Recent increases in the rates of biological invasion and spread of infectious diseases have been linked to the continued expansion of the worldwide airline transportation network (WAN). Here, the global structure of the WAN is analysed in terms of climatic similarity to illuminate the risk of deliberate or accidental movements of climatically sensitive organisms around the world. From over 44 000 flight routes, we show, for each month of an average year, (i) those scheduled routes that link the most spatially distant but climatically similar airports, (ii) the climatically best-connected airports, and (iii) clusters of airports with similar climatic features. The way in which traffic volumes alter these findings is also examined. Climatic similarity across the WAN is skewed (most geographically close airports are climatically similar) but heavy-tailed (there are considerable numbers of geographically distant but climatically similar airports), with climate similarity highest in the June–August period, matching the annual peak in air traffic. Climatically matched, geographically distant airports form subnetworks within the WAN that change throughout the year. Further, the incorporation of passenger and freight traffic data highlight at greater risk of invasion those airports that are climatically well connected by numerous high capacity routes. PMID:17426013

  9. Impact of scaling and body movement on contaminant transport in airliner cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Sagnik; Poussou, Stephane B.; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Chen, Qingyan

    2011-10-01

    Studies of contaminant transport have been conducted using small-scale models. This investigation used validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to examine if a small-scale water model could reveal the same contaminant transport characteristics as a full-scale airliner cabin. But due to similarity problems and the difficulty of scaling the geometry, a perfect scale up from a small water model to an actual air model was found to be impossible. The study also found that the seats and passengers tended to obstruct the lateral transport of the contaminants and confine their spread to the aisle of the cabin. The movement of a crew member or a passenger could carry a contaminant in its wake to as many rows as the crew member or passenger passed. This could be the reason why a SARS infected passenger could infect fellow passengers who were seated seven rows away. To accurately simulate the contaminant transport, the shape of the moving body should be a human-like model.

  10. In-Flight Characterization of the Electromagnetic Environment Inside an Airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Quach, Cuong C.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of experimental measurements that characterized the electromagnetic environment (EME) inside a Boeing 757 airliner while in flight, Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into a commercially configured aircraft as it was flown in close proximity to ground-based radio frequency (RF) transmitters operating at approximately 26, 173. and 430 MHz. The goal of this experiment was to collect data for the verification of analytical predictions of the internal aircraft response to an external stimulus. This paper describes the experiment, presents the data collected by it, and discusses techniques used to compute both the magnitude of the electric field illuminating the aircraft and its direction of propagation relative to a coordinate system fixed to the aircraft. The latter is determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) and aircraft Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) data. The paper concludes with an examination of the shielding effectiveness of the test aircraft. as determined by comparison of' the measured internal EME and computed external EME.

  11. Structural Analysis for the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident Investigation: Global Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Moore, David F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) supported the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the American Airlines Flight 587 accident investigation due to LaRC's expertise in high-fidelity structural analysis and testing of composite structures and materials. A Global Analysis Team from LaRC reviewed the manufacturer s design and certification procedures, developed finite element models and conducted structural analyses, and participated jointly with the NTSB and Airbus in subcomponent tests conducted at Airbus in Hamburg, Germany. The Global Analysis Team identified no significant or obvious deficiencies in the Airbus certification and design methods. Analysis results from the LaRC team indicated that the most-likely failure scenario was failure initiation at the right rear main attachment fitting (lug), followed by an unstable progression of failure of all fin-to-fuselage attachments and separation of the VTP from the aircraft. Additionally, analysis results indicated that failure initiates at the final observed maximum fin loading condition in the accident, when the VTP was subjected to loads that were at minimum 1.92 times the design limit load condition for certification. For certification, the VTP is only required to support loads of 1.5 times design limit load without catastrophic failure. The maximum loading during the accident was shown to significantly exceed the certification requirement. Thus, the structure appeared to perform in a manner consistent with its design and certification, and failure is attributed to VTP loads greater than expected.

  12. Crew Factors in Flight Operations. 11; A Survey of Fatigue Factors in Regional Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Johnson, Julie M.; Rosekind, Mark R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in a series on the physiological effects of flight operations on flight crews. A 119-question survey was completed by 1,424 flight crewmembers from 26 regional carriers to identify factors contributing to fatigue in regional airline operations. Eighty-nine percent of crewmembers identified fatigue as a moderate or serious concern with 88% reporting that it was a common occurrence and 92% reporting that, when it occurs, fatigue represents a moderate or serious safety issue. However, 86% reported they received no company training addressing fatigue issues. Identified fatigue factors included multiple flight segments, scheduling considerations, varying regulations, and others. The two most commonly cited fatigue factors regarded flying multiple (more than four) segments. Scheduling factors accounted for nine of the ten most common recommendations to reduce fatigue in regional operations. Differing requirements among regulations were cited as contributing to fatigue. Other identified factors were the flight deck environment, automation, and diet. The data suggested specific recommendations, including education of industry personnel about fatigue issues and examination of scheduling practices. Education plays a critical role in any effort to address fatigue. Analyzing scheduling practices and identifying potential improvements may result in reduced fatigue as well as other benefits to operations.

  13. Market Potential Study for Standing Cabin Concept for Domestic Low-Cost Commercial Airlines in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romli, Fairuz I.; Dasuki, Norhafizah; Yazdi Harmin, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    An affordable air transportation has become the operational aim of many airlines these days. This is to cater the growing air travel demands from people of different social and economic status. One of the revolutionary proposals to reduce the operational costs, hence the flight ticket price, is by introducing the so-called standing cabin concept. This concept involves transporting passengers during the entire flight in their standing position with a proper support of a vertical seat. As can be expected with many new inventions, despite its clear advantages, the concept has been met with mixed reactions from the public. This study intends to establish whether the standing cabin concept has a market potential to be implemented for domestic flights in Malaysia. The public perception is determined from collected data through a survey done at two major local low-cost airport terminals. It can be concluded from the results that the concept has a good market potential for application on flights with duration of less than two hours.

  14. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  15. Delayed-onset cerebral arterial gas embolism in a commercial airline mechanic.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Matthew J; Zanetti, Claude L

    2003-09-01

    A commercial airline mechanic was evaluated for right-sided hemianesthesia. Thorough diagnostic testing failed to identify a definitive etiology, and the mechanic was assessed as having symptoms of a left internal capsule lesion, likely from an ischemic event. On day 12 after symptom onset, he consulted a diving medicine specialist for clearance to continue recreational scuba diving. A thorough history revealed that the patient worked regularly in a compressed air environment of commercial aircraft and had experienced a rapid decompression approximately 48 h prior to onset of the hemianesthesia. The specialist considered pulmonary barotrauma-induced cerebral arterial gas embolism as a possible diagnosis. On day 13 he was treated with hyperbaric oxygen using Treatment Table VI, which produced immediate relief. Following three additional hyperbaric oxygen treatments in the next 11 d, he reported nearly total resolution of his symptoms. This occurrence is believed to be the second report of a cerebral arterial gas embolism in an aircraft mechanic or maintenance crewman and suggests that the latency between time of depressurization and the development of symptoms from a pulmonary barotrauma-induced cerebral arterial gas embolism may extend longer than previously believed.

  16. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  17. Preliminary Survey of Icing Conditions Measured During Routine Transcontinental Airline Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1952-01-01

    Icing data collected on routine operations by four DC-4-type aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters are presented as preliminary information obtained from a statistical icing data program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of many airline companies and the United States Air Force. The program is continuing on a much greater scale to provide large quantities of data from many air routes in the United States and overseas. Areas not covered by established air routes are also being included in the survey. The four aircraft which collected the data presented in this report were operated by United Air Lines over a transcontinental route from January through May, 1951. An analysis of the pressure-type icing-rate meter was satisfactory for collecting statistical data during routine operations. Data obtained on routine flight icing encounters from.these four instrumented aircraft, although insufficient for a conclusive statistical analysis, provide a greater quantity and considerably more realistic information than that obtained from random research flights. A summary of statistical data will be published when the information obtained daring the 1951-52 icing season and that to be obtained during the 1952-53 season can be analyzed and assembled. The 1951-52 data already analyzed indicate that the quantity, quality, and range of icing information being provided by this expanded program should afford a sound basis for ice-protection-system design by defining the important meteorological parameters of the icing cloud.

  18. Criminal Acts against Civil Aviation 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Ont. London/Ireland 12-23-87 KLM B-737 Amsterdam, Neth./Milan. Italy United States/Extortion 12-25-87 Iranian Airliner Unknown Tehran/ Mashad , Iran...Iranian airliner on a domestic flight between Tehran and Mashad , according to an Iranian news service. The hijackers, armed with a hand grenade, were

  19. The effects of deregulation on rural electric distribution cooperatives: An empirical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Monica Lynne

    In 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") issued Orders 888 and 889, which were designed to promote competition in wholesale markets for electricity. While these Orders were predominantly meant to apply to vertically integrated investor-owned utilities ("IOUs"), FERC recently issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that indicates its intent to make all transmission-owning entities, including those of cooperatively-owned utilities and the federal power administrations subject to FERC jurisdiction. Cooperatively owned utilities ("coops"), the focus of this paper, are organized as either generation and transmission ("G&T") or distribution only. And, although there are typically long-term contracts between the G&T and the distribution coops (thus rendering them quasi-vertically-integrated), they are very different from their investor-owned counterparts. It is because of these differences that the economic viability of these entities is being questioned in a deregulated environment. This dissertation examines the ability of coops to continue operating in their present form in a restructured electricity market. More specifically, using 1996 data for 831 distribution coops I estimate both quadratic and translogarithmic cost specifications so as to ascertain whether these firms are operating in such a fashion as to minimize costs. I find evidence that they are not. When delivered power is modeled as a single-output translogarithmic cost equation, I find that the majority of firms in the sample were operating in the increasing returns to scale portion of the average cost curve in 1996. This result reveals that coops delivered far less electricity to all customer classes than was necessary to attain the minimum efficient scale. And, upon estimating a multiple-output quadratic cost function, I find that there are ray economies, product specific returns to scale, and economies of scope in the distribution of electricity to the various customer classes that are

  20. The MAPK1/3 pathway is essential for the deregulation of autophagy observed in G2019S LRRK2 mutant fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Aiastui-Pujana, Ana; Gorostidi, Ana; Climent, Vicente; López de Maturana, Rakel; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; López de Munain, Adolfo; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa A.

    2012-01-01

    The link between the deregulation of autophagy and cell death processes can be essential in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanism of deregulation of this degradative process in PD patients is unknown. The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene is related to PD and its implication in autophagy regulation has been described. Our recent work shows that the presence of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation, one of the most prevalent in LRRK2, is accompanied by a deregulation of autophagy basal levels dependent on the MAPK1/3 (ERK2/1) pathway. PMID:22914360

  1. Deregulation of mTOR signaling is involved in thymic lymphoma development in Atm-/- mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Xianghong; Shen, Jianjun; Wong, Paul K.Y.; Yan, Mingshan

    2009-06-05

    Abnormal thymocyte development with thymic lymphomagenesis inevitably occurs in Atm-/- mice, indicating that ATM plays a pivotal role in regulating postnatal thymocyte development and preventing thymic lymphomagenesis. The mechanism for ATM controls these processes is unclear. We have shown previously that c-Myc, an oncoprotein regulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is overexpressed in Atm-/- thymocytes. Here, we show that inhibition of mTOR signaling with its specific inhibitor, rapamycin, suppresses normal thymocyte DNA synthesis by downregulating 4EBP1, but not S6K, and that 4EBP1 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression are coordinately increased in Atm-/- thymocytes. Administration of rapamycin to Atm-/- mice attenuates elevated phospho-4EBP1, c-Myc and cyclin D1 in their thymocytes, and delays thymic lymphoma development. These results indicate that mTOR downstream effector 4EBP1 is essential for normal thymocyte proliferation, but deregulation of 4EBP1 in Atm deficiency is a major factor driving thymic lymphomagenesis in the animals.

  2. Truncated tau deregulates synaptic markers in rat model for human tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Santosh; Katina, Stanislav; Kovac, Andrej; Kazmerova, Zuzana; Novak, Michal; Zilka, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic failure and neurofibrillary degeneration are two major neuropathological substrates of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Only a few studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between these two AD hallmarks. To investigate tau mediated synaptic injury we used rat model of tauopathy that develops extensive neurofibrillary pathology in the cortex. Using fractionation of cortical synapses, we identified an increase in endogenous rat tau isoforms in presynaptic compartment, and their mis-sorting to the postsynaptic density (PSD). Truncated transgenic tau was distributed in both compartments exhibiting specific phospho-pattern that was characteristic for each synaptic compartment. In the presynaptic compartment, truncated tau was associated with impairment of dynamic stability of microtubules which could be responsible for reduction of synaptic vesicles. In the PSD, truncated tau lowered the levels of neurofilaments. Truncated tau also significantly decreased the synaptic levels of Aβ40 but not Aβ42. These data show that truncated tau differentially deregulates synaptic proteome in pre- and postsynaptic compartments. Importantly, we show that alteration of Aβ can arise downstream of truncated tau pathology. PMID:25755633

  3. Deletion of Type I glutamine synthetase deregulates nitrogen metabolism and increases ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Rydzak, Thomas; Garcia, David; Stevenson, David M; Sladek, Margaret; Klingeman, Dawn M; Holwerda, Evert K; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M

    2017-04-08

    Clostridium thermocellum rapidly deconstructs cellulose and ferments resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol and other products, and is thus a promising platform organism for the development of cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. While recent metabolic engineering strategies have targeted eliminating canonical fermentation products (acetate, lactate, formate, and H2), C. thermocellum also secretes amino acids, which has limited ethanol yields in engineered strains to approximately 70% of the theoretical maximum. To investigate approaches to decrease amino acid secretion, we attempted to reduce ammonium assimilation by deleting the Type I glutamine synthetase (glnA) in an essentially wild type strain of C. thermocellum. Deletion of glnA reduced levels of secreted valine and total amino acids by 53% and 44% respectively, and increased ethanol yields by 53%. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes encoding the RNF-complex were more highly expressed in ΔglnA and may have a role in improving NADH-availability for ethanol production. While a significant up-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and urea uptake suggested that deletion of glnA induces a nitrogen starvation response, metabolomic analysis showed an increase in intracellular glutamine levels indicative of nitrogen-rich conditions. We propose that deletion of glnA causes deregulation of nitrogen metabolism, leading to overexpression of nitrogen metabolism genes and, in turn, elevated glutamine levels. Here we demonstrate that perturbation of nitrogen assimilation is a promising strategy to redirect flux from the production of nitrogenous compounds toward biofuels in C. thermocellum.

  4. Deregulation of MiR-34b/Sox2 Predicts Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Maria Veronica; Gazzano, Giacomo; Giangiobbe, Sara; Montanari, Emanuele; Del Nero, Alberto; Rocco, Bernardo; Albo, Giancarlo; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will have an indolent and curable disease, whereas approximately 15% of these patients will rapidly progress to a castrate-resistant and metastatic stage with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of molecular signature(s) that detect men at risk of progressing disease remains a pressing and still unmet need for these patients. Here, we used an integrated discovery platform combining prostate cancer cell lines, a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model and clinically-annotated human tissue samples to identify loss of expression of microRNA-34b as consistently associated with prostate cancer relapse. Mechanistically, this was associated with epigenetics silencing of the MIR34B/C locus and increased DNA copy number loss, selectively in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. In turn, loss of miR-34b resulted in downstream deregulation and overexpression of the “stemness” marker, Sox2. These findings identify loss of miR-34b as a robust biomarker for prostate cancer progression in androgen-sensitive tumors, and anticipate a potential role of progenitor/stem cell signaling in this stage of disease. PMID:26107383

  5. Functional analysis reveals that RBM10 mutations contribute to lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis by deregulating splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiawei; Sun, Yue; Huang, Yin; Song, Fan; Huang, Zengshu; Bao, Yufang; Zuo, Ji; Saffen, David; Shao, Zhen; Liu, Wen; Wang, Yongbo

    2017-01-01

    RBM10 is an RNA splicing regulator that is frequently mutated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and has recently been proposed to be a cancer gene. How RBM10 mutations observed in LUAD affect its normal functions, however, remains largely unknown. Here integrative analysis of RBM10 mutation and RNA expression data revealed that LUAD-associated RBM10 mutations exhibit a mutational spectrum similar to that of tumor suppressor genes. In addition, this analysis showed that RBM10 mutations identified in LUAD patients lacking canonical oncogenes are associated with significantly reduced RBM10 expression. To systematically investigate RBM10 mutations, we developed an experimental pipeline for elucidating their functional effects. Among six representative LUAD-associated RBM10 mutations, one nonsense and one frameshift mutation caused loss-of-function as expected, whereas four missense mutations differentially affected RBM10-mediated splicing. Importantly, changes in proliferation rates of LUAD-derived cells caused by these RBM10 missense mutants correlated with alterations in RNA splicing of RBM10 target genes. Together, our data implies that RBM10 mutations contribute to LUAD pathogenesis, at least in large part, by deregulating splicing. The methods described in this study should be useful for analyzing mutations in additional cancer-associated RNA splicing regulators. PMID:28091594

  6. Lipid deregulation in UV irradiated skin cells: Role of 25-hydroxycholesterol in keratinocyte differentiation during photoaging.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Elodie; Dutot, Mélody; Regazzetti, Anne; Dargère, Delphine; Auzeil, Nicolas; Laprévote, Olivier; Rat, Patrice

    2016-05-18

    Skin photoaging due to UV irradiation is a degenerative process that appears more and more as a growing concern. Lipids, including oxysterols, are involved in degenerative processes; as skin cells contain various lipids, the aim of our study was to evaluate first, changes in keratinocyte lipid levels induced by UV exposure and second, cellular effects of oxysterols in cell morphology and several hallmarks of keratinocyte differentiation. Our mass spectrometry results demonstrated that UV irradiation induces changes in lipid profile of cultured keratinocytes; in particular, ceramides and oxysterols, specifically 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH), were increased. Using holography and confocal microscopy analyses, we highlighted cell thickening and cytoskeletal disruption after incubation of keratinocytes with 25-OH. These alterations were associated with keratinocyte differentiation patterns: autophagy stimulation and intracellular calcium increase as measured by cytofluorometry, and increased involucrin level detected by immunocytochemistry. To conclude, oxysterol deregulation could be considered as a common marker of degenerative disorders. During photoaging, 25-OH seems to play a key role inducing morphological changes and keratinocyte differentiation.

  7. Image is all: Deregulation, restructuring and reputation in the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Does image affect how one views his local utility company--or energy supplier? Does one value his utility companies more if one sees a lot of image advertising and public relations stories about community involvement, environmental action and charitable work? Or does one view utilities as faceless and anonymous entities that provide necessary services one thinks little about until there`s a problem? And, more important, what is the role of utility image in an era of deregulation, as companies begin a new scramble for customers? To find an answer to these questions, American Gas and Christopher Bonner Consultants conducted a survey of A.G.A. member companies to learn what, if anything, utility companies are doing in the areas of image assessment and change. The survey was sent to more than 200 A.G.A. member companies; written responses were received from 35. In addition, 13 follow-up telephone interviews were conducted, including four with companies that had not responded in writing. The picture that emerges if of an industry that is starting to pay greater and greater attention to image. And, as utilities reorganize and redefine themselves, they are also reexamining the ways they communicate with key audiences, including employees, customers, legislators, the financial community and the news media.

  8. Deregulation of paralogous 13 HOX genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Gabriella; Franco, Renato; Sabatino, Rocco; Mantia, Elvira La; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Collina, Francesca; Longo, Francesco; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Nunzia S; Liguori, Giuseppina; Botti, Gerardo; Cantile, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Many oncogenic drivers related to the pathogenesis of OSCC have identified, but the discovery of new molecular markers for early detection of this cancer, remains one the main goals of clinical research. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have demonstrated that the deregulation of HOX genes play a significant role in cancer development and progression. In this study, we built a prognostic TMA with 119 OSCC samples, representative of deep and superficial part of the tumour, to investigate, the paralogous 13 HOX proteins expression, correlating them with clinicpathological parameters, outcomes and therapy information. Our results show an aberrant expression of HOX A13 and HOX D13 in OSCC pathogenesis and tumour progression. HOX A13 overexpression is related to an OSCC better prognosis (P=0.029) and better therapy response in patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy (P=0.015). HOX D13 overexpression is inversely related to an overall survival (P=0.004). These data highlight the potential prognostic role of HOX paralogous group 13 genes in OSCC.

  9. Psychosine induces the dephosphorylation of neurofilaments by deregulation of PP1 and PP2A phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ludovico; Zhu, Hongling; Givogri, Maria I.; Chidavaenzi, Robstein L.; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Krabbe disease, a genetic demyelinating syndrome caused by deficiency of galactosyl-ceramidase and the resulting accumulation of galactosyl-sphingolipids, develop signs of a dying-back axonopathy compounded by a deficiency of large-caliber axons. Here, we show that axonal caliber in Twitcher mice, an animal model for Krabbe disease, is impaired in peripheral axons and is accompanied by a progressive reduction in the abundance and phosphorylation of the three neurofilament (NF) subunits. These changes correlate with an increase in the density of NFs per cross-sectional area in numerous mutant peripheral axons and abnormal increases in the activity of two serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) in mutant tissue. Similarly, acutely isolated mutant cortical neurons show abnormal phosphorylation of NFs. Psychosine, the neurotoxin accumulated in Krabbe disease, was sufficient to induce abnormal dephosphorylation of NF subunits in a normal motor neuron cell line as well as in acutely isolated normal cortical neurons. This in vitro effect was mediated by PP1 and PP2A, which specifically dephosphorylated NFs. These results demonstrate that the reduced caliber observed in some axons in Krabbe disease involves abnormal dephosphorylation of NFs. We propose that a psychosine-driven pathogenic mechanism through deregulated phosphotransferase activities may be involved in this process. PMID:22326830

  10. Direct targeting of Arabidopsis cysteine synthase complexes with synthetic polypeptides to selectively deregulate cysteine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, Anna; Kurzyk, Agata; Mierzwińska, Monika; Płochocka, Danuta; Wieczorek, Grzegorz; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    Biosynthesis of cysteine is one of the fundamental processes in plants providing the reduced sulfur for cell metabolism. It is accomplished by the sequential action of two enzymes, serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). Together they constitute the hetero-oligomeric cysteine synthase (CS) complex through specific protein-protein interactions influencing the rate of cysteine production. The aim of our studies was to deregulate the CS complex formation in order to investigate its function in the control of sulfur homeostasis and optimize cysteine synthesis. Computational modeling was used to build a model of the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial CS complex. Several polypeptides based on OAS-TL C amino-acid sequence found at SAT-OASTL interaction sites were designed as probable competitors for SAT3 binding. After verification of the binding in a yeast two-hybrid assay, the most strongly interacting polypeptide was introduced to different cellular compartments of Arabidopsis cell via genetic transformation. Moderate increase in total SAT and OAS-TL activities, but not thiols content, was observed dependent on the transgenic line and sulfur availability in the hydroponic medium. Though our studies demonstrate the proof of principle, they also suggest more complex interaction of both enzymes underlying the mechanism of their reciprocal regulation.

  11. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Johan; Magnusson, Måns; Grünewald, Maria; Hulth, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice) and "hårlöss" (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001) when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  12. PKC iota promotes ovarian tumor progression through deregulation of cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Nanos-Webb, Angela; Bui, Tuyen; Karakas, Cansu; Zhang, Dong; Carey, Jason P.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2016-01-01

    The high frequency of relapse of epithelial ovarian tumors treated with standard chemotherapy has highlighted the necessity to identify targeted therapies that can improve patient outcomes. The dynamic relationship between Cyclin E and PKCiota frequent overexpression in high-grade ovarian tumors poses a novel pathway for therapeutic investigation. We hypothesized that a PI3K dependent signaling pathway activating PKCiota perpetuates cyclin E deregulation during ovarian tumorigenesis. We observed a positive correlation between PKCiota and cyclin E in a panel of 19 ovarian cancer cell lines. Modulation of cyclin E had no effect on PKCiota knockdown/overexpression however PKCiota differentially regulated cyclin E expression. In the serous ovarian cancer cells (IGROV, OVCAR-3), shPKCiota decreased proliferation, caused a G1 arrest, and significantly prolonged overall survival in xenograft mouse models. In vitro shPKCiota decreased the ability of IGROV cells to grow under anchorage independent conditions and form aberrant acini, which was dependent upon Ad-cyclin E or Ad-LMW-E expression. RPPA analysis of PKCiota wild-type, catalytic active, dominant negative protein isoforms strengthened the association between phospho-PKCiota levels and PI3K pathway activation. Inhibitors of PI3K coordinately decreased phospho-PKCiota and Cyclin E protein levels. In conclusion, we have identified a PI3K/PKCiota/Cyclin E signaling pathway as a therapeutic target during ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:26279297

  13. Deregulation 1993: Be careful what you wish for, you might get it

    SciTech Connect

    Scotto, D.

    1993-05-01

    This article tries to assess the response at the electric industry to deregulation. The industry most probably will consolidate to reduce operating costs and expand access to other transmission grids. In addition, the cheapest power likely will be [open quotes]dedicated[close quotes] to retail customers (namely, those under a franchise obligation), and [open quotes]residual[close quotes] generating capacity will be placed in the wholesale market. Surplus capacity (the most expensive capacity) could be dedicated to the wholesale sector, allowing market forces to decide the future price of incremental generation. The outcome will be influenced heavily by corporate restructuring initiatives, regulatory willingness or opposition, legal victories by large-scale users, and transmission access policies at the state and federal levels. Changes is definitely underway, but [open quotes]what[close quotes] the industry will look like is unclear. The financial consequences of this change are more easily identified. Evidently, internal pricing pressures and the breakdown of regulatory pricing structures (a trend that has been underway for nearly a decade) have combined to produce a more risky industry. To compensate investors, capital markets could demand increases returns and different corporate structures. Many of the financial benefits currently enjoyed by utilities, such as lower earnings/coverage tests and greater debt leverage than other [open quotes]industrial[close quotes] corporations, may have to change. Stepping out from under the protection of the regulatory umbrella will carry certain costs.

  14. hTERT, MYC and TP53 deregulation in gastric preneoplastic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a serious public health problem in Northern Brazil and in the world due to its high incidence and mortality. Despite the severity of the disease, more research is needed to better understand the molecular events involved in this intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis process. Since precancerous lesions precede intestinal-type gastric cancer, here, we evaluated the hTERT, MYC, and TP53 mRNA and protein expression, as well as TP33 copy number, in gastric preneoplastic lesions. Methods We evaluated 19 superficial gastritis, 18 atrophic gastritis, and 18 intestinal metaplasia from cancer-free individuals of Northern Brazil. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical methods were used to assess protein immunoreactivity in tissue samples. The number of TP53 gene copies was investigated in gastric diseases by quantitative PCR. Results We observed hTERT, MYC, and p53 immunoreactivity only in intestinal metaplasia samples. The immunoreactivity of these proteins was strongly associated with each other. A significantly higher MYC mRNA expression was observed in intestinal metaplasia compared to gastritis samples. Loss of TP53 was also only detected in intestinal metaplasia specimens. Conclusions We demonstrated that hTERT, MYC, and TP53 are deregulated in intestinal metaplasia of individuals from Northern Brazil and these alterations may facilitate tumor initiation. PMID:22768805

  15. [Effects of pharmacy market deregulation regarding patient-centred drug care in Germany from a health economics perspecitve].

    PubMed

    Rumm, R; Böcking, W

    2013-03-01

    This article analyses the impact of a potential deregulation Germany's pharmacy market by allowing foreign ownership of pharmacies and removing the limit of the number pharmacies that can be owned by a pharmacist. Based on a mathematical model and empirical values of foreign countries, scenarios for the German market are calculated and the impact on all participants of the health care system analysed. The key outcomes are:- A deregulation would enables the creation of pharmacy chains- In all simulated scenarios the total number of pharmacies would drastically grow- The increased pharmacy density improves patient centred drug care- The competition among pharmacies increases and leads to the closure of many independently owned and operated pharmacies.

  16. Gene expression profiling to identify markers associated with deregulated hTERT in HPV-transformed keratinocytes and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Jillian; Wilting, Saskia M; Meijer, Chris J L M; van de Wiel, Mark A; Ylstra, Bauke; Snijders, Peter J F; Steenbergen, Renske D M

    2008-02-15

    Although high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a major role in the development of cervical cancer, additive oncogenic events are involved as well. One key event involves increased activity of telomerase resulting from a deregulated expression of its catalytic subunit hTERT. Our previous microcell-mediated chromosome transfer studies revealed that introduction of human chromosome 6 in the HPV16-immortalized keratinocyte cell line FK16A and in the HPV16-containing cervical cancer cell line SiHa induced growth arrest, resulting from a repression of hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity. Here, this model was used to analyze expression profiles associated with hTERT deregulation in HPV-transformed cells. Microarray expression analysis of 12 FK16A/chromosome 6 hybrids, 4 of which were negative for endogenous hTERT and 8 of which were positive for endogenous hTERT, resulted in the identification of 164 differentially expressed genes. Differential expression of a selection of 5 genes was verified by real-time RT-PCR. Of these 164 genes, 32 were also differentially expressed in other HPV transformed cells with deregulated hTERT. For 2 of these genes, encoding AQP3 and MGP, altered expression in hTERT positive cervical carcinomas was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Moreover, increased MGP protein expression was significantly more frequent in high-grade cervical premalignant lesions with elevated hTERT mRNA expression compared to those without. In summary, we identified 32 candidate biomarkers for deregulated hTERT mRNA expression, which may enable the identification of cervical premalignant lesions that are at highest risk to progress to invasive cancer.

  17. Deregulation of subcellular biometal homeostasis through loss of the metal transporter, Zip7, in a childhood neurodegenerative disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant biometal metabolism is a key feature of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Metal modulating compounds are promising therapeutics for neurodegeneration, but their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), caused by mutations in CLN genes, are fatal childhood neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases without a cure. We previously showed biometal accumulation in ovine and murine models of the CLN6 variant NCL, but the mechanism is unknown. This study extended the concept that alteration of biometal functions is involved in pathology in these disorders, and investigated molecular mechanisms underlying impaired biometal trafficking in CLN6 disease. Results We observed significant region-specific biometal accumulation and deregulation of metal trafficking pathways prior to disease onset in CLN6 affected sheep. Substantial progressive loss of the ER/Golgi-resident Zn transporter, Zip7, which colocalized with the disease-associated protein, CLN6, may contribute to the subcellular deregulation of biometal homeostasis in NCLs. Importantly, the metal-complex, ZnII(atsm), induced Zip7 upregulation, promoted Zn redistribution and restored Zn-dependent functions in primary mouse Cln6 deficient neurons and astrocytes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the central role of the metal transporter, Zip7, in the aberrant biometal metabolism of CLN6 variants of NCL and further highlights the key contribution of deregulated biometal trafficking to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Importantly, our results suggest that ZnII(atsm) may be a candidate for therapeutic trials for NCLs. PMID:24581221

  18. PML-RARA-associated cooperating mutations belong to a transcriptional network that is deregulated in myeloid leukemias.

    PubMed

    Ronchini, C; Brozzi, A; Riva, L; Luzi, L; Gruszka, A M; Melloni, G E M; Scanziani, E; Dharmalingam, G; Mutarelli, M; Belcastro, V; Lavorgna, S; Rossi, V; Spinelli, O; Biondi, A; Rambaldi, A; Lo-Coco, F; di Bernardo, D; Pelicci, P G

    2017-01-20

    It has been shown that individual acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients are characterized by one of few initiating DNA mutations and 5-10 cooperating mutations not yet defined among hundreds identified by massive sequencing of AML genomes. We report an in vivo insertional-mutagenesis screen for genes cooperating with one AML initiating mutations (PML-RARA, oncogene of acute promyelocytic leukemia, APL), which allowed identification of hundreds of genetic cooperators. The cooperators are mutated at low frequency in APL or AML patients but are always abnormally expressed in a cohort of 182 APLs and AMLs analyzed. These deregulations appear non-randomly distributed and present in all samples, regardless of their associated genomic mutations. Reverse-engineering approaches showed that these cooperators belong to a single transcriptional gene network, enriched in genes mutated in AMLs, where perturbation of single genes modifies expression of others. Their gene-ontology analysis showed enrichment of genes directly involved in cell proliferation control. Therefore, the pool of PML-RARA cooperating mutations appears large and heterogeneous, but functionally equivalent and deregulated in the majority of APLs and AMLs. Our data suggest that the high heterogeneity of DNA mutations in APLs and AMLs can be reduced to patterns of gene expression deregulation of a single 'mutated' gene network.Leukemia advance online publication, 20 January 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.386.

  19. Spatial large-eddy simulations of contrail formation in the wake of an airliner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoli, R.

    2015-12-01

    Contrails and contrail-cirrus are the most uncertain contributors to aviation radiative forcing. In order to reduce this uncertainty one needs to gain more knowledge on the physicochemical processes occurring in the aircraft plume, which eventually lead to the transformation of contrails into cirrus. To that end, the accurate prediction of the number of activated particles and their spatial and size distributions at the end of the jet regime may be helpful to initialize simulations in the following vortex regime. We present the results from spatial large-eddy simulations (LES) of contrail formation in the near-field wake of a generic (but full-scale) airliner that is representative of those used in long-haul flights in current fleets. The flow around the aircraft has been computed using a RANS code taking into account the full geometry that include the engines and the aerodynamic set-up for cruise conditions. The data have been reconstructed at a plane closely behind the trailing edge of the wing and used as inflow boundary conditions for the LES. We employ fully compressible 3D LES coupled to Lagrangian microphysical module that tracks parcels of ice particles individually. The ice microphysical model is simple yet it contains the basic thermodynamic ingredients to model soot activation and water vapor deposition. Compared to one-dimensional models or even RANS, LES allow for more accurate predictions of the mixing between exhaust and ambient air. Hence, the number of activated particles and the ice growth rate can be also determined with higher accuracy. This is particularly crucial for particles located at the edge of the jet that experience large gradients of temperature and humidity. The results of the fully coupled LES (where the gas phase and the particles are solved together) are compared to offline simulations where the ice microphysics model is run using thermodynamic data from pre-calculated particle trajectories extracted from inert LES (where ice

  20. Seafloor in the Expanded Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H. F.; Marks, K. M.; Beaman, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Smith and Marks (Eos Trans. AGU, 95(21), 27 May 2014) illustrated a map of the seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 search area. This map showed a bathymetric model that is constructed from a combination of available ship soundings and depths estimated from satellite altimetry. They noted that available depth measurements covered only 5% of their study region, and that very few of these measurements were collected using modern multibeam and navigation systems. Recently the MH370 search has been expanded along the "7th Arc" to encompass newly prioritized underwater search areas identified in an Australian Transport Safety Bureau report (AE-2014-054, 26 June 2014). While the new "Priority" search area is within the Eos article Fig. 1, the new "Wide" search area extends beyond the region evaluated in Eos. Additionally, multibeam data that were not incorporated in the bathymetric model have been made available to us after the Eos article was published. This presentation will update and extend the study published in Eos. We will present illustrations of the expanded region, sounding coverage, and tectonic features that are associated with steep topographic slopes. Our results include comparisons of multibeam survey depths and bathymetric model depths. The standard deviation of the differences is 182 m, with the greatest differences (exceeding 1000 m) over steep topographic slopes, and the smallest over low-relief ocean floor. This is consistent with differences found by Smith and Sandwell (JGR, 99(B11), 1994) between soundings and bathymetric predictions from altimetry. Such depth differences are common where bathymetric model constraints are sparse, which is typical of many of the world's oceans.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress in Survivors 1 Month to 19 Years after an Airliner Emergency Landing

    PubMed Central

    Arnberg, Filip K.; Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) is common in survivors from life-threatening events. Little is known, however, about the course of PTS after life threat in the absence of collateral stressors (e.g., bereavement, social stigma, property loss) and there is a scarcity of studies about PTS in the long term. This study assessed the short- and long-term course of PTS, and the influence of gender, education and age on the level and course of PTS, in survivors from a non-fatal airliner emergency landing caused by engine failure at an altitude of 1 km. There were 129 persons on board. A survey including the Impact of Event Scale was distributed to 106 subjects after 1 month, 4 months, 14 months, and 25 months, and to 95 subjects after 19 years (response rates 64–83%). There were initially high levels of PTS. The majority of changes in PTS occurred from 1 to 4 months after the event. There were small changes from 4 to 25 months but further decrease in PTS thereafter. Female gender was associated with higher levels of PTS whereas gender was unrelated to the slope of the short- and long-term trajectories. Higher education was related to a quicker recovery although not to initial or long-term PTS. Age was not associated with PTS. The present findings suggest that a life-threatening experience without collateral stressors may produce high levels of acute posttraumatic stress, yet with a benign prognosis. The findings further implicate that gender is unrelated to trajectories of recovery in the context of highly similar exposure and few collateral stressors. PMID:25734536

  2. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  3. Expression of the Retrotransposon Helena Reveals a Complex Pattern of TE Deregulation in Drosophila Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), repeated mobile sequences, are ubiquitous in the eukaryotic kingdom. Their mobilizing capacity confers on them a high mutagenic potential, which must be strongly regulated to guarantee genome stability. In the Drosophila germline, a small RNA-mediated silencing system, the piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) pathway, is the main responsible TE regulating mechanism, but some stressful conditions can destabilize it. For instance, during interspecific hybridization, genomic stress caused by the shock of two different genomes can lead, in both animals and plants, to higher transposition rates. A recent study in D. buzatii—D. koepferae hybrids detected mobilization of 28 TEs, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms explaining this transposition release. We have characterized one of the mobilized TEs, the retrotransposon Helena, and used quantitative expression to assess whether its high transposition rates in hybrids are preceded by increased expression. We have also localized Helena expression in the gonads to see if cellular expression patterns have changed in the hybrids. To give more insight into changes in TE regulation in hybrids, we analysed Helena-specific piRNA populations of hybrids and parental species. Helena expression is not globally altered in somatic tissues, but male and female gonads have different patterns of deregulation. In testes, Helena is repressed in F1, increasing then its expression up to parental values. This is linked with a mislocation of Helena transcripts along with an increase of their specific piRNA levels. Ovaries have additive levels of Helena expression, but the ping-pong cycle efficiency seems to be reduced in F1 hybrids. This could be at the origin of new Helena insertions in hybrids, which would be transmitted to F1 hybrid female progeny. PMID:26812285

  4. Identification of Novel Deregulated RNA Metabolism-Related Genes in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Iñaki; Pajares, Maria J.; Segura, Victor; Guruceaga, Elisabet; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Blanco, David; Tamura, Akiko; Montuenga, Luis M.; Pio, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Several alterations in RNA metabolism have been found in lung cancer cells; this suggests that RNA metabolism-related molecules are involved in the development of this pathology. In this study, we searched for RNA metabolism-related genes that exhibit different expression levels between normal and tumor lung tissues. We identified eight genes differentially expressed in lung adenocarcinoma microarray datasets. Of these, seven were up-regulated whereas one was down-regulated. Interestingly, most of these genes had not previously been associated with lung cancer. These genes play diverse roles in mRNA metabolism: three are associated with the spliceosome (ASCL3L1, SNRPB and SNRPE), whereas others participate in RNA-related processes such as translation (MARS and MRPL3), mRNA stability (PCBPC1), mRNA transport (RAE), or mRNA editing (ADAR2, also known as ADARB1). Moreover, we found a high incidence of loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 21q22.3, where the ADAR2 locus is located, in NSCLC cell lines and primary tissues, suggesting that the downregulation of ADAR2 in lung cancer is associated with specific genetic losses. Finally, in a series of adenocarcinoma patients, the expression of five of the deregulated genes (ADAR2, MARS, RAE, SNRPB and SNRPE) correlated with prognosis. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that changes in RNA metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and identify new potential targets for the treatment of this disease. PMID:22876301

  5. Deregulation of inflammatory response in the diabetic condition is associated with increased ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although elicited inflammation contributes to tissue injury, a certain level of inflammation is necessary for subsequent tissue repair/remodeling. Diabetes, a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, is a predisposing risk factor for stroke. The condition is associated with delayed wound healing, presumably due to disrupted inflammatory responses. With inclusion of the diabetic condition in an experimental animal model of stroke, this study investigates whether the condition alters inflammatory response and influences stroke-induced brain injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed a diabetic diet (DD) for 8 weeks to induce an experimental diabetic condition or a normal diet (ND) for the same duration. Gene expression of inflammatory factors including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CCR2, and CD36 was assessed in the peripheral immune cells and brains of normal and diabetic mice before and after focal cerebral ischemia. The expression of these factors was also determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated cultured normal and diabetic macrophages. Ischemic outcome was assessed in these mice at 3 days post-ischemia. Results DD intervention in mice resulted in obesity and elevated insulin and glucose level in the blood. The peritoneal immune cells from the diabetic mice showed higher MCP-1 mRNA levels before and after stroke. Compared to normal mice, diabetic mice showed reduced MCP-1, IL-6, and CCR2 gene expression in the brain at 6 h post-ischemia. LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses were also reduced in the diabetic macrophages. The diabetic mice showed larger infarct size and percent swelling. Conclusions These results showed that diabetic conditions deregulate acute inflammatory response and that the condition is associated with increased stroke-induced injury. The study suggests that interventions aimed at restoring appropriate inflammatory response in peripheral immune cells/macrophages may be beneficial in reducing

  6. Deregulation of Ion Channel and Transporter Encoding Genes in Pediatric Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Masselli, Marika; Laise, Pasquale; Tonini, Giulia; Fanelli, Duccio; Pillozzi, Serena; Cetica, Valentina; Da Ros, Martina; Sardi, Iacopo; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Aricò, Maurizio; Genitori, Lorenzo; Becchetti, Andrea; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumors, including the majority gliomas, are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. World Health Organization has divided pediatric brain tumors into different grades and, based upon cDNA microarray data identifying gene expression profiles (GEPs), it has become evident in the last decade that the various grades involve different types of genetic alterations. However, it is not known whether ion channel and transporter genes, intimately involved in brain functioning, are associated with such GEPs. We determined the GEPs in an available cohort of 10 pediatric brain tumors initially by comparing the data obtained from four primary tumor samples and corresponding short-term cultures. The correspondence between the two types of samples was statistically significant. We then performed bioinformatic analyses on those samples (a total of nine) which corresponded to tumors of glial origin, either tissues or cell cultures, depending on the best “RNA integrity number.” We used R software to evaluate the genes which were differentially expressed (DE) in gliomas compared with normal brain. Applying a p-value below 0.01 and fold change ≥4, led to identification of 2284 DE genes. Through a Functional Annotation Analysis (FAA) using the NIH-DAVID software, the DE genes turned out to be associated mainly with: immune/inflammatory response, cell proliferation and survival, cell adhesion and motility, neuronal phenotype, and ion transport. We have shown that GEPs of pediatric brain tumors can be studied using either primary tumor samples or short-term cultures with similar results. From FAA, we concluded that, among DE genes, pediatric gliomas show a strong deregulation of genes related to ion channels and transporters. PMID:22662319

  7. Deregulated Sex Chromosome Gene Expression with Male Germ Cell-Specific Loss of Dicer1

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Elizabeth; Buaas, F. William; Gu, Tongjun; Stearns, Timothy M.; Sharma, Manju; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Puente, Gabriella C.; Braun, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by inhibiting mRNA translation and promoting mRNA decay. DICER1, an RNase III endonuclease encoded by Dicer1, is required for processing short 21–22 nucleotide miRNAs from longer double-stranded RNA precursors. Here, we investigate the loss of Dicer1 in mouse postnatal male germ cells to determine how disruptions in the miRNA biogenesis pathway may contribute to infertility. Reduced levels of Dicer1 transcripts and DICER1 were confirmed in germ cell knock-out (GCKO) testes by postnatal day 18 (P18). Compared to wild-type (WT) at 8 weeks, GCKO males had no change in body weight; yet showed significant reductions in testis mass and sperm number. Histology and fertility tests confirmed spermatogenic failure in GCKO males. Array analyses at P18 showed that in comparison to WT testes, 75% of miRNA genes and 37% of protein coding genes were differentially expressed in GCKO testes. Among these, 96% of miRNA genes were significantly down-regulated, while 4% miRNA genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, we observed preferential overexpression of genes encoded on the sex chromosomes in GCKO testes, including more than 80% of previously identified targets of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Compared to WT, GCKO mice showed higher percentages of germ cells at early meiotic stages (leptotene and zygotene) but lower percentages at later stages (pachytene, diplotene and metaphase I) providing evidence that deletion of Dicer1 leads to disruptions in meiotic progression. Therefore, deleting Dicer1 in early postnatal germ cells resulted in deregulation of transcripts encoded by genes on the sex chromosomes, impaired meiotic progression and led to spermatogenic failure and infertility. PMID:23056286

  8. Deregulated expression of VHL mRNA variants in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Enke; Tuccilli, Chiara; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Chesnel, Frank; Sorrenti, Salvatore; De Vito, Corrado; Catania, Antonio; D'Armiento, Eleonora; Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Tartaglia, Francesco; Barollo, Susi; Mian, Caterina; Bononi, Marco; Arceri, Stefano; Mascagni, Domenico; Vergine, Massimo; Pironi, Daniele; Monti, Massimo; Filippini, Angelo; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2017-03-05

    Recent findings demonstrated that a subset of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) is characterized by reduced expression of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene, and that lowest levels associated with more aggressive PTCs. In the present study, the levels of the two VHL mRNA splicing variants, VHL-213 (V1) and VHL-172 (V2), were measured in a series of 96 PTC and corresponding normal matched tissues by means of quantitative RT-PCR. Variations in the mRNA levels were correlated with patients' clinicopathological parameters and disease-free interval (DFI). The analysis of VHL mRNA in tumor tissues, compared to normal matched tissues, revealed that its expression was either up- or down-regulated in the majority of PTC. In particular, V1 and V2 mRNA levels were altered, respectively, in 78 (81.3%) and 65 (67.7%) out of the 96 PTCs analyzed. A significant positive correlation between the two mRNA variants was observed (p < 0.001). Univariate analysis documented the lack of association between each variant and clinicopathological parameters such as age, tumor size, histology, TNM stage, lymph node metastases, and BRAF mutational status. However, a strong correlation was found between altered V1 or V2 mRNA levels and DFI. Multivariate regression analysis indicated higher V1 mRNA values, along with lymph node metastases at diagnosis, as independent prognostic factors predicting DFI. In conclusion, the data reported demonstrate that VHL gene expression is deregulated in the majority of PTC tissues. Of particular interest is the apparent protective role exerted by VHL transcripts against PTC recurrences.

  9. Deregulated sex chromosome gene expression with male germ cell-specific loss of Dicer1.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Anne R; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Snyder, Elizabeth; Buaas, F William; Gu, Tongjun; Stearns, Timothy M; Sharma, Manju; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Puente, Gabriella C; Braun, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by inhibiting mRNA translation and promoting mRNA decay. DICER1, an RNase III endonuclease encoded by Dicer1, is required for processing short 21-22 nucleotide miRNAs from longer double-stranded RNA precursors. Here, we investigate the loss of Dicer1 in mouse postnatal male germ cells to determine how disruptions in the miRNA biogenesis pathway may contribute to infertility. Reduced levels of Dicer1 transcripts and DICER1 were confirmed in germ cell knock-out (GCKO) testes by postnatal day 18 (P18). Compared to wild-type (WT) at 8 weeks, GCKO males had no change in body weight; yet showed significant reductions in testis mass and sperm number. Histology and fertility tests confirmed spermatogenic failure in GCKO males. Array analyses at P18 showed that in comparison to WT testes, 75% of miRNA genes and 37% of protein coding genes were differentially expressed in GCKO testes. Among these, 96% of miRNA genes were significantly down-regulated, while 4% miRNA genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, we observed preferential overexpression of genes encoded on the sex chromosomes in GCKO testes, including more than 80% of previously identified targets of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Compared to WT, GCKO mice showed higher percentages of germ cells at early meiotic stages (leptotene and zygotene) but lower percentages at later stages (pachytene, diplotene and metaphase I) providing evidence that deletion of Dicer1 leads to disruptions in meiotic progression. Therefore, deleting Dicer1 in early postnatal germ cells resulted in deregulation of transcripts encoded by genes on the sex chromosomes, impaired meiotic progression and led to spermatogenic failure and infertility.

  10. Epigenetic deregulation of Ellis Van Creveld confers robust Hedgehog signaling in adult T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryutaro; Yamagishi, Makoto; Nakano, Kazumi; Yamochi, Toshiko; Yamochi, Tadanori; Fujikawa, Dai; Nakashima, Makoto; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Utsunomiya, Atae; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2014-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer, global gene expression alteration, is closely associated with the development and malignant characteristics associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) as well as other cancers. Here, we show that aberrant overexpression of the Ellis Van Creveld (EVC) family is responsible for cellular Hedgehog (HH) activation, which provides the pro-survival ability of ATL cells. Using microarray, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry we have demonstrated that EVC is significantly upregulated in ATL and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1)-infected cells. Epigenetic marks, including histone H3 acetylation and Lys4 trimethylation, are specifically accumulated at the EVC locus in ATL samples. The HTLV-1 Tax participates in the coordination of EVC expression in an epigenetic fashion. The treatment of shRNA targeting EVC, as well as the transcription factors for HH signaling, diminishes the HH activation and leads to apoptotic death in ATL cell lines. We also showed that a HH signaling inhibitor, GANT61, induces strong apoptosis in the established ATL cell lines and patient-derived primary ATL cells. Therefore, our data indicate that HH activation is involved in the regulation of leukemic cell survival. The epigenetically deregulated EVC appears to play an important role for HH activation. The possible use of EVC as a specific cell marker and a novel drug target for HTLV-1-infected T-cells is implicated by these findings. The HH inhibitors are suggested as drug candidates for ATL therapy. Our findings also suggest chromatin rearrangement associated with active histone markers in ATL.

  11. Deregulation of the planar cell polarity genes CELSR3 and FZD3 in Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin; Zhang, Zhen; Gan, Liang; Jiang, Qian; Xiao, Ping; Zou, Jizhen; Li, Qi; Jiang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the lower intestine. Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this disease are under active investigation. As core genes in the planar cell polarity pathway, Celsr3 and Fzd3 are believed to play vital roles in the development of the murine enteric nervous system. The potential association of CELSR3 and FZD3 with the development of HSCR in humans, however, is still unknown. We determined the genotypes of eight CELSR3 and FZD3 polymorphisms in 113 patients. Furthermore, target gene sequencing was used to search for rare mutations in the planar cell polarity genes. The mRNA and protein expression of CELSR3 and FZD3 were explored in patients with HSCR. Class III β-tubulin in colon tissue samples was examined to elucidate enteric innervation patterns. We observed a significant association between the FZD3 rs17059206 polymorphism and HSCR susceptibility (p<0.001). In addition, five rare mutations in CELSR3 were identified in six patients with HSCR. Upregulation of CELSR3 mRNA expression was detected in 80% of aganglionic segments; a similar increase was found for FZD3 protein expression in 81.8% of aganglionic tissues, compared with the ganglionic segments. Immunohistochemical staining on tissue sections revealed obvious excess expression of both molecules in the mucosal layer. The neurite patterns were highly disorganized in the aganglionic bowel segments, with a marked reduction in the prominence of TUJ1 bundles in number, thickness, and length. Our results showed that deregulation of the planar cell polarity genes CELSR3 and FZD3 might disrupt the enteric innervation pattern and consequently contribute to the susceptibility to HSCR.

  12. Deregulation of polycomb repressor complex 1 modifier AUTS2 in T-cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Pommerenke, Claudia; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified deregulated expression of the B-cell specific transcription factor MEF2C in T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we performed sequence analysis of a regulatory upstream section of MEF2C in T-ALL cell lines which, however, proved devoid of mutations. Unexpectedly, we found strong conservation between the regulatory upstream region of MEF2C (located at chromosomal band 5q14) and an intergenic stretch at 7q11 located between STAG3L4 and AUTS2, covering nearly 20 kb. While the non-coding gene STAG3L4 was inconspicuously expressed, AUTS2 was aberrantly upregulated in 6% of T-ALL patients (public dataset GSE42038) and in 3/24 T-ALL cell lines, two of which represented very immature differentiation stages. AUTS2 expression was higher in normal B-cells than in T-cells, indicating lineage-specific activity in lymphopoiesis. While excluding chromosomal aberrations, examinations of AUTS2 transcriptional regulation in T-ALL cells revealed activation by IL7-IL7R-STAT5-signalling and MEF2C. AUTS2 protein has been shown to interact with polycomb repressor complex 1 subtype 5 (PRC1.5), transforming this particular complex into an activator. Accordingly, expression profiling and functional analyses demonstrated that AUTS2 activated while PCGF5 repressed transcription of NKL homeobox gene MSX1 in T-ALL cells. Forced expression and pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 in addition to H3K27me3 analysis indicated that PRC2 repressed MSX1 as well. Taken together, we found that AUTS2 and MEF2C, despite lying on different chromosomes, share strikingly similar regulatory upstream regions and aberrant expression in T-ALL subsets. Our data implicate chromatin complexes PRC1/AUTS2 and PRC2 in a gene network in T-ALL regulating early lymphoid differentiation. PMID:27322685

  13. Deregulation of arginase induces bone complications in high-fat/high-sucrose diet diabetic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Anil; Sangani, Rajnikumar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Toque, Haroldo A; Cain, Michael; Wong, Abby; Howie, Nicole; Shinde, Rahul; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yao, Lin; Chutkan, Norman; Hunter, Monty; Caldwell, Ruth B; Isales, Carlos; Caldwell, R William; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-02-15

    A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular function due to decreases in nitric oxide formation. We hypothesized that diabetes may also elevate arginase activity in bone and bone marrow, which could lead to bone-related complications. To test this we determined the effects of diabetes on expression and activity of arginase, in bone and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We demonstrated that arginase 1 is abundantly present in the bone and BMSCs. We also demonstrated that arginase activity and expression in bone and bone marrow is up-regulated in models of diabetes induced by HFHS diet and streptozotocin (STZ). HFHS diet down-regulated expression of healthy bone metabolism markers (BMP2, COL-1, ALP, and RUNX2) and reduced bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular thickness. However, treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH) prevented these bone-related complications of diabetes. In-vitro study of BMSCs showed that high glucose treatment increased arginase activity and decreased nitric oxide production. These effects were reversed by treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH). Our study provides evidence that deregulation of l-arginine metabolism plays a vital role in HFHS diet-induced diabetic complications and that these complications can be prevented by treatment with arginase inhibitors. The modulation of l-arginine metabolism in disease could offer a novel therapeutic approach for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal related diseases.

  14. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: An analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  15. Structural Analysis of the Right Rear Lug of American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Mason, Brian H.; Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan; Davila, Carlos G.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed finite element analysis of the right rear lug of the American Airlines Flight 587 - Airbus A300-600R was performed as part of the National Transportation Safety Board s failure investigation of the accident that occurred on November 12, 2001. The loads experienced by the right rear lug are evaluated using global models of the vertical tail, local models near the right rear lug, and a global-local analysis procedure. The right rear lug was analyzed using two modeling approaches. In the first approach, solid-shell type modeling is used, and in the second approach, layered-shell type modeling is used. The solid-shell and the layered-shell modeling approaches were used in progressive failure analyses (PFA) to determine the load, mode, and location of failure in the right rear lug under loading representative of an Airbus certification test conducted in 1985 (the 1985-certification test). Both analyses were in excellent agreement with each other on the predicted failure loads, failure mode, and location of failure. The solid-shell type modeling was then used to analyze both a subcomponent test conducted by Airbus in 2003 (the 2003-subcomponent test) and the accident condition. Excellent agreement was observed between the analyses and the observed failures in both cases. The moment, Mx (moment about the fuselage longitudinal axis), has significant effect on the failure load of the lugs. Higher absolute values of Mx give lower failure loads. The predicted load, mode, and location of the failure of the 1985- certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident condition are in very good agreement. This agreement suggests that the 1985-certification and 2003-subcomponent tests represent the accident condition accurately. The failure mode of the right rear lug for the 1985-certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident load case is identified as a cleavage-type failure. For the accident case, the predicted failure load for the right rear lug

  16. Leasing as a Source of Finance by the Major US Airlines: Hidden Debt and its Changes Over Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gritta, Richard D.; Lippman, Ellen J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper updates prior research on aircraft leasing and contrasts the findings of current data with prior results. Usage of leases by air carriers is a means to lessen the impact of financial obligations from fleet purchases. The study revisits two previous studies, one in 1969 and one in 1991, which is analyzed the incidence of leases by major air carriers. The current study updates these past studies to consider air carriers current usage of leases. Additionally, since operating leases are not reflected in the balance sheets of airlines, operating lease information was capitalized using a present value of future operating lease payments. Then, financial debt burden ratios were computed to determine the impact from the capitalization of lease information. The usage of operating leases increased, significantly from the first study to the 1991 study, and this trend continues. The incidence of leasing, the classification of leases as operating, and the percentage of operating leases to total fleet have all increased for the majority of the airlines reviewed. When operating lease data were capitalized, debt ratios weakened, providing further evidence of deterioration in the financial health of air carriers.

  17. Flight test evaluation of the Stanford University/United Airlines differential GPS Category 3 automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  18. Expression of lumbosacral HOX genes, crucial in kidney organogenesis, is systematically deregulated in clear cell kidney cancers.

    PubMed

    Cantile, Monica; Schiavo, Giulia; Franco, Renato; Cindolo, Luca; Procino, Alfredo; D'Armiento, Maria; Facchini, Gaetano; Terracciano, Luigi; Botti, Gerardo; Cillo, Clemente

    2011-06-01

    Homeobox-containing genes are involved in different stages of kidney organogenesis, from the early events in intermediate mesoderm to terminal differentiation of glomerular and tubular epithelia. The HOX genes show a unique genomic network organization and regulate normal development. The targeted disruption of paralogous group 11 HOX genes (HOX A11, HOX C11 and HOX D11) results in a complete loss of metanephric kidney induction. Despite a large amount of data are related to the early events in the kidney development, not much is known about HOX genes in advanced kidney organogenesis and carcinogenesis. Here, we compare the expression of the whole HOX gene network in late-stage human foetal kidney development with the same patterns detected in 25 pairs of normal clear cell renal carcinomas (RCCs) and 15 isolated RCC biopsy samples. In the majority of RCCs tested, HOX C11 is upregulated, whereas HOX D11, after an early involvement becomes active again at the 23rd week of the foetal kidney development, is always expressed in normal adult kidneys and is deregulated, together with HOX A11 and lumbosacral locus D HOX genes. Thus, through its function of regulating phenotype cell identity, the HOX network plays an important role in kidney carcinogenesis. Lumbosacral HOX genes are involved in the molecular alterations associated with clear cell kidney cancers and represent, through their deregulation, a molecular mark of tubular epithelial dedifferentiation occurring along tumour evolution, with the restoration of genetic programs associated with kidney organogenesis. The deregulation of lumbosacral HOX genes in RCCs supports (i) the consideration of the HOX gene transcriptome as the potential prognostic tool in kidney carcinogenesis and (ii) the possibility to foresee clinical trials with the purpose of targeting these genes to achieve a therapeutic effect in RCC patients.

  19. Deregulated microRNAs in CD4+ T cells from individuals with latent tuberculosis versus active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yurong; Yi, Zhengjun; Li, Jianhua; Li, Ruifang

    2014-03-01

    The mechanisms of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection remain elusive. Roles of microRNA (miRNA) have been highlighted in pathogen-host interactions recently. To identify miRNAs involved in the immune response to TB, expression profiles of miRNAs in CD4(+) T cells from patients with latent TB, active TB and healthy controls were investigated by microarray assay and validated by RT-qPCR. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used to analyse the significant functions and involvement in signalling pathways of the differentially expressed miRNAs. To identify potential target genes for miR-29, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression was measured by RT-qPCR. Our results showed that 27 miRNAs were deregulated among the three groups. RT-qPCR results were generally consistent with the microarray data. We observed an inverse correlation between miR-29 level and IFN-γ mRNA expression in CD4(+) T cells. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the possible target genes of deregulated miRNAs were significantly enriched in mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway, focal adhesion and extracellular matrix receptor interaction, which might be involved in the transition from latent to active TB. In all, for the first time, our study revealed that some miRNAs in CD4(+) T cells were altered in latent and active TB. Function and pathway analysis highlighted the possible involvement of miRNA-deregulated mRNAs in TB. The study might help to improve understanding of the relationship between miRNAs in CD4(+) T cells and TB, and laid an important foundation for further identification of the underlying mechanisms of latent TB infection and its reactivation.

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  1. High-Speed Civil Transport Forecast: Simulated Airlines Scenarios for Mach 1.6, Mach 2.0, and Mach 2.4 Configurations for Year 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1996-01-01

    The report describes the development of a database of fuel burn and emissions from projected High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleets that reflect actual airlines' networks, operational requirement, and traffic flow as operated by simulated world wide airlines for Mach 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 HSCT configurations. For the year 2015, McDonnell Douglas Corporation created two supersonic commercial air traffic networks consisting of origin-destination city pair routes and associated traffic levels. The first scenario represented a manufacturing upper limit producible HSCT fleet availability by year 2015. The fleet projection of the Mach 2.4 configuration for this scenario was 1059 units with a traffic capture of 70 percent. The second scenario focused on the number of units that can minimally be produced by the year 2015. Using realistic production rates, the HSCT fleet projection amounts to 565 units. The traffic capture associated with this fleet was estimated at 40 percent. The airlines network was extracted from the actual networks of 21 major world airlines. All the routes were screened for suitability for HSCT operations. The route selection criteria included great circle distance, difference between flight path distance and great circle distance to avoid overland operations, and potential flight frequency.

  2. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  3. 75 FR 37470 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Strong and Gusty Crosswind Conditions, Continental Airlines Flight 1404, Boeing 737-500, N18611, Denver, Colorado, December 20, 2008. News Media Contact: Telephone: (202) 314-6100. The press and public may...

  4. Development and evaluation of an intervention aiming to reduce fatigue in airline pilots: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A considerable percentage of flight crew reports to be fatigued regularly. This is partly caused by irregular and long working hours and the crossing of time zones. It has been shown that persistent fatigue can lead to health problems, impaired performance during work, and a decreased work-private life balance. It is hypothesized that an intervention consisting of tailored advice regarding exposure to daylight, optimising sleep, physical activity, and nutrition will lead to a reduction of fatigue in airline pilots compared to a control group, which receives a minimal intervention with standard available information. Methods/design The study population will consist of pilots of a large airline company. All pilots who posses a smartphone or tablet, and who are not on sick leave for more than four weeks at the moment of recruitment, will be eligible for participation. In a two-armed randomised controlled trial, participants will be allocated to an intervention group that will receive the tailored advice to optimise exposure to daylight, sleep, physical activity and nutrition, and a control group that will receive standard available information. The intervention will be applied using a smartphone application and a website, and will be tailored on flight- and participant-specific characteristics. The primary outcome of the study is perceived fatigue. Secondary outcomes are need for recovery, duration and quality of sleep, dietary and physical activity behaviours, work-private life balance, general health, and sickness absence. A process evaluation will be conducted as well. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and at three and six months after baseline. Discussion This paper describes the development of an intervention for airline pilots, consisting of tailored advice (on exposure to daylight and sleep-, physical activity, and nutrition) applied into a smartphone application. Further, the paper describes the design of the randomised controlled trial

  5. Circadian adaptation of airline pilots during extended duration operations between the USA and Asia.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; van den Berg, Margo; Mulrine, Hannah; Signal, Leigh; Mangie, Jim

    2013-10-01

    This study tracked circadian adaptation among airline pilots before, during, and after trips where they flew from Seattle (SEA) or Los Angeles (LAX) to Asia (7--9 time zones westward), spent 7--12 d in Asia, and then flew back to the USA. In Asia, pilots' exposures to local time cues and sleep opportunities were constrained by duty (short-haul flights crossing ≤ 1 time zone/24 h). Fourteen captains and 16 first officers participated (median age = 56 versus 48 yrs, p.U) < 0.001). Their sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 d pre-trip to 5 d post-trip. For every flight, Karolinska Sleepiness and Samn-Perelli Fatigue scales and 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) tests were completed pre-flight and at top of descent (TOD). Participants had ≥ 3 d free of duty prior to outbound flight(s). From 72--24 h prior to departure (baseline sleep), mean total sleep/24 h (TST) = 7.00 h (SD = 1.18 h) and mean sleep efficiency = 87% (SD = 4.9%). Most pilots (23/30) flew direct to and from Asia, but 7 LAX-based pilots flew via a 1-d layover in Honolulu (HNL). On flights with ≥ 2 pilots, mean total in-flight sleep varied from 0.40 to 2.09 h outbound and from 0.74 to 1.88 h inbound. Duty patterns in Asia were variable, with ≤ 2 flights/d (mean flight duration = 3.53 h, SD = 0.53 h). TST on days 17 in Asia did not differ from baseline (p.F) = 0.2031). However, mean sleep efficiency was significantly lower than baseline on days 5--7 (p.F) = 0.0041). More pilots were on duty between 20:00 and 24:00 h on days 57 (mean = 21%) than on days 24 (mean = 14%). Sleep propensity distribution phase markers and chi-square periodogram analyses suggest that adaptation to local time was complete by day 4 in Asia. On pre-flight PVT tests in Asia, the slowest 10% of responses improved for flights departing 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0484). At TOD, the slowest 10% of responses improved across days for flights arriving 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0349) and 20:00--01:59 h (p

  6. Deregulation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity Induced by Central Lipid Infusion in Rats Is Mediated by Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Marsollier, Nicolas; Kassis, Nadim; Mezghenna, Karima; Soty, Maud; Fioramonti, Xavier; Lacombe, Amélie; Joly, Aurélie; Pillot, Bruno; Zitoun, Carine; Vilar, José; Mithieux, Gilles; Gross, René; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Routh, Vanessa; Magnan, Christophe; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline

    2009-01-01

    Background Deregulation of hypothalamic fatty acid sensing lead to hepatic insulin-resistance which may partly contribute to further impairment of glucose homeostasis. Methodology We investigated here whether hypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) could mediate deleterious peripheral effect of central lipid overload. Thus we infused rats for 24 hours into carotid artery towards brain, either with heparinized triglyceride emulsion (Intralipid, IL) or heparinized saline (control rats). Principal Findings Lipids infusion led to hepatic insulin-resistance partly related to a decreased parasympathetic activity in the liver assessed by an increased acetylcholinesterase activity. Hypothalamic nitric oxide synthases (NOS) activities were significantly increased in IL rats, as the catalytically active neuronal NOS (nNOS) dimers compared to controls. This was related to a decrease in expression of protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN). Effect of IL infusion on deregulated hepatic insulin-sensitivity was reversed by carotid injection of non selective NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and also by a selective inhibitor of the nNOS isoform, 7-Nitro-Indazole (7-Ni). In addition, NO donor injection (L-arginine and SNP) within carotid in control rats mimicked lipid effects onto impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity. In parallel we showed that cultured VMH neurons produce NO in response to fatty acid (oleic acid). Conclusions/Significance We conclude that cerebral fatty acid overload induces an enhancement of nNOS activity within hypothalamus which is, at least in part, responsible fatty acid increased hepatic glucose production. PMID:19680547

  7. Deregulated expression of Cdc6 in the skin facilitates papilloma formation and affects the hair growth cycle

    PubMed Central

    Búa, Sabela; Sotiropoulou, Peggy; Sgarlata, Cecilia; Borlado, Luis R; Eguren, Manuel; Domínguez, Orlando; Ortega, Sagrario; Malumbres, Marcos; Blanpain, Cedric; Méndez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Cdc6 encodes a key protein for DNA replication, responsible for the recruitment of the MCM helicase to replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell division cycle. The oncogenic potential of deregulated Cdc6 expression has been inferred from cellular studies, but no mouse models have been described to study its effects in mammalian tissues. Here we report the generation of K5-Cdc6, a transgenic mouse strain in which Cdc6 expression is deregulated in tissues with stratified epithelia. Higher levels of CDC6 protein enhanced the loading of MCM complexes to DNA in epidermal keratinocytes, without affecting their proliferation rate or inducing DNA damage. While Cdc6 overexpression did not promote skin tumors, it facilitated the formation of papillomas in cooperation with mutagenic agents such as DMBA. In addition, the elevated levels of CDC6 protein in the skin extended the resting stage of the hair growth cycle, leading to better fur preservation in older mice. PMID:26697840

  8. Combination of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine synergistically induces cell cycle deregulation and apoptosis in mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martinotti, Simona; Ranzato, Elia; Parodi, Monica; Vitale, Massimo; Burlando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a poor-prognosis tumor in need of innovative therapies. In a previous in vivo study, we showed synergistic anti-MMe properties of the ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine combination. We have now focused on the mechanism of action, showing the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through measurements of caspase 3, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, annexin V, and DNA content. StellArray™ PCR technology and Western immunoblotting revealed DAPK2-dependent apoptosis, upregulation of cell cycle promoters, downregulation of cell cycle checkpoints and repression of NFκB expression. The complex of data indicates that the mixture is synergistic in inducing cell cycle deregulation and non-inflammatory apoptosis, suggesting its possible use in MMe treatment. - Highlights: • Ascorbate/epigallocathechin-gallate/gemcitabine has been tested on mesothelioma cells • A synergistic mechanism has been shown for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis • PCR-array analysis has revealed the de-regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle genes • Maximum upregulation has been found for the Death-Associated Protein Kinase-2 gene • Data suggest that the mixture could be used as a clinical treatment.

  9. Metabolomics and In-Silico Analysis Reveal Critical Energy Deregulations in Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, Pierre O.; Chen, Jingkui; Cloutier, Mathieu; Trudeau, Louis-Éric; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multifactorial disease known to result from a variety of factors. Although age is the principal risk factor, other etiological mechanisms have been identified, including gene mutations and exposure to toxins. Deregulation of energy metabolism, mostly through the loss of complex I efficiency, is involved in disease progression in both the genetic and sporadic forms of the disease. In this study, we investigated energy deregulation in the cerebral tissue of animal models (genetic and toxin induced) of PD using an approach that combines metabolomics and mathematical modelling. In a first step, quantitative measurements of energy-related metabolites in mouse brain slices revealed most affected pathways. A genetic model of PD, the Park2 knockout, was compared to the effect of CCCP, a complex I blocker. Model simulated and experimental results revealed a significant and sustained decrease in ATP after CCCP exposure, but not in the genetic mice model. In support to data analysis, a mathematical model of the relevant metabolic pathways was developed and calibrated onto experimental data. In this work, we show that a short-term stress response in nucleotide scavenging is most probably induced by the toxin exposure. In turn, the robustness of energy-related pathways in the model explains how genetic perturbations, at least in young animals, are not sufficient to induce significant changes at the metabolite level. PMID:23935941

  10. Deregulated chlorophyll b synthesis reduces the energy transfer rate between photosynthetic pigments and induces photodamage in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Yokono, Makio; Akimoto, Seiji; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2010-06-01

    Chl b is one of the major light-harvesting pigments in land plants. The synthesis of Chl b is strictly regulated in response to light conditions in order to control the antenna size of photosystems. Regulation of Chl b also affects its distribution as it occurs preferentially in the peripheral antenna complexes. However, it has not been experimentally shown how plants respond to environmental conditions when they accumulate excess Chl b. Previously, we produced an Arabidopsis transgenic plant (referred to as the BC plant) in which Chl b biosynthesis was enhanced. In this study, we analyzed the photosynthetic properties and genome-wide gene expression in this plant under high light conditions in order to understand the effects of deregulated Chl b biosynthesis. The energy transfer rates between Chl a molecules in PSII decreased and H(2)O(2) accumulated extensively in the BC plant. Microarray analysis revealed that a group of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was down-regulated and that another group of genes, reported to be sensitive to H(2)O(2), was up-regulated in the BC plant. We also found that anthocyanin levels were low, which was consistent with the results of the microarray analysis. These results indicate that deregulation of Chl b caused severe photodamage and altered gene expression profiles under strong illumination. The importance of the regulation of Chl b synthesis is discussed in relation to the correct localization of Chl b and gene expression.

  11. Investigation of deregulated genes of Notch signaling pathway in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Paryan, Mahdi; Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Samira; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Soleimani, Masoud; Arefian, Ehsan; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Poopak, Behzad; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Karimipoor, Morteza; Mahdian, Reza

    2013-10-01

    In diagnostic research challenges, quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) has been widely utilized in gene expression analysis because of its sensitivity, accuracy, reproducibility, and most importantly, quantitativeness. Real-time PCR base kits are wildly applicable in cancer signaling pathways, especially in cancer investigations. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a type of leukemia that is more common in older children and teenagers. Deregulation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of the lymphoblastic T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Notch signaling activation on the expression of target genes using real-time QPCR and further use this method in clinical examination after validation. Two T-ALL cell lines, Jurkat and Molt-4, were used as models for activation of the Notch signaling via over-expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain. Expression analysis was performed for six downstream target genes (NCSTN, APH1, PSEN1, ADAM17, NOTCH1 and C-MYC) which play critical roles in the Notch signaling pathway. The results showed significant difference in the expression of target genes in the deregulated Notch signaling pathway. These results were also verified in 12 clinical samples bearing over-expression of the Notch signaling pathway. Identification of such downstream Notch target genes, which have not been studied inclusively, provides insights into the mechanisms of the Notch function in T cell leukemia, and may help identify novel diagnoses and therapeutic targets in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  12. Amyloid beta deregulates astroglial mGluR5-mediated calcium signaling via calcineurin and Nf-kB.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dmitry; Iyer, Anand; Ronco, Virginia; Grolla, Ambra A; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Aronica, Eleonora; Genazzani, Armando A

    2013-07-01

    The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggests that soluble amyloid β (Aβ) is an initiator of a cascade of events eventually leading to neurodegeneration. Recently, we reported that Aβ deranged Ca(2+) homeostasis specifically in hippocampal astrocytes by targeting key elements of Ca(2+) signaling, such as mGluR5 and IP3 R1. In the present study, we dissect a cascade of signaling events by which Aβ deregulates glial Ca(2+) : (i) 100 nM Aβ leads to an increase in cytosolic calcium after 4-6 h of treatment; (ii) mGluR5 is increased after 24 h of treatment; (iii) this increase is blocked by inhibitors of calcineurin (CaN) and NF-kB. Furthermore, we show that Aβ treatment of glial cells leads to de-phosphorylation of Bcl10 and an increased CaN-Bcl10 interaction. Last, mGluR5 staining is augmented in hippocampal astrocytes of AD patients in proximity of Aβ plaques and co-localizes with nuclear accumulation of the p65 NF-kB subunit and increased staining of CaNAα. Taken together our data suggest that nanomolar [Aβ] deregulates Ca(2+) homeostasis via CaN and its downstream target NF-kB, possibly via the cross-talk of Bcl10 in hippocampal astrocytes.

  13. Simultaneous measurements of ozone outside and inside cabins of two B-747 airliners and a Gates Learjet business jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Briel, D.

    1978-01-01

    The average amount of ozone measured in the cabins of two B-747 airliners varied from 40 percent to 80 percent of the atmospheric concentrations without special ozone destruction systems. A charcoal filter in the cabin air inlet system of one B-747 reduced the ozone to about 5 percent of the atmospheric concentration. A Learjet 23 was also instrumented with monitors to measure simultaneously the atmospheric and ozone concentrations. Results indicate that a significant portion of the atmospheric ozone is not destroyed in the pressurization system and remains in the aircraft cabin of the Learjet. For the two cabin configurations tested, the ozone retentions were 63 and 41 percent of the atmospheric ozone concentrations. Ozone concentrations measured in the cabin near the conditioned-air outlets were reduced only slightly from atmospheric ozone concentrations. It is concluded that a constant difference between ozone concentrations inside and outside the cabin does not exist.

  14. Sleep, alertness and alertness management among commercial airline pilots on short-haul and long-haul flights.

    PubMed

    Sallinen, Mikael; Sihvola, Maria; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ketola, Kimmo; Tuori, Antti; Härmä, Mikko; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    Airline pilots' sleep and on-duty alertness are important focus areas in commercial aviation. Until now, studies pertaining to this topic have mainly focused on specific characteristics of flights and thus a comprehensive picture of the matter is not well established. In addition, research knowledge of what airline pilots actually do to maintain their alertness while being on duty is scarce. To address these gaps in research knowledge, we conducted a field study on a representative sample of the airline pilots of a medium-sized airline. The sample consisted of 90 pilots, of whom 30 flew long-haul (LH) routes, 30 short-haul (SH) routes, and 30 flew both. A total of 86 pilots completed the measurements that lasted for almost two months per pilot. The measurements resulted in a total of 965 flight duty periods (FDPs) including SH flights and 627 FDPs including LH flights. During the measurement periods, sleep was measured by a diary and actigraphs, on-duty alertness by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) in all flight phases, and on-duty alertness management strategies by the diary. Results showed that SH and LH FDPs covering the whole domicile night (00:00-06:00 at home base) were most consistently associated with reduced sleep-wake ratio and subjective alertness. Approximately every 3rd FDP falling into this category involved a reduced sleep-wake ratio (1:3 or lower) and every 2nd a reduced level of subjective alertness (KSS rating 8-9 in at least one flight phase). The corresponding frequencies for the SH and LH FDPs that partly covered the domicile night were every 10th and every 5th FDP and for the pure non-night FDPs every 30th and every 36th FDP, respectively. The results also showed that the pilots tended to increase the use of effective on-duty alertness management strategies (consuming alertness-promoting products and taking strategic naps) in connection with the FDPs that overlapped the domicile night. Finally, the results showed that the frequency of

  15. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, C.E.; Vicroy, D.D.; Simmon, D.A.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  16. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  17. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots.

  18. 75 FR 57517 - Atlantic Southeast Airlines, a Subsidiary of Skywest, Inc., Airport Customer Service Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ..., value-added production processes or services directly for another firm for articles or services with... 222(d)(3)(B) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2272(d)(3)(B), states that ``value-added production processes or... because the subject firm did not perform additional, value-added production processes or services...

  19. 75 FR 21716 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... monitor the quality of air service that major air carriers are providing the flying public. The Federal... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics invites the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. An integrated genome-wide approach to discover deregulated microRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer: Clinical significance of miR-23b-3p deregulation.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Hayashi, Masamichi; Ogawa, Takenori; Jabboure, Fayez J; Brait, Mariana; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Tabak, Sarit; Ahrendt, Steven A; Westra, William H; Koch, Wayne; Sidransky, David; Hoque, Mohammad O

    2015-08-28

    In spite of significant technical advances, genesis and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain poorly understood. We undertook an integrated genetic approach to discover novel microRNAs that were deregulated in NSCLCs. A total 119 primary NSCLCs with matched normal were analyzed for genome-wide copy number changes. We also tested a subset of matched samples by microRNA expression array, and integrated them to identify microRNAs positioned in allelic imbalance area. Our findings support that most of the identified deregulated microRNAs (miR-21, miR-23b, miR-31, miR-126, miR-150, and miR-205) were positioned in allelic imbalance areas. Among microRNAs tested in independent 114 NSCLCs, overexpression of miR-23b was revealed to be a significantly poor prognostic factor of recurrence free survival (HR = 2.40, P = 0.005, 95%CI: 1.32-4.29) and overall survival (HR = 2.35, P = 0.005, 95%CI: 1.30-4.19) in multivariable analysis. In addition, overexpression of miR-23b in H1838 cell line significantly increased cell proliferation, while inhibition of miR-23b in H1437 and H1944 cell lines significantly decreased cell doubling time. In summary, integration of genomic analysis and microRNA expression profiling could identify novel cancer-related microRNAs, and miR-23b could be a potential prognostic marker for early stage NSCLCs. Further biological studies of miR-23b are warranted for the potential development of targeted therapy.

  1. An integrated genome-wide approach to discover deregulated microRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer: Clinical significance of miR-23b-3p deregulation

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Hayashi, Masamichi; Ogawa, Takenori; Jabboure, Fayez J.; Brait, Mariana; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Tabak, Sarit; Ahrendt, Steven A.; Westra, William H.; Koch, Wayne; Sidransky, David; Hoque, Mohammad O.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of significant technical advances, genesis and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain poorly understood. We undertook an integrated genetic approach to discover novel microRNAs that were deregulated in NSCLCs. A total 119 primary NSCLCs with matched normal were analyzed for genome-wide copy number changes. We also tested a subset of matched samples by microRNA expression array, and integrated them to identify microRNAs positioned in allelic imbalance area. Our findings support that most of the identified deregulated microRNAs (miR-21, miR-23b, miR-31, miR-126, miR-150, and miR-205) were positioned in allelic imbalance areas. Among microRNAs tested in independent 114 NSCLCs, overexpression of miR-23b was revealed to be a significantly poor prognostic factor of recurrence free survival (HR = 2.40, P = 0.005, 95%CI: 1.32–4.29) and overall survival (HR = 2.35, P = 0.005, 95%CI: 1.30–4.19) in multivariable analysis. In addition, overexpression of miR-23b in H1838 cell line significantly increased cell proliferation, while inhibition of miR-23b in H1437 and H1944 cell lines significantly decreased cell doubling time. In summary, integration of genomic analysis and microRNA expression profiling could identify novel cancer-related microRNAs, and miR-23b could be a potential prognostic marker for early stage NSCLCs. Further biological studies of miR-23b are warranted for the potential development of targeted therapy. PMID:26314549

  2. Deregulated proteolysis by the F-box proteins SKP2 and β-TrCP: tipping the scales of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frescas, David; Pagano, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance and preservation of distinct phases during the cell cycle is a highly complex and coordinated process. It is regulated by phosphorylation — through the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) — and protein degradation, which occurs through ubiquitin ligases such as SCF (SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein) complexes and APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome). Here, we explore the functionality and biology of the F-box proteins, SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) and β-TrCP (β-transducin repeat-containing protein), which are emerging as important players in cancer biogenesis owing to the deregulated proteolysis of their substrates. PMID:18500245

  3. Enhancer Sequence Variants and Transcription Factor Deregulation Synergize to Construct Pathogenic Regulatory Circuits in B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Koues, Olivia I.; Kowalewski, Rodney A.; Chang, Li-Wei; Pyfrom, Sarah C.; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Luo, Hong; Sandoval, Luis E.; Hughes, Tyler B.; Bednarski, Jeffrey J.; Cashen, Amanda F.; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Oltz, Eugene M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most B cell lymphomas arise in the germinal center (GC), where humoral immune responses evolve from potentially oncogenic cycles of mutation, proliferation, and clonal selection. Although lymphoma gene expression diverges significantly from GC-B cells, underlying mechanisms that alter the activities of corresponding regulatory elements (REs) remain elusive. Here we define the complete pathogenic circuitry of human follicular lymphoma (FL), which activates or decommissions REs from normal GC-B cells and commandeers enhancers from other lineages. Moreover, independent sets of transcription factors, whose expression was deregulated in FL, targeted commandeered versus decommissioned REs. Our approach revealed two distinct subtypes of low-grade FL, whose pathogenic circuitries resembled GC-B or activated B cells. FL-altered enhancers also were enriched for sequence variants, including somatic mutations, which disrupt transcription factor binding and expression of circuit-linked genes. Thus, the pathogenic regulatory circuitry of FL reveals distinct genetic and epigenetic etiologies for GC-B transformation. PMID:25607463

  4. Integrative identification of deregulated miRNA/TF-mediated gene regulatory loops and networks in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ali Sobhi; Xu, Joseph; Goutsias, John

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted a great deal of attention in biology and medicine. It has been hypothesized that miRNAs interact with transcription factors (TFs) in a coordinated fashion to play key roles in regulating signaling and transcriptional pathways and in achieving robust gene regulation. Here, we propose a novel integrative computational method to infer certain types of deregulated miRNA-mediated regulatory circuits at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and signaling levels. To reliably predict miRNA-target interactions from mRNA/miRNA expression data, our method collectively utilizes sequence-based miRNA-target predictions obtained from several algorithms, known information about mRNA and miRNA targets of TFs available in existing databases, certain molecular structures identified to be statistically over-represented in gene regulatory networks, available molecular subtyping information, and state-of-the-art statistical techniques to appropriately constrain the underlying analysis. In this way, the method exploits almost every aspect of extractable information in the expression data. We apply our procedure on mRNA/miRNA expression data from prostate tumor and normal samples and detect numerous known and novel miRNA-mediated deregulated loops and networks in prostate cancer. We also demonstrate instances of the results in a number of distinct biological settings, which are known to play crucial roles in prostate and other types of cancer. Our findings show that the proposed computational method can be used to effectively achieve notable insights into the poorly understood molecular mechanisms of miRNA-mediated interactions and dissect their functional roles in cancer in an effort to pave the way for miRNA-based therapeutics in clinical settings.

  5. Integrative Identification of Deregulated MiRNA/TF-Mediated Gene Regulatory Loops and Networks in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Ali Sobhi; Xu, Joseph; Goutsias, John

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted a great deal of attention in biology and medicine. It has been hypothesized that miRNAs interact with transcription factors (TFs) in a coordinated fashion to play key roles in regulating signaling and transcriptional pathways and in achieving robust gene regulation. Here, we propose a novel integrative computational method to infer certain types of deregulated miRNA-mediated regulatory circuits at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and signaling levels. To reliably predict miRNA-target interactions from mRNA/miRNA expression data, our method collectively utilizes sequence-based miRNA-target predictions obtained from several algorithms, known information about mRNA and miRNA targets of TFs available in existing databases, certain molecular structures identified to be statistically over-represented in gene regulatory networks, available molecular subtyping information, and state-of-the-art statistical techniques to appropriately constrain the underlying analysis. In this way, the method exploits almost every aspect of extractable information in the expression data. We apply our procedure on mRNA/miRNA expression data from prostate tumor and normal samples and detect numerous known and novel miRNA-mediated deregulated loops and networks in prostate cancer. We also demonstrate instances of the results in a number of distinct biological settings, which are known to play crucial roles in prostate and other types of cancer. Our findings show that the proposed computational method can be used to effectively achieve notable insights into the poorly understood molecular mechanisms of miRNA-mediated interactions and dissect their functional roles in cancer in an effort to pave the way for miRNA-based therapeutics in clinical settings. PMID:24968068

  6. MiR-9, -31, and -182 deregulation promote proliferation and tumor cell survival in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cekaite, Lina; Rantala, Juha K; Bruun, Jarle; Guriby, Marianne; Agesen, Trude H; Danielsen, Stine A; Lind, Guro E; Nesbakken, Arild; Kallioniemi, Olli; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2012-09-01

    Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be deregulated in colon cancer, but the mechanisms behind their potential involvement on proliferation and tumor cell survival are unclear. The present study aimed to identify miRNAs with functional implications for development of colon cancer. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined following perturbations of miRNA levels by employing a comprehensive miRNA library screen. miRNAs nominated for relevance to colon cancer were validated on expression and functional levels. By integrating the effect of miRNA up-regulation with the endogenous miRNA expression levels within the HT29, HCT116, and SW480 colon cancer cell lines, we identified miRNAs controlling cell proliferation (n = 53) and apoptosis (n = 93). From these functionally nominated miRNAs, we narrowed the list to 10 oncogene- and 20 tumor suppressor-like miRNAs that were also differentially expressed between colon cancer (n = 80) and normal colonic mucosa (n = 20). The differential expressions of miR-9, miR-31, and miR-182 were successfully validated in a series of colon carcinomas (n = 30) and polyps (n = 10) versus normal colonic mucosa (n = 10), whereas the functional effect was confirmed in an in-depth validation using different cell viability and apoptotic markers. Several transcription factors and genes regulating cell proliferation were identified as putative target genes by integrative miRNA/mRNA expression analysis obtained from the same colon cancer patient samples. This study suggests that deregulated expression of miR-9, miR-31, and miR-182 during carcinogenesis plays a significant role in the development of colon cancer by promoting proliferation and tumor cell survival.

  7. Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation. Fiscal Year 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Cubana de Aviacion airline. The aircraft was flown from Varadero Beach to a nearby location where 31 waiting relatives boarded, and the helicopter then...helicopter. In this case, the pilot of the Russian Mi-8 helicopter belonging to the Cuban state airline, Cubana de Aviacion , took off from Varadero Beach to a

  8. Statistical Survey of Icing Data Measured on Scheduled Airline Flights over the United States and Canada from November 1951 to June 1952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J

    1955-01-01

    A statistical survey and a preliminary analysis are made of icing data collected from scheduled flights over the United States and Canada from November 1951 to June 1952 by airline aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters. This interim report presents information obtained from a continuing program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of the airlines. An analysis of over 600 icing encounters logged by three airlines operating in the United States, one operating in Canada and one operating up the coast to Alaska, is presented. The icing conditions encountered provided relative frequencies of many icing-cloud variables, such as horizontal extent, vertical thickness, temperatures, icing rate, liquid-water content, and total ice accumulation. Liquid-water contents were higher than data from earlier research flights in layer-type clouds but slightly lower than previous data from cumulus clouds. Broken-cloud conditions, indicated by intermittent icing, accounted for nearly one-half of all the icing encounters. About 90 percent of the encounters did not exceed a distance of 120 miles, and continuous icing did not exceed 50 miles for 90 percent of the unbroken conditions. Icing cloud thicknesses measured during climbs and descents were less than 4500 feet for 90 percent of the vertical cloud traverses.

  9. Deregulated miRNAs in Hereditary Breast Cancer Revealed a Role for miR-30c in Regulating KRAS Oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Tanic, Miljana; Yanowsky, Kira; Rodriguez-Antona, Cristina; Andrés, Raquel; Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Martinez-Delgado, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant miRNA expression has been previously established in breast cancer and has clinical relevance. However, no studies so far have defined miRNAs deregulated in hereditary breast tumors. In this study we investigated the role of miRNAs in hereditary breast tumors comparing with normal breast tissue. Global miRNA expression profiling using Exiqon microarrays was performed on 22 hereditary breast tumors and 15 non-tumoral breast tissues. We identified 19 miRNAs differentially expressed, most of them down-regulated in tumors. An important proportion of deregulated miRNAs in hereditary tumors were previously identified commonly deregulated in sporadic breast tumors. Under-expression of these miRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR in additional 18 sporadic breast tumors and their normal breast tissue counterparts. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that deregulated miRNAs collectively targeted a number of genes belonging to signaling pathways such as MAPK, ErbB, mTOR, and those regulating cell motility or adhesion. In silico prediction detected KRAS oncogene as target of several deregulated miRNAs. In particular, we experimentally validated KRAS as a miR-30c target. Luciferase assays confirmed that miR-30c binds the 3′UTR of KRAS transcripts and expression of pre-miR-30c down-regulated KRAS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, miR-30c overexpression inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells. Our results identify miRNAs associated to hereditary breast cancer, as well as miRNAs commonly miss-expressed in hereditary and sporadic tumors, suggesting common underlying mechanisms of tumor progression. In addition, we provide evidence that KRAS is a target of miR-30c, and that this miRNA suppresses breast cancer cell growth potentially through inhibition of KRAS signaling. PMID:22701724

  10. Impact of layover length on sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and sustained attention of long-haul airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study

  11. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, T. H.; Bowen, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers topics such as: Safety and Air Fares; International Airline Safety; Multi-fare Seat Allocation Problem; Dynamic Allocation of Airline Seat Inventory; Seat Allocation on Flights with Two Fares; Effects of Intercontinental Alliances; Domestic Airline Mergers; Simulating the Effects of Airline Deregulation on Frequency Choice; and Firm Size Inequality and Market Power.

  12. FACTS Devices Cost Recovery During Congestion Management in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Mittapalli, Ram Kumar; Pal, Yash

    2016-09-01

    In future electricity markets, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices will play key role for providing ancillary services. Since huge cost is involved for the FACTS devices placement in the power system, the cost invested has to be recovered in their life time for the replacement of these devices. The FACTS devices in future electricity markets can act as an ancillary services provider and have to be remunerated. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) investment recovery of FACTS devices during congestion management such as static VAR compensator and unified power flow controller along with thyristor controlled series compensator using non-linear bid curves, (2) the impact of ZIP load model on the FACTS cost recovery of the devices, (3) the comparison of results obtained without ZIP load model for both pool and hybrid market model, (4) secure bilateral transactions incorporation in hybrid market model. An optimal power flow based approach has been developed for maximizing social welfare including FACTS devices cost. The optimal placement of the FACTS devices have been obtained based on maximum social welfare. The results have been obtained for both pool and hybrid electricity market for IEEE 24-bus RTS.

  13. Alzheimer-associated Aβ oligomers impact the central nervous system to induce peripheral metabolic deregulation

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia R; Lyra e Silva, Natalia M; Figueiredo, Claudia P; Frozza, Rudimar L; Ledo, Jose H; Beckman, Danielle; Katashima, Carlos K; Razolli, Daniela; Carvalho, Bruno M; Frazão, Renata; Silveira, Marina A; Ribeiro, Felipe C; Bomfim, Theresa R; Neves, Fernanda S; Klein, William L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; LaFerla, Frank M; Carvalheira, Jose B; Saad, Mario J; Munoz, Douglas P; Velloso, Licio A; Ferreira, Sergio T; De Felice, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with peripheral metabolic disorders. Clinical/epidemiological data indicate increased risk of diabetes in AD patients. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular infusion of AD-associated Aβ oligomers (AβOs) in mice triggered peripheral glucose intolerance, a phenomenon further verified in two transgenic mouse models of AD. Systemically injected AβOs failed to induce glucose intolerance, suggesting AβOs target brain regions involved in peripheral metabolic control. Accordingly, we show that AβOs affected hypothalamic neurons in culture, inducing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation (eIF2α-P). AβOs further induced eIF2α-P and activated pro-inflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB signaling in the hypothalamus of mice and macaques. AβOs failed to trigger peripheral glucose intolerance in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 knockout mice. Pharmacological inhibition of brain inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress prevented glucose intolerance in mice, indicating that AβOs act via a central route to affect peripheral glucose homeostasis. While the hypothalamus has been largely ignored in the AD field, our findings indicate that AβOs affect this brain region and reveal novel shared molecular mechanisms between hypothalamic dysfunction in metabolic disorders and AD. PMID:25617315

  14. How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from a Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory entry barriers to hospital service markets, namely Certificate of Need (CON) regulations, are enforced in many US states. Policy makers in other states are considering reinstating CON policies in tandem with service expansions mandated under the Affordable Care Act. Although previous studies examined the volume effects of CON, demand responses to actual entry into local hospital markets are not well understood. In this paper, we empirically examine the demand-augmenting, demand-redistribution, and risk-allocation effects of hospital entry by studying the cardiac revascularization markets in Pennsylvania, a state in which dynamic market entry occurred after repeal of CON in 1996. Results from interrupted time-series analyses indicate demand-augmenting effects for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and business-stealing effects for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures: high entrant market share mitigated the declining incidence of CABG, but it had no significant effect on the rising trend in PCI use, among patients with coronary artery disease. We further find evidence that entry by new cardiac surgery centers tended to sort high-severity patients into the more invasive CABG procedure and low-severity patients into the less invasive PCI procedures. These findings underscore the importance of considering market-level strategic responses by hospitals when regulatory barriers are rescinded.

  15. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT's) on a universal airline network.Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT's. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  16. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  17. An error-dependent model of instrument-scanning behavior in commercial airline pilots. Ph.D. Thesis - May 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new flexible model of pilot instrument scanning behavior is presented which assumes that the pilot uses a set of deterministic scanning patterns on the pilot's perception of error in the state of the aircraft, and the pilot's knowledge of the interactive nature of the aircraft's systems. Statistical analyses revealed that a three stage Markov process composed of the pilot's three predicted lookpoints (LP), occurring 1/30, 2/30, and 3/30 of a second prior to each LP, accurately modelled the scanning behavior of 14 commercial airline pilots while flying steep turn maneuvers in a Boeing 737 flight simulator. The modelled scanning data for each pilot were not statistically different from the observed scanning data in comparisons of mean dwell time, entropy, and entropy rate. These findings represent the first direct evidence that pilots are using deterministic scanning patterns during instrument flight. The results are interpreted as direct support for the error dependent model and suggestions are made for further research that could allow for identification of the specific scanning patterns suggested by the model.

  18. Inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation inhibits ErbB2-induced deregulation of mammary acinar morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Sharon J; Wen, Huei Chi; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Farias, Eduardo F; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A

    2009-01-01

    Background The ErbB2/Her2/Neu receptor tyrosine kinase is amplified in ~30% of human breast cancers. Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor, eIF2α inhibits global protein synthesis and activates a stress signaling and growth suppressive program. We have shown that forced phosphorylation of eIF2α can suppress head and neck, colorectal carcinoma and multiple myeloma tumor growth and/or survival. Here we explore whether ErbB2 modulates eIF2α phosphorylation and whether forced phosphorylation of the latter can antagonize ErbB2 deregulation of mammary acinar morphogenesis. Results We tested whether ErbB2 signaling influenced eIF2α signaling and whether enhanced phosphorylation of the latter affected ErbB2-deregulated mammary acinar development. We obtained stable MCF10A cells overexpressing wild-type (Wt) Neu/ErbB2 or a constitutively active (CA) variant via retroviral delivery or mammary tumor cells from MMTV-Neu tumors. Western blotting, RT-PCR and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the effects of ErbB2 activation on eIF2α signaling and the effect of the GADD34-PP1C inhibitor salubrinal. Wt- and MMTV-Neu cells formed aberrant acini structures resembling DCIS, while CA-ErbB2 overexpression induced invasive lesions. In these structures we found that CA-ErbB2 but not the Wt variant significantly down-regulated the pro-apoptotic gene CHOP. This occurred without apparent modulation of basal phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α or induction of its downstream target ATF4. However, inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation with salubrinal was sufficient to inhibit Wt- and CA-ErbB2- as well as MMTV-Neu-induced deregulation of acinar growth. This was linked to enhanced CHOP expression, inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and luminal clearing in Wt-ErbB2 and to inhibition of cyclin D1 levels and subsequent proliferation in CA-ErbB2 cells. Conclusion Depending on the strength of ErbB2 signaling there is a differential regulation of CHOP and e

  19. Deregulation of let-7e in epithelial ovarian cancer promotes the development of resistance to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Cai, J; Yang, C; Yang, Q; Ding, H; Jia, J; Guo, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment in ovarian cancer patients, and the evidence of microRNAs involvement in drug resistance has been emerging recently. In this report, we investigated the role of let-7e in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. On the cellular level, let-7e expression was significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780/CP compared with parental A2780 cell and decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in A2780, SKOV3 and ES2 cells treated with cisplatin. Overexpression of let-7e by transfection of agomir could resensitize A2780/CP and reduce the expression of cisplatin-resistant-related proteins enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), whereas let-7e inhibitors increased resistance to cisplatin in parental A2780 cells. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR analysis showed hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to let-7e in A2780/CP cells, and demethylation treatment with 5-aza-CdR or transfection of pYr-let-7e-shRNA plasmid containing unmethylated let-7e DNA sequence could restore let-7e expression and partly reduce the chemoresistance. In addition, cisplatin combined with let-7e agomirs inhibited the growth of A2780/CP xenograft more effectively than cisplatin alone. Diminished expression of EZH2 and CCND1 and higher cisplatin concentrations in tumor tissue of mice subjected to administration of let-7e agomirs in addition to cisplatin were revealed by immunohistochemistry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that let-7e may act as a promising therapeutic target for improvement of the sensibility to cisplatin in EOC. PMID:24100610

  20. The advancement of a new human factors report--'The Unique Report'--facilitating flight crew auditing of performance/operations as part of an airline's safety management system.

    PubMed

    Leva, M C; Cahill, J; Kay, A M; Losa, G; McDonald, N

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the specification of a new human factors report, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems project, sponsored by the European Commission. Specifically, it describes the proposed concept for a unique report, which will form the basis for all operational and safety reports completed by flight crew. This includes all mandatory and optional reports. Critically, this form is central to the advancement of improved processes and technology tools, supporting airline performance management, safety management, organisational learning and knowledge integration/information-sharing activities. Specifically, this paper describes the background to the development of this reporting form, the logic and contents of this form and how reporting data will be made use of by airline personnel. This includes a description of the proposed intelligent planning process and the associated intelligent flight plan concept, which makes use of airline operational and safety analyses information. Primarily, this new reporting form has been developed in collaboration with a major Spanish airline. In addition, it has involved research with five other airlines. Overall, this has involved extensive field research, collaborative prototyping and evaluation of new reports/flight plan concepts and a number of evaluation activities. Participants have included both operational and management personnel, across different airline flight operations processes. Statement of Relevance: This paper presents the development of a reporting concept outlined through field research and collaborative prototyping within an airline. The resulting reporting function, embedded in the journey log compiled at the end of each flight, aims at enabling employees to audit the operations of the company they work for.

  1. Privacy Act Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Any information you provide to the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Suspension and Debarment Program will be governed by the Privacy Act and will be included in the EPA Debarment and Suspension Files, a Privacy Act system of records.

  2. ACTS data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  3. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  4. Autism: Why Act Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  5. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  6. The dermatology acting internship.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  7. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure deregulates blood pressure, adiposity, cholesterol metabolism and social interaction in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan-I; Chiang, Chin-Wei; Lin, Hui-Ching; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Li, Cheng-Ta; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2016-05-01

    Long-term exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is highly associated with carcinogenicity, fetotoxicity, psychological disorders and metabolic diseases, but the detrimental effects and mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effect of exposing mouse mothers to DEHP, and the underlying mechanism, on blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol metabolism as well as psychological and learning behaviors in offspring. Tail-cuff plethysmography was used for blood pressure measurement; Western blot used was for phosphorylation and expression of protein; hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl staining and Golgi staining were used for histological examination. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were measured by blood biochemical analysis. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were assessed by colorimetric assay kits. Offspring behaviors were evaluated by open-field activity, elevated plus maze, social preference test and Morris water maze. Maternal DEHP exposure deregulated the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and upregulated angiotensin type 1 receptor in offspring, which led to increased blood pressure. It led to obesity in offspring by increasing the size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue and number of adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. It increased the serum level of cholesterol in offspring by decreasing the hepatic capacity for cholesterol clearance. The impaired social interaction ability induced by maternal DEHP exposure might be due to abnormal neuronal development. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence that maternal exposure to DEHP has a lasting effect on the physiological functions of the vascular system, adipose tissue and nerve system in offspring.

  8. Deregulation of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1 in the endometrium causes reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Salker, Madhuri S; Christian, Mark; Steel, Jennifer H; Nautiyal, Jaya; Lavery, Stuart; Trew, Geoffrey; Webster, Zoe; Al-Sabbagh, Marwa; Puchchakayala, Goverdhan; Föller, Michael; Landles, Christian; Sharkey, Andrew M; Quenby, Siobhan; Aplin, John D; Regan, Lesley; Lang, Florian; Brosens, Jan J

    2011-10-16

    Infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) are prevalent but distinct causes of reproductive failure that often remain unexplained despite extensive investigations. Analysis of midsecretory endometrial samples revealed that SGK1, a kinase involved in epithelial ion transport and cell survival, is upregulated in unexplained infertility, most prominently in the luminal epithelium, but downregulated in the endometrium of women suffering from RPL. To determine the functional importance of these observations, we first expressed a constitutively active SGK1 mutant in the luminal epithelium of the mouse uterus. This prevented expression of certain endometrial receptivity genes, perturbed uterine fluid handling and abolished embryo implantation. By contrast, implantation was unhindered in Sgk1-/- mice, but pregnancy was often complicated by bleeding at the decidual-placental interface and fetal growth retardation and subsequent demise. Compared to wild-type mice, Sgk1-/- mice had gross impairment of pregnancy-dependent induction of genes involved in oxidative stress defenses. Relative SGK1 deficiency was also a hallmark of decidualizing stromal cells from human subjects with RPL and sensitized these cells to oxidative cell death. Thus, depending on the cellular compartment, deregulated SGK1 activity in cycling endometrium interferes with embryo implantation, leading to infertility, or predisposes to pregnancy complications by rendering the feto-maternal interface vulnerable to oxidative damage.

  9. Deregulated hedgehog pathway signaling is inhibited by the smoothened antagonist LDE225 (Sonidegib) in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, David A.; Zhang, Bin; Kinstrie, Ross; Tarafdar, Anuradha; Morrison, Heather; Campbell, Victoria L.; Moka, Hothri A.; Ho, Yinwei; Nixon, Colin; Manley, Paul W.; Wheadon, Helen; Goodlad, John R.; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Bhatia, Ravi; Copland, Mhairi

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway represents a potential leukaemia stem cell (LSC)-directed therapy which may compliment tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to eradicate LSC in chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). We set out to elucidate the role of Hh signaling in CP-CML and determine if inhibition of Hh signaling, through inhibition of smoothened (SMO), was an effective strategy to target CP-CML LSC. Assessment of Hh pathway gene and protein expression demonstrated that the Hh pathway is activated in CD34+ CP-CML stem/progenitor cells. LDE225 (Sonidegib), a small molecule, clinically investigated SMO inhibitor, used alone and in combination with nilotinib, inhibited the Hh pathway in CD34+ CP-CML cells, reducing the number and self-renewal capacity of CML LSC in vitro. The combination had no effect on normal haemopoietic stem cells. When combined, LDE225 + nilotinib reduced CD34+ CP-CML cell engraftment in NSG mice and, upon administration to EGFP+ /SCLtTA/TRE-BCR-ABL mice, the combination enhanced survival with reduced leukaemia development in secondary transplant recipients. In conclusion, the Hh pathway is deregulated in CML stem and progenitor cells. We identify Hh pathway inhibition, in combination with nilotinib, as a potentially effective therapeutic strategy to improve responses in CP-CML by targeting both stem and progenitor cells. PMID:27157927

  10. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution. PMID:27767182

  11. New Methodology for Evaluating Optimal Pricing for Primary Regulation of Deregulated Power Systems under Steady State Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.; RadhaKrishna, C.

    2013-06-01

    A generalized pricing structure for procurement of power under frequency ancillary service is developed in this paper. It is a frequency linked-price model and suitable for deregulation market environment. This model takes into consideration: governor characteristics and frequency characteristics of generator as additional parameters in load flow method. The main objective of the new approach proposed in this paper is to establish bidding price structure for frequency regulation services in competitive ancillary electrical markets under steady state condition. Lot of literatures are available for calculating the frequency deviations with respect to load changes by using dynamic simulation methods. But in this paper, the model computes the frequency deviations for additional requirements of power under steady state with considering power system network topology. An attempt is also made in this paper to develop optimal bidding price structure for the frequency-regulated systems. It gives a signal to traders or bidders that the power demand can be assessed more accurately much closer to real time and helps participants bid more accurate quantities on day-ahead market. The recent trends of frequency linked-price model existing in Indian power systems issues required for attention are also dealt in this paper. Test calculations have been performed on 30-bus system. The paper also explains adoptability of 33 this model to practical Indian power system. The results presented are analyzed and useful conclusions are drawn.

  12. Importance of maternal diabetes on the chronological deregulation of the intrauterine development: an experimental study in rat.

    PubMed

    Salazar García, Marcela; Reyes Maldonado, Elba; Revilla Monsalve, María Cristina; Villavicencio Guzmán, Laura; Reyes López, Alfonso; Sánchez-Gómez, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ) on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs) and 20 control rats (CRs) were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21) and newborn (NB) pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC). In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells.

  13. ERG transcriptional networks in primary acute leukemia cells implicate a role for ERG in deregulated kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Bock, Juliane; Mochmann, Liliana H; Schlee, Cornelia; Farhadi-Sartangi, Nasrin; Göllner, Stefanie; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Baldus, Claudia D

    2013-01-01

    High expression of the E26 transforming sequence related gene (ERG) is associated with poor prognosis in a subgroup of leukemia patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In a previous study we proposed that ERG overexpression may deregulate several signaling cascades in acute leukemia. Herein, we further expand those studies by identifying a consensus of biological targets in primary blasts of newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients. Our findings of chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip of primary samples revealed 48 significantly enriched single genes including DAAM1 and NUMB. Significantly enriched signaling pathways included WNT/β-catenin, p53, and PI3K/AKT with ERG overexpression inducing dephosphorylation of AKT(Ser473) relative to non ERG expressing K562 cells. Cell based ERG overexpression studies also revealed drug resistance to multi-kinase inhibitor, BAY 43-9006 (Sorafenib) and to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor TKI258. Thus in primary leukemic cells, ERG may contribute to the dysregulation of kinase signaling, which results in resistance to kinase inhibitors.

  14. IDH-mutant glioma specific association of rs55705857 located at 8q24.21 involves MYC deregulation.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Yavuz; Ülgen, Ege; Can, Özge; Akyerli, Cemaliye B; Yüksel, Şirin; Erdemgil, Yiğit; Durası, I Melis; Henegariu, Octavian Ioan; Nanni, E Paolo; Selevsek, Nathalie; Grossmann, Jonas; Erson-Omay, E Zeynep; Bai, Hanwen; Gupta, Manu; Lee, William; Turcan, Şevin; Özpınar, Aysel; Huse, Jason T; Sav, M Aydın; Flanagan, Adrienne; Günel, Murat; Sezerman, O Uğur; Yakıcıer, M Cengiz; Pamir, M Necmettin; Özduman, Koray

    2016-06-10

    The single nucleotide polymorphism rs55705857, located in a non-coding but evolutionarily conserved region at 8q24.21, is strongly associated with IDH-mutant glioma development and was suggested to be a causal variant. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this association has remained unknown. With a case control study in 285 gliomas, 316 healthy controls, 380 systemic cancers, 31 other CNS-tumors, and 120 IDH-mutant cartilaginous tumors, we identified that the association was specific to IDH-mutant gliomas. Odds-ratios were 9.25 (5.17-16.52; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated gliomas and 12.85 (5.94-27.83; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted gliomas. Decreasing strength with increasing anaplasia implied a modulatory effect. No somatic mutations were noted at this locus in 114 blood-tumor pairs, nor was there a copy number difference between risk-allele and only-ancestral allele carriers. CCDC26 RNA-expression was rare and not different between the two groups. There were only minor subtype-specific differences in common glioma driver genes. RNA sequencing and LC-MS/MS comparisons pointed to significantly altered MYC-signaling. Baseline enhancer activity of the conserved region specifically on the MYC promoter and its further positive modulation by the SNP risk-allele was shown in vitro. Our findings implicate MYC deregulation as the underlying cause of the observed association.

  15. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  16. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  17. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Salazar García, Marcela; Reyes Maldonado, Elba; Revilla Monsalve, María Cristina; Villavicencio Guzmán, Laura; Reyes López, Alfonso; Sánchez-Gómez, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ) on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs) and 20 control rats (CRs) were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21) and newborn (NB) pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC). In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells. PMID:25756053

  18. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-21

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by (1)H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  19. Contrail ice particle formation in the wakes of airliners - insights from in-situ measurements and modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Jeßberger, Philipp; Voigt, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    The role of soot and volatile aerosol in controlling ice particle formation in cirrus clouds is of global importance for climate. In particular, contrail studies may help to better understand the role of various aerosols in ice formation. Recent results suggest that contrails may contribute a large share to the climate impact of aviation. Hence, better knowledge on contrails is needed for developing a sustainable air transport system. So far, contrail models either specify the initial number of ice particles per flight distance or assume that the initial number of ice particles is determined by the number of soot particles emitted. Previous measurements were unable to decide conclusively whether the number of ice particles is directly related to the number of soot particles. Also information on the relative distribution of the mean ice particle concentration in the primary and secondary wakes is missing. Here, we analyze particle concentrations and trace gas mixing ratios, their dilution and their correlations in 2 min old contrails from four airliners of types A319, A340, B737, and A380 under similar meteorological conditions. The measurements were performed with the research aircraft Falcon above northern Germany during the CONCERT campaign in November 2008. The instrumentation and observation methods were described before (Voigt et al., 2010). The number of ice particles in contrails of the four airliners at cruise is determined from the measurements and a dilution model, and compared with estimated soot emissions. Dilution is derived from measured concentrations of NO, NOy, SO2 and HONO. The trace gas concentrations are largest in the primary wake and decrease with altitude in the secondary wake, consistent with emissions and aircraft-dependent dilution. In contrast, ice particle concentrations are slightly larger in the secondary wake than in the primary wake, and significantly larger than expected from dilution and emissions. The total particle concentration

  20. Effects of Secondary Task Modality and Processing Code on Automation Trust and Utilization During Simulated Airline Luggage Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Rachel; Madhavan, Poornima

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of environmental distractions on human trust and utilization of automation during the process of visual search. Participants performed a computer-simulated airline luggage screening task with the assistance of a 70% reliable automated decision aid (called DETECTOR) both with and without environmental distractions. The distraction was implemented as a secondary task in either a competing modality (visual) or non-competing modality (auditory). The secondary task processing code either competed with the luggage screening task (spatial code) or with the automation's textual directives (verbal code). We measured participants' system trust, perceived reliability of the system (when a target weapon was present and absent), compliance, reliance, and confidence when agreeing and disagreeing with the system under both distracted and undistracted conditions. Results revealed that system trust was lower in the visual-spatial and auditory-verbal conditions than in the visual-verbal and auditory-spatial conditions. Perceived reliability of the system (when the target was present) was significantly higher when the secondary task was visual rather than auditory. Compliance with the aid increased in all conditions except for the auditory-verbal condition, where it decreased. Similar to the pattern for trust, reliance on the automation was lower in the visual-spatial and auditory-verbal conditions than in the visual-verbal and auditory-spatial conditions. Confidence when agreeing with the system decreased with the addition of any kind of distraction; however, confidence when disagreeing increased with the addition of an auditory secondary task but decreased with the addition of a visual task. A model was developed to represent the research findings and demonstrate the relationship between secondary task modality, processing code, and automation use. Results suggest that the nature of environmental distractions influence