Science.gov

Sample records for airline flight crews

  1. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  2. Crew Factors in Flight Operations. 11; A Survey of Fatigue Factors in Regional Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Johnson, Julie M.; Rosekind, Mark R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in a series on the physiological effects of flight operations on flight crews. A 119-question survey was completed by 1,424 flight crewmembers from 26 regional carriers to identify factors contributing to fatigue in regional airline operations. Eighty-nine percent of crewmembers identified fatigue as a moderate or serious concern with 88% reporting that it was a common occurrence and 92% reporting that, when it occurs, fatigue represents a moderate or serious safety issue. However, 86% reported they received no company training addressing fatigue issues. Identified fatigue factors included multiple flight segments, scheduling considerations, varying regulations, and others. The two most commonly cited fatigue factors regarded flying multiple (more than four) segments. Scheduling factors accounted for nine of the ten most common recommendations to reduce fatigue in regional operations. Differing requirements among regulations were cited as contributing to fatigue. Other identified factors were the flight deck environment, automation, and diet. The data suggested specific recommendations, including education of industry personnel about fatigue issues and examination of scheduling practices. Education plays a critical role in any effort to address fatigue. Analyzing scheduling practices and identifying potential improvements may result in reduced fatigue as well as other benefits to operations.

  3. 29 CFR 825.802 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, calculation of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flight crew employee needs to take FMLA leave for a two-hour physical therapy appointment, the employer... flight crew employees are subject to § 825.205(a)(2), the physical impossibility provision....

  4. 29 CFR 825.802 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, calculation of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flight crew employee needs to take FMLA leave for a two-hour physical therapy appointment, the employer... flight crew employees are subject to § 825.205(a)(2), the physical impossibility provision....

  5. First Encounters of the Close Kind: The Formation Process of Airline Flight Crews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Everyday there are over 16,500 major commercial airline flights (DC-9, 737 or larger) departing in the United States (G. Mercer, personal communication...ten persons . Yet despite these design and regulatory imperative, the majority of behavioral research in the airline industry has been directed at topics...Flight 90 came back down, hitting the 14th Street Bridge before it crashed into the ice covered Potomac River, killing 74 persons on the aircraft and

  6. Integrated Approach to Flight Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The computer based approach used by United Airlines for flight training is discussed. The human factors involved in specific aircraft accidents are addressed. Flight crew interaction and communication as they relate to training and flight safety are considered.

  7. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  8. Flight Training Technology for Regional/Commuter Airline Operations: Regional Airline Association/NASA Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T. (Editor); Lauber, J. K. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Programs which have been developed for training commercial airline pilots and flight crews are discussed. The concept of cockpit resource management and the concomitant issues of management techniques, interpersonal communication, psychological factors, and flight stress are addressed. Training devices and simulation techniques are reported.

  9. The advancement of a new human factors report--'The Unique Report'--facilitating flight crew auditing of performance/operations as part of an airline's safety management system.

    PubMed

    Leva, M C; Cahill, J; Kay, A M; Losa, G; McDonald, N

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the specification of a new human factors report, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems project, sponsored by the European Commission. Specifically, it describes the proposed concept for a unique report, which will form the basis for all operational and safety reports completed by flight crew. This includes all mandatory and optional reports. Critically, this form is central to the advancement of improved processes and technology tools, supporting airline performance management, safety management, organisational learning and knowledge integration/information-sharing activities. Specifically, this paper describes the background to the development of this reporting form, the logic and contents of this form and how reporting data will be made use of by airline personnel. This includes a description of the proposed intelligent planning process and the associated intelligent flight plan concept, which makes use of airline operational and safety analyses information. Primarily, this new reporting form has been developed in collaboration with a major Spanish airline. In addition, it has involved research with five other airlines. Overall, this has involved extensive field research, collaborative prototyping and evaluation of new reports/flight plan concepts and a number of evaluation activities. Participants have included both operational and management personnel, across different airline flight operations processes. Statement of Relevance: This paper presents the development of a reporting concept outlined through field research and collaborative prototyping within an airline. The resulting reporting function, embedded in the journey log compiled at the end of each flight, aims at enabling employees to audit the operations of the company they work for.

  10. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  11. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  12. Cascading Delay Risk of Airline Workforce Deployments with Crew Pairing and Schedule Optimization.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sai Ho; Ma, Hoi Lam; Chan, Hing Kai

    2016-12-09

    This article concerns the assignment of buffer time between two connected flights and the number of reserve crews in crew pairing to mitigate flight disruption due to flight arrival delay. Insufficient crew members for a flight will lead to flight disruptions such as delays or cancellations. In reality, most of these disruption cases are due to arrival delays of the previous flights. To tackle this problem, many research studies have examined the assignment method based on the historical flight arrival delay data of the concerned flights. However, flight arrival delays can be triggered by numerous factors. Accordingly, this article proposes a new forecasting approach using a cascade neural network, which considers a massive amount of historical flight arrival and departure data. The approach also incorporates learning ability so that unknown relationships behind the data can be revealed. Based on the expected flight arrival delay, the buffer time can be determined and a new dynamic reserve crew strategy can then be used to determine the required number of reserve crews. Numerical experiments are carried out based on one year of flight data obtained from 112 airports around the world. The results demonstrate that by predicting the flight departure delay as the input for the prediction of the flight arrival delay, the prediction accuracy can be increased. Moreover, by using the new dynamic reserve crew strategy, the total crew cost can be reduced. This significantly benefits airlines in flight schedule stability and cost saving in the current big data era.

  13. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  14. Flight crew health stabilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The flight crew health stabilization program was developed to minimize or eliminate the possibility of adverse alterations in the health of flight crews during immediate preflight, flight, and postflight periods. The elements of the program, which include clinical medicine, immunology, exposure prevention, and epidemiological surveillance, are discussed briefly. No crewmember illness was reported for the missions for which the program was in effect.

  15. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  16. Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.

    2010-01-01

    This document establishes the policy and procedures for the HSP and is authorized through the Director, Johnson Space Center (JSC). This document delineates the medical operations requirements for the HSP. The HSP goals are accomplished through an awareness campaign and procedures such as limiting access to flight crewmembers, medical screening, and controlling flight crewmember activities. NASA's Human Space Flight Program uses strategic risk mitigation to achieve mission success while protecting crew health and safety. Infectious diseases can compromise crew health and mission success, especially in the immediate preflight period. The primary purpose of the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program (HSP) is to mitigate the risk of occurrence of infectious disease among astronaut flight crews in the immediate preflight period. Infectious diseases are contracted through direct person-to-person contact, and through contact with infectious material in the environment. The HSP establishes several controls to minimize crew exposure to infectious agents. The HSP provides a quarantine environment for the crew that minimizes contact with potentially infectious material. The HSP also limits the number of individuals who come in close contact with the crew. The infection-carrying potential of these primary contacts (PCs) is minimized by educating them in ways to avoid infections and avoiding contact with the crew if they are or may be sick. The transmission of some infectious diseases can be greatly curtailed by vaccinations. PCs are strongly encouraged to maintain updated vaccinations.

  17. Readiness for First Crewed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to fly safely on a human spaceflight system for the first time (i.e., first crewed flight). The NESC assembled a small team which included experts with experience developing robotic and human spaceflight and aviation systems through first crewed test flight and into operational capability. The NESC team conducted a historical review of the steps leading up to the first crewed flights of Mercury through the Space Shuttle. Benchmarking was also conducted with the United States (U.S.) Air Force and U.S. Navy. This report contains documentation of that review.

  18. Line-oriented flight training: Northwest Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunn, H. T.

    1981-01-01

    An exemption from certain FAA regulations which stereotype simulator flight training was obtained and pilots with current line experience were used to prepare and develop scenarios for a program in which each crew member would be trained to recognize and properly use all available resouces. The development of the scenarios for training to proficiency and pilot reaction to the training sessions are discussed.

  19. Cancer incidence in airline cabin crew: experience from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Linnersjo, A; Hammar, N; Dammstrom, B; Johansson, M; Eliasch, H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the cancer incidence in Swedish cabin crew. Methods: Cancer incidence of cabin crew at the Swedish Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) (2324 women and 632 men) employed from 1957 to 1994 was determined during 1961–96 from the Swedish National Cancer Register. The cancer incidence in cabin crew was compared with that of the general Swedish population by comparing observed and expected number of cases through standardised incidence ratios (SIR). A nested case-control study was performed, including cancer cases diagnosed after 1979 and four controls per case matched by gender, age, and calendar year. Results: The SIR for cancer overall was 1.01 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.24) for women and 1.16 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.55) for men. Both men and women had an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin (SIR 2.18 and 3.66 respectively) and men of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 4.42). Female cabin attendants had a non-significant increase of breast cancer (SIR 1.30; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.74). No clear associations were found between length of employment or cumulative block hours and cancer incidence. Conclusions: Swedish cabin crew had an overall cancer incidence similar to that of the general population. An increased incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer may be associated with exposure to UV radiation, either at work or outside work. An increased risk of breast cancer in female cabin crew is consistent with our results and may in part be due to differences in reproductive history. PMID:14573710

  20. STATUS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF DOMESTIC FLIGHTS BY FOREIGN AIRLINES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Morichi, Shigeru

    As a regional strategy, it is very important for local cities that international flights are put into service to local airports and to increase tourists. It is problemati c for the airlines that their international flights are put into service directly between the local airport and the international airport since it is difficult for them to secure the number of passengers needed to operate the aircraft. Co ncerning 1-stop flights, there is a good possibility of securing number of passengers. Therefore, the study illustrated the possibilities of domestic airline flights by foreign airlines as international flights.

  1. The Risk of Melanoma in Airline Pilots and Cabin Crew A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R.; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T.; EE; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E.; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Importance Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. Objective To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. Data Sources PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). Study Selection All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Data Extraction and Synthesis Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Main Outcomes and Measures Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Results Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Conclusions and Relevance Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational

  2. Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Timothy H. [D-NY-1

    2009-02-09

    03/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Workforce Protections. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1422, which became Public Law 111-119 on 12/21/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Flight crew sleep during multiple layover polar flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, Mitsuo; Kurosaki, Yuko S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Graeber, R. C.; Takahashi, Toshiharu

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated changes in sleep after multiple transmeridian flights. The subjects were 12 B747 airline pilots operating on the following polar flight: Tokyo (TYO)-Anchorage (ANC)-London (LON)-Anchorage-Tokyo. Sleep polysmonograms were recorded on two baseline nights (B1, B2), during layovers, and, after returning to Tokyo, two recovery nights were recorded (R1, R2). In ANC (outbound), total sleep time was reduced and, sleep efficiency was low (72.0 percent). In London, time in bed increased slightly, but sleep efficiency was still reduced. On return to ANC (inbound), there was considerable slow wave sleep rebound and multiple awakenings reduced sleep efficiency to 76.8 percent. Sleep efficiency on R2 was significantly lower than on B1 but not different from R1. To sum up, sleep of aircrews flying multiple transmeridian flights is disrupted during layovers and this effect persists during the two recovery nights. As a result, there is a marked cumulative sleep loss during multilegs polar route trip in comparison to single leg flights. These findings suggest that following such extensive transmeridian trips, crews should have at least three nights of recovery sleep in their home time zone before returning to duty.

  4. ISS Update: Flight Surgeon Keeps Crew Healthy

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer talks with NASA Medical Flight Officer Steve Gilmore about the role of a flight surgeon in tracking astronaut health and coordinating crew medical experim...

  5. "American Way's" Flight Pattern: A Profile of American Airline's In-Flight Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rising, Suzanne

    The success of "American Way," American Airline's in-flight magazine, comes from three major factors: the success of American Airlines itself, the high advertising revenue of the magazine, and the quality editorial material produced. Beginning in 1966, "American Way" has evolved from a brochure of flight information and travel…

  6. 14 CFR 27.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crew emergency exits. 27.805 Section... § 27.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of the rotorcraft...

  7. 14 CFR 29.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crew emergency exits. 29.805 Section... Accommodations § 29.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of...

  8. The effects of Crew Resource Mangement (CRM) training in airline maintenance: Results following three years' experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.; Robertson, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes three years' evaluation of the effects of one airline's Crew Resources Management (CRM) training operation for maintenance. This evaluation focuses on the post-training attitudes of maintenance managers' and technical support professionals, their reported behaviors, and the safety, efficiency and dependable maintenance performance of their units. The results reveal a strong positive effect of the training. The overall program represents the use of CRM training as a long-term commitment to improving performance through effective communication at all levels in airline maintenance operations. The initial findings described in our previous progress reports are reinforced and elaborated here. The current results benefit from the entire pre-post training survey, which now represents total attendance of all managers and staff professionals. Additionally there are now full results from the two-month, six-month, and 12-month follow-up questionnaires, together with as many as 33 months of post-training performance data, using several indicators. In this present report, we examine participants' attitudes, their reported behaviors following the training, the performance of their work units, and the relationships among these variables. Attitudes include those measured immediately before and after the training as well as participants' attitudes months after their training. Performance includes measures, by work units, of on-time flight departures, on-schedule maintenance releases, occupational and aircraft safety, and efficient labor costs. We report changes in these performance measures following training, as well their relationships with the training participants' attitudes. Highlights of results from this training program include increased safety and improved costs associated with positive attitudes about the use of more assertive communication, and the improved management of stress. Improved on-time performance is also related to those improved

  9. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  10. NASA Crew Launch Vehicle Flight Test Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Davis, Stephan R.; Robonson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Sullivan, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Options for development flight testing (DFT) of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) are discussed. The Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to launch the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Ares-I implements one of the components of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS) after retirement of the Space Shuttle and, eventually, forming part of the launch capability needed for lunar exploration. The role of development flight testing is to demonstrate key sub-systems, address key technical risks, and provide flight data to validate engineering models in representative flight environments. This is distinguished from certification flight testing, which is designed to formally validate system functionality and achieve flight readiness. Lessons learned from Saturn V, Space Shuttle, and other flight programs are examined along with key Ares-I technical risks in order to provide insight into possible development flight test strategies. A strategy for the first test flight of the Ares I, known as Ares I-1, is presented.

  11. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  12. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  13. NASA crew launch vehicle flight test options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockrell, Charles E.; Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Sullivan, Greg

    2007-06-01

    Options for development flight testing (DFT) of the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV) are discussed. The Ares I CLV is being developed by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to launch the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) into low Earth orbit (LEO). The Ares I implements one of the components of the vision for space exploration (VSE), providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS) after retirement of the space shuttle and, eventually, forming part of the launch capability needed for lunar exploration. The role of DFT is to demonstrate key subsystems, address key technical risks, and provide flight data to validate engineering models in representative flight environments. This is distinguished from certification flight testing, which is designed to formally validate system functionality and achieve flight readiness. Lessons learned from Saturn V, space shuttle, and other flight programs are examined along with key Ares I technical risks in order to provide insight into possible DFT strategies. A strategy for the first test flight of the Ares I, known as Ares I-1, is presented.

  14. Determination of the flight equipment maintenance costs of commuter airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Labor and materials costs associated with maintaining and operating 12 commuter airlines carrying an average of from 42 to 1,100 passengers daily in a variety of aircraft types were studied to determine the total direct maintenance cost per flight hour for the airframe, engine, and avionics and other instruments. The distribution of maintenance costs are analyzed for two carriers, one using turboprop aircraft and the other using piston engine aircraft.

  15. 51-L Flight Crew Emergency Egress Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The STS-51L Challenger flight crew emergency egress training in the slide wire baskets. From left to right they are: Mission Specialist, Ronald McNair, Payload Specialist, Gregory Jarvis, Teacher in Space Participant, Christa McAuliffe. Directly behind them: Mission Specialist Judy Resnik and Mission Specialist, Ellison Onizuka.

  16. Crew member and instructor evaluations of line oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, John

    1991-01-01

    Results obtained from the NASA/UT/LOFT survey of 8300 crew members from four airlines is presented. As simulator training is very expensive and excellence in training is the objective, some effort is justified in evaluating LOFT and in determining what it is about the best scenarios that creates positive effects. Attention is given to the effects of different scenarios, self reports of crew resource management behaviors, organization, fleet and crew position differences.

  17. 14 CFR 27.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 27.1523 Section 27.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is sufficient...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 29.1523 Section 29.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 25.1523 Section 25.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  20. 14 CFR 415.131 - Flight safety system crew data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system crew data. 415.131... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.131 Flight safety system crew data. (a) An applicant's safety review document must identify each flight safety system crew position and the role of...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 23.1523 Section 23.1523 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an...

  7. Individual differences in airline captains' personalities, communication strategies, and crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Aircrew effectiveness in coping with emergencies has been linked to captain's personality profile. The present study analyzed cockpit communication during simulated flight to examine the relation between captains' discourse strategies, personality profiles, and crew performance. Positive Instrumental/Expressive captains and Instrumental-Negative captains used very similar communication strategies and their crews made few errors. Their talk was distinguished by high levels of planning and strategizing, gathering information, predicting/alerting, and explaining, especially during the emergency flight phase. Negative-Expressive captains talked less overall, and engaged in little problem solving talk, even during emergencies. Their crews made many errors. Findings support the theory that high crew performance results when captains use language to build shared mental models for problem situations.

  8. Uncertainties that flight crews and dispatchers must consider when calculating the fuel needed for a flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, fuel accounted for approximately 15 percent of an airline's expenses. Fuel consumption increases as fuel reserves increase because of the added weight to the aircraft. Calculating fuel reserves is a function of Federal Aviation Regulations, airline company policy, and factors that impact or are impacted by fuel usage enroute. This research studied how pilots and dispatchers determined the fuel needed for a flight and identified areas where improvements in methods may yield measurable fuel savings by (1) listing the uncertainties that contribute to adding contingency fuel, (2) obtaining the pilots' and dispatchers' perspective on how often each uncertainty occurred, and (3) obtaining pilots' and dispatchers' perspective on the fuel used for each occurrence. This study found that for the majority of the time, pilots felt that dispatchers included enough fuel. As for the uncertainties that flight crews and dispatchers account for, air traffic control accounts for 28% and weather uncertainties account for 58 percent. If improvements can be made in these two areas, a great potential exists to decrease the reserve required, and therefore, fuel usage without jeopardizing safety.

  9. Space Shuttle flight crew/computer interface simulation studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callihan, J. C.; Rybarczyk, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to achieving an optimized set of crew/computer interface requirements on the Space Shuttle program is described. It consists of defining the mission phases and crew timelines, developing a functional description of the crew/computer interface displays and controls software, conducting real-time simulations using pilot evaluation of the interface displays and controls, and developing a set of crew/computer functional requirements specifications. The simulator is a two-man crew station which includes three CRTs with keyboards for simulating the crew/computer interface. The programs simulate the mission phases and the flight hardware, including the flight computer and CRT displays.

  10. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or the Aircraft...

  11. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or the Aircraft...

  12. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or the Aircraft...

  13. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or the Aircraft...

  14. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less than the minimum flight crew specified in the aircraft operating limitations or the Aircraft...

  15. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  16. Understanding and Counteracting Fatigue in Flight Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, Melissa; Neri, David; Rosekind, Mark; Gander, Philippa; Caldwell, John; Graeber, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    The materials included in the collection of documents describe the research of the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Group (FCG), which examines the extent to which fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption affect flight-crew performance. The group was formed in 1980 in response to a Congressional request to examine a possible safety problem of uncertain magnitude due to transmeridian flying and a potential problem due to fatigue in association with various factors found in air-transport operations and was originally called the Fatigue/Jet Lag Program. The goals of the FCG are: (1) the development and evaluation of strategies for mitigating the effects of sleepiness and circadian disruption on pilot performance levels; (2) the identification and evaluation of objective approaches for the prediction of alertness changes in flight crews; and (3) the transfer and application of research results to the operational field via classes, workshops, and safety briefings. Some of the countermeasure approaches that have been identified to be scientifically valid and operationally relevant are brief naps (less than 40 min) in the cockpit seat and 7-min activity breaks, which include postural changes and ambulation. Although a video-based alertness monitor based on slow eyelid closure shows promise in other operational environments, research by the FCG has demonstrated that in its current form at the time of this reporting, it is not feasible to implement it in the cockpit. Efforts also focus on documenting the impact of untreated fatigue on various types of flight operations. For example, the FCG recently completed a major investigation into the effects of ultra-long-range flights (20 continuous hours in duration) on the alertness and performance of pilots in order to establish a baseline set of parameters against which the effectiveness of new ultra-long-range fatigue remedies can be judged.

  17. Management training for cockpit crews at Piedmont flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifford, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A brief history of Piedmont Airlines' flight operations is presented. A captain-management seminar conducted regularly by Piedmont is discussed. Piedmont's approach to cockpit resource management (CRM) is reviewed, and the relationship of CRM training to other aspects of flight training is addressed. Future leadership research plans and CRM training is considered along with critical training issues.

  18. Understanding Crew Decision-Making in the Presence of Complexity: A Flight Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Evans, Emory; deHaag, Maarten Uijt; Duan, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Crew decision making and response have long been leading causal and contributing factors associated with aircraft accidents. Further, it is anticipated that future aircraft and operational environments will increase exposure to risks related to these factors if proactive steps are not taken to account for ever-increasing complexity. A flight simulation study was designed to collect data to help in understanding how complexity can, or may, be manifest. More specifically, an experimental apparatus was constructed that allowed for manipulation of information complexity and uncertainty, while also manipulating operational complexity and uncertainty. Through these manipulations, and the aid of experienced airline pilots, several issues have been discovered, related most prominently to the influence of information content, quality, and management. Flight crews were immersed in an environment that included new operational complexities suggested for the future air transportation system as well as new technological complexities (e.g. electronic flight bags, expanded data link services, synthetic and enhanced vision systems, and interval management automation). In addition, a set of off-nominal situations were emulated. These included, for example, adverse weather conditions, traffic deviations, equipment failures, poor data quality, communication errors, and unexpected clearances, or changes to flight plans. Each situation was based on one or more reference events from past accidents or incidents, or on a similar case that had been used in previous developmental tests or studies. Over the course of the study, 10 twopilot airline crews participated, completing over 230 flights. Each flight consisted of an approach beginning at 10,000 ft. Based on the recorded data and pilot and research observations, preliminary results are presented regarding decision-making issues in the presence of the operational and technological complexities encountered during the flights.

  19. Flight Crew Integration (FCI) ISS Crew Comments Database & Products Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This Crew Debrief Data provides support for design and development of vehicles, hardware, requirements, procedures, processes, issue resolution, lessons learned, consolidation and trending for current Programs; and much of the data is also used to support development of future Programs.

  20. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, C.E.; Vicroy, D.D.; Simmon, D.A.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  1. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  2. A Full Mission Simulator Study of Aircrew Performances: the Measurement of Crew Coordination and Decisionmaking Factors and Their Relationships to Flight Task Performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Tanner, T. A.; Frankel, R. M.; Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen three man crews flew a full mission scenario in an airline flight simulator. A high level of verbal interaction during instances of critical decision making was located. Each crew flew the scenario only once, without prior knowledge of the scenario problem. Following a simulator run and in accord with formal instructions, each of the three crew members independently viewed and commented on a videotape of their performance. Two check pilot observers rated pilot performance across all crews and, following each run, also commented on the video tape of the crew's performance. A linguistic analysis of voice transcript is made to provide assessment of crew coordination and decision making qualities. Measures of crew coordination and decision making factors are correlated with flight task performance measures.

  3. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  4. 75 FR 17050 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay Data on Web Sites AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This extension is in response to... requirement to display flight delay data on Web sites in view of the extensive changes to carriers'...

  5. Use of Data Comm by Flight Crew in High-Density Terminal Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Norman, Robert M.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R.; Adams, Cathy A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative FAA and NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Datalink Communication (Data Comm) to issue messages in busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage levels (voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route), and each condition was used to create an arrival and a departure scenario at the Boston Logan Airport. These eight scenarios were repeated twice for a total of 16 scenarios for each of the eleven crews. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute; however, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Eye tracking data indicated an insignificant decrease in head-up time for the Pilot Flying when Data Comm was introduced; however, the Pilot Monitoring had significantly less head-up time. Data Comm workload was rated as operationally acceptable by both crew members in all conditions in flight at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix in terms of response time and workload. Results also indicate the use of Data Comm during surface operations was acceptable, the exception being the simultaneous use of voice, Data Comm, and audio chime required for an aircraft to cross an active runway. Many crews reported they believed Data Comm messages would be acceptable after the Final Approach Fix or to cross a runway if the message was not accompanied by a chime and there was not a requirement to immediately respond to the uplink message.

  6. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  7. Operational flight evaluation of the two-segment approach for use in airline service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwind, G. K.; Morrison, J. A.; Nylen, W. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    United Airlines has developed and evaluated a two-segment noise abatement approach procedure for use on Boeing 727 aircraft in air carrier service. In a flight simulator, the two-segment approach was studied in detail and a profile and procedures were developed. Equipment adaptable to contemporary avionics and navigation systems was designed and manufactured by Collins Radio Company and was installed and evaluated in B-727-200 aircraft. The equipment, profile, and procedures were evaluated out of revenue service by pilots representing government agencies, airlines, airframe manufacturers, and professional pilot associations. A system was then placed into scheduled airline service for six months during which 555 two-segment approaches were flown at three airports by 55 airline pilots. The system was determined to be safe, easy to fly, and compatible with the airline operational environment.

  8. The environmental effects of radiation on flight crews

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1991-08-01

    A review is presented of a continuing investigation of flight deck radiation and its potential effects on flight crews. Attention is given to the various critical factors concerned in UV radiation exposure and detection including skin cancer classifications, skin types, effectiveness of different sun protection factors, and flight deck color configuration and sunglasses. Consideration is given to both UV and ionizing radiation.

  9. Flight data file: STS-4 crew activity plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippert, E. B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The STS-4 Crew Activity Plan contains the on-orbit timeline, which is a flight data file article. Various time scales such as Mission Elapsed Time (MET), Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and time until deorbit ignition as well as crew activities, day/night, orbit position, ground tracking, communication coverage, attitude, and maneuvers are presented in chart form.

  10. Orion PA-1 Flight Test Crew Module Back at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    The boilerplate Orion crew module and separation ring that was flown in the Launch Abort system PA-1 flight test at White Sands Missile Range, N.M., May 6 were airlifted back to NASA Dryden at Edwa...

  11. United States Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Europe everything above 5,000 or 6,000 or whatever is reported in flight level, for example, “flight level five zero.” In a romance language ...United States Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation DOT/FAA/AM-10/7 Office of...International Flight Language Experiences Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing

  12. Crew productivity issues in long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, John M.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Ulschak, Francis L.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests the importance of teamwork, coordination, and conflict resolution to the performance and survival of isolated, confined groups in high-technology environments. With the advent of long-duration space flight, group-related issues of crew functioning will take on added significance. This paper discusses the influence of crew roles, status, leadership, and norms on the performance of small, confined groups, and offers guidelines and suggestions regarding organizational design, crew selection, training, and team building for crew productivity and social well-being in long-duration spaceflight.

  13. Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Maneuvering Envelope Information for Flight Crew Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John; Shish, Kimberlee; Martin, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The implementation and evaluation of an efficient method for estimating safe aircraft maneuvering envelopes are discussed. A Bayesian approach is used to produce a deterministic algorithm for estimating aerodynamic system parameters from existing noisy sensor measurements, which are then used to estimate the trim envelope through efficient high- fidelity model-based computations of attainable equilibrium sets. The safe maneuverability limitations are extended beyond the trim envelope through a robust reachability analysis derived from an optimal control formulation. The trim and maneuvering envelope limits are then conveyed to pilots through three axes on the primary flight display. To evaluate the new display features, commercial airline crews flew multiple challenging approach and landing scenarios in the full motion Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center, as part of a larger research initiative to investigate the impact on the energy state awareness of the crew. Results show that the additional display features have the potential to significantly improve situational awareness of the flight crew.

  14. Food irradiation and airline catering

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  15. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  16. Modeling of Space Radiation Exposure Estimation Program for Pilots, Crew and Passengers on Commercial Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Dokgo, Kyunghwan; Choi, Enjin; Park, Jong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Hang-Pyo

    2014-03-01

    There has been a rapid increase of the concern on the space radiation effect on pilots, crew and passengers at the commercial aircraft altitude (~ 10 km) recently. It is because domestic airline companies, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines have just begun operating the polar routes over the North Pole since 2006 and 2009 respectively. CARI-6 and CARI-6M are commonly used space radiation estimation programs which are provided officially by the U.S. federal aviation administration (FAA). In this paper, the route doses and the annual radiation doses for Korean pilots and cabin crew were estimated by using CARI-6M based on 2012 flight records. Also the modeling concept was developed for our own space radiation estimation program which is composed of GEANT4 and NRLMSIS00 models. The GEANT4 model is used to trace the incident particle transports in the atmosphere and the NRLMSIS00 model is used to get the background atmospheric densities of various neutral atoms at the aircraft altitude. Also presented are the results of simple integration tests of those models and the plan to include the space weather variations through the solar proton event (SPE) prediction model such as UMASEP and the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) prediction model such as Badhwar-O¡¯Neill 2010.

  17. Mortality Among a Cohort of U.S. Commercial Airline Cockpit Crew

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lee C.; Pinkerton, Lynne E.; Yiin, James H.; Anderson, Jeri L.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated mortality among 5,964 former U.S. commercial cockpit crew (pilots and flight engineers). The outcomes of a priori interest were non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system (CNS) cancer (including brain), and malignant melanoma. Methods Vital status was ascertained through 2008. Life table and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Cumulative exposure to cosmic radiation was estimated from work history data. Results Compared to the U.S. general population, mortality from all causes, all cancer, and cardiovascular diseases was decreased, but mortality from aircraft accidents was highly elevated. Mortality was elevated for malignant melanoma but not for non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CNS cancer mortality increased with an increase in cumulative radiation dose. Conclusions Cockpit crew had a low all-cause, all-cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality but elevated aircraft accident mortality. Further studies are needed to clarify the risk of CNS and other radiation-associated cancers in relation to cosmic radiation and other workplace exposures. PMID:24700478

  18. 14 CFR 121.525 - Flight time limitations: Pilots serving in more than one kind of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... more than one kind of flight crew. 121.525 Section 121.525 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... of flight crew. (a) This section applies to each pilot assigned during any 30 consecutive days to more than one type of flight crew. (b) The flight time limitations for a pilot who is scheduled...

  19. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation program is an organization within NASA whose mission is to create the new generation of spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after its planned retirement in 2010. In the event of a catastrophic failure on the launch pad or launch vehicle during ascent, the successful use of the launch abort system will allow crew members to escape harm. The Flight Test Office is the organization within the Constellation project that will flight-test the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office has proposed six tests that will demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests will be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and are similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. An overview of the launch abort system flight tests for the Orion crew exploration vehicle is given. Details on the configuration of the first pad abort flight test are discussed. Sample flight trajectories for two of the six flight tests are shown.

  20. Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel…

  1. A summary of investigations of severe turbulence incidents using airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, P. F.; Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Work done on the NASA-Ames data base of digital flight records from airliners involved in severe turbulence incidences is summarized. The summary includes descriptions of the archived cases, data processing procedures, estimated errors, analysis procedures, and significant results to date. Thirteen severe turbulence cases are listed.

  2. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  3. Integrated Crew Health Care System for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Davis' presentation includes a brief overview of space flight and the lessons learned for health care in microgravity. He will describe the development of policy for health care for international crews. He will conclude his remarks with a discussion of an integrated health care system.

  4. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  5. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  6. A computerized, procedural aid for flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program for detecting pilot error is described. The program observes pilot actions through the aircraft controls and state, and the actions are compared to those of a procedural script which can be considered a prescriptive model of the procedural aspects of flight. Pilot error is a discrepancy between the pilot actions and the script. The script has a hierarchical structure consisting of a single script at the highest level, scripts for the major phases of flight at the next level, scripts for procedures to be executed during these phases, and procedure step scripts at the bottom. The program interprets the aircraft data base in terms of the script, detecting errors of commission from a set of allowed and disallowed changes stored with each script element.

  7. Advanced flight deck/crew station simulator functional requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. L.; Tate, J. L.; Moss, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents a study of flight deck/crew system research facility requirements for investigating issues involved with developing systems, and procedures for interfacing transport aircraft with air traffic control systems planned for 1985 to 2000. Crew system needs of NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and industry were investigated and reported. A matrix of these is included, as are recommended functional requirements and design criteria for simulation facilities in which to conduct this research. Methods of exploiting the commonality and similarity in facilities are identified, and plans for exploiting this in order to reduce implementation costs and allow efficient transfer of experiments from one facility to another are presented.

  8. Designing to Control Flight Crew Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Willshire, Kelli F.

    1997-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human error is a major contributing factor in aircraft accidents. There has been a significant amount of research in why these errors occurred, and many reports state that the design of flight deck can actually dispose humans to err. This research has led to the call for changes in design according to human factors and human-centered principles. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center has initiated an effort to design a human-centered flight deck from a clean slate (i.e., without constraints of existing designs.) The effort will be based on recent research in human-centered design philosophy and mission management categories. This design will match the human's model of the mission and function of the aircraft to reduce unnatural or non-intuitive interfaces. The product of this effort will be a flight deck design description, including training and procedures, and a cross reference or paper trail back to design hypotheses, and an evaluation of the design. The present paper will discuss the philosophy, process, and status of this design effort.

  9. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-pilot crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in... total flight time of the assigned flight, when added to any commercial flying by that flight...

  10. Flight crew aiding for recovery from subsystem failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, E.; Corker, K.; Schudy, R.; Baron, Sheldon

    1990-01-01

    Some of the conceptual issues associated with pilot aiding systems are discussed and an implementation of one component of such an aiding system is described. It is essential that the format and content of the information the aiding system presents to the crew be compatible with the crew's mental models of the task. It is proposed that in order to cooperate effectively, both the aiding system and the flight crew should have consistent information processing models, especially at the point of interface. A general information processing strategy, developed by Rasmussen, was selected to serve as the bridge between the human and aiding system's information processes. The development and implementation of a model-based situation assessment and response generation system for commercial transport aircraft are described. The current implementation is a prototype which concentrates on engine and control surface failure situations and consequent flight emergencies. The aiding system, termed Recovery Recommendation System (RECORS), uses a causal model of the relevant subset of the flight domain to simulate the effects of these failures and to generate appropriate responses, given the current aircraft state and the constraints of the current flight phase. Since detailed information about the aircraft state may not always be available, the model represents the domain at varying levels of abstraction and uses the less detailed abstraction levels to make inferences when exact information is not available. The structure of this model is described in detail.

  11. Fractographic Examination of the Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder from American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Matthew R.; Schultheisz, Carl R.; Reeder, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The first major structural component failure of a composite part on a commercial airplane occurred during the crash of American Airlines Flight 587. The fractured composite lugs that attached the vertical stabilizer to the aircraft tail and the fractured composite honeycomb rudder were examined as part of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the accident. In this paper the composite fractures are described and the resulting clues to the failure events are discussed.

  12. Flight Crew Workload, Acceptability, and Performance When Using Data Comm in a High-Density Terminal Area Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. Michael; Baxley, Brian T.; Adams, Cathy A.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a collaborative FAA/NASA experiment using 22 commercial airline pilots to determine the effect of using Data Comm to issue messages during busy, terminal area operations. Four conditions were defined that span current day to future flight deck equipage: Voice communication only, Data Comm only, Data Comm with Moving Map Display, and Data Comm with Moving Map displaying taxi route. Each condition was used in an arrival and a departure scenario at Boston Logan Airport. Of particular interest was the flight crew response to D-TAXI, the use of Data Comm by Air Traffic Control (ATC) to send taxi instructions. Quantitative data was collected on subject reaction time, flight technical error, operational errors, and eye tracking information. Questionnaires collected subjective feedback on workload, situation awareness, and acceptability to the flight crew for using Data Comm in a busy terminal area. Results showed that 95% of the Data Comm messages were responded to by the flight crew within one minute and 97% of the messages within two minutes. However, post experiment debrief comments revealed almost unanimous consensus that two minutes was a reasonable expectation for crew response. Flight crews reported that Expected D-TAXI messages were useful, and employment of these messages acceptable at all altitude bands evaluated during arrival scenarios. Results also indicate that the use of Data Comm for all evaluated message types in the terminal area was acceptable during surface operations, and during arrivals at any altitude above the Final Approach Fix, in terms of response time, workload, situation awareness, and flight technical performance. The flight crew reported the use of Data Comm as implemented in this experiment as unacceptable in two instances: in clearances to cross an active runway, and D-TAXI messages between the Final Approach Fix and 80 knots during landing roll. Critical cockpit tasks and the urgency of out-the window scan made the

  13. The space flight of the Soviet-Indian crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikitin, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the Indian space program, the paper examines the flight of the Soyuz T-11, which included an Indian crew member. Particular attention is given to experiments conducted aboard Soyuz T-11, including the Optokinez vestibular experiment, the Vektor cardiac bioelectricity experiment, the yoga experiment for the counteraction of the negative effects of weightlessness, a supercooling experiment, and the Terra remote sensing experiment.

  14. STS-66 Official pre-flight crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-66 Official crew portrait includes the following: Donald R. McMonagle (front right) is mission commander, and Curtis L. Brown (front center) is pilot. Other crewmembers include Ellen S. Ochoa, payload commander; Scott E. Parazynski (rear left), and Joseph R. Tanner (rear center), mission specialists, along with ESA astronaut Jean-Francois Clevoy (front left), mission specialist. Clervoy, Parazynski and Tanner, members of the 1992 astronaut class, are making their initial flights in space.

  15. Passenger ride quality determined from commercial airline flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The University of Virginia ride-quality research program is reviewed. Data from two flight programs, involving seven types of aircraft, are considered in detail. An apparatus for measuring physical variations in the flight environment and recording the subjective reactions of test subjects is described. Models are presented for predicting the comfort response of test subjects from the physical data, and predicting the overall comfort reaction of test subjects from their moment by moment responses. The correspondence of mean passenger comfort judgments and test subject response is shown. Finally, the models of comfort response based on data from the 5-point and 7-point comfort scales are shown to correspond.

  16. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  17. Procedures for estimating the frequency of commercial airline flights encountering high cabin ozone levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Three analytical problems in estimating the frequency at which commercial airline flights will encounter high cabin ozone levels are formulated and solved: namely, estimating flight-segment mean levels, estimating maximum-per-flight levels, and estimating the maximum average level over a specified flight interval. For each problem, solution procedures are given for different levels of input information - from complete cabin ozone data, which provides a direct solution, to limited ozone information, such as ambient ozone means and standard deviations, with which several assumptions are necessary to obtain the required estimates. Each procedure is illustrated by an example case calculation that uses simultaneous cabin and ambient ozone data obtained by the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program. Critical assumptions are discussed and evaluated, and the several solutions for each problem are compared. Example calculations are also performed to illustrate how variations in lattitude, altitude, season, retention ratio, flight duration, and cabin ozone limits affect the estimated probabilities.

  18. Acceptability of Flight Deck-Based Interval Management Crew Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration - 1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using NextGen surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IM-NOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations, when used with a minimum set of Flight deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface, were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated in LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory. Data were collected from 10 crews of current, qualified 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into DFW, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final, and Tower

  19. 14 CFR 417.311 - Flight safety crew roles and qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 417.311 Section 417.311 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.311 Flight safety crew roles and qualifications. (a) A flight safety crew must operate the flight safety system...

  20. Materials Examination of the Vertical Stabilizer from American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Matthew R.; Schultheisz, Carl R.; Reeder, James R.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The first in-flight failure of a primary structural component made from composite material on a commercial airplane led to the crash of American Airlines Flight 587. As part of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the accident, the composite materials of the vertical stabilizer were tested, microstructure was analyzed, and fractured composite lugs that attached the vertical stabilizer to the aircraft tail were examined. In this paper the materials testing and analysis is presented, composite fractures are described, and the resulting clues to the failure events are discussed.

  1. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  2. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews... Operations § 121.507 Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder... crew of three pilots for more than eight hours in any 24 consecutive hours; or (2) To be aloft in...

  3. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews... Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate holder... crew of two pilots may be on duty for more than 16 hours during any 24 consecutive hours....

  4. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews... Operations § 121.509 Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder... crew of four pilots for more than eight hours in any 24 consecutive hours; or (2) To be aloft in...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements: One or two pilot crews. 91.1059 Section 91.1059 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight...-pilot crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours...

  6. In-flight medical emergencies during airline operations: a survey of physicians on the incidence, nature, and available medical equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Neuhaus, Christopher; Böhm, Lennert; Kalina, Steffen; Braunecker, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society. Materials and methods Using unipark.de (QuestBack GmbH, Cologne, Germany), an online survey was developed and used to gather specific information. Members of the German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin e.V.; DGLRM) were invited to participate in the survey during a 4-week period (21 March 2015 to 20 April 2015). Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05 was considered significant). Results Altogether, 121 members of the society responded to the survey (n=335 sent out). Of the 121 respondents, n=54 (44.6%) of the participants (89.9% male and 10.1% female; mean age, 54.1 years; n=121) were involved in at least one in-flight medical emergency. Demographic parameters in this survey were in concordance with the society members’ demographics. The mean duration of flights was 5.7 hours and the respondents performed 7.1 airline flights per year (median). Cardiovascular (40.0%) and neurological disorders (17.8%) were the most frequent diagnoses. The medical equipment (78.7%) provided was sufficient. An emergency diversion was undertaken in 10.6% of the cases. Although using a different method of data acquisition, this survey confirms previous data on the nature of emergencies and gives plausible numbers. Conclusion Our data strongly argue for the establishment of a standardized database for recording the incidence and nature of in-flight medical emergencies. Such a database could inform on required medical equipment and cabin crew training

  7. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  8. The effects of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in airline maintenance: Results following three year's experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.; Robertson, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    An airline maintenance department undertook a CRM training program to change its safety and operating culture. In 2 1/2 years this airline trained 2200 management staff and salaried professionals. Participants completed attitude surveys immediately before and after the training, as well as two months, six months, and one year afterward. On-site interviews were conducted to test and confirm the survey results. Comparing managers' attitudes immediately after their training with their pretraining attitudes showed significant improvement for three attitudes. A fourth attitude, assertiveness, improved significantly above the pretraining levels two months after training. The expected effect of the training on all four attitude scales did not change significantly thereafter. Participants' self-reported behaviors and interview comments confirmed their shift from passive to more active behaviors over time. Safety, efficiency, and dependability performance were measured before the onset of the training and for some 30 months afterward. Associations with subsequent performance were strongest with positive attitudes about sharing command (participation), assertiveness, and stress management when those attitudes were measured 2 and 12 months after the training. The two month follow-up survey results were especially strong and indicate that active behaviors learned from the CRM training consolidate and strengthen in the months immediately following training.

  9. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  10. Research project evaluates the effect of national culture on flight crew behaviour.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L; Merritt, A C; Sherman, P J

    1996-10-01

    The role of national culture in flight crew interactions and behavior is examined. Researchers surveyed Asian, European, and American flight crews to determine attitudes about crew coordination and cockpit management. Universal attitudes among pilots are identified. Culturally variable attitudes among pilots from 16 countries are compared. The role of culture in response to increasing cockpit automation is reviewed. Culture-based challenges to crew resource management programs and multicultural organizations are discussed.

  11. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  12. Severe Turbulence and Maneuvering from Airline Flight Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Rodney C.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Digital flight records from reported clear-air turbulence incidents are used to determine winds and turbulence, to determine maneuver g loads, and to analyze control problems. Many cases of severe turbulence are found downwind of mountains and thunderstorms where sharp, sudden jolts are associated with vortices in atmospheric waves. Other cases of severe turbulence are round in strong updrafts above thunderstorm buildups that may be undetected by onboard weather radar. An important finding is that there are large maneuvering loads in over half of the reported clear-air turbulence incidents. Maneuvering loads are determined through an analysis of the short-term variations in elevator deflection and aircraft pitch angle. For altitude control in mountain waves the results indicate that small pitch angle changes with proper timing are sufficient to counter variations in vertical wind. For airspeed control in strong mountain waves, however, there is neither the available thrust nor the quickness in engine response necessary to counter the large variations in winds.

  13. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of three or... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.523 Flight time limitations: Crew of three... operations may schedule an airman for flight deck duty as a flight engineer, or navigator in a crew of...

  14. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Nikolai Budarin FEI (Flight Engineer 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin is seen during a prelaunch interview. He provides details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew activities will be like (docking of a Progress unpiloted supply vehicle, maintaining the space station, conducting science experiments and performing one spacewalk), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, and the experiments he will be conducting on board. Budarin also discusses how his previous experiences on mir space missions will help him and ends his thoughts on how valuable the International Space Station has proven.

  15. What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

  16. An analysis of airline landing flare data based on flight and training simulator measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Schulman, T. M.; Clement, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Landings by experienced airline pilots transitioning to the DC-10, performed in flight and on a simulator, were analyzed and compared using a pilot-in-the-loop model of the landing maneuver. By solving for the effective feedback gains and pilot compensation which described landing technique, it was possible to discern fundamental differences in pilot behavior between the actual aircraft and the simulator. These differences were then used to infer simulator fidelity in terms of specific deficiencies and to quantify the effectiveness of training on the simulator as compared to training in flight. While training on the simulator, pilots exhibited larger effective lag in commanding the flare. The inability to compensate adequately for this lag was associated with hard or inconsistent landings. To some degree this deficiency was carried into flight, thus resulting in a slightly different and inferior landing technique than exhibited by pilots trained exclusively on the actual aircraft.

  17. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  18. 14 CFR 121.521 - Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional airman as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.521 Flight time limitations: Crew of two pilots and one additional... to be aloft as a member of the flight crew in an airplane that has a crew of two pilots and at...

  19. X-15 #3 being secured by ground crew after flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The X-15-3 (56-6672) research aircraft is secured by ground crew after landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The work of the X-15 team did not end with the landing of the aircraft. Once it had stopped on the lakebed, the pilot had to complete an extensive post-landing checklist. This involved recording instrument readings, pressures and temperatures, positioning switches, and shutting down systems. The pilot was then assisted from the aircraft, and a small ground crew depressurized the tanks before the rest of the ground crew finished their work on the aircraft. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the

  20. Age, circadian rhythms, and sleep loss in flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Nguyen, DE; Rosekind, Mark R.; Connell, Linda J.

    1993-01-01

    Age-related changes in trip-induced sleep loss, personality, and the preduty temperature rhythm were analyzed in crews from various flight operations. Eveningness decreased with age. The minimum of the baseline temperature rhythm occurred earlier with age. The amplitude of the baseline temperature rhythm declined with age. Average daily percentage sleep loss during trips increased with age. Among crewmembers flying longhaul flight operations, subjects aged 50-60 averaged 3.5 times more sleep loss per day than subjects aged 20-30. These studies support previous findings that evening types and subjects with later peaking temperature rhythms adapt better to shift work and time zone changes. Age and circadian type may be important considerations for duty schedules and fatigue countermeasures.

  1. 14 CFR 121.481 - Flight time limitations: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... crews. 121.481 Section 121.481 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.481 Flight time limitations: One or two pilot crews. (a) A certificate holder conducting flag operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane that has a crew of one or two pilots for eight hours...

  2. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

  3. STS-93 Flight Day 1 Highlights and Crew Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-93 Columbia mission, the flight crew, Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michael Tognini deployed the Chandra X-Ray Observatory into space. This was done after a full night of work and preparation. Chandra will study the invisible, and often violent mysteries of x-ray astronomy. Commander Collins maneuvered Columbia to a safe distance away from the telescope as an internal timer counted down to the first of a two-phase ignition of the Inertial Upper Stage. After switching to internal battery power until its solar rays are deployed, the telescope reaches an oval orbit one-third the distance to the Moon to conduct its astronomical observations. Since Chandra is safely on its way and the major objective of their mission is successfully completed, the astronauts end their long day and begin an eight hour sleep period.

  4. Skylab crew health and changes related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, W. R.; Burchard, E. C.; Hordinsky, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    All three manned Skylab missions were supported by a cadre of medical personnel who were responsible not only for the management and conduct of the medical experiments but also for the operational planning and crew health. The day-to-day medical care of the crewmen and their families was left to a team of flight surgeons who were responsible for the health care during all phases of the mission, as well as the development and use of the inflight medical support system. The preventive medicine aspects of the preflight and postflight health stabilization program are discussed. The clinical problems encountered are identified and the significance of these medical entities are reviewed. The inflight physiological changes of a clinical nature are discussed in light of the significance of these changes as result of the space environment.

  5. Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2006-01-01

    The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The

  6. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  7. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  8. Enroute flight-path planning - Cooperative performance of flight crews and knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Galdes, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Interface design issues associated with the introduction of knowledge-based systems into the cockpit are discussed. Such issues include not only questions about display and control design, they also include deeper system design issues such as questions about the alternative roles and responsibilities of the flight crew and the computer system. In addition, the feasibility of using enroute flight path planning as a context for exploring such research questions is considered. In particular, the development of a prototyping shell that allows rapid design and study of alternative interfaces and system designs is discussed.

  9. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.

  10. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews. 135.267 Section 135.267 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... two-pilot crews. (a) No certificate holder may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a one- or two-pilot crew if that...

  11. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews. 135.269 Section 135.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... four-pilot crews. (a) No certificate holder may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of a three- or four-pilot crew if...

  12. "A brilliant ball of fire." The sabotage of United Airlines Flight 629.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G K

    1986-03-01

    Among the known causes of aircraft disasters, sabotage is perhaps the most terrifying and difficult to comprehend. Bombs have been exploded in at least 34 commercial aircraft, with the resultant loss of more than 300 lives. Motives for these acts include profit, the deaths of certain persons, and politics. On November 1, 1955, United Airlines Flight 629, bound to Denver-Portland, exploded and burned in flight near Longmont, Colorado, a few minutes after takeoff, with the loss of all 44 on board. Investigation revealed that the plane had been destroyed by the explosion of a bomb that had been placed in the rear luggage hold in Denver. Twelve days after the disaster, John Gilbert Graham, the son of one of the female passengers, was arrested and charged with murder. He reportedly admitted placing a time bomb on board the aircraft, apparently in order to collect $37,500.00 in life insurance that he had taken on his mother's life. Though he soon recanted, he was convicted of murder and was executed. The potential for additional such crimes remains.

  13. Influence of the helicopter environment on patient care capabilities: Flight crew perceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, K. Jeffrey; Rodenberg, Howard; Woodard, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Flight crew perceptions of the effect of the rotary wing environment on patient care capabilities have not been subject to statistical analysis. We hypothesized that flight crew perceived significant difficulties in performing patient care tasks during air medical transport. A survey instrument was distributed to a convenience sample of flight crew members from twenty flight programs. Respondents were asked to compare the difficulty of performing patient care tasks in rotary wing and standard (emergency department or intensive care unit) settings. Demographic data collected on respondents included years of flight experience, flights per month, crew duty position, and primary aircraft in which the respondent worked. Statistical analysis was performed as appropriate using Student's t-test, type 111 sum of squares, and analysis of variance. Alpha was defined as p is less than or equal to .05. Fifty-five percent of programs (90 individuals) responded. All tasks were rated significantly more difficult in the rotary wing environment. Ratings were not significantly correlated with flight experience, duty position, flights per month, or aircraft used. We conclude that the performance of patient care tasks are perceived by air medical flight crew to be significantly more difficult during rotary wing air medical transport than in hospital settings.

  14. Influence of the helicopter environment on patient care capabilities: flight crew perceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, K. J.; Rodenberg, H.; Woodard, D.

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Flight crew perceptions of the effect of the rotary-wing environment on patient-care capabilities have not been subject to statistical analysis. We hypothesized that flight crew members perceived significant difficulties in performing patient-care tasks during air medical transport. METHODS: A survey was distributed to a convenience sample of flight crew members from 20 flight programs. Respondents were asked to compare the difficulty of performing patient-care tasks in rotary-wing and standard (emergency department or intensive care unit) settings. Demographic data collected on respondents included years of flight experience, flights per month, crew duty position and primary aircraft in which the respondent worked. Statistical analysis was performed as appropriate using Student's t-test, type III sum of squares, and analysis of variance. Alpha was defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of programs (90 individuals) responded. All tasks were significantly rated more difficult in the rotary-wing environment. Ratings were not significantly correlated with flight experience, duty position, flights per month or aircraft used. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the performance of patient-care tasks are perceived by air medical flight crew to be significantly more difficult during rotary-wing air medical transport than in hospital settings.

  15. The Integrated Medical Model: A Decision Support Tool for In-flight Crew Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of an Integrated Medical Model (IMM) decision support tool for in-flight crew health care safety. Clinical methods, resources, and case scenarios are also addressed.

  16. STS-104 Flight Crew Post-Landing Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Joel Wells, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the STS-104 crew, Commander Steven Lindsey, Pilot Charles Hobaugh, and Mission Specialists Mike Gernhardt, Jim Reilly, and Janet Kavandi, in this post-landing press conference. Commander Lindsey makes a brief statement about the mission and each crewmember's role in the activities. The crew then answers questions from the press.

  17. Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Sumner, Ann Louise; Nishioka, Marcia G; Vallarino, Jose; Turner, Douglas J; Saltman, Hannah K; Spengler, John D

    2013-07-01

    To address the knowledge gaps regarding inhalation exposure of flight crew to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on airplanes, we measured PBDE concentrations in air samples collected in the cabin air at cruising altitudes and used Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA) to evaluate the likelihood of inhalation exposure to result in the average daily dose (ADD) of a member of the flight crew to exceed EPA Reference Doses (RfDs), accounting for all other aircraft and non-aircraft exposures. A total of 59 air samples were collected from different aircraft and analyzed for four PBDE congeners-BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 (a subset were also analyzed for BDE 183). For congeners with a published RfD, high estimates of ADD were calculated for all non-aircraft exposure pathways and non-inhalation exposure onboard aircraft; inhalation exposure limits were then derived based on the difference between the RfD and ADDs for all other exposure pathways. The 95th percentile measured concentrations of PBDEs in aircraft air were <1% of the derived inhalation exposure limits. Likelihood probabilities of 95th percentile exposure concentrations >1% of the defined exposure limit were zero for all congeners with published RfDs.

  18. Flight test evaluation of the Stanford University/United Airlines differential GPS Category 3 automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  19. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 4: Sleep and wakefulness in international aircrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Physiological recordings of sleep and wakefulness in operating international (B-747) flight crews were obtained. Crews spent their first layover (48 h) of a trip in a sleep laboratory where standardized EEG, electro-oculograph (EOC), and electromyograph (EMG) sleep recordings were carried out whenever volunteers chose to sleep. During periods of wakefulness they underwent multiple sleep latency tests every 2 h in order to assess daytime drowsiness. The same standardized recordings were carried out at a home-based laboratory before departure. Approximately four crews each participated in flights over 7 to 9 time zones on five routes. All participants were encouraged to use whatever sleep-wake strategies they thought would provide them with the most satisfactory crew rest. Overall, layover sleep quality was not seriously disturbed, but eastward flights produced greater sleep disruption. The contributors of individual factors and the usefulness of various sleep strategies are discussed in the individual laboratory reports and in an operational summary.

  20. In-Flight Characterization of the Electromagnetic Environment Inside an Airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Quach, Cuong C.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of experimental measurements that characterized the electromagnetic environment (EME) inside a Boeing 757 airliner while in flight, Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into a commercially configured aircraft as it was flown in close proximity to ground-based radio frequency (RF) transmitters operating at approximately 26, 173. and 430 MHz. The goal of this experiment was to collect data for the verification of analytical predictions of the internal aircraft response to an external stimulus. This paper describes the experiment, presents the data collected by it, and discusses techniques used to compute both the magnitude of the electric field illuminating the aircraft and its direction of propagation relative to a coordinate system fixed to the aircraft. The latter is determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) and aircraft Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) data. The paper concludes with an examination of the shielding effectiveness of the test aircraft. as determined by comparison of' the measured internal EME and computed external EME.

  1. Structural Analysis for the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident Investigation: Global Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Moore, David F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) supported the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the American Airlines Flight 587 accident investigation due to LaRC's expertise in high-fidelity structural analysis and testing of composite structures and materials. A Global Analysis Team from LaRC reviewed the manufacturer s design and certification procedures, developed finite element models and conducted structural analyses, and participated jointly with the NTSB and Airbus in subcomponent tests conducted at Airbus in Hamburg, Germany. The Global Analysis Team identified no significant or obvious deficiencies in the Airbus certification and design methods. Analysis results from the LaRC team indicated that the most-likely failure scenario was failure initiation at the right rear main attachment fitting (lug), followed by an unstable progression of failure of all fin-to-fuselage attachments and separation of the VTP from the aircraft. Additionally, analysis results indicated that failure initiates at the final observed maximum fin loading condition in the accident, when the VTP was subjected to loads that were at minimum 1.92 times the design limit load condition for certification. For certification, the VTP is only required to support loads of 1.5 times design limit load without catastrophic failure. The maximum loading during the accident was shown to significantly exceed the certification requirement. Thus, the structure appeared to perform in a manner consistent with its design and certification, and failure is attributed to VTP loads greater than expected.

  2. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-pilot crew, a crew which consists of at least the following: (i) A pilot in command (PIC) who meets the applicable flight crewmember requirements of subpart E of part 135; (ii) A PIC who meets the...

  3. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-pilot crew, a crew which consists of at least the following: (i) A pilot in command (PIC) who meets the applicable flight crewmember requirements of subpart E of part 135; (ii) A PIC who meets the...

  4. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-pilot crew, a crew which consists of at least the following: (i) A pilot in command (PIC) who meets the applicable flight crewmember requirements of subpart E of part 135; (ii) A PIC who meets the...

  5. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-pilot crew, a crew which consists of at least the following: (i) A pilot in command (PIC) who meets the applicable flight crewmember requirements of subpart E of part 135; (ii) A PIC who meets the...

  6. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  7. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.507 Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  8. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.509 Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  9. CREW INTERACTION DURING A THIRTY-DAY SIMULATED SPACE FLIGHT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF CREW INTERACTION DURING A TWO-MAN SIMULATED SPACE CHAMBER FLIGHT. By use of the well-known Bales Interaction Process ... Analysis , the behavior of the two subjects was rated during 2 hours of observation each day throughout the 30-day flight. Four kinds of summary interaction

  10. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 121.385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... pilot in command and the other second in command. (d) On each flight requiring a flight engineer at least one flight crewmember, other than the flight engineer, must be qualified to provide...

  11. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 121.385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... pilot in command and the other second in command. (d) On each flight requiring a flight engineer at least one flight crewmember, other than the flight engineer, must be qualified to provide...

  12. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 121.385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... pilot in command and the other second in command. (d) On each flight requiring a flight engineer at least one flight crewmember, other than the flight engineer, must be qualified to provide...

  13. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 121.385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... pilot in command and the other second in command. (d) On each flight requiring a flight engineer at least one flight crewmember, other than the flight engineer, must be qualified to provide...

  14. Flight Crew Factors for CTAS/FMS Integration in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Barry W.; Prevot, Thomas; Palmer, Everett A.; Shafto, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS)/Flight Management System (FMS) integration on the flightdeck implies flight crews flying coupled in highly automated FMS modes [i.e. Vertical Navigation (VNAV) and Lateral Navigation (LNAV)] from top of descent to the final approach phase of flight. Pilots may also have to make FMS route edits and respond to datalink clearances in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) airspace. This full mission simulator study addresses how the introduction of these FMS descent procedures affect crew activities, workload, and performance. It also assesses crew acceptance of these procedures. Results indicate that the number of crew activities and workload ratings are significantly reduced below current day levels when FMS procedures can be flown uninterrupted, but that activity numbers increase significantly above current day levels and workload ratings return to current day levels when FMS procedures are interrupted by common ATC interventions and CTAS routing advisories. Crew performance showed some problems with speed control during FMS procedures. Crew acceptance of the FMS procedures and route modification requirements was generally high; a minority of crews expressed concerns about use of VNAV in the TRACON airspace. Suggestions for future study are discussed.

  15. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue countermeasure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  16. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue counter-measure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  17. STS-99 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the crew, Commander Kevin R. Kregel, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri and Gerhard P.J. Thiele, seated in the dining room with the traditional cake. The crew is seen performing various pre-launch activities including suit-up, walk out to the Astro-van, and strap-in into the vehicle. Also seen are the retractions of the orbiter access arm and the gaseous oxygen mint hood, main engine start, booster ignition, liftoff, and separation of the solid rocket boosters. The Red Team (first of the dual shift crew) includes Kregel, Kavandi, and Thiele, who are shown conducting jet thruster firings, activating radar instruments, and deploying the boom (mass).

  18. STS-101: Crew Activity Report/Flight Day 10 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This video presents a report from the Space Shuttle Atlantis Crew. The crew consists of James D. Halsell, Jr., Mission Commander; Scott Horowitz, Pilot; and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, Jeffrey N. Williams, James S. Voss, Susan J. Helms, and Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev. The crew made preparations for the Space Shuttle Atlantis return to Earth. Weber gave a general overview of refurbishments done to the International Space Station such as maintenance of the electrical system, one to three thousands of pounds of new hardware supplied to I.S.S. and a supply of personal hygiene products. Also live animation of the Spacehab Module is given where supplies bound for the Space Station are stored.

  19. Apollo experience report: Simulation of manned space flight for crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodling, C. H.; Faber, S.; Vanbockel, J. J.; Olasky, C. C.; Williams, W. K.; Mire, J. L. C.; Homer, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Through space-flight experience and the development of simulators to meet the associated training requirements, several factors have been established as fundamental for providing adequate flight simulators for crew training. The development of flight simulators from Project Mercury through the Apollo 15 mission is described. The functional uses, characteristics, and development problems of the various simulators are discussed for the benefit of future programs.

  20. Seafloor in the Expanded Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H. F.; Marks, K. M.; Beaman, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Smith and Marks (Eos Trans. AGU, 95(21), 27 May 2014) illustrated a map of the seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 search area. This map showed a bathymetric model that is constructed from a combination of available ship soundings and depths estimated from satellite altimetry. They noted that available depth measurements covered only 5% of their study region, and that very few of these measurements were collected using modern multibeam and navigation systems. Recently the MH370 search has been expanded along the "7th Arc" to encompass newly prioritized underwater search areas identified in an Australian Transport Safety Bureau report (AE-2014-054, 26 June 2014). While the new "Priority" search area is within the Eos article Fig. 1, the new "Wide" search area extends beyond the region evaluated in Eos. Additionally, multibeam data that were not incorporated in the bathymetric model have been made available to us after the Eos article was published. This presentation will update and extend the study published in Eos. We will present illustrations of the expanded region, sounding coverage, and tectonic features that are associated with steep topographic slopes. Our results include comparisons of multibeam survey depths and bathymetric model depths. The standard deviation of the differences is 182 m, with the greatest differences (exceeding 1000 m) over steep topographic slopes, and the smallest over low-relief ocean floor. This is consistent with differences found by Smith and Sandwell (JGR, 99(B11), 1994) between soundings and bathymetric predictions from altimetry. Such depth differences are common where bathymetric model constraints are sparse, which is typical of many of the world's oceans.

  1. STS-99 Flight Crew Post-Landing Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system that will produced unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. The mission was launched at 12:31 on February 11, 2000 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The mission was led by Commander Kevin Kregel. The crew was Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri, the National Space Development Agency (Japanese Space Agency) and Gerhard P. J. Thiele, from DARA (German Space Agency). The shuttle landed at Kennedy on the February 22, 2000 at 5:22 CST. This tape shows a post landing press conference with the crew. Commander Kregel made a brief statement praising the crew for the mission's success and then introduced the crewmembers. The crew answered questions about the retraction of the mast. The retraction had been successful, but the latches to the canister had failed. The extreme cold may have caused the problem and a solution was proposed from ground control. If this had not worked, an EVA would have been required. The astronauts were confident in the solution to the problem, however they were ready to perform any required EVA. Mamoru Mohri answered questions from the Japanese press, speaking in English and Japanese.

  2. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XIV: Alertness Management in Regional Flight Operations Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  3. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  4. STS-99 Flight Day Highlights and Crew Activities Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the Blue Team (second of the dual shift crew), Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, Janice E. Voss and Mamoru Mohri, beginning the first mapping swath covering a 140-mile-wide path. While Mohri conducts mapping operations, Voss and Gorie are seen participating in a news conference with correspondents from NBC and CNN. The Red Team (first of the dual shift crew), Kevin R. Kregel, Janet L. Kavandi and Gerhard P.J. Thiele, relieves the Blue Team and are seen continuing the mapping operations for this around the clock Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Commander Kregel is shown performing boom (mass) durability tests, calibrating the EarthCam Payload, and speaking with the Launch Control Center (LCC) about trouble shooting a bracket for better camera angle.

  5. 14 CFR 121.523 - Flight time limitations: Crew of three or more pilots and additional airmen as required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR... operations may schedule an airman for flight deck duty as a flight engineer, or navigator in a crew of...

  6. Use of Data Comm by Flight Crew to Conduct Interval Management Operations to Parallel Dependent Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Hubbs, Clay; Shay, Rick; Karanian, James

    2011-01-01

    The Interval Management (IM) concept is being developed as a method to maintain or increase high traffic density airport arrival throughput while allowing aircraft to conduct near idle thrust descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR1) experiment at NASA Langley Research Center used 24 commercial pilots to examine IM procedures to conduct parallel dependent runway arrival operations while maintaining safe but efficient intervals behind the preceding aircraft. The use of IM procedures during these operations requires a lengthy and complex clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to the participating aircraft, thereby making the use of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) highly desirable as the communication method. The use of CPDLC reduces the need for voice transmissions between controllers and flight crew, and enables automated transfer of IM clearance elements into flight management systems or other aircraft avionics. The result is reduced crew workload and an increase in the efficiency of crew procedures. This paper focuses on the subset of data collected related to the use of CPDLC for IM operations into a busy airport. Overall, the experiment and results were very successful, with the mean time under 43 seconds for the flight crew to load the clearance into the IM spacing tool, review the calculated speed, and respond to ATC. An overall mean rating of Moderately Agree was given when the crews were asked if the use of CPDLC was operationally acceptable as simulated in this experiment. Approximately half of the flight crew reported the use of CPDLC below 10,000 for IM operations was unacceptable, with 83% reporting below 5000 was unacceptable. Also described are proposed modifications to the IM operations that may reduce CPDLC Respond time to less than 30 seconds and should significantly reduce the complexity of crew procedures, as well as follow-on research issues for operational use of CPDLC during IM

  7. STS-101: Crew Activity Report / Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary mission objective for STS-101 was to deliver supplies to the International Space Station, perform a space walk, and reboost the station from 230 statute miles to 250 statute miles. The commander of this mission was, James D. Haslsell. The crew was Scott J. Horowitz, the pilot, and mission specialists Mary Ellen Weber, Jeffrey N. Williams, James S. Voss, Susan J. Helms, and Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev. This videotape shows the activities of the fifth day of the mission. The day's activities started with the opening of the hatch to the space station. Helms and Usachev then opened the hatch to the station's Unity Connecting Module. The crew also placed ducting throughout the Zarya Control Module to improve air circulation and prevent problems with stale air. Helms and Usachev are shown replacing two of six batteries to be replaced in this mission in the Zarya module. The crew began moving supplies into the space station. There are several shots of the interior of the space station.

  8. Human factors in cockpit automation: A field study of flight crew transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which affected two groups of airline pilots in the transition from traditional airline cockpits to a highly automated version were studied. All pilots were highly experienced in traditional models of the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 prior to their transition to the more automated DC-9-80. Specific features of the new aircraft, particularly the digital flight guidance system (DFGS) and other automatic features such as the autothrottle system (ATS), autobrake, and digital display were studied. Particular attention was paid to the first 200 hours of line flying experience in the new aircraft, and the difficulties that some pilots found in adapting to the new systems during this initial operating period. Efforts to prevent skill loss from automation, training methods, traditional human factors issues, and general views of the pilots toward cockpit automation are discussed.

  9. Sleep, alertness and alertness management among commercial airline pilots on short-haul and long-haul flights.

    PubMed

    Sallinen, Mikael; Sihvola, Maria; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ketola, Kimmo; Tuori, Antti; Härmä, Mikko; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    Airline pilots' sleep and on-duty alertness are important focus areas in commercial aviation. Until now, studies pertaining to this topic have mainly focused on specific characteristics of flights and thus a comprehensive picture of the matter is not well established. In addition, research knowledge of what airline pilots actually do to maintain their alertness while being on duty is scarce. To address these gaps in research knowledge, we conducted a field study on a representative sample of the airline pilots of a medium-sized airline. The sample consisted of 90 pilots, of whom 30 flew long-haul (LH) routes, 30 short-haul (SH) routes, and 30 flew both. A total of 86 pilots completed the measurements that lasted for almost two months per pilot. The measurements resulted in a total of 965 flight duty periods (FDPs) including SH flights and 627 FDPs including LH flights. During the measurement periods, sleep was measured by a diary and actigraphs, on-duty alertness by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) in all flight phases, and on-duty alertness management strategies by the diary. Results showed that SH and LH FDPs covering the whole domicile night (00:00-06:00 at home base) were most consistently associated with reduced sleep-wake ratio and subjective alertness. Approximately every 3rd FDP falling into this category involved a reduced sleep-wake ratio (1:3 or lower) and every 2nd a reduced level of subjective alertness (KSS rating 8-9 in at least one flight phase). The corresponding frequencies for the SH and LH FDPs that partly covered the domicile night were every 10th and every 5th FDP and for the pure non-night FDPs every 30th and every 36th FDP, respectively. The results also showed that the pilots tended to increase the use of effective on-duty alertness management strategies (consuming alertness-promoting products and taking strategic naps) in connection with the FDPs that overlapped the domicile night. Finally, the results showed that the frequency of

  10. Structural Analysis of the Right Rear Lug of American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Mason, Brian H.; Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan; Davila, Carlos G.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed finite element analysis of the right rear lug of the American Airlines Flight 587 - Airbus A300-600R was performed as part of the National Transportation Safety Board s failure investigation of the accident that occurred on November 12, 2001. The loads experienced by the right rear lug are evaluated using global models of the vertical tail, local models near the right rear lug, and a global-local analysis procedure. The right rear lug was analyzed using two modeling approaches. In the first approach, solid-shell type modeling is used, and in the second approach, layered-shell type modeling is used. The solid-shell and the layered-shell modeling approaches were used in progressive failure analyses (PFA) to determine the load, mode, and location of failure in the right rear lug under loading representative of an Airbus certification test conducted in 1985 (the 1985-certification test). Both analyses were in excellent agreement with each other on the predicted failure loads, failure mode, and location of failure. The solid-shell type modeling was then used to analyze both a subcomponent test conducted by Airbus in 2003 (the 2003-subcomponent test) and the accident condition. Excellent agreement was observed between the analyses and the observed failures in both cases. The moment, Mx (moment about the fuselage longitudinal axis), has significant effect on the failure load of the lugs. Higher absolute values of Mx give lower failure loads. The predicted load, mode, and location of the failure of the 1985- certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident condition are in very good agreement. This agreement suggests that the 1985-certification and 2003-subcomponent tests represent the accident condition accurately. The failure mode of the right rear lug for the 1985-certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident load case is identified as a cleavage-type failure. For the accident case, the predicted failure load for the right rear lug

  11. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. Ares I-X is scheduled for a 2009 flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Decisions on Ares I-X scope, flight test objectives, and FTV fidelity were made prior to the Ares I systems requirements being baselined. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design. Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I - as well as what the test will not provide - is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  12. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R., Jr.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. The test flight is scheduled for April 2009, relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Because of the short time frame (relative to new launch vehicle development) before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  13. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2009-12-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. Ares I-X is scheduled for a 2009 flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Decisions on Ares I-X scope, flight test objectives, and FTV fidelity were made prior to the Ares I systems requirements being baselined. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design. Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I—as well as what the test will not provide—is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  14. Marshall Space Flight Center Wakes STS-135 Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flight Day 2 wakeup music was "Viva la Vida" performed by Coldplay, a song picked by STS-135 Pilot Doug Hurley. The song was accompanied by a special good morning message recorded by employees ...

  15. [Principles of organizing efficient work and rest regimens for crews on prolonged space flights].

    PubMed

    Litsov, A N; Bulyko, V I

    1983-01-01

    The work-rest cycles of Salyut-6 crews were investigated. Several modifications were detected: 24-hour static regimens (65-70%) and altered regimens (35-30%) with longer or shorter work-rest cycles. It is concluded that in prolonged space flights two regimens are allowed: principal regimens (normal static regimens of work and rest) used throughout the flight, and operational regimens (differing from 24-hour ones) used no more than once every 7-10 days.

  16. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  17. What went right: lessons for the intensivist from the crew of US Airways Flight 1549.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lewis A; Savel, Richard H

    2009-09-01

    On January 15, 2009, US Airways Flight 1549 hit geese shortly after takeoff from LaGuardia Airport in New York City. Both engines lost power, and the crew quickly decided that the best action was an emergency landing in the Hudson River. Due to the crew's excellent performance, all 155 people aboard the flight survived. Intensivists can learn valuable lessons from the processes and outcome of this incident, including the importance of simulation training and checklists. By learning from the aviation industry, the intensivist can apply principles of crew resource management to reduce errors and improve patient safety. Additionally, by studying the impact of the mandated process-engineering applications within commercial aviation, intensivists and health-care systems can learn certain principles that, if adequately and thoughtfully applied, may seriously improve the art and science of health-care delivery at the bedside.

  18. STS-99 Crew Activities Report / Flight Day 09 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system. This radar system produced unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. The mission was launched at 12:31 on February 11, 2000 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour, and led by Commander Kevin Kregel. The crew was Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri from the National Space Development Agency (Japanese Space Agency), and Gerhard P. J. Thiele from DARA (German Space Agency). This tape shows the activities of the ninth day of the mission. The announcement of the decision to extend the SRTM for 9 hours is made to the crew. This means that almost all (i.e., 99.9 %) of the target area of the Earth will be imaged, at least once. Some shots of the 200 foot long mast where the outboard antennas are located are shown. Mamoru Mohri is shown changing a data tape, while he explains the rationale for recording rather than transmitting the data. Gerhard Thiele speaks to the German press. At the end of this tape are images generated from the SRTM. There are views of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai and west Maui, Hawaii; Dallas, Texas; Salalah, Oman; and Tasmania, Australia. Animations showing the topography around Hokkaido, Japan and Brazil are also shown.

  19. 14 CFR 121.481 - Flight time limitations: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane that has a crew of one or two pilots for eight hours or... certificate holder conducting flag operations schedules a pilot to fly more than eight hours during any 24... of flight duty. This rest period must be at least twice the number of hours flown since the...

  20. 14 CFR 121.481 - Flight time limitations: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane that has a crew of one or two pilots for eight hours or... certificate holder conducting flag operations schedules a pilot to fly more than eight hours during any 24... of flight duty. This rest period must be at least twice the number of hours flown since the...

  1. 14 CFR 121.481 - Flight time limitations: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane that has a crew of one or two pilots for eight hours or... certificate holder conducting flag operations schedules a pilot to fly more than eight hours during any 24... of flight duty. This rest period must be at least twice the number of hours flown since the...

  2. 14 CFR 121.481 - Flight time limitations: One or two pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane that has a crew of one or two pilots for eight hours or... certificate holder conducting flag operations schedules a pilot to fly more than eight hours during any 24... of flight duty. This rest period must be at least twice the number of hours flown since the...

  3. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate holder... relieve that pilot of all duty with it during that rest period. (b) No pilot of an airplane that has...

  4. Crew of STS 41-D makes a visual post-flight inspection of orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew of STS 41-D makes a visual post-flight inspection of the orbiter Discovery. From left to right are Astronauts Steven A. Hawley, Richard M. (Mike) Mullane (behind Hawley), Judith A. Resnik, Charles D. Walker (behind Resnik), Michael L. Coats and Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr.

  5. 14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1069 Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements. (a) No program manager or owner may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as a pilot in command of an... check pilot. (b) No program manager or owner may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as a...

  6. [Psychophysiological aspects of joint activity of crew members in special flight situations].

    PubMed

    Kosolapov, O A

    1997-01-01

    Findings of experimental studies of the psychophysiological peculiarities of crewmember interaction in emergency are presented. It is demonstrated that the developed psychophysiological recommendations on optimisation of data acquisition and processing, decision-making, inter-crew distribution of functions, mutual control and reservation allow a considerable increase of the probability of preventing in-flight emergency.

  7. STS-107 crew In-Flight Maintenance training at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During In-Flight Maintenance training, STS-107 Mission Specialist Michael Anderson looks over a '''Medusa,''' a piece of a Biotube experiment that will be on the STS-107 mission. The Medusa is part of a watering system for plants. As a research mission, STS-107 will carry the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space and a broad collection of experiments ranging from material science to life science. It is scheduled to launch July 19, 2001

  8. Cross-cultural attitudes of flight crew regarding CRM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, Ashleigh

    1993-01-01

    This study asks if the Cockpit Management Attitude Questionnaire (CMAQ) can detect differences across countries, and/or across occupations. And if so, can those differences be interpreted? Research has shown that the CMAQ is sensitive to attitude differences between and within organizations, thereby demonstrating its effectiveness with American populations. But the CMAQ was originally designed by American researchers and psychometrically refined for American pilots. The items in the questionnaire, though general in nature, still reflect the ubiquitous Western bias, because the items were written by researchers from and for the one culture. Recognizing this constraint, this study is nonetheless interested in attitudes toward crew behavior, and how those attitudes may vary across country and occupation.

  9. Facilitation techniques as predictors of crew participation in LOFT debriefings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, L. K.

    1996-01-01

    Based on theories of adult learning and airline industry guidelines for Crew Resource Management (CRM), the stated objective during Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings is for instructor pilots (IP's) to facilitate crew self-analysis of performance. This study reviews 19 LOFT debriefings from two major U.S. airlines to examine the relationship between IP efforts at facilitation and associated characteristics of crew participation. A subjective rating scale called the Debriefing Assessment Battery was developed and utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of IP facilitation and the quality of crew participation. The results indicate that IP content, encouragement, and questioning techniques are highly and significantly correlated with, and can therefore predict, the degree and depth of crew participation.

  10. A crew-centered flight deck design philosophy for High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael T.; Rogers, William H.; Press, Hayes N.; Latorella, Kara A.; Abbott, Terence S.

    1995-01-01

    Past flight deck design practices used within the U.S. commercial transport aircraft industry have been highly successful in producing safe and efficient aircraft. However, recent advances in automation have changed the way pilots operate aircraft, and these changes make it necessary to reconsider overall flight deck design. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) mission will likely add new information requirements, such as those for sonic boom management and supersonic/subsonic speed management. Consequently, whether one is concerned with the design of the HSCT, or a next generation subsonic aircraft that will include technological leaps in automated systems, basic issues in human usability of complex systems will be magnified. These concerns must be addressed, in part, with an explicit, written design philosophy focusing on human performance and systems operability in the context of the overall flight crew/flight deck system (i.e., a crew-centered philosophy). This document provides such a philosophy, expressed as a set of guiding design principles, and accompanied by information that will help focus attention on flight crew issues earlier and iteratively within the design process. This document is part 1 of a two-part set.

  11. Crew systems and flight station concepts for a 1995 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft functional systems and crew systems were defined for a 1995 transport aircraft through a process of mission analysis, preliminary design, and evaluation in a soft mockup. This resulted in a revolutionary pilot's desk flight station design featuring an all-electric aircraft, fly-by-wire/light flight and thrust control systems, large electronic color head-down displays, head-up displays, touch panel controls for aircraft functional systems, voice command and response systems, and air traffic control systems projected for the 1990s. The conceptual aircraft, for which crew systems were designed, is a generic twin-engine wide-body, low-wing transport, capable of worldwide operation. The flight control system consists of conventional surfaces (some employed in unique ways) and new surfaces not used on current transports. The design will be incorporated into flight simulation facilities at NASA-Langley, NASA-Ames, and the Lockheed-Georgia Company. When interfaced with advanced air traffic control system models, the facilities will provide full-mission capability for researching issues affecting transport aircraft flight stations and crews of the 1990s.

  12. Flight crew interface aspects of forward-looking airborne windshear detection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles D.; Carbaugh, David C.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research effort was to conduct analyses and research which could provide guidelines for design of the crew interface of an integrated windshear system. Addressed were HF issues, crew/system requirements, candidate display formats, alerting criteria, and crew procedures. A survey identified five flight management issues as top priority: missed alert acceptability; avoidance distance needed; false alert acceptability; nuisance rate acceptability; and crew procedures. Results of a simulation study indicated that the warning time for a look-ahead alert needs to be between 11 and 36 seconds (target of 23 seconds) before the reactive system triggers in order to be effective. Pilots considered the standard go-around maneuver most appropriate for look-ahead alerts, and the escape maneuvers used did not require lateral turns. Prototype display formats were reviewed or developed for alerting the crew; providing guidance to avoid or escape windshear; and status displays to provide windshear situational awareness. The three alerting levels now in use were considered appropriate, with a fourth (time-critical) level as a possible addition, although many reviewers felt only two levels of alerting were needed. Another survey gathered expert opinion on what crew procedures and alerting criteria should be used for look-ahead, or integrated, windshear systems, with a wide diversity of opinion in these areas.

  13. STS-102 Crew Activity Report/Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Jim Voss and Yuriy Usachev are seen helping Susan Helms prepare for the Reflex Experiment: Effects of Altered Gravity on the Spinal Cord. External shots show the payload bay of Discovery and as Discovery orbits, China is seen from space. STS-102 Commander Jim Wetherbee and Expedition 2 Commander Yuriy V. Usachev answer questions from the President of the Italian Space Agency during an in-flight interview.

  14. STS-99 Flight Day 04 Highlights and Crew Activities Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system. This radar system produced unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. The mission was launched at 12:31 on February 11, 2000 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. and led by Commander Kevin Kregel. The crew was Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri from the National Space Development Agency (Japanese Space Agency), and Gerhard P. J. Thiele from DARA (German Space Agency).On the fourth day of the mission the blue team's Dominic Gorie led off the day's tape with a brief memorial to Charles Schultz, as he spoke of some of the vessels that were named for characters in Peanuts, and called to mind the Silver Snoopy, one of the highest awards NASA bestows. Janice Voss answered a couple of questions sent over the internet about a problem with a small thruster on the end of the 200 foot long mast. Mamoru Mohri talks about the EarthKam. Gerhard Thiele and Janet Kavandi describe the process of achieving the digital map of the entire world. At the end of the videotape some of the recently released views from the SRTM are shown. These include shots of the South Island of New Zealand.

  15. STS-97 Crew Activity Report/Flight Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-97 mission, Commander Brent W. Jett, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Joseph R. Tanner, Carlos I. Noriega, and Marc Garneau remain docked with the International Space Station (ISS) on board the Endeavour Orbiter. Jett and Bloomfield are seen performing a check of the shuttle flight controls in preparation for tomorrow's landing. Jett, Noriega, and Tanner answer questions about the mission and the goals fulfilled. Footage shows the Earth at night as the camera on Endeavour sweeps the Mediterranean coastline, outlined by city lights, showing Spanish/French border, the French Riviera, the Alps, Italy, Switzerland, and the German/Austrian border.

  16. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  17. Flight Crew Task Management in Non-Normal Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    1996-01-01

    Task management (TM) is always performed on the flight deck, although not always explicitly, consistently, or rigorously. Nowhere is TM as important as it is in dealing with non-normal situations. The objective of this study was to analyze pilot TM behavior for non-normal situations. Specifically, the study observed pilots performance in a full workload environment in order to discern their TM strategies. This study identified four different TM prioritization and allocation strategies: Aviate-Navigate-Communicate-Manage Systems; Perceived Severity; Procedure Based; and Event/Interrupt Driven. Subjects used these strategies to manage their personal workload and to schedule monitoring and assessment of the situation. The Perceived Severity strategy for personal workload management combined with the Aviate-Navigate-Communicate-Manage Systems strategy for monitoring and assessing appeared to be the most effective (fewest errors and fastest response times) in responding to the novel system failure used in this study.

  18. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  19. Flying Schedule-Matching Descents to Explore Flight Crews' Perceptions of Their Load and Task Feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne Hazel; Sharma, Shivanjli; Lozito, Sharon; Kaneshige, John; Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have investigated the development and use of ground-based (controller) tools to manage and schedule traffic in future terminal airspace. No studies have investigated the impacts that such tools (and concepts) could have on the flight-deck. To begin to redress the balance, an exploratory study investigated the procedures and actions of ten Boeing-747-400 crews as they flew eight continuous descent approaches in the Los Angeles terminal airspace, with the descents being controlled using speed alone. Although the study was exploratory in nature, four variables were manipulated: speed changes, route constraints, clearance phraseology, and winds. Despite flying the same scenarios with the same events and timing, there was at least a 50 second difference in the time it took crews to fly the approaches. This variation is the product of a number of factors but highlights potential difficulties for scheduling tools that would have to accommodate this amount of natural variation in descent times. The primary focus of this paper is the potential impact of ground scheduling tools on the flight crews performance and procedures. Crews reported "moderate to low" workload, on average; however, short periods of intense and high workload were observed. The non-flying pilot often reported a higher level of workload than the flying-pilot, which may be due to their increased interaction with the Flight Management Computer, when using the aircraft automation to assist with managing the descent clearances. It is concluded that ground-side tools and automation may have a larger impact on the current-day flight-deck than was assumed and that studies investigating this impact should continue in parallel with controller support tool development.

  20. STS-93 Flight Day 4 Highlights and Crew Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The five astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia began their fourth flight day preparing to make additional celestial observations through the shuttle's windows and continue work with a variety of instruments. Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Steve Hawley and Michael Tognini set up an exercise treadmill and the Treadmill Vibration Information System (TVIS) which measures vibrations and changes in microgravity levels caused by on-orbit workouts. Astronomer Hawley again made observations of Venus, Jupiter and the Moon with the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) as Commander Eileen Collins and Pilot Jeff Ashby put the shuttle in the proper orientation for his observations. Tognini and Coleman checked the bioprocessing experiments, and harvested mouse-ear cress plants as part of the Plant Growth in Microgravity experiment. Collins and Ashby once again fired the shuttle's engines so that the sensors of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite were able to collect ultraviolet, infrared and visible light data. Columbia was orbiting at an altitude of 182 statute miles with all of its systems in excellent condition.

  1. Left seat command or leadership flight, leadership training and research at North Central Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, G. C.; Garvey, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The need for flight leadership training for flight deck crewmembers is addressed. A management grid is also described which provides a quantitative management language against which any number of management behaviors can be measured.

  2. Flight Crew Sleep in Long-Haul Aircraft Bunk Facilities: Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Dinges, David F.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Modem long-haul aircraft can fly up to 16 continuous hours and provide a 24-hour, global capability. Extra (augmented) flight crew are available on long flights to allow planned rest periods, on a rotating basis, away from the flight deck in onboard crew rest facilities (2 bunks). A NASA/FAA study is under-way to examine the quantity and quality of sleep obtained in long-haul aircraft bunks and the factors that promote or interfere with that sleep. The first phase of the study involved a retrospective survey, followed by a second phase field study to collect standard polysomnographic data during inflight bunk sleep periods. A summary of the Phase I survey results are reported here. A multi-part 54-question retrospective survey was completed by 1,404 flight crew (37% return rate) at three different major US air carriers flying B747-100, 200, 400, and MD- 11 long-haul aircraft. The questions examined demographics, quantity and quality of sleep at home and in onboard bunks, factors that promote or interfere with sleep, and effects on subsequent performance and alertness. Flight crew reported a mean bunk sleep latency of 39.4 mins (SD=28.3 mins) (n=1,276) and a mean total sleep time of 2.2 hrs (SD=1.3 hrs) (n=603). (Different flight lengths could affect overall time available for sleep.) Crew rated 25 factors for their interference or promotion of bunk sleep. Figure I portrays the average ratings for each factor across all three carriers. A principal components analysis of the 25 factors revealed three areas that promoted bunk sleep: physiological (e.g., readiness for sleep), physical environment (e.g., bunk size, privacy), and personal comfort (e.g., blankets, pillows). Five areas were identified that interfered with sleep: environmental disturbance (e.g., background noise, turbulence), luminosity (e.g., lighting), personal disturbances (e.g., bathroom trips, random thoughts), environmental discomfort (e.g., low humidity, cold), and interpersonal disturbances (e

  3. Public health response to commercial airline travel of a person with Ebola virus infection - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Regan, Joanna J; Jungerman, Robynne; Montiel, Sonia H; Newsome, Kimberly; Objio, Tina; Washburn, Faith; Roland, Efrosini; Petersen, Emily; Twentyman, Evelyn; Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Naughton, Mary; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Lippold, Susan A; Tabony, Laura; McCarty, Carolyn L; Kinsey, Cara Bicking; Barnes, Meghan; Black, Stephanie; Azzam, Ihsan; Stanek, Danielle; Sweitzer, John; Valiani, Anita; Kohl, Katrin S; Brown, Clive; Pesik, Nicki

    2015-01-30

    Before the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, there were few documented cases of symptomatic Ebola patients traveling by commercial airline, and no evidence of transmission to passengers or crew members during airline travel. In July 2014 two persons with confirmed Ebola virus infection who were infected early in the Nigeria outbreak traveled by commercial airline while symptomatic, involving a total of four flights (two international flights and two Nigeria domestic flights). It is not clear what symptoms either of these two passengers experienced during flight; however, one collapsed in the airport shortly after landing, and the other was documented to have fever, vomiting, and diarrhea on the day the flight arrived. Neither infected passenger transmitted Ebola to other passengers or crew on these flights. In October 2014, another airline passenger, a U.S. health care worker who had traveled domestically on two commercial flights, was confirmed to have Ebola virus infection. Given that the time of onset of symptoms was uncertain, an Ebola airline contact investigation in the United States was conducted. In total, follow-up was conducted for 268 contacts in nine states, including all 247 passengers from both flights, 12 flight crew members, eight cleaning crew members, and one federal airport worker (81 of these contacts were documented in a report published previously). All contacts were accounted for by state and local jurisdictions and followed until completion of their 21-day incubation periods. No secondary cases of Ebola were identified in this investigation, confirming that transmission of Ebola during commercial air travel did not occur.

  4. Understanding Cataract Risk in Aerospace Flight Crew And Review of Mechanisms of Cataract Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; McCarten, M.; Manuel, K.; Djojonegoro, B.; Murray, J.; Cucinotta, F.; Feiversen, A.; Wear, M.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of cataracts by occupational exposure in flight crew has been an important topic of interest in aerospace medicine in the past five years, in association with numerous reports of flight-associated disease incidences. Due to numerous confounding variables, it has been difficult to determine if there is increased cataract risk directly caused by interaction with the flight environment, specifically associated with added radiation exposure during flight. Military aviator records from the United States Air Force (USAF) and Navy (USN) and US astronauts at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) were evaluated for the presence, location and age of diagnosis of cataracts. Military aviators were found to have a statistically significant younger average age of onset of their cataracts compared with astronauts, however the incidence density of cataracts was found to be statistically higher in astronauts than in military aviators. USAF and USN aviator s cataracts were most commonly located in the posterior subcapsular region of the lens while astronauts cataracts were most likely to originate generally in the cortical zone. A prospective clinical trial which controls for confounding variables in examination technique, cataract classification, diet, exposure, and pharmacological intervention is needed to determine what percentage of the risk for cataracts are due to radiation, and how to best develop countermeasures to protect flight crews from radiation bioeffects in the future.

  5. Crew factors in flight operations. 8: Factors influencing sleep timing and subjective sleep quality in commercial long-haul flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Connell, Linda J.; Gregory, Kevin B.

    1991-01-01

    How flight crews organize their sleep during layovers on long-haul trips is documented. Additionally, environmental and physiological constraints on sleep are examined. In the trips studied, duty periods averaging 10.3 hr alternated with layovers averaging 24.8 hr, which typically included two subject-defined sleep episodes. The circadian system had a greater influence on the timing and duration of first-sleeps than second-sleeps. There was also a preference for sleeping during the local night. The time of falling asleep for second-sleeps was related primarily to the amount of sleep already obtained in the layover, and their duration depended on the amount of time remaining in the layover. For both first- and second-sleeps, sleep durations were longer when subjects fell asleep earlier with respect to the minimum of the circadian temperature cycle. Naps reported during layovers and on the flight deck may be a useful strategy for reducing cumulative sleep loss. The circadian system was not able to synchronize with the rapid series of time-zone shifts. The sleep/wake cycle was forced to adopt a period different from that of the circadian system. Flight and duty time regulations are a means of ensuring that reasonable minimum rest periods are provided. This study clearly documents that there are physiologically and environmentally determined preferred sleep times within a layover. The actual time available for sleep is thus less than the scheduled rest period.

  6. Flight summaries and temperature climatology at airliner cruise altitudes from GASP (Global Atmospheric Sampling Program) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.

  7. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  8. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism

    PubMed Central

    Ekeberg, Øivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986. PMID:24934082

  9. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Oivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986.

  10. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  11. Evaluation of Cabin Crew Technical Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa G.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Jordan, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Accident and incident reports have indicated that flight attendants have numerous opportunities to provide the flight-deck crew with operational information that may prevent or essen the severity of a potential problem. Additionally, as carrier fleets transition from three person to two person flight-deck crews, the reliance upon the cabin crew for the transfer of this information may increase further. Recent research (Chute & Wiener, 1996) indicates that light attendants do not feel confident in their ability to describe mechanical parts or malfunctions of the aircraft, and the lack of flight attendant technical training has been referenced in a number of recent reports (National Transportation Safety Board, 1992; Transportation Safety Board of Canada, 1995; Chute & Wiener, 1996). The present study explored both flight attendant technical knowledge and flight attendant and dot expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge. To assess the technical knowledge if cabin crewmembers, 177 current flight attendants from two U.S. carriers voluntarily :ompleted a 13-item technical quiz. To investigate expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge, 181 pilots and a second sample of 96 flight attendants, from the same two airlines, completed surveys designed to capture each group's expectations of operational knowledge required of flight attendants. Analyses revealed several discrepancies between the present level of flight attendants.

  12. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Don Pettit, Flight Engineer 2/ International Space Station (ISS) Science Officer (SO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 member Don Pettit (Flight Engineer 2/ International Space Station (ISS) Science Officer (SO)) is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Pettit, who had been training as a backup crewmember, discusses the importance of training backups for ISS missions. He gives details on the goals and significance of the ISS, regarding experiments in various scientific disciplines such as the life sciences and physical sciences. Pettit also comments on the value of conducting experiments under microgravity. He also gives an overview of the ISS program to date, including the ongoing construction, international aspects, and the routines of ISS crewmembers who inhabit the station for four months at a time. He gives a cursory description of crew transfer procedures that will take place when STS-113 docks with ISS to drop off Pettit and the rest of Expedition 6, and retrieve the Expedition 5 crew.

  13. Crew Alertness Management on the Flight Deck: Cognitive and Vigilance Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.

    1998-01-01

    This project had three broad goals: (1) to identify environmental and organismic risks to performance of long-haul cockpit crews; (2) to assess how cognitive and psychomotor vigilance performance, and subjective measures of alertness, were affected by work-rest schedules typical of long-haul cockpit crews; and (3) to determine the alertness-promoting effectiveness of behavioral and technological countermeasures to fatigue on the flight deck. During the course of the research, a number of studies were completed in cooperation with the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The publications emerging from this project are listed in a bibliography in the appendix. Progress toward these goals will be summarized below according to the period in which it was accomplished.

  14. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  15. Airport ramp safety and crew performance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Roy; Drew, Charles; Patten, Marcia; Matchette, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined 182 ramp operations incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, to determine which factors influence ramp operation incidents. It was found that incidents occurred more often during aircraft arrival operations than during departure operations; incidents occurred most often at the gate stop area, less so at the gate entry/exit areas, and least on the ramp fringe areas; and reporters cited fewer incidents when more ground crew were present. The authors offer suggestions for both airline management and flight crews to reduce the rate of ramp incidents.

  16. Synthetic Vision for Airliners and General Aviaion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'Video News Release'(?) for AWIN, the Aviation Weather Information Network. Includes animations. Narration: Bad weather and poor visibility can be potentially hazardous to aircraft and flight crews. Both can contribute to deadly accidents. The NASA Aviation Safety Program is working on innovative cockpit technologies that could help pilots avoid flying into rough weather, terrain or obstacles. Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) - a 'weather channel' in the sky - would give flight crews, air-traffic controllers and airline dispatchers timely moving map displays to help them make better re-routing decisions. 'Synthetic vision' would offer pilots a clear electronic picture including topography, traffic, even airport runways. Sensors, sattellites and terrain databases would create a kind of virtual-reality of what's outside - no matter what the weather or time of day. NASA isn't working alone to make air travel safer, it is teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry to develop new systems for airliners and general aviation aircraft. Their partnership is expected to make a difference worldwide and ensure many safe and smooth landings

  17. Crew Recovery and Contingency Planning for a Manned Stratospheric Balloon Flight - the StratEx Program.

    PubMed

    Menon, Anil S; Jourdan, David; Nusbaum, Derek M; Garbino, Alejandro; Buckland, Daniel M; Norton, Sean; Clark, Johnathan B; Antonsen, Erik L

    2016-10-01

    The StratEx program used a self-contained space suit and balloon system to loft pilot Alan Eustace to a record-breaking altitude and skydive from 135,897 feet (41,422 m). After releasing from the balloon and a stabilized freefall, the pilot safely landed using a parachute system based on a modified tandem parachute rig. A custom spacesuit provided life support using a similar system to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Washington, DC USA) Extravehicular Mobility Unit. It also provided tracking, communications, and connection to the parachute system. A recovery support team, including at least two medical personnel and two spacesuit technicians, was charged with reaching the pilot within five minutes of touchdown to extract him from the suit and provide treatment for any injuries. The team had to track the flight at all times, be prepared to respond in case of premature release, and to operate in any terrain. Crew recovery operations were planned and tailored to anticipate outcomes during this novel event in a systematic fashion, through scenario and risk analysis, in order to minimize the probability and impact of injury. This analysis, detailed here, helped the team configure recovery assets, refine navigation and tracking systems, develop procedures, and conduct training. An extensive period of testing and practice culminated in three manned flights leading to a successful mission and setting the record for exit altitude, distance of fall with stabilizing device, and vertical speed with a stabilizing device. During this mission, recovery teams reached the landing spot within one minute, extracted the pilot, and confirmed that he was not injured. This strategy is presented as an approach to prehospital planning and care for improved safety during crew recovery in novel, extreme events. Menon AS , Jourdan D , Nusbaum DM , Garbino A , Buckland DM , Norton S , Clark JB , Antonsen EL . Crew recovery and contingency planning for a manned

  18. Evaluation of Flight Deck-Based Interval Management Crew Procedure Feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic demand is predicted to increase over the next 20 years, creating a need for new technologies and procedures to support this growth in a safe and efficient manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration - 1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The integration of these technologies will increase throughput, reduce delay, conserve fuel, and minimize environmental impacts. The ground-based tools include Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering for precise time-based scheduling and Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools for better managing aircraft delay with speed control. The core airborne technology in ATD-1 is Flight deck-based Interval Management (FIM). FIM tools provide pilots with speed commands calculated using information from Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast. The precise merging and spacing enabled by FIM avionics and flight crew procedures will reduce excess spacing buffers and result in higher terminal throughput. This paper describes a human-in-the-loop experiment designed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the ATD-1 procedures used in a voice communications environment. This experiment utilized the ATD-1 integrated system of ground-based and airborne technologies. Pilot participants flew a high-fidelity fixed base simulator equipped with an airborne spacing algorithm and a FIM crew interface. Experiment scenarios involved multiple air traffic flows into the Dallas-Fort Worth Terminal Radar Control airspace. Results indicate that the proposed procedures were feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment. The delivery accuracy at the achieve-by point was within +/- five seconds and the delivery precision was less than five seconds. Furthermore, FIM speed commands occurred at a rate of less than one per minute

  19. Crew factors in flight operations 9: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Dinges, David F.; Connell, Linda J.; Rountree, Michael S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Gillen, Kelly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period to improve alertness and performance in long-haul flight operations. The Rest Group (12 crew members) was allowed a planned 40 minute rest period during the low workload, cruise portion of the flight, while the No-Rest Group (9 crew members) had a 40 minute planned control period when they maintained usual flight activities. Measures used in the study included continuous ambulatory recordings of brain wave and eye movement activity, a reaction time/vigilance task, a wrist activity monitor, in-flight fatigue and alertness ratings, a daily log for noting sleep periods, meals, exercise, flight and duty periods, and the NASA Background Questionnaire. The Rest Group pilots slept on 93 percent of the opportunities, falling asleep in 5.6 minutes and sleeping for 25.8 minutes. This nap was associated with improved physiological alertness and performance compared to the No-Rest Group. The benefits of the nap were observed through the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The nap did not affect layover sleep or the cumulative sleep debt. The nap procedures were implemented with minimal disruption to usual flight operations and there were no reported or identified concerns regarding safety.

  20. STS-57 traditional onboard crew portrait on flight deck of Endeavour, OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right in the front row are Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff, Pilot Brian J. Duffy, MS4 Janice E. Voss with Commander Ronald J. Grabe, MS2 Nancy J. Sherlock, and Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low in the back (left to right). The window shades are in place on overhead windows W7 and W8.

  1. STS-57 traditional onboard crew portrait on flight deck of Endeavour, OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right in the front are Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low (left) and Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff. Behind them (left to right) are Commander Ronald J. Grabe, Pilot Brian J. Duffy, MS4 Janice E. Voss, and MS2 Nancy J. Sherlock. Sunlight shines through overhead windows W7 and W8.

  2. STS-31 crew monitors Hubble Space Telescope (HST) from OV-103's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A 'fish eye' lens captured this overall view of the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, while the STS-31 crewmembers were monitoring the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) deployment checkout procedures. From front to back are Commander Loren J. Shriver, Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley, and MS Bruce McCandless II looking up at overhead windows W7 and W8 and the HST on the remote manipulator system (RMS) outside them. The onorbit station control panels appear in front of the crewmembers and the ongoing scene outside the crew cabin is mirrored in the closed circuit television (CCTV) screens on McCandless' right.

  3. LOFT Debriefings: An Analysis of Instructor Techniques and Crew Participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Jobe, Kimberly K.; McDonnell, Lori K.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyzes techniques instructors use to facilitate crew analysis and evaluation of their Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) performance. A rating instrument called the Debriefing Assessment Battery (DAB) was developed which enables raters to reliably assess instructor facilitation techniques and characterize crew participation. Thirty-six debriefing sessions conducted at five U.S. airlines were analyzed to determine the nature of instructor facilitation and crew participation. Ratings obtained using the DAB corresponded closely with descriptive measures of instructor and crew performance. The data provide empirical evidence that facilitation can be an effective tool for increasing the depth of crew participation and self-analysis of CRM performance. Instructor facilitation skill varied dramatically, suggesting a need for more concrete hands-on training in facilitation techniques. Crews were responsive but fell short of actively leading their own debriefings. Ways to improve debriefing effectiveness are suggested.

  4. Tricresyl phosphate and the aerotoxic syndrome of flight crew members--current gaps in knowledge.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jacob; Antelo, Angel; van der Veen, Ike; Brandsma, Sicco; Lammertse, Nienke

    2015-01-01

    Tricresyl phosphate (TCP), and in particular its tri-ortho substituted isomer (o,o,o-TCP), has been frequently used in aircraft engine oil. Bleed air, provided to the flight deck and cabin can contain traces of TCP. TCP can cause neurotoxic effects in humans. Regularly, airline pilots complain about loss of memory, headaches, dizziness, tunnel vision and other neurotoxic effects. The concentrations of TCP reported in flight deck air (max. ca. 50-100 ng m(-3) total TCP) do not exceed provisional toxicity thresholds. These thresholds, however, contain a very high uncertainty and need further underpinning. The many non-detects and relatively low TCP concentrations reported suggest that TCP on its own is not likely to be responsible for the reported health problems of pilots. Specific conditions in air planes and other toxic compounds present in bleed air, whether or not in combination with TCP, may be responsible for the reported neurotoxic syndromes. Sensitivity of individuals seems to be an important factor as well. The clinical signs observed with a selected group of pilots are serious enough to call for further elucidation of this issue.

  5. In-Flight Medical Incapacitation and Impairment of U.S. Airline Pilots: 1993 to 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    diabetes , pulmonary embolism, cerebral vascular accident, atrial fibrillation, and intestinal hemorrhage of unknown etiology. For- tunately, none of... diabetes (4). Preston attributed the low incidence of cardiovascular groundings to possible Anglo-Saxon racial differences between this group of pilots...in-flight medical incapacita- tion included hypoxia (2), diabetes (1), decompression sickness (1), vascular (1), reaction to medication (1) and

  6. Some Aspects of Psychophysiological Support of Crew Member's Performance Reliability in Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, A. P.; Myasnikov, V. I.; Stepanova, S. I.; Isaev, G. F.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    The history of cosmonautics demonstrates many instances in which only crewmembers' intervention allowed critical situations to be resolved, or catastrophes to be prevented. However, during "crew-spacecraft" system operation human is exposed by influence of numerous flight factors, and beforehand it is very difficult to predict their effects on his functional state and work capacity. So, the incidents are known when unfavorable alterations of crewmember's psychophysiological state (PPS) provoked errors in task performance. The objective of the present investigation was to substantiate the methodological approach directed to increase reliability of a crewmember performance (human error prevention) by means of management of his/her PPS. The specific aims of the investigation were: 1) to evaluate the statistical significance of the interrelation between crew errors (CE) and crewmember's PPS, and 2) to develop the way of PPS management. At present, there is no conventional method to assess combined effect of flight conditions (microgravity, confinement, psychosocial factors, etc.) on crewmembers' PPS. For this purpose experts of the Medical Support Group (psychoneurologists and psychologists) at the Moscow Mission Control Center analyze information received during radio and TV contacts with crew. Peculiarities of behavior, motor activity, sleep, speech, mood, emotional reactions, well-being and sensory sphere, trend of dominant interests and volitional acts, signs of deprivation phenomena are considered as separate indicators of crewmember's PPS. The set of qualitative symptoms reflecting PPS alterations and corresponding to them ratings (in arbitrary units) was empirically stated for each indicator. It is important to emphasize that symptoms characterizing more powerful PPS alterations have higher ratings. Quantitative value of PPS integral parameter is calculating by adding up the ratings of all separate indicators over a day, a week, or other temporal interval (in

  7. Crew Factors in Flight Operations 7: Psychophysiological Responses to Overnight Cargo Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Connell, Linda J.; Miller, Donna L.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    To document the psychophysiological effects of flying overnight cargo operations, 41 B-727 crew members (average age 38 yr) were monitored before, during, and after one of two typical 8-day trip patterns. During daytime layovers, the average sleep episode was 3 hr (41%) shorter than nighttime sleeps and was rated as lighter, less restorative, and poorer overall. Sleep was frequently split into several episodes and totaled 1.2 hr less per 24 hr than on pretrip days. Each trip pattern included a night off, which was an effective countermeasure against the accumulating sleep debt. The organization of sleep during daytime layovers reflected the interaction of duty timing with circadian physiology. The circadian temperature rhythm did not adapt completely to the inverted wake-rest schedule on duty days, being delayed by about 3 hr. Highest subjective fatigue and lowest activation occurred around the time of the temperature minimum. On duty days, reports of headaches increased by 400%, of congested nose by 200%, and of burning eyes by 900%. Crew members also reported eating more snacks. Compared with daytime short-haul air-transport operations, the overnight cargo trips included fewer duty and flight hours, and had longer layovers. Overnight cargo crews also averaged 5.4 yr younger than their daytime short-haul counterparts. On trips, both groups lost a comparable amount of sleep per 24 hr, but the overnight cargo crews had shorter individual sleep episodes and more broken sleep. These data clearly demonstrate that overnight cargo operations, like other night work, involve physiological disruption not found in comparable daytime operations.

  8. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 3: The operational significance of exposure to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.; Lauber, J. K.; Baetge, M. M.; Acomb, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive flightcrew fatigue has potentially serious safety consequences. Laboratory studies have implicated fatigue as a causal factor associated with varying levels of performance deterioration depending on the amount of fatigue and the type of measure utilized in assessing performance. These studies have been of limited utility because of the difficulty of relating laboratory task performance to the demands associated with the operation of a complex aircraft. The performance of 20 volunteer twin-jet transport crews is examined in a full-mission simulator scenario that included most aspects of an actual line operation. The scenario included both routine flight operations and an unexpected mechanical abnormality which resulted in a high level of crew workload. Half of the crews flew the simulation within two to three hours after completing a three-day, high-density, short-haul duty cycle (Post-Duty condition). The other half flew the scenario after a minimum of three days off duty (Pre-Duty) condition). The results revealed that, not surprisingly, Post-Duty crews were significantly more fatigued than Pre-Duty crews. However, a somewhat counter-intuitive pattern of results emerged on the crew performancemeasures. In general, the performance of Post-Duty crews was significantly better than that of Pre-Duty crews, as rated by an expert observer on a number of dimensions relevant to flight safety. Analyses of the flightcrew communication patterns revealed that Post-Duty crews communicated significantly more overall, suggesting, as has previous research, that communication is a good predictor of overall crew performance.

  9. Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  11. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM): A tool for improved flight safety (United Airlines CRM training)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. E.; Taggart, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The approach and methodology used in developing cockpit management skills is effective because of the following features: (1) A comparative method of learning is used enabling crewmembers to study different forms of teamwork. (2) The learning comes about as a result of crewmembers learning from one another instead of from an expert instructor. (3) Key elements of cockpit teamwork and effective management are studied so that crewmembers can determine how these elements can improve safety and problem solving. (4) Critique among the crewmembers themselves rather than from outsiders is used as a common focusing point for crews to provide feedback to one another on how each can be a more effective crewmember. (5) The training is continuous in the sense that it becomes part of recurrent, upgrade, and other forms of crewmember training and development. And (6) the training results in sound and genuine insights that come about through solid education as opposed to tutoring, coaching, or telling crewmembers how to behave more effectively.

  12. A Comparison of Center/TRACON Automation System and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Benefits from information sharing between an air traffic service provider and a major air carrier are evaluated. Aircraft arrival time schedules generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) were provided to the American Airlines System Operations Control Center in Fort Worth, Texas, during a field trial of a specialized CTAS display. A statistical analysis indicates that the CTAS schedules, based on aircraft trajectories predicted from real-time radar and weather data, are substantially more accurate than the traditional airline arrival time estimates, constructed from flight plans and en route crew updates. The improvement offered by CTAS is especially advantageous during periods of heavy traffic and substantial terminal area delay, allowing the airline to avoid large predictive errors with serious impact on the efficiency and profitability of flight operations.

  13. Statistical Survey of Icing Data Measured on Scheduled Airline Flights over the United States and Canada from November 1951 to June 1952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J

    1955-01-01

    A statistical survey and a preliminary analysis are made of icing data collected from scheduled flights over the United States and Canada from November 1951 to June 1952 by airline aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters. This interim report presents information obtained from a continuing program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of the airlines. An analysis of over 600 icing encounters logged by three airlines operating in the United States, one operating in Canada and one operating up the coast to Alaska, is presented. The icing conditions encountered provided relative frequencies of many icing-cloud variables, such as horizontal extent, vertical thickness, temperatures, icing rate, liquid-water content, and total ice accumulation. Liquid-water contents were higher than data from earlier research flights in layer-type clouds but slightly lower than previous data from cumulus clouds. Broken-cloud conditions, indicated by intermittent icing, accounted for nearly one-half of all the icing encounters. About 90 percent of the encounters did not exceed a distance of 120 miles, and continuous icing did not exceed 50 miles for 90 percent of the unbroken conditions. Icing cloud thicknesses measured during climbs and descents were less than 4500 feet for 90 percent of the vertical cloud traverses.

  14. Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei

    This research focuses on dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of large flexible launch vehicles such as the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A complete set of six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic models of the Ares-I, incorporating its propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, and structural flexibility, is developed. NASA's Ares-I reference model and the SAVANT Simulink-based program are utilized to develop a Matlab-based simulation and linearization tool for an independent validation of the performance and stability of the ascent flight control system of large flexible launch vehicles. A linearized state-space model as well as a non-minimum-phase transfer function model (which is typical for flexible vehicles with non-collocated actuators and sensors) are validated for ascent flight control design and analysis. This research also investigates fundamental principles of flight control analysis and design for launch vehicles, in particular the classical "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack can significantly improve overall performance and stability, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbances. For a typical "non-collocated actuator and sensor" control problem for large flexible launch vehicles, non-minimum-phase filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes is also shown to be effective. The uncertainty model of a flexible launch vehicle is derived. The robust stability of an ascent flight control system design, which directly controls the inertial attitude-error quaternion and also employs the non-minimum-phase filters, is verified by the framework of structured singular value (mu) analysis. Furthermore, nonlinear coupled dynamic simulation results are presented for a reference model of the Ares-I CLV as another validation of the feasibility of the ascent flight control system design. Another important issue for a single main engine launch vehicle is

  15. Assessing and Promoting Functional Resilience in Flight Crews During Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    NASA plans to send humans to Mars in about 20 years. The NASA Human Research Program supports research to mitigate the major risks to human health and performance on extended missions. However, there will undoubtedly be unforeseen events on any mission of this nature - thus mitigation of known risks alone is not sufficient to ensure optimal crew health and performance. Research should be directed not only to mitigating known risks, but also to providing crews with the tools to assess and enhance resilience, as a group and individually. We can draw on ideas from complexity theory and network theory to assess crew and individual resilience. The entire crew or the individual crewmember can be viewed as a complex system that is composed of subsystems (individual crewmembers or physiological subsystems), and the interactions between subsystems are of crucial importance for overall health and performance. An understanding of the structure of the interactions can provide important information even in the absence of complete information on the component subsystems. This is critical in human spaceflight, since insufficient flight opportunities exist to elucidate the details of each subsystem. Enabled by recent advances in noninvasive measurement of physiological and behavioral parameters, subsystem monitoring can be implemented within a mission and also during preflight training to establish baseline values and ranges. Coupled with appropriate mathematical modeling, this can provide real-time assessment of health and function, and detect early indications of imminent breakdown. Since the interconnected web of physiological systems (and crewmembers) can be interpreted as a network in mathematical terms, we can draw on recent work that relates the structure of such networks to their resilience (ability to self-organize in the face of perturbation). There are many parameters and interactions to choose from. Normal variability is an established characteristic of a healthy

  16. X-15 flight crew - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force Major William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. These six pilots made 125 of the 199 total flights in the X-15. Rushworth made 34 flights (the most of any X-15 pilot); McKay flew 29 times; Engle, Knight, and Dana each flew 16 times; Thompson's total was 14. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  17. The European project CASAM for the protection of commercial airliners in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergnolle, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    As part of mass transportation systems, commercial aircraft are a potential target for terrorists because they represent one of the best achievements of our society. As a result, an attack would have a large psychological impact on people and economic activity. Several European Commission-funded Research and Technology programs, such as SAFEE and PALMA, are dedicated to technologies and systems that will be implemented onboard aircraft in the near future to increase the security of commercial flights. One of these programs, CASAM, is focusing on a potential solution to reduce aircraft vulnerability against Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) during takeoff, ascent and landing. A specific onboard jamming system will be developed, meeting stringent yet competitive requirements that deal with high reliability, low cost and minimal installation constraints. The overall objective of the CASAM Project1 is to design and validate a closed-loop, laser-based DIRCM (Directed IR Countermeasure) module for jamming fired missiles. It will comply with commercial air transportation constraints, including the normal air traffic control rules. For example, the following aspects will be considered: - Environmental friendliness for ground objects and inhabitants close to airports, aircraft safety (maintenance, handling and usage) and high efficiency against the recognized threats; - Upgradability for further and future disseminated threats - Adherence to commercial operation budgets and processes

  18. Modeling Relationships Between Flight Crew Demographics and Perceptions of Interval Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remy, Benjamin; Wilson, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted to assess interval management system performance and participants' acceptability and workload while performing three interval management clearance types. Twenty-four subject pilots and eight subject controllers flew ten high-density arrival scenarios into Denver International Airport during two weeks of data collection. This analysis examined the possible relationships between subject pilot demographics on reported perceptions of interval management in IMAC. Multiple linear regression models were created with a new software tool to predict subject pilot questionnaire item responses from demographic information. General patterns were noted across models that may indicate flight crew demographics influence perceptions of interval management.

  19. STS-107 crew look over experiments in a flight configured module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At SPACEHAB, Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-107 crew look over experiments for their mission. Pilot William 'Willie' McCool (left) displays a glove box experiment for the trainers (right). STS-107 has two payload elements, the Double Module in its first flight into space and a Hitchhiker payload. The experiments range from material sciences to life sciences (many rats). The Hitchhiker carrier system is modular and expandable in accordance with payload requirements. Hitchhiker experiments are housed in canisters or attached to mounting plates. The Hitchhiker canister comes in two varieties--the Hitchhiker Motorized Door Canister and the Sealed Canisters. STS-107 is scheduled to launch in June 2002

  20. Enhanced data reduction of the velocity data on CETA flight experiment. [Crew and Equipment Translation Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  1. An analysis of the application of AI to the development of intelligent aids for flight crew tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Feehrer, C.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study aimed at developing a basis for applying artificial intelligence to the flight deck environment of commercial transport aircraft. In particular, the study was comprised of four tasks: (1) analysis of flight crew tasks, (2) survey of the state-of-the-art of relevant artificial intelligence areas, (3) identification of human factors issues relevant to intelligent cockpit aids, and (4) identification of artificial intelligence areas requiring further research.

  2. Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

  3. Summary of a Crew-Centered Flight Deck Design Philosophy for High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael T.; Rogers, William H.; Press, Hayes N.; Latorella, Kara A.; Abbott, Terence S.

    1995-01-01

    Past flight deck design practices used within the U.S. commercial transport aircraft industry have been highly successful in producing safe and efficient aircraft. However, recent advances in automation have changed the way pilots operate aircraft, and these changes make it necessary to reconsider overall flight deck design. Automated systems have become more complex and numerous, and often their inner functioning is partially or fully opaque to the flight crew. Recent accidents and incidents involving autoflight system mode awareness Dornheim, 1995) are an example. This increase in complexity raises pilot concerns about the trustworthiness of automation, and makes it difficult for the crew to be aware of all the intricacies of operation that may impact safe flight. While pilots remain ultimately responsible for mission success, performance of flight deck tasks has been more widely distributed across human and automated resources. Advances in sensor and data integration technologies now make far more information available than may be prudent to present to the flight crew.

  4. Design of a cooperative problem-solving system for enroute flight planning: An empirical study of its use by airline dispatchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, C. Elaine; Layton, Charles; Orasanu, Judith; Chappel, Sherry; Palmer, EV; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    In a previous report, an empirical study of 30 pilots using the Flight Planning Testbed was reported. An identical experiment using the Flight Planning Testbed (FPT), except that 27 airline dispatchers were studied, is described. Five general questions were addressed in this study: (1) under what circumstances do the introduction of computer-generated suggestions (flight plans) influence the planning behavior of dispatchers (either in a beneficial or adverse manner); (2) what is the nature of such influences (i.e., how are the person's cognitive processes changed); (3) how beneficial are the general design concepts underlying FPT (use of a graphical interface, embedding graphics in a spreadsheet, etc.); (4) how effective are the specific implementation decisions made in realizing these general design concepts; and (5) how effectively do dispatchers evaluate situations requiring replanning, and how effectively do they identify appropriate solutions to these situations.

  5. Medical assistance during commercial airline flights: analysis of 11 years experience of the Paris Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) between 1989 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Szmajer, M; Rodriguez, P; Sauval, P; Charetteur, M P; Derossi, A; Carli, P

    2001-08-01

    Emergencies arising during commercial airline flights may have serious consequences. We report the experience of the Paris Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) in providing in-flight assistance to Air France between 1989 and 1999. During this period medical advice was sought 380 times during the carriage of about 350 million passengers. Analysis of the patient files suggests that serious emergencies were rare and that cardiopulmonary resuscitation was required only exceptionally. However the relative frequency of cardiac and neurological emergencies in our analysis supports the necessity of carrying adequate medical equipment and of having direct access to expert medical advice. The results suggest the requirement for a rigorous prospective epidemiological study of in-flight emergencies to evaluate the effectiveness of current practice and possible modifications of equipment and protocols for patient management.

  6. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  7. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XV: Alertness Management in General Aviation Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Cannon, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  8. The STS-95 crew and their families prepare for their return flight to JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station, members of the STS-95 crew and their families prepare for their return flight to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Shown are (left to right) Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Pilot Steven W. Lindsey (with his daughter); Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts; Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  9. The STS-95 crew and their families prepare for their return flight to JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station, STS-95 Pilot Steven W. Lindsey (left), Lindsey's daughter (front), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (right), a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts, give a thumbs up on the success of the mission. Members of the STS-95 crew and their families prepared for their return flight to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. Others returning were Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  10. Flight Crew Responses to the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Roper, Roy D.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) was a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment conducted to explore the efficacy and acceptability of three IM operations: CAPTURE, CROSS, and MAINTAIN. Two weeks of data collection were conducted, with each week using twelve subject pilots and four subject controllers flying ten high-density arrival scenarios into the Denver International Airport. Overall, both the IM operations and procedures were rated very favorably by the flight crew in terms of acceptability, workload, and pilot head down time. However, several critical issues were identified requiring resolution prior to real-world implementation, including the high frequency of IM speed commands, IM speed commands requiring changes to aircraft configuration, and ambiguous IM cockpit displays that did not trigger the intended pilot reaction. The results from this experiment will be used to prepare for a flight test in 2017, and to support the development of an advanced IM concept of operations by the FAA (Federal Aviation Agency) and aviation industry.

  11. NASA Structural Analysis Report on the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident - Local Analysis of the Right Rear Lug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Mason, Brian H; Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan; Davila, Carlos G

    2005-01-01

    A detailed finite element analysis of the right rear lug of the American Airlines Flight 587 - Airbus A300-600R was performed as part of the National Transportation Safety Board s failure investigation of the accident that occurred on November 12, 2001. The loads experienced by the right rear lug are evaluated using global models of the vertical tail, local models near the right rear lug, and a global-local analysis procedure. The right rear lug was analyzed using two modeling approaches. In the first approach, solid-shell type modeling is used, and in the second approach, layered-shell type modeling is used. The solid-shell and the layered-shell modeling approaches were used in progressive failure analyses (PFA) to determine the load, mode, and location of failure in the right rear lug under loading representative of an Airbus certification test conducted in 1985 (the 1985-certification test). Both analyses were in excellent agreement with each other on the predicted failure loads, failure mode, and location of failure. The solid-shell type modeling was then used to analyze both a subcomponent test conducted by Airbus in 2003 (the 2003-subcomponent test) and the accident condition. Excellent agreement was observed between the analyses and the observed failures in both cases. From the analyses conducted and presented in this paper, the following conclusions were drawn. The moment, Mx (moment about the fuselage longitudinal axis), has significant effect on the failure load of the lugs. Higher absolute values of Mx give lower failure loads. The predicted load, mode, and location of the failure of the 1985-certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident condition are in very good agreement. This agreement suggests that the 1985-certification and 2003- subcomponent tests represent the accident condition accurately. The failure mode of the right rear lug for the 1985-certification test, 2003-subcomponent test, and the accident load case is identified as a

  12. 76 FR 23109 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... flights. For example, Condor Flugdienst Airlines (Condor) states that it sees no reason to enforce a... carriers that commented, Condor Airlines notes that when a longer delay becomes inevitable, Condor has... medical attention, Condor states that its flight attendants are capable of providing basic first aid...

  13. Autonomous, In-Flight Crew Health Risk Management for Exploration-Class Missions: Leveraging the Integrated Medical Model for the Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. J.; Kerstman, E.; Saile, L.; Myers, J.; Walton, M.; Lopez, V.; McGrath, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) captures organizational knowledge across the space medicine, training, operations, engineering, and research domains. IMM uses this knowledge in the context of a mission and crew profile to forecast risks to crew health and mission success. The IMM establishes a quantified, statistical relationship among medical conditions, risk factors, available medical resources, and crew health and mission outcomes. These relationships may provide an appropriate foundation for developing an in-flight medical decision support tool that helps optimize the use of medical resources and assists in overall crew health management by an autonomous crew with extremely limited interactions with ground support personnel and no chance of resupply.

  14. The Integrated Medical Model - Optimizing In-flight Space Medical Systems to Reduce Crew Health Risk and Mission Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Myers, Jerry; Butler, Doug; Lyengar, Sriram; Fitts, Mary; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool used by medical system planners and designers as they prepare for exploration planning activities of the Constellation program (CxP). IMM provides an evidence-based approach to help optimize the allocation of in-flight medical resources for a specified level of risk within spacecraft operational constraints. Eighty medical conditions and associated resources are represented in IMM. Nine conditions are due to Space Adaptation Syndrome. The IMM helps answer fundamental medical mission planning questions such as What medical conditions can be expected? What type and quantity of medical resources are most likely to be used?", and "What is the probability of crew death or evacuation due to medical events?" For a specified mission and crew profile, the IMM effectively characterizes the sequence of events that could potentially occur should a medical condition happen. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew attributes, medical conditions and incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential clinical and crew health end states are established to generate end state probabilities. A Monte Carlo computational method is used to determine the probable outcomes and requires up to 25,000 mission trials to reach convergence. For each mission trial, the pharmaceuticals and supplies required to diagnose and treat prevalent medical conditions are tracked and decremented. The uncertainty of patient response to treatment is bounded via a best-case, worst-case, untreated case algorithm. A Crew Health Index (CHI) metric, developed to account for functional impairment due to a medical condition, provides a quantified measure of risk and enables risk comparisons across mission scenarios. The use of historical in-flight medical data, terrestrial surrogate data as appropriate, and space medicine subject matter expertise has enabled the development of a probabilistic, stochastic decision support tool capable of

  15. Collective efficacy in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkerson, Shanna

    This study investigated the relationships between collective efficacy, teamwork, and team performance. Participants were placed into teams, where they worked together in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center. Each individual was assigned a different role to represent different jobs within an airline (Flight Operations Coordinator, Crew Scheduling, Maintenance, Weather, Flight Scheduling, or Flight Planning.) Participants completed a total of three simulations with an After Action Review between each. Within this setting, both team performance and teamwork behaviors were shown to be positively related to expectations for subsequent performance (collective efficacy). Additionally, teamwork and collective efficacy were not shown to be concomitantly related to subsequent team performance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate existence of performance spirals, and they were not supported. The results of this study were likely impacted by lack of power, as well as a lack of consistency across the three simulations.

  16. Guidelines for line-oriented flight training, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Foushee, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    Current approaches to line-oriented flight training used by six American airlines are described. This recurrent training methodology makes use of a full-crew and full-mission simulation to teach and assess resource management skills, but does not necessarily fulfill requirements for the training and manipulation of all skills.

  17. The role of flight planning in aircrew decision performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepitone, Dave; King, Teresa; Murphy, Miles

    1989-01-01

    The role of flight planning in increasing the safety and decision-making performance of the air transport crews was investigated in a study that involved 48 rated airline crewmembers on a B720 simulator with a model-board-based visual scene and motion cues with three degrees of freedom. The safety performance of the crews was evaluated using videotaped replays of the flight. Based on these evaluations, the crews could be divided into high- and low-safety groups. It was found that, while collecting information before flights, the high-safety crews were more concerned with information about alternative airports, especially the fuel required to get there, and were characterized by making rapid and appropriate decisions during the emergency part of the flight scenario, allowing these crews to make an early diversion to other airports. These results suggest that contingency planning that takes into account alternative courses of action enhances rapid and accurate decision-making under time pressure.

  18. Commercial Flight Crew Decision-Making during Low-Visibility Approach Operations Using Fused Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is investigating revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A fixed-based piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck on the crew's decision-making process during low-visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were neither improved nor adversely impacted by the display concepts. The addition of Enhanced Vision may not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection without being specifically tailored for this application. Existing enhanced vision system procedures were effectively used in the crew decision-making process during approach and missed approach operations but having to forcibly transition from an excellent FLIR image to natural vision by 100 ft above field level was awkward for the pilot-flying.

  19. Autoantibodies to nervous system-specific proteins are elevated in sera of flight crew members: biomarkers for nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Abou-Donia, Mohamed B; Abou-Donia, Martha M; ElMasry, Eman M; Monro, Jean A; Mulder, Michel F A

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive study reports the results of assays performed to detect circulating autoantibodies in a panel of 7 proteins associated with the nervous system (NS) in sera of 12 healthy controls and a group of 34 flight crew members including both pilots and attendants who experienced adverse effects after exposure to air emissions sourced to the ventilation system in their aircrafts and subsequently sought medical attention. The proteins selected represent various types of proteins present in nerve cells that are affected by neuronal degeneration. In the sera samples from flight crew members and healthy controls, immunoglobin (IgG) was measured using Western blotting against neurofilament triplet proteins (NFP), tubulin, microtubule-associated tau proteins (tau), microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), myelin basic protein (MBP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and glial S100B protein. Significant elevation in levels of circulating IgG-class autoantibodies in flight crew members was found. A symptom-free pilot was sampled before symptoms and then again afterward. This pilot developed clinical problems after flying for 45 h in 10 d. Significant increases in autoantibodies were noted to most of the tested proteins in the serum of this pilot after exposure to air emissions. The levels of autoantibodies rose with worsening of his condition compared to the serum sample collected prior to exposure. After cessation of flying for a year, this pilot's clinical condition improved, and eventually he recovered and his serum autoantibodies against nervous system proteins decreased. The case study with this pilot demonstrates a temporal relationship between exposure to air emissions, clinical condition, and level of serum autoantibodies to nervous system-specific proteins. Overall, these results suggest the possible development of neuronal injury and gliosis in flight crew members anecdotally exposed to cabin air emissions containing organophosphates. Thus, increased

  20. Crew Factors in Flight Operations. 8; A Survey of Fatigue Factors in Corporate/Executive A Viation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.

    2000-01-01

    Corporate flight crews face unique challenges including unscheduled flights, quickly changing schedules, extended duty days, long waits, time zone changes, and peripheral tasks. Most corporate operations are regulated by Part 91 FARs which set no flight or duty time limits. The objective of this study was to identify operationally significant factors that may influence fatigue, alertness, and performance in corporate operations. In collaboration with the National Business Aircraft Association and the Flight Safety Foundation, NASA developed and distributed a retrospective survey comprising 107 questions addressing demographics, home sleep habits, flight experience, duty schedules, fatigue during operations, and work environment. Corporate crewmembers returned 1,488 surveys. Respondents averaged 45.2 years of age, had 14.9 years of corporate flying experience, and 9,750 total flight hours. The majority (89%) rated themselves as 'good' or 'very good' sleepers at home. Most (82%) indicated they are subject to call for duty and described an average duty day of 9.9 h. About two-thirds reported having a daily duty time limit and over half (57%) reported a daily flight time limit. Nearly three-quarters (71%) acknowledged having 'nodded off' during a flight. Only 21% reported that their flight departments offer training on fatigue issues. Almost three-quarters (74%) described fatigue as a 'moderate' or 'serious' concern, and a majority (61%) characterized it as a common occurrence. Most (85%) identified fatigue as a 'moderate' or 'serious' safety issue.

  1. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  2. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  3. The impact of cockpit automation on crew coordination and communication. Volume 1: Overview, LOFT evaluations, error severity, and questionnaire data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Palmer, Everett A.; Curry, Renwick E.; Gregorich, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to examine, jointly, cockpit automation and social processes. Automation was varied by the choice of two radically different versions of the DC-9 series aircraft, the traditional DC-9-30, and the glass cockpit derivative, the MD-88. Airline pilot volunteers flew a mission in the simulator for these aircraft. Results show that the performance differences between the crews of the two aircraft were generally small, but where there were differences, they favored the DC-9. There were no criteria on which the MD-88 crews performed better than the DC-9 crews. Furthermore, DC-9 crews rated their own workload as lower than did the MD-88 pilots. There were no significant differences between the two aircraft types with respect to the severity of errors committed during the Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) flight. The attitude questionnaires provided some interesting insights, but failed to distinguish between DC-9 and MD-88 crews.

  4. Probability of illness definition for the Skylab flight crew health stabilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management and analysis of crew and environmental microbiological data from SMEAT and Skylab are discussed. Samples were collected from ten different body sites on each SMEAT and Skylab crew-member on approximately 50 occasions and since several different organisms could be isolated from each sample, several thousand lab reports were generated. These lab reports were coded and entered in a computer file and from the file various tabular summaries were constructed.

  5. Cabin crew stress factors examined.

    PubMed

    Barayan, O S

    1991-05-01

    The impact of reduced cockpit crew on the cabin crew in commercial airlines is examined. One hundred cabin crew members participated in a study to determine what stressors are present in contemporary transport aircraft, the extent of differences in rating context-related and task-related stressors, and the effect of peak versus normal periods of duty time on stress factors. Results indicate that under peak period conditions, context-related factors are more stressful than task-related factors. Recommendations to alleviate cabin crew stress factors include training to maximize crew knowledge and abilities, elevate cabin crew to the same status as cockpit crew, improve the cabin crew certification program, and expose cabin crew to cockpit crew procedures to foster better communication and enhance safety.

  6. Crew health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    Crew health concerns for Space Station Freedom are numerous due to medical hazards from isolation and confinement, internal and external environments, zero gravity effects, occupational exposures, and possible endogenous medical events. The operational crew health program will evolve from existing programs and from life sciences investigations aboard Space Station Freedom to include medical monitoring and certification, medical intervention, health maintenance and countermeasures, psychosocial support, and environmental health monitoring. The knowledge and experience gained regarding crew health issues and needs aboard Space Station Freedom will be used not only to verify requirements and programs for long duration space flight, but also in planning and preparation for Lunar and Mars exploration and colonization.

  7. Airline Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  8. Return to Flight Crew Activities Resource Reel JSC 1988 2 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The crew of the STS-114 Discovery continues to answer questions from the news media about the upcoming mission. Commander Collins thanks NASA for enabling the astronauts to express their thoughts and feelings about procedures during spaceflight and she is also very happy to work for NASA. Pilot James Kelly talks about the pictures that they are now able to take of the external tank. Mission Specialists Wendy Lawrence and Steve Robinson discuss the items that they will be bringing up to the International Space Station. Robinson also talks about mementos of the Space Shuttle Columbia crew that they will be taking to the International Space Station.

  9. Liftoff and Time Equivalent Duration Data Evaluation of Exploration Flight Test 1 Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces high acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are used in the prediction of the internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components. There arises the question about time equivalent (Teq) duration of the liftoff phase and similarity to other launch vehicles. Vibroacoustic engineers require the fatigue-weighted time duration values for qualification testing inputs. In order to determine the Teq for the Space Launch System, NASA's newest launch vehicle, the external microphone data from the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was evaluated. During that evaluation, a trend was observed in the data and the origin of that trend is discussed in this paper. Finally, the Teq values for the EFT-1 Orion MPCV are presented.

  10. NASA Research to Support the Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation that was a review of NASA projects that support airline operations. It covered NASA tasks that have provided new tools to the airline operations center and flight deck including the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool, Dynamic Weather Routes, Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests, and Airplane State Awareness and Prediction Technologies. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  11. The Impact of Data Communications Messages in the Terminal Area on Flight Crew Workload and Eye Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Baxley, Brian T.; Norman, Robert M.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Adams, Cathy A.; Latorella, Kara A.; Lynn, William A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper, to accompany a discussion panel, describes a collaborative FAA and NASA research study to determine the effect Data Communications (Data Comm) messages have on flight crew workload and eye scanning behavior in busy terminal area operations. In the Next Generation Air Transportation System Concept of Operations, for the period 2017-2022, the FAA envisions Data Comm between controllers and the flight crew to become the primary means of communicating non-time critical information. Four research conditions were defined that span current day to future equipage levels (Voice with Paper map, Data Comm with Paper map, Data Comm with Moving Map Display with ownship position displayed, Data Comm with Moving Map, ownship and taxi route displayed), and were used to create arrival and departure scenarios at Boston Logan Airport. Preliminary results for workload, situation awareness, and pilot head-up time are presented here. Questionnaire data indicated that pilot acceptability, workload, and situation awareness ratings were favorable for all of the conditions tested. Pilots did indicate that there were times during final approach and landing when they would prefer not to hear the message chime, and would not be able to make a quick response due to high priority tasks in the cockpit.

  12. Error prevention as developed in airlines.

    PubMed

    Logan, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  13. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-05-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  14. STS-91: Flight Crew Meets with Family and Friends at Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The crew (Commander Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin) take time from their busy schedule to chat with friends and family, at a distance. They also pose for group and single pictures.

  15. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  16. A Flight Deck Decision Support Tool for Autonomous Airborne Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Sharma, Vivek; Vivona, Robert A.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ramiscal, Ermin

    2002-01-01

    NASA is developing a flight deck decision support tool to support research into autonomous operations in a future distributed air/ground traffic management environment. This interactive real-time decision aid, referred to as the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), will enable the flight crew to plan autonomously in the presence of dense traffic and complex flight management constraints. In assisting the flight crew, the AOP accounts for traffic flow management and airspace constraints, schedule requirements, weather hazards, aircraft operational limits, and crew or airline flight-planning goals. This paper describes the AOP and presents an overview of functional and implementation design considerations required for its development. Required AOP functionality is described, its application in autonomous operations research is discussed, and a prototype software architecture for the AOP is presented.

  17. Evaluation of Flight Attendant Technical Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa G.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Accident and incident reports have indicated that flight attendants have numerous opportunities to provide the flight-deck crew with operational information that may prevent or lessen the severity of a potential problem. Additionally, as carrier fleets transition from three person to two person flight-deck crews, the reliance upon the cabin crew for the transfer of this information may increase further. Recent research indicates that flight attendants do not feel confident in their ability to describe mechanical parts or malfunctions of the aircraft, and the lack of flight attendant technical training has been referenced in a number of recent reports. Chute and Wiener describe five factors which may produce communication barriers between cockpit and cabin crews: the historical background of aviation, the physical separation of the two crews, psychosocial issues, regulatory factors, and organizational factors. By examining these areas of division we can identify possible bridges and address the implications of deficient cockpit/cabin communication on flight safety. Flight attendant operational knowledge may provide some mitigation of these barriers. The present study explored both flight attendant technical knowledge and flight attendant and pilot expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge. To assess the technical knowledge of cabin crewmembers, 177 current flight attendants from two U.S. carriers voluntarily completed a 13-item technical quiz. To investigate expectations of flight attendant technical knowledge, 181 pilots and a second sample of 96 flight attendants, from the same two airlines, completed surveys designed to capture each group's expectations of operational knowledge required of flight attendants. Analyses revealed several discrepancies between the present level of flight attendant operational knowledge and pilots' and flight attendants' expected and desired levels of technical knowledge. Implications for training will be discussed.

  18. NASA Airline Operations Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation NASA airline operations center (AOC) research. It includes information on using IBM Watson in the AOC. It also reviews a dispatcher decision support tool call the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. It should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  19. Crew interface specifications preparation for in-flight maintenance and stowage functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, F. W.; Carlton, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The findings and data products developed during the Phase 2 crew interface specification study are presented. Five new NASA general specifications were prepared: operations location coding system for crew interfaces; loose equipment and stowage management requirements; loose equipment and stowage data base information requirements; spacecraft loose equipment stowage drawing requirements; and inflight stowage management data requirements. Additional data was developed defining inflight maintenance processes and related data concepts for inflight troubleshooting, remove/repair/replace and scheduled maintenance activities. The process of maintenance task and equipment definition during spacecraft design and development was also defined and related data concepts were identified for futher development into formal NASA specifications during future follow-on study phases of the contract.

  20. Formal testing and utilization of streaming media to improve flight crew safety knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p

  1. The future flight deck: Modelling dual, single and distributed crewing options.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Harris, Don; Starr, Alison

    2016-03-01

    It is argued that the barrier to single pilot operation is not the technology, but the failure to consider the whole socio-technical system. To better understand the socio-technical system we model alternative single pilot operations using Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) and analyse those models using Social Network Analysis (SNA). Four potential models of single pilot operations were compared to existing two pilot operations. Using SOCA-CAT from CWA, we were able to identify the potential functional loading and interactions between networks of agents. The interactions formed the basis on the SNA. These analyses potentially form the basis for distributed system architecture for the operation of a future aircraft. The findings from the models suggest that distributed crewing option could be at least as resilient, in network architecture terms, as the current dual crewing operations.

  2. STS-99 Crew News Conference/ESA Call Flight Day 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-99, Commander Kevin R. Kregel, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri, and Gerhard P.J. Thiele, participating in a press conference. The crew answer questions from U.S and Japanese reporters at various NASA Centers, and Headquarters. Discussions include the nitrogen gas line problem, the deployment of the mass, and what would happen if the mass has to be jettisoned. Thiele, Kregel, Kavandi and Voss also answer questions from German Research Minister Edelgard Buhlmann. The NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin along with Buhlmann also congratulates the crew on the success of the mission and the potential benefits of the resulting high-resolution maps.

  3. Space Crew Members' Microbial Flora in Space Flight and Prospective Approaches for Its Ecological Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iilyin, V. K.; Kornyushenkova, I. N.; Lizko, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the astronauts' microflora, the changes that occur during spaceflight and the control of microflora using drugs, is reported. A decrease in the quantity of lactibacilli in the mouth and throat cavities was observed during flight. The data showed that the susceptibility of the microflora to antibiotics increased during flight.

  4. Neck and shoulder muscle activity and posture among helicopter pilots and crew-members during military helicopter flight.

    PubMed

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members is common. This study quantified the physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles using electromyography (EMG) measures during helicopter flight. Nine standardized sorties were performed, encompassing: cruising from location A to location B (AB) and performing search and rescue (SAR). SAR was performed with Night Vision Goggles (NVG), while AB was performed with (AB+NVG) and without NVG (AB-NVG). EMG was recorded for: trapezius (TRA), upper neck extensors (UNE), and sternocleido-mastoid (SCM). Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from pre- (0.7±1.3) to post-sortie (1.6±1.9) for pilots (p=0.028). If sustained, UNE activity of ∼10% MVE is high, and implies a risk for neck disorders.

  5. The Ares I-1 Flight Test--Paving the Road for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Tuma, Meg

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration and the nation's desire to again send humans to explore beyond Earth orbit, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. NASA is now building the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which will launch the Lunar Surface Access Module and Earth departure stage to rendezvous Orion for missions to the moon. NASA has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors to perform the technically and programmatically complex work of delivering astronauts to orbit early next decade, followed by heavy cargo late next decade. Our experiences with Saturn and the Shuttle have taught us the value of adhering to sound systems engineering, such as the "test as you fly" principle, while applying aerospace best practices and lessons learned. If we are to fly humans safely aboard a launch vehicle, we must employ a variety of methodologies to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks inherent in the complex business of space transportation. During the Saturn development effort, NASA conducted multiple demonstration and verification flight tests to prove technology in its operating environment before relying upon it for human spaceflight. Less testing on the integrated Shuttle system did not reduce cost or schedule. NASA plans a progressive series of demonstration (ascent), verification (orbital), and mission flight tests to supplement ground research and high-altitude subsystem testing with real-world data, factoring the results of each test into the next one. In this way, sophisticated analytical models and tools, many of which were not available during Saturn and Shuttle, will be calibrated and we will gain confidence in their predictions, as we gain hands-on experience in operating the first

  6. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conducting supplemental operations schedules a pilot to fly more than eight hours during any 24 consecutive... flight duty. This rest period must be at least twice the number of hours flown since the preceding...

  7. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day.

    PubMed

    de Mello, M T; Esteves, A M; Pires, M L N; Santos, D C; Bittencourt, L R A; Silva, R S; Tufik, S

    2008-12-01

    Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airline presented major errors. Errors made by 515 captains and 472 co-pilots were analyzed using data from flight operation quality assurance systems. To analyze the times of day (shifts) during which incidents occurred, we divided the light-dark cycle (24:00) in four periods: morning, afternoon, night, and early morning. The differences of risk during the day were reported as the ratio of morning to afternoon, morning to night and morning to early morning error rates. For the purposes of this research, level 3 events alone were taken into account, since these were the most serious in which company operational limits were exceeded or when established procedures were not followed. According to airline flight schedules, 35% of flights take place in the morning period, 32% in the afternoon, 26% at night, and 7% in the early morning. Data showed that the risk of errors increased by almost 50% in the early morning relative to the morning period (ratio of 1:1.46). For the period of the afternoon, the ratio was 1:1.04 and for the night a ratio of 1:1.05 was found. These results showed that the period of the early morning represented a greater risk of attention problems and fatigue.

  8. Cultural variation of perceptions of crew behaviour in multi-pilot aircraft.

    PubMed

    Hörmann, H J

    2001-09-01

    As the "last line of defence" pilots in commercial aviation often have to counteract effects of unexpected system flaws that could endanger the safety of a given flight. In order to timely detect and mitigate consequences of latent or active failures, effective team behaviour of the crew members is an indispensable condition. While this fact is generally agreed in the aviation community, there seems to be a wide range of concepts how crews should interact most effectively. Within the framework of the European project JARTEL the cultural robustness of evaluations of crew behaviour was examined. 105 instructor pilots from 14 different airlines representing 12 European countries participated in this project. The instructors' evaluations of crew behaviours in eight video scenarios will be compared in relation to cultural differences on Hofstede's dimensions of Power Distance and Individualism.

  9. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., technicians with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia, maneuver a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, which is to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). The Strehla has been the focus for two Shuttle crews, STS-96 who are at KSC for a Crew Equipment Interface Test, and STS-101, for payload familiarization. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Russian cargo crane; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  10. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., STS-96 Mission Specialists Tamara E. Jernigan and Daniel T. Barry take turns working with a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, which is to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). Technicians around the table observe. The STS-96 crew is taking part in a Crew Equipment Interface Test. Other members participating are Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick Douglas Husband, and Mission Specialists Julie Payette, with the Canadian Space Agency, and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, with the Russian Space Agency. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Russian cargo crane; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  11. Assessing and Promoting Functional Resilience in Flight Crews During Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program works to mitigate risks to health and performance on extended missions. However, research should be directed not only to mitigating known risks, but also to providing crews with tools to assess and enhance resilience, as a group and individually. We can draw on ideas from complexity theory to assess resilience. The entire crew or the individual crewmember can be viewed as a complex system composed of subsystems; the interactions between subsystems are of crucial importance. Understanding the interactions can provide important information even in the absence of complete information on the component subsystems. Enabled by advances in noninvasive measurement of physiological and behavioral parameters, subsystem monitoring can be implemented within a mission and during training to establish baselines. Coupled with mathematical modeling, this can provide assessment of health and function. Since the web of physiological systems (and crewmembers) can be interpreted as a network in mathematical terms, we can draw on recent work that relates the structure of such networks to their resilience (ability to self-organize in the face of perturbation). Some of the many parameters and interactions to choose from include: sleep cycles, coordination of work and meal times, cardiorespiratory rhythms, circadian rhythms and body temperature, stress markers and cognition, sleep and performance, immune function and nutritional status. Tools for resilience are then the means to measure and analyze these parameters, incorporate them into models of normal variability and interconnectedness, and recognize when parameters or their couplings are outside of normal limits.

  12. Low-Speed Flight Dynamic Tests and Analysis of the Orion Crew Module Drogue Parachute System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Fremaux, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    A test of a dynamically scaled model of the NASA Orion Crew Module (CM) with drogue parachutes was conducted in the NASA-Langley 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel. The primary test objective was to assess the ability of the Orion Crew Module drogue parachute system to adequately stabilize the CM and reduce angular rates at low subsonic Mach numbers. Two attachment locations were tested: the current design nominal and an alternate. Experimental results indicated that the alternate attachment location showed a somewhat greater tendency to attenuate initial roll rate and reduce roll rate oscillations than the nominal location. Comparison of the experimental data to a Program To Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST II) simulation of the experiment yielded results for the nominal attachment point that indicate differences between the low-speed pitch and yaw damping derivatives in the aerodynamic database and the physical model. Comparisons for the alternate attachment location indicate that riser twist plays a significant role in determining roll rate attenuation characteristics. Reevaluating the impact of the alternate attachment points using a simulation modified to account for these results showed significantly reduced roll rate attenuation tendencies when compared to the original simulation. Based on this modified simulation the alternate attachment point does not appear to offer a significant increase in allowable roll rate over the nominal configuration.

  13. Simulated-airline-service flight tests of laminar-flow control with perforated-surface suction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Braslow, Albert L.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness and practicality of candidate leading edge systems for suction laminar flow control transport airplanes were investigated in a flight test program utilizing a modified JetStar airplane. The leading edge region imposes the most severe conditions on systems required for any type of laminar flow control. Tests of the leading edge systems, therefore, provided definitive results as to the feasibility of active laminar flow control on airplanes. The test airplane was operated under commercial transport operating procedures from various commercial airports and at various seasons of the year.

  14. Airline Chair-rest Deconditioning: Induction of Immobilization Thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Rehrer, N. J.; Mohler, S. R.; Quach, D. T.; Evans, D. G.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence hematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep various thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accomodations (via sitting immobilization), travelers' medical history (via tissue injury), cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity), and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalized patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilization of prolonged air travel. In the healthy flying population immobilization factors associated with prolonged (> 5 hr) C-RID such as total body dehydration, hypovolemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced various blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DART, but factors such as history of vascular thromboemboli, various insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than 3 pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest- or bed- rest-deconditioning treatments cause deep various thromboemboli in healthy people.

  15. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Rehrer, Nancy J.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Quach, David T.; Evans, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accommodations (via sitting immobilisation); travellers' medical history (via tissue injury); cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity); and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalised patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilisation of prolonged air travel.In the healthy flying population, immobilisation factors associated with prolonged (>5 hours) C-RD such as total body dehydration, hypovolaemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced venous blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DVT, but factors such as a history of vascular thromboemboli, venous insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than three pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest or bed-rest deconditioning treatments cause DVT in healthy people.

  16. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  17. Flight simulators. Part 1: Present situation and trends. Part 2: Implications for training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, D.; Volk, W.

    1977-01-01

    The present situation and developments in the technology of flight simulators based on digital computers are evaluated from the standpoint of training airline flight crews. Areas covered are minicomputers and their advantages in terms of cost, space and time savings, software data packets, motion simulation, visual simulation and instructor aids. The division of training time between aircraft and simulator training and the possible advantages from increased use of simulators are evaluated.

  18. The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; deWit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The deregulation of US aviation in 1978 resulted in the reconfiguration of airline networks into hub-and-spoke systems, spatially concentrated around a small number of central airports or 'hubs' through which an airline operates a number of daily waves of flights. A hub-and-spoke network requires a concentration of traffic in both space and time. In contrast to the U.S. airlines, European airlines had entered the phase of spatial network concentration long before deregulation. Bilateral negotiation of traffic fights between governments forced European airlines to focus their networks spatially on small number of 'national' airports. In general, these star-shaped networks were not coordinated in time. Transfer opportunities at central airports were mostly created 'by accident'. With the deregulation of the EU air transport market from 1988 on, a second phase of airline network concentration started. European airlines concentrated their networks in time by adopting or intensifying wave-system structures in their flight schedules. Temporal concentration may increase the competitive position of the network in a deregulated market because of certain cost and demand advantages.

  19. Wrist activity monitoring in air crew members: a method for analyzing sleep quality following transmeridian and north-south flights.

    PubMed

    Buck, A; Tobler, I; Borbély, A A

    1989-01-01

    Home base recordings of motor activity during bedtime, and of subjective sleep parameters, were obtained from air crew members before and after the following routes with multiple flight segments: (1) south-north (SN) across 1 time zone; (2) west-east (WE) across 17 time zones; (3) east-west (EW) across 7 time zones. For the EW route, recordings were also obtained during layover. Only after return from the EW route was bedtime motor activity (measured by a wrist-worn ambulatory monitor) enhanced, was the percentage of bedtime immobility periods reduced, and were frequency and duration of self-assessed waking after sleep onset increased. The subjects rated their sleep as less quiet and felt less rested than during baseline. The various parameters gradually reverted toward baseline during the first 4 days at home. Although sleep showed only minor impairments during the EW route, the subjective jet-lag score was high during layover and after return to home base. Ambulatory activity monitoring is a useful method for assessing sleep quality after long-haul flights.

  20. STS-38 crew poses in front of OV-104 at KSC's SLF during post flight activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 crewmembers, wearing red, yellow, and orange polo shirts, pose in front of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, parked on runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) during post flight activities. Left to right are Commander Richard O. Covey, Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, MS Charles D. Gemar, Pilot Frank L. Culbertson, and MS Carl J. Meade.

  1. Crew factors in flight operations 2: Psychophysiological responses to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Foushee, H. Clayton; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-four pilots were monitored before, during, and after 3- or 4-day commercial short-haul trip patterns. The trips studied averaged 10.6 hr of duty per day with 4.5 hr of flight time and 5.5 flight segments. The mean rest period lasted 12.5 hr and occurred progressively earlier across successive days. On trip nights, subjects took longer to fall asleep, slept less, woke earlier, and reported lighter, poorer sleep with more awakenings than on pretrip nights. During layovers, subjective fatigue and negative affect were higher, and positive affect and activation lower, than during pretrip, in-flight, or posttrip. Pilots consumed more caffeine, alcohol, and snacks on trip days than either pretrip or posttrip. Increases in heart rate over mid-cruise were observed during descent and landing, and were greater for the pilot flying. Heart-rate increases were greater during takeoff and descent under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) than under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The following would be expected to reduce fatigue in short-haul operations: regulating duty hours, as well as flight hours; scheduling rest periods to begin at the same time of day, or progressively later, across the days of a trip; and educating pilots about alternatives to alcohol as a means of relaxing before sleep.

  2. First Crewed Flight: Rationale, Considerations and Challenges from the Constellation Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noriega, Carlos; Arceneaux, William; Williams, Jeffrey A.; Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program has made the most progress in a generation towards building an integrated human-rated spacecraft and launch vehicle. During that development, it became clear that NASA's human-rating requirements lacked the specificity necessary to defend a program plan, particularly human-rating test flight plans, from severe budget challenges. This paper addresses the progress Constellation achieved, problems encountered in clarifying and defending a human-rating certification plan, and discusses key considerations for those who find themselves in similar straits with future human-rated spacecraft and vehicles. We assert, and support with space flight data, that NASA's current human-rating requirements do not adequately address "unknown-unknowns", or the unexpected things the hardware can reveal to the designer during test.

  3. Control in the cockpit: crews vs. computers.

    PubMed

    Ropelewski, R

    1996-08-01

    In the no-holds-barred competition between Boeing and Europe's Airbus Industrie for dominance in the world's commercial jet airliner markets, the question of who--or what--is in charge in the cockpit has been a significant selling point. Airbus, which pioneered highly automated flight controls with its A320 narrow-body transport in the late 1980s, likes to emphasize the "protection" features built into the aircraft through those automated systems. Boeing, which employs many of the same concepts in its new 777 twin-engine widebody transport, tends to put more emphasis on crew involvement in the operation of that aircraft. Is there a difference? In fact, the question has broader implications than those involving the marketing battle between Boeing and Airbus. Airlines, aircraft manufacturers, flight training specialists, human factors gurus, and aviation authorities in various countries are struggling with the isse as automation becomes more and more prevalent on passenger and cargo-carrying aircraft around the world.

  4. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two Shuttle crews take part in familiarization activities at Astrotech in Titusville, Fla. From left are STS-96 Mission Specialists Daniel T. Barry and Tamara E. Jernigan, and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband; plus STS-101 Mission Specialists Edward Tsang Lu and Jeffrey N. Williams. They are looking at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace of Bremen and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  5. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). From left are STS-96 Mission Specialist Julie Payette and Daniel T. Barry, Commander Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan; three technicians from DaimlerChrysler Aerospace; (in the background, facing right) STS-101 Commander James Donald Halsell Jr.; STS-101 Mission Specialists Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, with the Russian Space Agency, and Edward Tsang Lu; and two more technicians from DaimlerChrysler. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  6. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews take a close look at a component of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). From left, they are STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu, plus STS-96 Mission Specialist Julie Payette and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband. Payette represents the Canadian Space Agency. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  7. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews take a close look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). From left are STS-96 Mission Specialists Daniel T. Barry and Tamara E. Jernigan, Pilot Rick Douglas Husband, and Mission Specialist Julie Payette; next to them is STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, with the Russian Space Agency. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  8. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews get a close look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). At left are STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband. At center, STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan gives her attention to a technician with DaimlerChrysler while STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu looks on. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  9. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., STS-96 Mission Speciaists Daniel T. Barry (left), Julie Payette (center, with camera), and Tamara E. Jernigan (right, pointing) get a close look at one of the payloads on their upcoming mission. Other crew members are Commander Kent V. Rominger, and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev, with the Russian Space Agency. Payette is with the Canadian Space Agency. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS); the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  10. Airline Operations Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  11. Variations in Party Line Information Requirements for Flight Crew Situation Awareness in the Datalink Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    Current Air Traffic Control communications use shared very high frequency (VHF) voice frequencies from which pilots can obtain 'Party Line' Information (PLI) by overhearing communications addressed to other aircraft. A prior study has shown pilots perceive this PLI to be important. There is concern that some critical PLI may be lost in the proposed datalink environment where communications will be discretely addressed. Different types of flight operations will be, equipped with datalink equipment at different times, generating a 'mixed environment' where some pilots may rely on PLI while others will receive their information by datalink. To research the importance, availability and accuracy of PLI and to query pilots on the information they feel is necessary, a survey was distributed to pilots. The pilots were selected from four flight operation groups to study the variations in PLI requirements in the mixed datalink environment. Pilots perceived PLI to be important overall. Specific information elements pertaining to traffic and weather information were identified as Critical. Most PLI elements followed a pattern of higher perceived importance during terminal area operations, final approach and landing. Pilots from the different flight operation groups identified some elements as particularly important. Pilots perceived PLI to be only moderately available and accurate overall. Several PLI elements received very low availability and accuracy ratings but are perceived as important. In a free response question designed to find the information requirements for global situation awareness, pilots frequently indicated a need for traffic and weather information. These elements were also frequently cited by them as information that could be presented by a datalink system. The results of this survey identify specific concerns to be addressed when implementing datalink communications.

  12. Crew-MC communication and characteristics of crewmembers' sleep under conditions of simulated prolonged space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna; Ehmann, Bea; Balazs, Laszlo; Zavalko, Irina

    Characteristics of crew-MC communication and psychophysiological state of the crewmembers were studied in simulation experiment with 520-day isolation. We used method of computerized quantitative content analysis to investigate psychologically relevant characteristics of the crew’s messages content. Content analysis is a systematic, reproducible method of reducing of a text array to a limited number of categories by means of preset scientifically substantiated rules of coding (Berelson, 1971, Krippendorff, 2004). All statements in the crew’s messages to MC were coded with certain psychologically relevant content analysis categories (e.g. ‘Needs’, ‘Negativism’, ‘Time’). We attributed to the ‘Needs’ category statements (semantic units), containing the words, related to subject’s needs and their satisfaction, e.g. ‘‘necessary, need, wish, want, demand’’. To the ‘Negativism’ category we refer critical statements, containing such words as ‘‘mistakes, faults, deficit, shortage’’. The ‘Time’ category embodies statements related to time perception, e.g. “hour, day, always, never, constantly”. Sleep study was conducted with use of EEG and actigraphy techniques to assess characteristics of the crewmembers’ night sleep, reflecting the crew’s adaptation to the experimental conditions. The overall amount of communication (quantity of messages and their length) positively correlated with sleep effectiveness (time of sleep related to time in bed) and with delta sleep latency. Occurrences of semantic units in categories ‘Time’ and ‘Negativism’ negatively correlated with sleep latency, and positively - with delta sleep latency and sleep effectiveness. Frequency of time-related semantic units’ utilization in the crew’s messages was significantly increasing during or before the key events of the experiment (beginning of high autonomy, planetary landing simulation, etc.). It is known that subjective importance of time

  13. Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations: Examining the Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Renema, Fritz; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations project is a research effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to investigate the use of satellite communications to improve aviation safety and capacity. This project is a follow on to the AeroSAPIENT Project, which demonstrated methods for transmitting high bandwidth data in various configurations. For this research, we set a goal to nominally use only 10 percent of the available bandwidth demonstrated by AeroSAPIENT or projected by near-term technology advances. This paper describes the results of our research, including available satellite bandwidth, commercial and research efforts to provide these services, and some of the limiting factors inherent with this communications medium. It also describes our investigation into the needs of the stakeholders (Airlines, Pilots, Cabin Crews, ATC, Maintenance, etc). The paper also describes our development of low-cost networked flight deck and airline operations center simulations that were used to demonstrate two application areas: Providing real time weather information to the commercial flight deck, and enhanced crew monitoring and control for airline operations centers.

  14. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna; Pritchett, Amy R.

    2000-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plug-in' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  15. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2002-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plugin' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  16. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otte, Neil E.; Lyles, Garry; Reuter, James L.; Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. The technical personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo-era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. The Ares Projects Office, resident at Marshall, is managing the design and development of America's new space fleet, including the Ares I, which will loft the Orion crew capsule for its first test flight in the 2013 timeframe, as well as the heavy-lift Ares V, which will round out the capability to leave low-Earth orbit once again, when it delivers the Altair lunar lander to orbit late next decade. This paper provides information about the approach to integrating the Ares I stack and designing the upper stage in house, using unique facilities and an expert workforce to revitalize the nation

  17. Perspectives of those impacted: airline pilot's perspective.

    PubMed

    Butler, G C; Nicholas, J; Lackland, D T; Friedberg, W

    2000-11-01

    The airline pilot operates within an environment that consists of circadian dysrhythmia, reduced atmospheric pressure, mild hypoxia, low humidity, and exposure to sound, vibration, cosmic-radiation, and magnetic-field exposure. These occupational exposures present physiological challenges to the long term health of the airline pilot. In particular, exposure to cosmic radiation and its carcinogenic potential have recently received considerable attention. Given the complexity of the environment and possible synergistic exposures, there is an immediate requirement for comprehensive research into both cosmic-radiation and magnetic-field exposures in airline pilots. In response, the Airline Pilots Association International in conjunction with the Medical University of South Carolina (Department of Biometry and Epidemiology) has initiated an extensive research program into these occupational exposures. These investigations include ground based calculations, flight-dose estimates, epidemiological survey and exposure assessment, and biological marker analysis.

  18. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  19. Design and Development of a Flight Route Modification, Logging, and Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlino, Daniel K.; Wilson, C. Logan; Carboneau, Lindsey M.; Wilder, Andrew J.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    There is an overwhelming desire to create and enhance communication mechanisms between entities that operate within the National Airspace System. Furthermore, airlines are always extremely interested in increasing the efficiency of their flights. An innovative system prototype was developed and tested that improves collaborative decision making without modifying existing infrastructure or operational procedures within the current Air Traffic Management System. This system enables collaboration between flight crew and airline dispatchers to share and assess optimized flight routes through an Internet connection. Using a sophisticated medium-fidelity flight simulation environment, a rapid-prototyping development, and a unified modeling language, the software was designed to ensure reliability and scalability for future growth and applications. Ensuring safety and security were primary design goals, therefore the software does not interact or interfere with major flight control or safety systems. The system prototype demonstrated an unprecedented use of in-flight Internet to facilitate effective communication with Airline Operations Centers, which may contribute to increased flight efficiency for airlines.

  20. Crew Module Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redifer, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation presents an overview of the Crew Module development for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The presentation describes the integration activity from the initial delivery of the primary structure through the installation of vehicle subsystems, then to flight test. A brief overview of flight test results is given.

  1. Flight tests with a data link used for air traffic control information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that air traffic control (ATC) message exchange with a data link offers the potential benefits of increased airspace system safety and efficiency. To accomplish these benefits, data link can be used to reduce communication errors and relieve overloaded ATC voice radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchange during peak traffic periods. Flight tests with commercial airline pilots as test subjects were conducted in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle Boeing 737 airplane to contrast flight operations that used current voice communications with flight operations that used data link to transmit both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airflight from takeoff to landing. The results of these tests that used data link as the primary communication source with ATC showed flight crew acceptance, a perceived reduction in crew work load, and a reduction in crew communication errors.

  2. United Airlines LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, D.; Traub, B.

    1981-01-01

    Line oriented training is used in a broader, more generic sense that as a specific program under FAR 12.1409 and AC 120-35. A company policy was adopted more than twenty years ago requiring that all pilot checks and recurrent training be conducted with a full crew occupying the seats they occupy on the line. Permission was obtained to reschedule the hours for recurrent proficiency training to include one and one-half hours of LOFT flight. The number of emergencies and abnormal procedures which could be undertaken were considered and the introduction of an a occasional incapacitation revealed which person is the most difficult to replace on the widebodies. By using the LOFT concept, every training period can be structured like a typical line flight. The use of LOFT in simulator syllabus development and problems that need to be refined are discussed.

  3. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria, Fusobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deinococci, Bacterioidetes, Spirochetes, and Planctomyces in varying abundance. Neisseria meningitidis rDNA sequences were retrieved in great abundance from Airline A followed by Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Pseudomonas synxantha sequences dominated Airline B clone libraries, followed by those of N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. In Phase II, Airline C, sequences representative of more than 113 species, enveloping 12 classes of bacteria, were retrieved. Proteobacterial sequences were retrieved in greatest frequency (58% of all clone sequences), followed in short order by those stemming from Gram-positives bacteria (31% of all clone sequences). As for overall phylogenetic breadth, Gram-positive and alpha-proteobacteria seem to have a higher affinity for international flights, whereas beta-and gamma-proteobacteria are far more common about domestic cabin air parcels in Airline C samples. Ultimately, the majority of microbial species circulating throughout the cabin airs of commercial airliners are commensal, infrequently pathogenic normal flora of the human nasopharynx and respiratory system. Many of these microbes likely originate from the oral and nasal cavities, and lungs of passengers and flight crew and are disseminated unknowingly via routine conversation, coughing, sneezing, and stochastic passing of fomites. The data documented in this study will be useful to generate a baseline microbial population database and can be utilized to develop biosensor instrumentation for monitoring microbial quality of cabin or urban air.

  4. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  5. Limits of Expertise: Rethinking Pilot Error and the Causes of Airline Accidents. CRM/HF Conference, Held in Denver, Colorado on April 16-17, 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, Key; Berman, Ben; Loukopoulos, Loukisa

    2007-01-01

    Reviewed NTSB reports of the 19 U.S. airline accidents between 1991-2000 attributed primarily to crew error. Asked: Why might any airline crew in situation of accident crew--knowing only what they knew--be vulnerable. Can never know with certainty why accident crew made specific errors but can determine why the population of pilots is vulnerable. Considers variability of expert performance as function of interplay of multiple factors.

  6. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  7. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  8. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions.' These personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. Currently, only three spacefaring nations have this distinction, including the United States, Russia, and, more recently, China. The U.S. National Space Policy of2006 directs that NASA provide the means to travel to space, and the NASA Appropriations Act of2005 provided the initial funding to begin in earnest to replace the Shuttle after the International Space Station construction is complete in 20 IO? These and other strategic goals and objectives are documented in NASA's 2006 Strategic Plan.3 In 2005, a team of NASA aerospace experts conducted the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which recommended a two-vehicle approach to America's next space

  9. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  10. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is

  11. Texas International Airlines LOFT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerville, J.

    1981-01-01

    A line-oriented flight training program which allows the crew to work as a team to solve all problems, abnormal or emergency, within the crew concept. A line-oriented check ride takes place every six months for the pilot as a proficiency check. There are advantages and disadvantages to this program. One disadvantage is that since it is designed as a check-ride, the scenarios must be structured so that the average pilot will complete the check-ride without complication. This system is different from a proficiency check which can be stopped at a problem area so training to proficiency can take place before proceeding with the check.

  12. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation forms were subjected to a descriptive analysis and compared to a sample "medical incident report" form published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Results A total of 1,318 airlines were contacted. Ten airlines agreed to participate in the study and provided a copy of their documentation forms. A descriptive analysis revealed a total of 199 different items, which were summarized into five sub-categories: non-medical data (63), signs and symptoms (68), diagnosis (26), treatment (22) and outcome (20). Conclusions The data in this study illustrate a large variation in the documentation of in-flight medical emergencies by different airlines. A higher degree of standardization is preferable to increase the data quality in epidemiologic aeromedical research in the future. PMID:22397530

  13. The microbiological composition of airliner cabin air.

    PubMed

    Wick, R L; Irvine, L A

    1995-03-01

    Hundreds of millions of passengers travel on U.S. airliners annually. These large numbers, together with the close proximity required onboard, raise a concern about microbiologic disease transmission in cabin air. Previous air quality surveys generally concentrated on environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter. They largely ignored the microorganisms also present. We sampled the microbiologic climate of 45 domestic and international flights. We also sampled common locations in a major southwestern city. The concentration of microorganisms in airline cabin air is much lower than in ordinary city locations. We conclude that the small number of microorganisms found in U.S. airliner cabin environments does not contribute to the risk of disease transmission among passengers.

  14. Crew decision making under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  15. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  16. International aircrew sleep and wakefulness after multiple time zone flights - A cooperative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.; Gander, Philippa H.

    1986-01-01

    An international research team has carried out an electroencephalographic study of sleep and wakefulness in flight crews operating long-haul routes across seven or eight time zones. Following baseline recordings, volunteer crews (n = 56) from four airlines spent their first outbound layover at a sleep laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the project's history, its research design, and the standardization of procedures. The overall results are remarkably consistent among the four participating laboratories and strongly support the feasibility of cooperative international sleep research in the operational arena.

  17. STS-86: Flight Crew Departing from the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station after Mission Completion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew (Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, Mission Specialists Vladimar G. Titov, Scott E. Parazynski, Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien, Wendy B. Lawrence, and David A. Wolf) are shown speaking to the press as they board a small plane for departure after their return from the space mission.

  18. Expedition Seven Crew Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This crew portrait of Expedition Seven, Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander (left), and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer (right) was taken while in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), the two-man crew launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. aboard a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft.

  19. STS-63 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the crew patch depicts the Orbiter maneuving to rendezvous with Russia's Space Station Mir. The name is printed in Cyrillic on the side of the station. Visible in the Orbiter's payload bay are the commercial space laboratory Spacehab and the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) satellite which are major payloads on the flight. The six points on the rising sun and the three stars are symbolic of the mission's Space Transportation System (STS) numerical designation. Flags of the United States and Russia at the bottom of the patch symbolize the cooperative operations of this mission. The crew will be flying aboard the space shuttle Discovery.

  20. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  1. Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

  2. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  3. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 6: Native English-Speaking Controllers Communicating With Non-Native English-Speaking Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills ...native speaker of English (or English dialect). 2. Controllers need to develop greater patience with non-native English - speaking pilots. Once interna...when a non-native English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills

  4. Flight operations payload training for crew and support personnel. Task 3: Inflight operations and training for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardslee, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Various degrees of Commander/Pilot involvement in on-orbit operation of payloads are examined. Constraints and limitations resulting from their participation or affecting their ability to participate are identified. Four options, each representing a different set of involvement depths and concepts are analyzed. Options identified are boundaries around extremes in Commander/Pilot payload involvement. Real world choices may fall somewhere in between, but for the purposes of this study the options as represented provide a matrix from which logical and practical decisions can be made about crew participation in payload operations.

  5. Assessing information transfer in full mission flight simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Considerable attention must be given to the important topic of aircrew situation awareness in any discussion of aviation safety and flight deck design. Reliable means of assessing this important aspect of crew behavior without simultaneously interfering with the behavior are difficult to develop. Unobtrusive measurement of crew situation awareness is particularly important in the conduct of full mission simulations where considerable effort and cost is expended to achieve a high degree of operational fidelity. An unobtrusive method of assessing situational awareness is described here which employs a topical analysis of intra-crew communications. The communications were taken from videotapes of crew behavior prior to, during, and following an encounter with a microburst/windshear event. The simulation scenario re-created an actual encounter with an event during an approach into Denver Stapleton Airport. The analyses were conducted on twelve experienced airline crews with the objective of determining the effect on situation awareness of uplinking ground-based information of the crew during the approach. The topical analysis of crew communication was conducted on all references to weather or weather-related topics. The general weather topic was further divided into weather subtopical references such as surface winds, windshear, precipitation, etc., thereby allowing for an assessment of the relative frequency of subtopic reference during the scenario. Reliable differences were found between the relative frequency of subtopic references when comparing the communications of crews receiving a cockpit display of ground-based information to the communications of a control group. The findings support the utility of this method of assessing situation awareness and information value in full mission simulations. A limiting factor in the use of this measure is that crews vary in the amount of intra-crew communications that may take place due to individual differences and other

  6. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  7. Aircraft crew radiation workplaces: comparison of measured and calculated ambient dose equivalent rate data using the EURADOS in-flight radiation data base.

    PubMed

    Beck, Peter; Bartlett, David; Lindborg, Lennart; McAulay, Ian; Schnuer, Klaus; Schraube, Hans; Spurny, Frantisek

    2006-01-01

    In May 2000, the chairman of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) invited a number of experts with experience of cosmic radiation dosimetry to form a working group (WG 5) on aircraft crew dosimetry. Three observers from the Article 31 Group of Experts as well as one observer from the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) were also appointed. The European Commission funded the meetings. Full meetings were organised in January 2001 and in November 2001. An editorial group, who are the authors of this publication, started late in 2002 to finalise a draft report, which was submitted to the Article 31 Group of Experts in June 2003. The methods and data reported are the product of the work of 26 research institutes from the EU, USA and Canada. Some of the work was supported by contracts with the European Commission, Directorate General XII, Science, Research and Development. A first overview of the EC report was published late in 2004. In this publication we focus on a comparison of measured and calculated ambient dose rate data using the EURADOS In-Flight Data Base. The evaluation of results obtained by different methods and groups, and comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations were performed in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). Aspects of measurement uncertainty are reported also. The paper discusses the estimation of annual doses for given flight hours and gives an outline of further research needed in the field of aircraft crew dosimetry, such as the influence of solar particle events.

  8. User type certification for advanced flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D.; Abbott, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced avionics through flight management systems (FMS) coupled with autopilots can now precisely control aircraft from takeoff to landing. Clearly, this has been the most important improvement in aircraft since the jet engine. Regardless of the eventual capabilities of this technology, it is doubtful that society will soon accept pilotless airliners with the same aplomb they accept driverless passenger trains. Flight crews are still needed to deal with inputing clearances, taxiing, in-flight rerouting, unexpected weather decisions, and emergencies; yet it is well known that the contribution of human errors far exceed those of current hardware or software systems. Thus human errors remain, and are even increasing in percentage as the largest contributor to total system error. Currently, the flight crew is regulated by a layered system of certification: by operation, e.g., airline transport pilot versus private pilot; by category, e.g., airplane versus helicopter; by class, e.g., single engine land versus multi-engine land; and by type (for larger aircraft and jet powered aircraft), e.g., Boeing 767 or Airbus A320. Nothing in the certification process now requires an in-depth proficiency with specific types of avionics systems despite their prominent role in aircraft control and guidance.

  9. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  10. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  11. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  12. Global measurements of gaseous and aerosol trace species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from daily flights of 747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive measurements include ozone, carbon monoxide, water vapor, and aerosol and condensation nuclei number density. Less extensive measurements include chlorofluoromethanes, sulfates and nitrates. Certain meteorological and flight information are also recorded at the time of these measurements. World routes range in latitude from about 60 deg N near North America to about 40 deg S over Australia and 23 deg S over South America. Typical data show significant changes in ozone, carbon monoxide, and water vapor when crossing the tropopause either during changes in altitude or at cruise altitude. These gases as well as light scattering particles and condensation nuclei exhibit considerable variability along a flight route.

  13. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 4: Non-Native English-Speaking Controllers Communicating with Native English-Speaking Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    make sure everybody’s on a headset or an earpiece to begin with, through the departure and the arrival phase. (An earpiece helps me understand better...5 Wear an earpiece or headset 3 Message Production From the Flight Deck Speech Production Enunciate, remove tension from my voice; speak

  14. Shuttle crew station astronaut interfaces. [human factors engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The current shuttle orbiter configuration and its crew module and payload bay accomodations for work and off duty activities are described. The capability of the remote manipulator system and provisions to support extravehicular activities are examined with emphasis on flight crew activities for orbital flight tests and for early operational space transportation system flights. Facilities used to verify crew interfaces are also described.

  15. Comparison of myocardial ischemia during intense mental stress using flight simulation in airline pilots with coronary artery disease to that produced with conventional mental and treadmill exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Doorey, Andrew; Denenberg, Barry; Sagar, Vidya; Hanna, Tracy; Newman, Jack; Stone, Peter H

    2011-09-01

    Mental stress increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although laboratory mental stress often causes less myocardial ischemia than exercise stress (ES), it is unclear whether mental stress is intrinsically different or differences are due to less hemodynamic stress with mental stress. We sought to evaluate the hemodynamic and ischemic response to intense realistic mental stress created by modern flight simulators and compare this response to that of exercise treadmill testing and conventional laboratory mental stress (CMS) testing in pilots with coronary disease. Sixteen airline pilots with angiographically documented coronary disease and documented myocardial ischemia during ES were studied using maximal treadmill ES, CMS, and aviation mental stress (AMS) testing. AMS testing was done in a sophisticated simulator using multiple system failures as stressors. Treadmill ES testing resulted in the highest heart rate, but AMS caused a higher blood pressure response than CMS. Maximal rate-pressure product was not significantly different between ES and AMS (25,646 vs 23,347, p = 0.08), although these were higher than CMS (16,336, p <0.0001). Despite similar hemodynamic stress induced by ES and AMS, AMS resulted in significantly less ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia than ES. Differences in induction of ischemia by mental stress compared to ES do not appear to be due to the creation of less hemodynamic stress. In conclusion, even with equivalent hemodynamic stress, intense realistic mental stress induced by flight simulators results in significantly less myocardial ischemia than ES as measured by ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia.

  16. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  17. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  18. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  19. Exposure of aircraft crew to cosmic radiation: on-board intercomparison of various dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Bottollier-Depois, J-F; Trompier, F; Clairand, I; Spurny, F; Bartlett, D; Beck, P; Lewis, B; Lindborg, L; O'Sullivan, D; Roos, H; Tommasino, L

    2004-01-01

    Owing to their professional activity, flight crews may receive a dose of some millisieverts within a year; airline passengers may also be concerned. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation tools. The European project DOSMAX (Dosimetry of Aircrew Exposure during Solar Maximum) was initiated in 2000 extending to 2004 to complete studies over the current solar cycle during the solar maximum phase. To compare various dosemeters in real conditions simultaneously in the same radiation field, an intercomparison was organised aboard a Paris-Tokyo round-trip flight. Both passive and active detectors were used. Good agreement was observed for instruments determining the different components of the radiation field; the mean ambient dose equivalent for the round trip was 129 +/- 10 microSv. The agreement of values obtained for the total dose obtained by measurements and by calculations is very satisfying.

  20. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers sit on flight deck of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup. Pilot Richard O. Covey (left) at pilot station controls and Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge (center) and MS David C. Hilmers on aft flight deck are wearing the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)). During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT shuttle mockup is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  1. Radiation-induced health effects on atmospheric flight crew members: clues for a radiation-related risk analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Caldora, M; Santaquilani, M; Scipione, R; Verdecchia, A

    2002-01-01

    There are few human data on low-dose-rate-radiation exposure and the consequent acute and late effects. This fact makes it difficult to assess health risks due to radiation in the space environment, especially for long-term missions. Epidemiological data on civilian flight personnel cohorts can provide information on effects due to the low-dose and low-dose rate mixed high- and low-LET radiation environment in the earth's atmosphere. The physical characteristics of the radiation environment of the atmosphere make the results of the studies of commercial flight personnel relevant to the studies of activities in space. The cooperative international effort now in progress to investigate dose reconstructions will contribute to our understanding of radiation risks for space exploration.

  2. Entry, Descent, and Landing Mission Design for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Thermal Protection System Qualification Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Mark; Strauss, William; Maddock, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The TORCH team was challenged to generate the lowest cost mission design solution that meets the CEV aerothermal test objectives on a sub-scale flight article. The test objectives resulted from producing representative lunar return missions and observing the aerothermal envelopes of select surface locations on the CEV. From these aerothermal envelopes, two test boxes were established: one for high shear and one for high radiation. The unique and challenging trajectory design objective for the flight test was to fly through these aerothermal boxes in shear, pressure, heat flux, and radiation while also not over testing. These test boxes, and the max aerothermal limits, became the driving requirements for defining the mission design.

  3. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... separate Crew Rest Compartments: a Flight Crew Rest Compartment (FCRC) intended to be occupied by flight crew members only, and a Cabin Crew Rest Compartment (CCRC) intended to be occupied by cabin...

  4. STS-105 Mission Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the portrait of the astronaut and cosmonaut crewmembers comprising the STS-105 mission. The base crew (bottom center), left to right, are pilot Frederick W. (Rich) Sturckow, Mission Specialists Patrick G. Forester and Daniel T. Barry, and Commander Scott J. Horowitz. The upper right group are the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Three crew, (left to right) Cosmonaut Mikhail Tyurin, flight engineer; Astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, Jr., commander; and Cosmonaut Vladimir N. Dezhurov, flight engineer. The upper left group are the ISS Expedition Two crew, (left to right) Astronaut James S. Voss, commander; Cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev, flight engineer; and Astronaut Susan J. Helms, flight engineer. The STS-105 was the 11th ISS assembly flight and launched on August 19, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  5. A review of the habitability aspects of prior space flights from the flight crew perspective with an orientation toward designing Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramler, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Habitability is a very important issue in long-duration spaceflight. With this concern, a review of much of the existing U.S. Skylab, Spacelab, and some Soviet literature on habitability aspects of long-duratioin space flight was completed for the Astronaut Space Station Support Office. The data were organized to follow as closely as possible the SSF distributed systems, such as Life Support, Data Management, etc. A new definition of habitability is proposed.

  6. Basic results of the medical research conducted during the flight of two crews on the Salyut-5 orbital station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The study of the effect of space factors, especially weightlessness, on man, taking into account prophylactic measures and devices to counteract that effect was part of the program for two flights on the Salyut 5 orbital station. Information from the equipment on board was transmitted telemetrically including: an electrocardiogram; a sphygmogram of carotid and femoral arteries; a kinetocardiogram; a tacho-oscillogram of the humeral artery, perimetric oscillations of the femur, venous pulse and pressure in the jugular veins, vital capacity of the lungs, respiration rate and lung ventilation. Stress factors, metabolism, biological and bacteriological and other tests were included. A comparison was made between these data and pre- and postflight test result.

  7. Designing Spacecraft and Mission Operations Plans to Meet Flight Crew Radiation Dose Requirements: Why is this an "Epic Challenge" for Long-Term Manned Interplanetary Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Outline of presentation: (1) Radiation Shielding Concepts and Performance - Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) (1a) Some general considerations (1b) Galactic Cosmic Rays (2)GCR Shielding I: What material should I use and how much do I need? (2a) GCR shielding materials design and verification (2b) Spacecraft materials point dose cosmic ray shielding performance - hydrogen content and atomic number (2c) Accelerator point dose materials testing (2d) Material ranking and selection guidelines (2e) Development directions and return on investment (point dose metric) (2f) Secondary particle showers in the human body (2f-1) limited return of investment for low-Z, high-hydrogen content materials (3) GCR shielding II: How much will it cost? (3a) Spacecraft design and verification for mission radiation dose to the crew (3b) Habitat volume, shielding areal density, total weight, and launch cost for two habitat volumes (3c) It's All about the Money - Historical NASA budgets and budget limits (4) So, what can I do about all this? (4a) Program Design Architecture Trade Space (4b) The Vehicle Design Trade Space (4c) Some Near Term Recommendations

  8. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  9. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certain flight tests. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft (except a manned free balloon) that is... used for a flight test for an airline transport pilot certificate or a class or type rating on...

  10. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  11. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  12. Three input concepts for flight crew interaction with information presented on a large-screen electronic cockpit display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    1990-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted comparing three different input methods for interfacing to a large-screen, multiwindow, whole-flight-deck display for management of transport aircraft systems. The thumball concept utilized a miniature trackball embedded in a conventional side-arm controller. The touch screen concept provided data entry through a capacitive touch screen. The voice concept utilized a speech recognition system with input through a head-worn microphone. No single input concept emerged as the most desirable method of interacting with the display. Subjective results, however, indicate that the voice concept was the most preferred method of data entry and had the most potential for future applications. The objective results indicate that, overall, the touch screen concept was the most effective input method. There was also significant differences between the time required to perform specific tasks and the input concept employed, with each concept providing better performance relative to a specific task. These results suggest that a system combining all three input concepts might provide the most effective method of interaction.

  13. 14 CFR 460.9 - Informing crew of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Informing crew of risk. 460.9 Section 460.9... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.9 Informing crew of risk. An operator must inform in writing any individual serving as crew that the United...

  14. Magnetic field exposure of commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Hood; Nicholas; Butler; Lackland; Hoel; Mohr

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Airline pilots are exposed to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical and electronic systems. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the flight deck magnetic fields to which commercial airline pilots are exposed when flying on different aircraft types over a 75-hour flight-duty month.METHODS: Magentic field measurements were taken using personal dosimeters capable of measuring magnetic fields in the 40-800 Hz frequency range. Dosimeters were carried by either the Captain or the First Officer on Boeing 737/200, Boeing 747/400, Boeing 767/300ER, and Airbus 320 aircraft. The data were analyzed by aircraft type, with statistics based on block hours. Block hours begin when the aircraft departs the gate prior to take off and end when the aircraft returns to the gate after landing.RESULTS: Approximately 1008 block hours were recorded at a sampling rate of 3 seconds. Total block time exposure to the pilots ranged from a harmonic geometric mean of 6.7 milliGauss (mG) for the Boeing 767/300ER to 12.7 mG for the Boeing 737/200.CONCLUSIONS: Measured flight deck magnetic field levels were substantially above the 0.8 to 1 mG level typically found in the home or office and suggest the need for further study to evaluate potential health effects of long-term exposure.

  15. 14 CFR 460.9 - Informing crew of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.9 Informing crew of... space flight participants. An operator must provide this information— (a) Before entering into any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Informing crew of risk. 460.9 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 460.9 - Informing crew of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.9 Informing crew of... space flight participants. An operator must provide this information— (a) Before entering into any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Informing crew of risk. 460.9 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 460.9 - Informing crew of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.9 Informing crew of... space flight participants. An operator must provide this information— (a) Before entering into any... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Informing crew of risk. 460.9 Section...

  18. Crew Selection and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This research addressed a number of issues relevant to the performance of teams in demanding environments. Initial work, conducted in the aviation analog environment, focused on developing new measures of performance related attitudes and behaviors. The attitude measures were used to assess acceptance of concepts related to effective teamwork and personal capabilities under stress. The behavioral measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of flight crews operating in commercial aviation. Assessment of team issues in aviation led further to the evaluation and development of training to enhance team performance. Much of the work addressed evaluation of the effectiveness of such training, which has become known as Crew Resource Management (CRM). A second line of investigation was into personality characteristics that predict performance in challenging environments such as aviation and space. A third line of investigation of team performance grew out of the study of flight crews in different organizations. This led to the development of a theoretical model of crew performance that included not only individual attributes such as personality and ability, but also organizational and national culture. A final line of investigation involved beginning to assess whether the methodologies and measures developed for the aviation analog could be applied to another domain -- the performance of medical teams working in the operating room.

  19. Anthropometry of Airline Stewardesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    dimensions of the airline stewardesses who, as will be shown below, differ significantly in many respects from other female populations. Lacking...measurements over clothing were negligible except for one dimension , bust circumference. In this instance, arrange- ments were made with the clinic nurse...metatarsal- phalangeal joints. N 422 MEAN 8.81 + 0.02 CM. S.D. 0.47 ± 0.02 CM. MINIMUM 7.50 CM. MAXIMUM 10.50 CM. C.V. 5.29 % 3.47 ± 0.01

  20. STS-120 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These seven astronauts took a break from training to pose for the STS-120 crew portrait. Pictured from the left are astronauts Scott E. Parazynski, Douglas H. Wheelock, Stephanie D. Wilson, all mission specialists; George D. Zamka, pilot; Pamela A. Melroy, commander; Daniel M. Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer; and Paolo A. Nespoli, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew members were attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits. Tani joined Expedition 16 as flight engineer after launching to the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled to return home on mission STS-122. STS-120 launched October 23, 2007 with the main objectives of installing the U.S. Node 2, Harmony, and the relocation and deployment of the P6 truss to its permanent location.

  1. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  2. Crew Skills and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

    1998-01-01

    One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

  3. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  4. STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  5. "Checklist Complete". Or Is It? Closing a Task in the Airline Cockpit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    For airline pilots, the call of "checklist complete" is officially prescribed talk to claim that the crew's joint conduct of a checklist is over, and the task can be understood as closed. However, very often this call is not the final talk for the task. This paper uses naturally occurring data, transcriptions of pilots interacting on actual…

  6. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  7. Gemini 4 prime crew with Official medical nurse for Astronaut crew members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 prime crew, Astronauts Edward H. White II, (left), and James A. McDivitt (right) are shown with Lt. Dolores (Dee) O'Hare, US Air Force, Center Medical Office, Flight Medicine Branch, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC). Lieutenant O'Hare has served during several space flights as Official medical nurse for the astronaut crew members on the missions.

  8. Procedures in complex systems: the airline cockpit.

    PubMed

    Degani, A; Wiener, E L

    1997-05-01

    In complex human-machine systems, successful operations depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks done. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots and to ensure a safe, logical, efficient, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the objectives of the job. However, procedures can become a hodge-podge. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to noncompliance by operators. Based on a field study with three major airlines, the authors propose a model for procedure development called the "Four P's": philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. Using this model as a framework, the authors discuss the intricate issue of designing flight-deck procedures, and propose a conceptual approach for designing any set of procedures. The various factors, both external and internal to the cockpit, that must be considered for procedure design are presented. In particular, the paper addresses the development of procedures for automated cockpits--a decade-long, and highly controversial issue in commercial aviation. Although this paper is based on airline operations, we assume that the principles discussed here are also applicable to other high-risk supervisory control systems, such as space flight, manufacturing process control, nuclear power production, and military operations.

  9. Measurement of cabin air quality aboard commercial airliners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagda, Niren L.; Koontz, Michael D.; Konheim, Arnold G.; Katharine Hammond, S.

    Between April and June 1989, 92 randomly selected flights were monitored to determine prevailing levels of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and other pollutants in the airliner cabin environment. The monitored flights included 69 smoking flights, 8 of which were international, and 23 nonsmoking flights, all of which were domestic. Selected ETS contaminants (nicotine, respirable suspended particles and carbon monoxide), as well as ozone, microbial aerosols, carbon dioxide and other environmental variables were measured in different parts of airliner cabins. Particle and nicotine concentrations were highest in the smoking section and were somewhat higher in the boundary region near smoking than in other no-smoking sections or on nonsmoking flights. Levels of these ETS tracers were correlated with smoking rates observed by field technicians, and their levels in the boundary section were higher when more proximate to the smoking section. CO 2 levels were sufficiently high and humidity levels were sufficiently low to pose potential comfort problems for aircraft occupants. Ozone levels were well within existing standards for airliner environments, and levels of microbial aerosols were below those in residential environments that have been characterized through cross-sectional studies.

  10. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  11. Fellow astronauts join Gemini 7 crew for preflight breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Fellow astronauts join the Gemini 7 prime crew for breakfeast in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building, Merritt Island, on the day of the Gemini 7 launch. Clockwise around table, starting lower left, are Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini 7 prime crew pilot; Walter M. Schirra Jr., Donald K. Slayton, MSC Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; Richard F. Gordon Jr., Gemini 8 backup crew pilot; Virgil I. Grissom, Charles Conrad Jr., and Frank Borman, Gemini 7 prime crew command pilot.

  12. Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the

  13. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight proficiency. (a) General. (1) The practical test for an airline transport pilot certificate is given for—...

  14. Flight Simulations Prep Shuttle Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    As they simulate one of the three spacewalks scheduled for their upcoming mission to the International Space Station, Commander Ken Ham and Mission Specialist Mike Good discuss with Mike Massimino ...

  15. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  16. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John H.; Rutner, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America, This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  17. Flight Attendant Fatigue. Part IV. Analysis of Incident Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    combination of flight attendant(s), flight crew(s), or gate agent (s) Crew Illness/Injury Flight attendant or flight crew becomes sick or injured...possible hypoglycemia. I drank orange juice, had some sugar and water. nothing helped. From my first aid training, I deduced that I might be having...became ill and flight crew diverted to alternate to get medical assistance. 432684 Narrative: A cleaning agent was used on ovens that became toxic with

  18. Integration of an Evidence Base into a Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model. The Integrated Medical Model Database: An Organized Evidence Base for Assessing In-Flight Crew Health Risk and System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saile, Lynn; Lopez, Vilma; Bickham, Grandin; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Kerstman, Eric; Byrne, Vicky; Butler, Douglas; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) database, which is an organized evidence base for assessing in-flight crew health risk. The database is a relational database accessible to many people. The database quantifies the model inputs by a ranking based on the highest value of the data as Level of Evidence (LOE) and the quality of evidence (QOE) score that provides an assessment of the evidence base for each medical condition. The IMM evidence base has already been able to provide invaluable information for designers, and for other uses.

  19. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines: an update.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony

    2007-12-01

    In 1998, the Air Transport Medicine (ATM) Committee of the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) made its first recommendations concerning medical kits for commercial airlines. These were updated in 2002 and the ATM has continued to monitor medical kit usage, as well as pharmaceutical developments, and a further revision is now needed. This has taken into account ongoing work of the International Civil Aviation Organization and recommendations of the International Air Transport Association in the field of passenger and crew health. Based on the above, the Committee proposes the following update to its 2002 recommendations.

  20. Cultural changes (1986-96) in a Norwegian airline company.

    PubMed

    Mjøs, Kjell

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate cultural changes in a Norwegian airline company over a time span of 10 years. A questionnaire including parameters characterizing culture was administered to air crews in 1986 (n = 137) and in 1996 (n = 50). The performance part of a simulator study in 1996 indicated a significant reduction in operational failures compared with the 1986 study. The data further demonstrated significant changes in cultural variables, such as reduced Dominance and Masculinity, and improved Social climate and Communication. The direction of change in scores on the cultural variables corresponded with the principles on which the remedial actions were based.

  1. Communication indices of crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, B. G.; Lozito, S.; Foushee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between communication patterns and performance in 10 two-person flightcrews is explored with the aim of identifying speech variations which differentiate low- and high-error full mission simulator flights. Verbal data, transcribed from the videotaped performances, are treated as interactive sequences of speech events in which statements spoken by one crewmember are considered within the context of the other crewmember's prior and subsequent speech. Specific speech patterns characterized each crew, but the overriding findings included: a) marked homogeneity of patterns characterizing low-error crews, interpreted as the adoption of a standard form of communicating, and b) heterogeneity of patterns characterizing high-error crews, interpreted as the relative absence of a conventionalized form. Because conventions are regularities which confirm the expectations of those involved, predictability of crewmember behavior should be greater when standard conventions are followed. We conclude that such a practice can facilitate the coordination process and enhance crew performance.

  2. STS-112 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-112 (Jeffrey Ashby, Commander; Pamela Melroy, Pilot; David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin, Mission Specialists) during several parts of their training. The video is arranged into short segments. In 'Topside Activities at the NBL', Wolf and Sellers are fitted with EVA suits for pool training. 'Pre-Launch Bailout Training in CCT II' shows all six crew members exiting from the hatch on a model of a shuttle orbiter cockpit. 'EVA Training in the VR Lab' shows a crew member training with a virtual reality simulator, interspersed with footage of Magnus, and Wolf with Melroy, at monitors. There is a 'Crew Photo Session', and 'Pam Melroy and Sandy Magnus at the SES Dome' also features a virtual reality simulator. The final two segments of the video involve hands-on training. 'Post Landing Egress at the FFT' shows the crew suiting up into their flight suits, and being raised on a harness, to practice rapelling from the cockpit hatch. 'EVA Prep and Post at the ISS Airlock' shows the crew assembling an empty EVA suit onboard a model of a module. The crew tests oxygen masks, and Sellers is shown on an exercise bicycle with an oxygen mask, with his heart rate monitored (not shown).

  3. Simulated airline service experience with laminar-flow control leading-edge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Fisher, David F.; Jennett, Lisa A.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The first JetStar leading edge flight test was made November 30, 1983. The JetStar was flown for more than 3 years. The titanium leading edge test articles today remain in virtually the same condition as they were in on that first flight. No degradation of laminar flow performance has occurred as a result of service. The JetStar simulated airline service flights have demonstrated that effective, practical leading edge systems are available for future commercial transports. Specific conclusions based on the results of the simulated airline service test program are summarized.

  4. New Crew Members Arrive at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 28 crew expanded to six members with the arrival of Flight Engineers Mike Fossum, Sergei Volkov and Satoshi Furukawa. The new trio docked to the International Space Station in the So...

  5. Airborne Turbulence Detection and Warning ACLAIM Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Bagley, Hal R.; Soreide, Dave C.; Bowdle, David A.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. Jack

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced Inflight Measurements (ACLAIM) is a NASA/Dryden-lead program to develop and demonstrate a 2 micrometers pulsed Doppler lidar for airborne look-ahead turbulence detection and warning. Advanced warning of approaching turbulence can significantly reduce injuries to passengers and crew aboard commercial airliners. The ACLAIM instrument is a key asset to the ongoing Turbulence component of NASA's Aviation Safety Program, aimed at reducing the accident rate aboard commercial airliners by a factor of five over the next ten years and by a factor of ten over the next twenty years. As well, the advanced turbulence warning capability can prevent "unstarts" in the inlet of supersonic aircraft engines by alerting the flight control computer which then adjusts the engine to operate in a less fuel efficient, and more turbulence tolerant, mode. Initial flight tests of the ACLAIM were completed in March and April of 1998. This paper and presentation gives results from these initial flights, with validated demonstration of Doppler lidar wind turbulence detection several kilometers ahead of the aircraft.

  6. Apollo 1 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Portrait of the Apollo 1 prime crew for first manned Apollo space flight. From left to right are: Edward H. White II, Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, and Roger B. Chaffee. On January 27, 1967 at 5:31 p.m. CST (6:31 local time) during a routine simulated launch test onboard the Apollo Saturn V Moon rocket, an electrical short circuit inside the Apollo Command Module ignited the pure oxygen environment and within a matter of seconds all three Apollo 1 crewmembers perished.

  7. STS-63 crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the United States and Russian flags in the background, five NASA astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut named to fly aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery for the the STS-63 mission pose for the flight crew portrait at JSC. Left to right (front row) are Janice E. Voss, mission specialist, Eileen M. Collins, pilot; James D. Wetherbee, mission commander; and Vladimir Titov of the Russian Space Agency, mission specialist. In the rear are Bernard A. Harris Jr., payload commander; and C. Michael Foale, mission specialist.

  8. 'But Captain, I've been doing this a lot longer than you have' - The effects of 'role-reversal' on crew interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra C.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    Legislation providing for airline deregulation has, among other things, created some ambiguity with respect to cockpit role structures. With the demise of some airlines, the absorption of others, the merging of seniority lists, and a new shortage of pilots, individuals with experience equivalent to or greater than that of the pilot in command may be placed in roles of lesser status. A formerly senior captain may be flying in the right seat as a first officer with an individual very much 'junior' in terms of both age and experience. Moreover, the mandatory retirement of airline pilots at age 60 does not apply to flight engineers, and some are 'down-grading' to fly in that capacity. The effects of this 'role-reversal' phenomenon on the crew coordination process have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to begin investigating this phenomenon using data obtained from a previous 'short-haul' full mission study conducted by Foushee, Lauber, Baetge, and Acomb (1986).

  9. Women's Learning and Leadership Styles: Impact on Crew Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Mary Ann

    With an increasing number of women becoming members of flight crews, the leadership styles of men and women are at issue. A study explored three basic questions: (1) How do male and female learning and leadership styles differ? (2) What barriers to gender integration and crew teamwork are perceived by pilot crew members? and (3) What…

  10. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  11. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  12. STS-69 crew outside Endeavour during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 crew members wear broad smiles as they pose for a group photograph outside the crew hatch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The crew is participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for the launch targetd for Aug. 5. From left, are Mission Commander David M. Walker; Mission Specialists Michael L. Gernhardt and James H. Newman; Payload Commander James S. Voss and Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell. Primary objectives of the mission are the deployment, retrieval and operation of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) satellite on its second flight and the SPARTAN-201 spacecraft which is making its third flight.

  13. STS-99 Crew Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-99 crew members designed the flight insignia for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In the patch, the clear portion of Earth illustrates the radar beams penetrating its cloudy atmosphere and the unique understanding of the home planet that is provided by space travel. The grid on Earth reflects the mapping character of the SRTM mission. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting Earth in a star spangled universe. The rainbow along Earth's horizon resembles an orbital sunrise. The crew deems the bright colors of the rainbow as symbolic of the bright future ahead because of human beings' venturing into space. The crew of six launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on February 11, 2000 and completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  14. STS-108 backup crew member Padalka in an M-113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Joining the STS-108 crew and Expedition 4 crew, cosmonaut Gennadi Padalka is ready to practice driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier. Padalka completed training in 2000 for a space flight on Soyuz-TM transport vehicle as a commander of an ISS contingency crew and is part of a backup crew for the Expedition 4. STS-108 is a Utilization Flight that will carry the replacement Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station, as well as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, filled with supplies and equipment. The l1-day mission is scheduled for launch Nov. 29 on Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  15. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clad in their blue flight suits, STS-88 Mission Specialists (from left) Sergei Krikalev, a cosmonaut from Russia; Jerry L. Ross; and James H. Newman examine equipment from a toolbox that will be on the Space Shuttle Endeavour during their flight. Talking to Ross is Wayne Wedlake of United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center, while Henry Thacker (facing camera), of Flight Crew Systems at KSC, looks on. Launch of mission STS-88 is targeted for Dec. 3, 1998. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) in the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1 to familiarize themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  16. Expedition 33/34 Crew Ceremonies in Moscow

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency and NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford participate in a variety of crew ceremoni...

  17. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  18. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  19. Development and evaluation of an intervention aiming to reduce fatigue in airline pilots: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A considerable percentage of flight crew reports to be fatigued regularly. This is partly caused by irregular and long working hours and the crossing of time zones. It has been shown that persistent fatigue can lead to health problems, impaired performance during work, and a decreased work-private life balance. It is hypothesized that an intervention consisting of tailored advice regarding exposure to daylight, optimising sleep, physical activity, and nutrition will lead to a reduction of fatigue in airline pilots compared to a control group, which receives a minimal intervention with standard available information. Methods/design The study population will consist of pilots of a large airline company. All pilots who posses a smartphone or tablet, and who are not on sick leave for more than four weeks at the moment of recruitment, will be eligible for participation. In a two-armed randomised controlled trial, participants will be allocated to an intervention group that will receive the tailored advice to optimise exposure to daylight, sleep, physical activity and nutrition, and a control group that will receive standard available information. The intervention will be applied using a smartphone application and a website, and will be tailored on flight- and participant-specific characteristics. The primary outcome of the study is perceived fatigue. Secondary outcomes are need for recovery, duration and quality of sleep, dietary and physical activity behaviours, work-private life balance, general health, and sickness absence. A process evaluation will be conducted as well. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and at three and six months after baseline. Discussion This paper describes the development of an intervention for airline pilots, consisting of tailored advice (on exposure to daylight and sleep-, physical activity, and nutrition) applied into a smartphone application. Further, the paper describes the design of the randomised controlled trial

  20. Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Pictured left is Cosmonaut Alexander Y, Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and Michael C. Foale (right), Expedition-8 Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer. The crew posed for this portrait while training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The two were launched for the International Space Station (ISS) aboard a Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, along with European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain, on October 18, 2003.

  1. On-the-Spot Problem Solving of Airline Professionals: A Case Study of Sky Business School Personnel Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This research explores how chief cabin crew members of major airlines made their decisions on-the-spot when they had unexpected problems. This research also presents some insights that may improve personnel training programs for future stewardesses and stewards based on the investigation of their decision-making styles. The theoretical framework…

  2. The role of engineering in the flight equipment purchasing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The role of the airline engineering department in the flight equipment acquisition process is examined. The data for the study was collected from six airlines. The principal findings of the study include: (1) engineering activities permeate, but do not dominate the airline flight equipment decision process. (2) The principal criterion for the flight equipment acquisition decision is return on investment. (3) The principal sources of information for the airline engineering departments in the monitoring process are the manufacturers of equipment. Subsidiary information sources include NASA publications and conferences, among others and (4) The engineering department is the principal communication channel for technical information.

  3. [Results of endocrinologic studies of the 3d international crew of the scientific orbital station complex: Soyuz 29--Salyut 6--Soyuz 31 (joint space flight enterprise of the USSR--GDR). 1. Condition of the sympathico-adrenal system].

    PubMed

    Tigranjan, R A; Davydova, N A; Haase, H; Jarsumbeck, B; Chmel'kov, V P

    1982-07-01

    The present paper deals with the activity of the sympatho-adrenal system (SAS) in the third international crew of the scientific orbital station "Salyut-6" on the basis of catecholamines (CA) as well as of some of their primary stages and metabolites. Plasma adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA) were determined on the 30th day before the flight and on the first day after landing. The parameters of A, NA, DA, DOPA, metanephrine (MN), and normetanephrine (NMN) as well as their conjugates were analysed in urine on day 30 and from days 5 to 1 before launching the spaceship and from days 0 to 5 after landing. Moreover, at the same occasions the urinary excretion of vanillilmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) was measured. For a qualitative evaluation of the responses of SAS indices were computed providing information on the activity of the single links of CA metabolism. During the last five days before launching a gradual increase of A, NA, DA, and DOPA excretion with the urine was found in both the cosmonauts. The A/NA quotient rose to 360% in the commander and to 200% in the spacecraft engineer. The inactivation processes of A (MN/A) and NA (NMN/NA) were clearly reduced in both crew members before launching. The highest excretion of A, NA, DA and their conjugates as well as of DOPA was observed on the day of landing. The total results ascertained in the post-flight period indicate psychonerval strains experienced by the cosmonauts. However, marked stress reactions were not found. This conclusion is drawn on the basis of general criteria of the indices of CA metabolism during stress (increased secretory activity of SAS and excretion of free CA, synthesis activation, relative hypometabolism of conjugation). The rapid normalisation of the investigated parameters after the flight gave evidence of the cosmonauts' quick readaptation, which again is an expression of a high state of preparatory training.

  4. Commuter Airline Forecasts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    indicated earlier, all-cargo operators are moving toward larger turboprop and even jet aircraft. The growth in size of aircraft in this segement of the...CAB Part 298 data, and Air Traffic Activity data were accumulated by geographic entity, year and quarter, and class of service. The geographic entities...Traffic Statistics. Flights and trip segments that originated or terminated in the ( same geographic entity were assigned to that area. The number of times

  5. 14 CFR 460.5 - Crew qualifications and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.5... withstand the stresses of space flight, which may include high acceleration or deceleration, microgravity... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crew qualifications and training....

  6. 14 CFR 460.5 - Crew qualifications and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.5... withstand the stresses of space flight, which may include high acceleration or deceleration, microgravity... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crew qualifications and training....

  7. 14 CFR 460.5 - Crew qualifications and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.5... withstand the stresses of space flight, which may include high acceleration or deceleration, microgravity... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crew qualifications and training....

  8. 14 CFR 460.5 - Crew qualifications and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.5... withstand the stresses of space flight, which may include high acceleration or deceleration, microgravity... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crew qualifications and training....

  9. 14 CFR 460.5 - Crew qualifications and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.5... withstand the stresses of space flight, which may include high acceleration or deceleration, microgravity... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crew qualifications and training....

  10. Molecular bacterial diversity and bioburden of commercial airliner cabin air.

    PubMed

    La Duc, Myron T; Stuecker, Tara; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2007-11-01

    Culture-independent, biomarker-targeted bacterial enumeration and identification strategies were employed to estimate total bacterial burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of 4 flights on 2 commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. The total viable microbial population ranged from below detection limits to 4.1 x 10(6) cells/m(3) of air, as assessed by the ATP assay. A gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in bacterial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. Representatives of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, as well as Gram-positive bacteria, were isolated in varying abundance. Neisseria meningitidis rRNA gene sequences were retrieved in great abundance from Airline A followed by Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Pseudomonas synxantha sequences dominated Airline B clone libraries, followed by those of N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. The cabin air samples examined herein housed low bacterial diversity and were often dominated by a particular subset of bacteria: opportunistic pathogenic inhabitants of the human respiratory tract and oral cavity.

  11. STS-114: Discovery Crew Arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    George Diller of NASA Public Affairs narrates the STS-114 Crew arrival at Kennedy Space Center aboard a Gulf Stream aircraft. They were greeted by Center Director Jim Kennedy. Commander Eileen Collins introduced each of her crew members and gave a brief description of their roles in the mission. Mission Specialist 3, Andrew Thomas will be the lead crew member on the inspection on flight day 2; he is the intravehicular (IV) crew member that will help and guide Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi and Stephen Robinson during their spacewalks. Pilot James Kelly will be operating the shuttle systems in flying the Shuttle; he will be flying the space station robotic arm during the second extravehicular activity and he will be assisting Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence during the other two extravehicular activities; he will be assisting on the rendezvous on flight day three, and landing of the shuttle. Commander Collins also mentioned Pilot Kelly's recent promotion to Colonel by the United States Air Force. Mission Specialist 1, Souichi Noguchi from JAXA (The Japanese Space Agency) will be flying on the flight deck for ascent; he will be doing three spacewalks on day 5, 7, and 9; He will be the photo/TV lead for the different types of cameras on board to document the flight and to send back the information to the ground for both technical and public affairs reasons. Mission Specialist 5, Charles Camada will be doing the inspection on flight day 2 with Mission Specialist Thomas and Pilot Kelly; he will be transferring the logistics off the shuttle and onto the space station and from the space station back to the shuttle; He will help set up eleven lap tops on board. Mission Specialist 4, Wendy Lawrence will lead the transfer of logistics to the space station; she is the space station arm operator during extravehicular activities 1 and 3; she will be carrying the 6,000 pounds of external storage platform from the shuttle payload bay over to the space station; she is also

  12. On the design of flight-deck procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1994-01-01

    In complex human-machine systems, operations, training, and standardization depend on a elaborate set of procedures which are specified and mandated by the operational management of the organization. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots, to ensure a logical, efficient, safe, and predictable means of carrying out the mission objectives. In this report the authors examine the issue of procedure use and design from a broad viewpoint. The authors recommend a process which we call 'The Four P's:' philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. We believe that if an organization commits to this process, it can create a set of procedures that are more internally consistent, less confusing, better respected by the flight crews, and that will lead to greater conformity. The 'Four-P' model, and the guidelines for procedural development in appendix 1, resulted from cockpit observations, extensive interviews with airline management and pilots, interviews and discussion at one major airframe manufacturer, and an examination of accident and incident reports. Although this report is based on airline operations, we believe that the principles may be applicable to other complex, high-risk systems, such as nuclear power production, manufacturing process control, space flight, and military operations.

  13. Expedition 7 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the Expedition 7 crew of the International Space Station (ISS) during various training activities prior to launch. The crew consisted of Commander Yuri Malenchenko and Flight Engineer Ed Lu. At the virtual reality lab, the two astronauts work at a control panel, with Lu operating a joystick and speaking on earphones. Another section of the video shows Lu and Malenchenko inputting data into laptop computers, Lu testing an intercom and a video camera, and Lu using a machine to analyze blood samples from the crew. At the neutral buoyancy lab, the astronauts are helped in suit-up. The attachment of their gloves is shown. The video ends with Lu and Malenchenko lowered into a pool on a platform.

  14. Expedition 8 Crew Interview: Pedro Duque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque is interviewed in preparation for his flight to and eight day stay on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Cervantes mission. Duque arrived on the ISS with the Expedition 8 crew onboard a Soyuz TMA-3, the seventh Soyuz flight to the station. He departed from the ISS on a Soyuz TMA-2 with the Expedition 7 crew of the ISS. In the video, Duque answers questions on: the goals of his flight; his life and career path; the Columbus Module, which ESA will contribute to the ISS, the ride onboard a Soyuz, and the importance of the ISS.

  15. Effects of aircraft and flight parameters on energy-efficient profile descents in time-based metered traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a computer algorithm yielding the data required for a flight crew to navigate from an entry fix, about 100 nm from an airport, to a metering fix, and arrive there at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The flight path is divided into several descent and deceleration segments. Results for the case of a B-737 airliner indicate that wind and nonstandard atmospheric properties have a significant effect on the flight path and must be taken into account. While a range of combinations of Mach number and calibrated airspeed is possible for the descent segments leading to the metering fix, only small changes in the fuel consumed were observed for this range of combinations. A combination that is based on scheduling flexibility therefore seems preferable.

  16. 14 CFR 460.19 - Crew waiver of claims against U.S. Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crew waiver of claims against U.S. Government. 460.19 Section 460.19 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Crew § 460.19 Crew waiver of claims against U.S. Government. Each member of a flight crew and...

  17. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  18. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  19. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  20. The STS-108 crew are at KSC for Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- During Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) activities at KSC, STS-108 Commander Dominic L. Gorie checks the windshield inside orbiter Endeavour. The CEIT provides familiarization with the launch vehicle and payload. Mission STS-108 is a Utilization Flight (UF-1), carrying the Expedition Four crew plus Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello to the International Space Station. The mission crew comprises Gorie, Pilot Mark E. Kelly and Mission Specialists Linda A. Godwin and Daniel M. Tani. The Expedition Four crew comprises Yuri Onufriyenko, commander, Russian Aviation and Space Agency, and astronauts Daniel W. Bursch and Carl E. Walz. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 29 on mission STS-108.

  1. Crew quarters for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    The only long-term U.S. manned space mission completed has been Skylab, which has similarities as well as differences to the proposed Space Station. With the exception of Skylab missions, there has been a dearth of experience on which to base the design of the individual Space Station Freedom crew quarters. Shuttle missions commonly do not have sleep compartments, only 'sleeping arrangements'. There are provisions made for each crewmember to have a sleep restraint and a sleep liner, which are attached to a bulkhead or a locker. When the Shuttle flights began to have more than one working shift, crew quarters became necessary due to noise and other disturbances caused by crew task-related activities. Shuttle missions that have planned work shifts have incorporated sleep compartments. To assist in gaining more information and insight for the design of the crew quarters for the Space Station Freedom, a survey was given to current crewmembers with flight experience. The results from this survey were compiled and integrated with information from the literature covering space experience, privacy, and human-factors issues.

  2. Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Some Empirical Findings," Management Science 25 (November 1979)s 1045-1056. 2. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics , published monthly by U.S. Civil...Times, various issues 1976-1986. 6. Traffic, ICAO Digest of Statistics , Series T, various editions 1976-1980. 7. World Airline Accident Summary...34 statistical license" and added the rankings from each of the four measures considered separately to produce a final ranking shown in Table 2.2 [7

  3. Enhanced Vision Flight Deck Technology for Commercial Aircraft Low-Visibility Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Norman, R. Michael; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. Ray

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) air field during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and mini cation effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  4. Design of a Multi-mode Flight Deck Decision Support System for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley has developed a multi-mode decision support system for pilots operating in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) environment. An Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) assists pilots in performing separation assurance functions, including conflict detection, prevention, and resolution. Ongoing AOP design has been based on a comprehensive human factors analysis and evaluation results from previous human-in-the-loop experiments with airline pilot test subjects. AOP considers complex flight mode interactions and provides flight guidance to pilots consistent with the current aircraft control state. Pilots communicate goals to AOP by setting system preferences and actively probing potential trajectories for conflicts. To minimize training requirements and improve operational use, AOP design leverages existing alerting philosophies, displays, and crew interfaces common on commercial aircraft. Future work will consider trajectory prediction uncertainties, integration with the TCAS collision avoidance system, and will incorporate enhancements based on an upcoming air-ground coordination experiment.

  5. Enhanced vision flight deck technology for commercial aircraft low-visibility surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Norman, R. M.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) airfield during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and minification effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  6. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Nelson, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, maneuvers himself into middeck mission specialists seat as MS David C. Hilmers pulls himself up onto flight deck from the middeck through the interdeck access hatch. Side hatch is closed and stowed treadmill appears in the foreground. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is in launch (vertical) position therefore the aft middeck bulkhead and airlock become the floor.

  7. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Covey, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and communications carrier assembly (CCA), pulls himself up onto flight deck from the middeck through the interdeck access hatch. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is in launch (vertical) position therefore the aft middeck bulkhead becomes the floor (note technician at the side hatch).

  8. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Lounge, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and communications carrier assembly (CCA), pulls himself up onto flight deck from the middeck through the interdeck access hatch. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is in launch (vertical) position therefore the aft middeck bulkhead becomes the floor (note technician at the side hatch).

  9. Crew Interviews: Treschev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sergei Treschev is a Cosmonaut of the Rocket Space Corporation Energia, (RSC), from Volynsky District, Lipetsk Region (Russia). He graduated from Moscow Energy Institute. After years of intense training with RSC Energia, he was selected as International Space Station (ISS) Increment 5 flight engineer. The Expedition-Five crew (two Russian cosmonauts and one American astronaut) will stay on the station for approximately 5 months. The Multipurpose Logistics Module, or MPLM, will carry experiment racks and three stowage and resupply racks to the station. The mission will also install a component of the Canadian Arm called the Mobile Base System (MBS) to the Mobile Transporter (MT) installed during STS-110. This completes the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will now have the capability to "inchworm" from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites.

  10. Commercial aviation in-flight emergencies and the physician.

    PubMed

    Cocks, Robert; Liew, Michele

    2007-02-01

    Commercial aviation in-flight emergencies are relatively common, so it is likely that a doctor travelling frequently by air will receive a call for help at some stage in their career. These events are stressful, even for experienced physicians. The present paper reviews what is known about the incidence and types of in-flight emergencies that are likely to be encountered, the international regulations governing medical kits and drugs, and the liability, fitness and indemnity issues facing 'Good Samaritan' medical volunteers. The medical and aviation literature was searched, and information was collated from airlines and other sources regarding medical equipment available on board commercial aircraft. Figures for the incidence of significant in-flight emergencies are approximately 1 per 10-40 000 passengers, with one death occurring per 3-5 million passengers. Medically related diversion of an aircraft following an in-flight emergency may occur in up to 7-13% of cases, but passenger prescreening, online medical advice and on-board medical assistance from volunteers reduce this rate. Medical volunteers may find assisting with an in-flight emergency stressful, but should acknowledge that they play a vital role in successful outcomes. The medico-legal liability risk is extremely small, and various laws and industry indemnity practices offer additional protection to the volunteer. In addition, cabin crew receive training in a number of emergency skills, including automated defibrillation, and are one of several sources of help available to the medical volunteer, who is not expected to work alone.

  11. STS-47 Astronaut Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, is seen during various parts of their training, including SAREX training in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), firefighting training. A familiarization flight in the KC-135, a food tasting, photo training in the Crew Compartment Trainer, and bailout training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) are also shown.

  12. Skylab medical experiments altitude test crew observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobko, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    The paper deals with the crew's observations during training and the SMEAT 56-day test. Topics covered include the crew's adaptation to the SMEAT environment and medical experiments protocol. Personal observations are made of daily activities surrounding the medical experiments hardware, Skylab clothing, supplementary activities, recreational equipment, food, and waste management. An assessment of these items and their contributions to the Skylab flight program is made.

  13. American Airlines LOFT evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, D.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a test program to evaluate recurrent training LOFT and a three-legged scenario used for the evaluation are highlighted. The test guidelines set up and the questionnaires sent to crew member participants are examined.

  14. Clearing the airways: advocacy and regulation for smoke-free airlines

    PubMed Central

    Holm, A; Davis, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the advocacy and regulatory history surrounding bans on smoking in commercial airliners. Methods: Review of historical documents, popular press articles, and other sources to trace the timeline of events leading up to the US ban on smoking in airliners and subsequent efforts by airlines and other nations. Results: In early years, efforts by flight attendants and health advocates to make commercial airliners smoke-free were not productive. Advocacy efforts between 1969 and 1984 resulted in maintenance of the status quo, with modest exceptions (creation of smoking and non-smoking sections of aircraft, and a ban on cigar and pipe smoking). Several breakthrough events in the mid 1980s, however, led to an abrupt turnaround in regulatory efforts. The first watershed event was the publication in 1986 of the National Academy of Science's report on the airliner cabin environment, which recommended banning smoking on all commercial flights. Subsequently, following concerted lobbying efforts by health advocates, Congress passed legislation banning smoking on US domestic flights of less than two hours, which became effective in 1988. The law was made permanent and extended to flights of less than six hours in 1990. This landmark legislation propelled the adoption of similar rules internationally, both by airlines and their industry's governing bodies. Though the tobacco industry succeeded in stalling efforts to create smoke-free airways, it was ultimately unable to muster sufficient grassroots support or scientific evidence to convince the general public or policymakers that smoking should continue to be allowed on airlines. Conclusions: The movement to ban smoking in aircraft represents a case study in effective advocacy for smoke-free workplaces. Health advocates, with crucial assistance from flight attendants, used an incremental advocacy process to push for smoking and non-smoking sections on US commercial flights, then for smoking bans on short

  15. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  16. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Carl Walz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Carl Walz is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Walz ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  17. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Dan Bursch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Dan Bursch is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Bursch ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  18. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  19. Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation covering airline operations center (AOC) research. It reviews a dispatcher decision support tool called the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. FACT should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations.

  20. Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

  1. Disorders of the menstrual cycle in airline stewardesses.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, R; Terrés, A; Chavarria, A

    1980-05-01

    Of 200 airline stewardesses, 39% underwent unfavourable changes in the menstrual cycle after commencing aeronautical activities while 11% who had previous disorders healed soon after joining the company. Although 48% of the stewardesses underwent changes in menstruation during flight, in about half of these the menstrual flow increased and in the other half it decreased or disappeared, only to reappear with greater intensity after the flight; 38% of the stewardesses manifected suffering from pelvic discomfort after long flights. Sufficient research in this field has not been done. Therefore, it is difficult to trace the exact origin and mechanism of these changes in the menstrual cycle. Stress and internal desynchronitation due to disruption of circadian rhythm may intervene in generating these disorders.

  2. Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Free Flight Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne; Holland, Sheila; Belcher, Sean; Jordan, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Two versions of a prototype Free Flight cockpit situational display (Basic and Enhanced) were examined in a simulation at the NASA Ames Research Center. Both displays presented a display of traffic out to a range of 120 NM, and an alert when the automation detected a substantial danger of losing separation with another aircraft. The task for the crews was to detect and resolve threats to separation posed by intruder aircraft. An Enhanced version of the display was also examined. It incorporated two additional conflict alerting levels and tools to aid in trajectory prediction and path planning. Ten crews from a major airline participated in the study. Performance analyses and pilot debriefings showed that the Enhanced display was preferred, and that minimal separation between the intruder and the ownship was larger with the Enhanced display. In addition, the additional information on the Enhanced display did not lead crews to engage in more maneuvering. Instead an opposite trend was indicated. Finally, crews using the Enhanced display responded more proactively, tending to resolve alerts earlier.

  3. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  4. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists (left to right) Jerry L. Ross; Sergei Krikalev, a cosmonaut from Russia; and James H. Newman examine equipment that will be on the Space Shuttle Endeavour during their upcoming flight. Launch of Mission STS-88 is targeted for Dec. 3, 1998. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Other crew members are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow and Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  5. [Psychophysiological characteristics of the organization and regulation of the daily work-rest cycles for the crew on a prolonged space flight].

    PubMed

    Litsov, A N; Shevchenko, V F

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis of work-rest cycles of the Salyut-6 and Salyut-7 prime crewmembers. The distribution of work-rest cycles within the day, week, month and the flight as a whole, their relation with other components of the time schedule, the effect of various factors involved on the health status and work capacity were studied. It was shown that specified work-rest cycles should be rigorously adhered to. It was demonstrated that proper planning and realization of work-rest cycles, as well as their correction during actual flight with respect to psychophysiological and biorhythmological variations are required to maintain good health condition and high work capacity of crewmembers.

  6. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  7. STS-116 Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This is the STS-116 Crew Portrait. Pictured on the front row from left to right are: William Oefelein, pilot; Joan Higginbotham, mission specialist; and Mark Polansky, commander. On the back row, left to right, are: Robert Curbeam, Nicholas Patrick, Sunita Williams, and the European Space Agency's Christer Fuglesang, all mission specialists. Williams joined Expedition 14 in progress to serve as flight engineer aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on December 9, 2006, the seven delivered two high profile Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC') payloads: The Lab-On-A Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) and the Water Delivery System, a vital component of the Station's Oxygen Generation System. The primary mission objective was to deliver and install the P5 truss element. The P5 installation was conducted during the first of three space walks, and involved use of both the shuttle and station's robotic arms. The remainder of the mission included a major reconfiguration and activation of the ISS electrical and thermal control systems, as well as delivery of Zvezda Service Module debris panels, which will increase ISS protection from potential impacts of micro-meteorites and orbital debris.

  8. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  9. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  10. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  11. Performance Sustainment of Two Man Crews During 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness With Stimulants (Dexedrine, Caffeine, Modafinil) and Napping: Analysis of Aircrew Performance During In-Flight Emergency Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Crews during 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness with Stimulants (Dexedrine, Caffeine, Modafinil ) and Napping: 5b. GRANT NUMBER Analysis of Aircrew...caffeine, modafinil , and placebo affected participant ability to employ good aircrew coordination practices and function as an effective crew during...project Performance Sustainment of Two Man Crews during 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness with Stimulants (Dexedrine, Caffeine, Modafinil ) and Napping by

  12. 75 FR 42115 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... private aircraft flights. Specific data elements required for each passenger and crew member include: full... international flights before their arrival in or departure from the United States. APIS data includes... manifest information is required even for flights where the passengers and ] crew have already been...

  13. 75 FR 57283 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... against CBP databases. The information is submitted for both commercial and private aircraft flights... information on passengers and crew onboard inbound and outbound international flights before their arrival in... required even for flights where the passengers and crew have already been pre-screened or pre- cleared...

  14. 78 FR 55279 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... aircraft flights. Specific data elements required for each passenger and crew member include: full name... flights before their arrival in or departure from the United States. APIS data includes biographical... manifest information is required even for flights where the passengers and crew have already been...

  15. 78 FR 73876 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... databases. The information is submitted for both commercial and private aircraft flights. Specific data... about passengers and crew onboard inbound and outbound international flights before their arrival in or... for flights where the passengers and crew have already been pre-screened or pre- cleared at...

  16. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  17. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  18. STS-112 crew during Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a Crew Equipment Interface Test, STS-112 Mission Specialist Piers Sellers looks at the engine on Atlantis, the designated orbiter for the mission. On the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, Atlantis and crew will be ferrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The S1 truss is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. The S1 truss will be attached to the S0 truss. STS-112 is currently scheduled for launch Aug. 22, 2002.

  19. Human factors of flight-deck checklists: The normal checklist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1991-01-01

    Although the aircraft checklist has long been regarded as the foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety, it has escaped the scrutiny of the human factors profession. The improper use, or the non-use, of the normal checklist by flight crews is often cited as the probable cause or at least a contributing factor to aircraft accidents. An attempt is made to analyze the normal checklist, its functions, format, design, length, usage, and the limitations of the humans who must interact with it. The development of the checklist from the certification of a new model to its delivery and use by the customer are discussed. The influence of the government, particularly the FAA Principle Operations Inspector, the manufacturer's philosophy, the airline's culture, and the end user, the pilot, influence the ultimate design and usage of this device. The effects of airline mergers and acquisitions on checklist usage and design are noted. In addition, the interaction between production pressures and checklist usage and checklist management are addressed. Finally, a list of design guidelines for normal checklists is provided.

  20. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  1. Management of cosmic radiation exposure for aircraft crew in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kosako, Toshiso; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that cosmic radiation exposure of crew in commercial jet aircraft be considered as occupational exposure. In Japan, the Radiation Council of the government has established a guideline that requests domestic airlines to voluntarily keep the effective dose of cosmic radiation for aircraft crew below 5 mSv y(-1). The guideline also gives some advice and policies regarding the method of cosmic radiation dosimetry, the necessity of explanation and education about this issue, a way to view and record dose data, and the necessity of medical examination for crew. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences helps the airlines to follow the guideline, particularly for the determination of aviation route doses by numerical simulation. The calculation is performed using an original, easy-to-use program package called 'JISCARD EX' coupled with a PHITS-based analytical model and a GEANT4-based particle tracing code. The new radiation weighting factors recommended in 2007 are employed for effective dose determination. The annual individual doses of aircraft crew were estimated using this program.

  2. Inflight views of the crew of STS-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inflight view of the crew of STS-7. This view is a group portrait of the crew on the flight deck displaying some jelly beans discovered among their food supplies. The label on the candy reads 'Compliments of the White House.' In the rear from left to right are Astronauts Robert L. Crippen, crew commander; Frederick H. Hauck, pilot; and John M. Fabian, mission specialist. In front are Drs. Sally K. Ride and Norman E. Thagard, mission specialists.

  3. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour, workers and STS-88 crew members on a movable work platform or bucket move closer to the rear of the orbiter's crew compartment. While Endeavour is being prepared for flight inside Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, the STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) to familiarize themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. A KSC worker (left) maneuvers the platform to give Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and James H. Newman (right) a closer look. Looking on is Wayne Wedlake of United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 3, 1998, STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. After the mating, Ross and Newman are scheduled to perform three spacewalks to connect power, data and utility lines and install exterior equipment. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  4. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  5. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  6. Translating Research Into Airline Practice: Case Studies In Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Chappell, Sherry; Daniel, Doug; Mancuso, Vince; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Airline training departments are avid customers for research that will help them enhance the effectiveness of training and the safety of flight operations. However, various factors often make it difficult for training department managers to draw upon the large body of human factors research, e.g.: research may not address the specific questions facing the training departments, the research literature may not be in a form that training managers can readily interpret, researchers' recommendations may be too expensive or impractical to implement, etc. This panel will discuss ways in which researchers can work with training departments to design research and translate findings into products that airlines can use readily. This collaboration is most effective when it is an integral part of the study from its inception. To illustrate the process of collaboration we will use as a case study the recently completed LOFT (Line Oriented Flight Training) Debriefing research project. We will summarize the findings from that study and discuss how we translated those findings into two training tools: a manual on how to facilitate LOFT debriefings and a video that illustrates facilitation techniques in a realistically enacted debriefing. In some cases, instead of starting a new research project, training department needs can be addressed by reviewing the existing research literature and using expert opinion to develop products that specifically address those needs. To illustrate this approach we will discuss a recent informal working group of scientists and airline personnel that met to develop training material to enhance situation awareness. This group reviewed scientific literature and ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System) reports, analyzed contributing factors, and produced a model for managing situation awareness.

  7. The STS-108 crew are at KSC for Crew Equipment Interface Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Inside the payload bay of orbiter Endeavour, members of the STS-108 mission crew look over equipment during Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) activities. From left are Mission Specialists Daniel M. Tani and Linda A. Godwin; at right is a technician. The CEIT provides familiarization with the launch vehicle and payload. Mission STS-108 is a Utilization Flight (UF-1), carrying the Expedition Four crew plus Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello to the International Space Station. Other crew members are Commander Dominic L. Gorie and Pilot Mark E. Kelly. The Expedition Four crew comprises Yuri Onufriyenko, commander, Russian Aviation and Space Agency, and astronauts Daniel W. Bursch and Carl E. Walz. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 29 on mission STS-108.

  8. 14 CFR 460.7 - Operator training of crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operator training of crew. 460.7 Section 460.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew §...

  9. 14 CFR 460.7 - Operator training of crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operator training of crew. 460.7 Section 460.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew §...

  10. 14 CFR 460.7 - Operator training of crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operator training of crew. 460.7 Section 460.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew §...

  11. STS-69 James S. Voss photographs fellow crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 Payload Commander James S. Voss (left) captures the moment as fellow crew members Michael L. Gernhardt, mission specialist, and Kenneth D. Cockrell, pilot,, prepare to enter the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Assisting the astronauts into the orbiter for flight are the white room closeout crew, led by Travis Thompson (right).

  12. STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    View of members of the STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator. The crew members are in the simulated flight deck. Seated behind the pilot is mission specialist Steven Hawley. Beside him are mission specialist Judith Resnick and pilot Michael Coats. All three are wearing their communication kit assemblies.

  13. A Gold Standards Approach to Training Instructors to Evaluate Crew Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.; Dismukes, R. Key

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Qualification Program requires that airlines evaluate crew performance in Line Oriented Simulation. For this evaluation to be meaningful, instructors must observe relevant crew behaviors and evaluate those behaviors consistently and accurately against standards established by the airline. The airline industry has largely settled on an approach in which instructors evaluate crew performance on a series of event sets, using standardized grade sheets on which behaviors specific to event set are listed. Typically, new instructors are given a class in which they learn to use the grade sheets and practice evaluating crew performance observed on videotapes. These classes emphasize reliability, providing detailed instruction and practice in scoring so that all instructors within a given class will give similar scores to similar performance. This approach has value but also has important limitations; (1) ratings within one class of new instructors may differ from those of other classes; (2) ratings may not be driven primarily by the specific behaviors on which the company wanted the crews to be scored; and (3) ratings may not be calibrated to company standards for level of performance skill required. In this paper we provide a method to extend the existing method of training instructors to address these three limitations. We call this method the "gold standards" approach because it uses ratings from the company's most experienced instructors as the basis for training rater accuracy. This approach ties the training to the specific behaviors on which the experienced instructors based their ratings.

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  15. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  16. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  17. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  18. The 737 graphite composite flight spoiler flight service evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The flight service experience of 111 graphite-epoxy spoilers on 737 transport aircraft and related ground based environmental exposure of graphite-epoxy material specimens is covered. Spoilers have been installed on 28 aircraft representing seven major airlines operating throughout the world. An extended flight service evaluation program of 15 years is presently underway. As of December 1984, a total of 2,092, 155 spoiler flight hours and 2,954,814 spoiler landings had been accumulated by this fleet.

  19. Determining the Optimal C-130 Deployed Crew Ratio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    planning factors, intratheater airlift demand and less quantifiable aspects of crew ratio planning such as circadian rhythm disruption. The initial review...factors such as circadian rhythm and sleep cycle disruption cannot be ignored. The target audience for Fundamentals of Shiftwork Scheduling is not...mission length plus 3 hours pre-flight and 2 hours post-flight). This could result in significant circadian rhythm disruptions unless a crew ratio

  20. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.