Science.gov

Sample records for airline passenger protections

  1. 76 FR 23109 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... flights. For example, Condor Flugdienst Airlines (Condor) states that it sees no reason to enforce a... carriers that commented, Condor Airlines notes that when a longer delay becomes inevitable, Condor has... medical attention, Condor states that its flight attendants are capable of providing basic first aid...

  2. 75 FR 17050 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay Data on Web Sites AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This extension is in response to... requirement to display flight delay data on Web sites in view of the extensive changes to carriers'...

  3. Review of the Literature Related to Screening Airline Passenger Baggage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    11 billion passengers and their carry-on items have passed through airport security checkpoints. According to the Federal Aviation Administration...Aviation Security establishes security requirements, inspects airline and airport security operations, and issues civil penalties for noncompliance with...operations areas and provide law enforcement support for the screening system and overall airport security requirements (FAA, 1991). The FAA’s role in aviation

  4. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  5. Emergency medicine and the airline passenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.; Nicogossian, A.; Margulies, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Problems related to immediate medical care in case of in-flight emergencies are discussed with reference to such critical types of medical emergencies as obstructed airway, cardiac dysfunction, trauma, hemorrhage, hypoxia, and pain. It is shown that training flight attendants to deal with in-flight medical emergencies and to use first-aid support equipment and essential and useful drugs may later help with stabilization of a victim and allow continuing the flight to the scheduled destination without the need for a diverted landing. Among the steps suggested in order to upgrade inflight welfare and safety of passengers are the development of an advisory circular by the FAA covering standardized training for flight attendants, regulatory action requiring upgrading of the present rudimentary first-aid kit, and the enactment of Good Samaritan legislation by the U.S. Government.

  6. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  7. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  8. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  9. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  10. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  11. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  12. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  13. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passenger injury and death. Such participation also constitutes a waiver of the defense under Article 20(1...-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  14. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... travel for persons with peanut allergies. See 75 FR 32318 (June 8, 2010). Comments on the matters... coordination regarding the proposals. Accordingly, the Department finds that good cause exists to extend...

  15. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... peanut allergies. The June 8 document also proposes action to strengthen the rights of air travelers in... persons with peanut allergies. The NPRM also sought comment on whether it would be preferable to maintain the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  16. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... the air travel environment for consumers by: increasing the number of carriers that are required to..., to provide greater access to air travel for the significant number of individuals with peanut... are submitted to DOT by CeRI. At any time during the comment period, anyone using Regulation Room...

  17. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  18. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  19. Ride quality evaluation 1: Questionnaire studies of airline passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to assess passenger comfort in aircraft, two questionnaires were administered: one to ground-based respondents; the other to passengers in flight. Respondents indicated the importance of various factors influencing their satisfaction with a trip, the perceived importance of various physical factors in determining their level of comfort, and the ease of time spent performing activities in flight. The in-flight sample also provided a rating of their level of comfort and of their willingness to fly again. Comfort ratings were examined in relation to (1) type of respondent, (2) type of aircraft, (3) characteristics of the passengers, (4) ease of performing activities, and (5) willingness to fly again.

  20. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2016-09-27

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  1. Passenger ride quality determined from commercial airline flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. G.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The University of Virginia ride-quality research program is reviewed. Data from two flight programs, involving seven types of aircraft, are considered in detail. An apparatus for measuring physical variations in the flight environment and recording the subjective reactions of test subjects is described. Models are presented for predicting the comfort response of test subjects from the physical data, and predicting the overall comfort reaction of test subjects from their moment by moment responses. The correspondence of mean passenger comfort judgments and test subject response is shown. Finally, the models of comfort response based on data from the 5-point and 7-point comfort scales are shown to correspond.

  2. Episodic hypoxemia in an airline passenger with chronic respiratory failure on supplemental oxygen.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul T; Hlavac, Michael; Beckert, Lutz E

    2007-07-01

    Assessing the requirements for in-flight oxygen in passengers with pulmonary limitations can be a challenging task for clinicians. Aeromedical guidelines are available to help identify passengers that may require oxygen in flight. However, little is known about the actual in-flight response to passengers on oxygen. We measured the oxygen response (pulse oximetry) of a 67-yr-old female patient with chronic respiratory failure during a trans-Tasman flight (duration 170 min). This patient was assessed at the respiratory clinic before her journey and resting PaO2 (57 mmHg) indicated the requirement for in-flight oxygen. Bottled oxygen delivered at 2 L x min(-1) via nasal cannula was prescribed for her journey. Preflight SpO2 without supplemental oxygen was 92%. Mean in-flight SpO2 was well maintained at 93% while on oxygen at rest. There were four significant hypoxic events, which included light physical activity while on oxygen (three events; SpO2 to 84%) and a visit to the lavatory (off oxygen; SpO2 to 70%). Dyspnea and dizziness were reported during the lavatory visit. This case illustrates the importance of a preflight medical screening for passengers considered at risk during air travel and provides insight into the response of oxygen supplementation during flight.

  3. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism

    PubMed Central

    Ekeberg, Øivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986. PMID:24934082

  4. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Oivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986.

  5. Airline Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  6. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

  7. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  8. Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing.

  9. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  10. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  11. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... to be August 23, 2011, except for the amendments relating to 14 CFR 399.84, 399.85(b) and (c), 399.87, 399.88, 399.89, 259.8, and 259.5(b)(4) which become effective on January 24, 2012. FOR FURTHER... additional airports at which they must adhere to the plan's terms; (2) increases the number of carriers...

  12. 75 FR 11075 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Response to Requests To Extend Compliance Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... 45 days, from April 29, 2010, to June 14, 2010. DATES: Comments on amending the final rule published... proposing to extend by 45 days, or until June 14, 2010, the compliance date of the provision in its final... not believe that a 90-day extension is justified. Instead, the Department is proposing to revise...

  13. 76 FR 78145 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ....regulations.gov and follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Docket Management Facility... testing effort and that the requested 2-day extension will have no material negative effect on consumers... from several organizations representing travel agencies and consumers which state they have...

  14. 76 FR 82115 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Price Advertising Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT... advertising requirements in 14 CFR 399.84 from January 24, 2012, to January 26, 2012. DATES: The effective... fare and other advertising requirements from January 24, 2012, to January 26, 2012, to...

  15. Protecting Our Own. Community Child Passenger Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides information on implementing a local child passenger safety program. It covers understanding the problems and solutions; deciding what can be done; planning and carrying out a project; providing adequate, accurate, and current technical information; and reaching additional sources of information. Chapter 1 provides community…

  16. Study of Benefits of Passenger Protective Breathing Equipment from Analysis of Past Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    analysis of worldwide transport aircraft accidents involving fire. BACKGROUND. During a cabin fire, smoke and toxic gases may inhibit or prevent passenger...aviation industry focused upon smoke and toxic gases as causal factors of passenger incapacitation, resulting in failure to evacuate the aircraft before... gases . Protective breathing equipment (PBE) is being reevaluated in response to the United Kingdom’s (UK) Department of Transport’s Accident

  17. Food irradiation and airline catering

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  18. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone (a) Notice of enforcement or... will be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement or... will be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of the Port Zone 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of the Port Zone (a) Notice of enforcement or... will be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Portland. Captain of the Port...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement or... will be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone (a) Notice of enforcement or... will be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Columbia River. Captain of the...

  3. Error prevention as developed in airlines.

    PubMed

    Logan, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  4. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-05-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  5. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  6. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  7. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  8. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  13. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  14. STATUS AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF DOMESTIC FLIGHTS BY FOREIGN AIRLINES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Morichi, Shigeru

    As a regional strategy, it is very important for local cities that international flights are put into service to local airports and to increase tourists. It is problemati c for the airlines that their international flights are put into service directly between the local airport and the international airport since it is difficult for them to secure the number of passengers needed to operate the aircraft. Co ncerning 1-stop flights, there is a good possibility of securing number of passengers. Therefore, the study illustrated the possibilities of domestic airline flights by foreign airlines as international flights.

  15. The microbiological composition of airliner cabin air.

    PubMed

    Wick, R L; Irvine, L A

    1995-03-01

    Hundreds of millions of passengers travel on U.S. airliners annually. These large numbers, together with the close proximity required onboard, raise a concern about microbiologic disease transmission in cabin air. Previous air quality surveys generally concentrated on environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter. They largely ignored the microorganisms also present. We sampled the microbiologic climate of 45 domestic and international flights. We also sampled common locations in a major southwestern city. The concentration of microorganisms in airline cabin air is much lower than in ordinary city locations. We conclude that the small number of microorganisms found in U.S. airliner cabin environments does not contribute to the risk of disease transmission among passengers.

  16. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  17. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  18. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  19. Grounded for an ethical dilemma: disequilibrium in a commercial airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Friedlander, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the case of a 41-year-old airline pilot with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who requests that his diagnosis not be disclosed to his commercial airline employer or his aviation medical examiner because it may result in the suspension of medical certification. The legal and ethical requirements for physicians reporting impaired pilots are discussed as well as practical recommendations for handling such situations. The argument is made that a physician's obligation to honor patient confidentiality should not take precedence over his or her duty to protect the safety and well-being of the airplane passengers and the general public. If the patient chooses not to self-report, a physician has an ethical obligation to report the patient's medical condition to the Federal Aviation Administration.

  20. Airliner cabin ozone: An updated review. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, C.E.

    1989-12-01

    The recent literature pertaining to ozone contamination of airliner cabins is reviewed. Measurements in airliner cabins without filters showed that ozone levels were about 50 percent of atmospheric ozone. Filters were about 90 percent effective in destroying ozone. Ozone (0.12 to 0.14 ppmv) caused mild subjective respiratory irritation in exercising men, but 0.20 to 0.30 ppmv did not have adverse effects on patients with chronic heart or lung disease. Ozone (1.0 to 2.0 ppmv) decreased survival time of influenza-infected rats and mice and suppressed the capacity of lung macrophages to destroy Listeria. Airway responses to ozone are divided into an early parasympathetically mediated bronchoconstrictive phase and a later histamine-mediated congestive phase. Evidence indicates that intracellular free radicals are responsible for ozone damage and that the damage may be spread to other cells by toxic intermediate products: Antioxidants provide some protection to cells in vitro from ozone but dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins by humans has only a weak effect, if any. This review indicates that earlier findings regarding ozone toxicity do not need to be corrected. Compliance with existing FAA ozone standards appears to provide adequate protection to aircrews and passengers.

  1. Protection by face masks against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on trans-Pacific passenger aircraft, 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Zhibin; Ou, Jianming; Zeng, Guang; Fontaine, Robert E; Liu, Mingbin; Cui, Fuqiang; Hong, Rongtao; Zhou, Hang; Huai, Yang; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan; Leung, Yiu-Hong; Feng, Yunxia; Luo, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Yu, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    In response to several influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that developed in passengers after they traveled on the same 2 flights from New York, New York, USA, to Hong Kong, China, to Fuzhou, China, we assessed transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on these flights. We defined a case of infection as onset of fever and respiratory symptoms and detection of virus by PCR in a passenger or crew member of either flight. Illness developed only in passengers who traveled on the New York to Hong Kong flight. We compared exposures of 9 case-passengers with those of 32 asymptomatic control-passengers. None of the 9 case-passengers, compared with 47% (15/32) of control-passengers, wore a face mask for the entire flight (odds ratio 0, 95% CI 0-0.71). The source case-passenger was not identified. Wearing a face mask was a protective factor against influenza infection. We recommend a more comprehensive intervention study to accurately estimate this effect.

  2. Protection by Face Masks against Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Zhibin; Ou, Jianming; Zeng, Guang; Fontaine, Robert E.; Liu, Mingbin; Cui, Fuqiang; Hong, Rongtao; Zhou, Hang; Huai, Yang; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan; Leung, Yiu-Hong; Feng, Yunxia; Luo, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2013-01-01

    In response to several influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that developed in passengers after they traveled on the same 2 flights from New York, New York, USA, to Hong Kong, China, to Fuzhou, China, we assessed transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on these flights. We defined a case of infection as onset of fever and respiratory symptoms and detection of virus by PCR in a passenger or crew member of either flight. Illness developed only in passengers who traveled on the New York to Hong Kong flight. We compared exposures of 9 case-passengers with those of 32 asymptomatic control-passengers. None of the 9 case-passengers, compared with 47% (15/32) of control-passengers, wore a face mask for the entire flight (odds ratio 0, 95% CI 0–0.71). The source case-passenger was not identified. Wearing a face mask was a protective factor against influenza infection. We recommend a more comprehensive intervention study to accurately estimate this effect. PMID:23968983

  3. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  4. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  5. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... United States. Large Passenger Vessel means any cruise ship over 100 feet in length carrying passengers... excursion vessels, sight seeing vessels, dinner cruise vessels, and whale watching vessels. Large...

  6. Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Lasher, Lara E; Ayers, Tracy L; Amornkul, Pauli N; Nakatab, Michele N; Effler, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights.

  7. Contacting passengers after exposure to measles on an international flight: Implications for responding to new disease threats and bioterrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Lara E.; Ayers, Tracy L.; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Nakatab, Michele N.; Effler, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    On May 21, 2000, a passenger with measles traveled from Japan to Hawai'i on a seven-hour flight. When the flight landed, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Quarantine Station in Honolulu alerted passengers that a suspected case of measles had been identified, but they were not detained. The next day, to offer appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis, the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH) attempted to contact all passengers from the flight using information from the airline, U.S. Customs declaration forms, and tour agencies. Of 335 total passengers, 270 (81%) were successfully reached and provided complete information. The mean time from exposure to contact for all respondents was 61 hours (95% confidence interval 57, 66). A total of 202 (75%) of the responding passengers were contacted within 72 hours after exposure, the time period during which administration of measles vaccine would have provided protection for susceptible individuals. The time-to-contact was significantly longer for passengers who did not stay in hotels than for hotel guests. Customs forms proved to be of limited utility in contacting international travelers. This experience highlights the need for more complete and timely methods of contacting passengers potentially exposed to infectious agents aboard flights. PMID:15313108

  8. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation forms were subjected to a descriptive analysis and compared to a sample "medical incident report" form published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Results A total of 1,318 airlines were contacted. Ten airlines agreed to participate in the study and provided a copy of their documentation forms. A descriptive analysis revealed a total of 199 different items, which were summarized into five sub-categories: non-medical data (63), signs and symptoms (68), diagnosis (26), treatment (22) and outcome (20). Conclusions The data in this study illustrate a large variation in the documentation of in-flight medical emergencies by different airlines. A higher degree of standardization is preferable to increase the data quality in epidemiologic aeromedical research in the future. PMID:22397530

  9. Concorde with the airlines. [operating costs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyman, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The only supersonic aircraft in airline service, Concorde, offers the first actual test of supersonic cruise feasibility and the only real experience relative to passenger, airline, and community acceptance. The dominant characteristic of Concorde operations is low aircraft utilization, due partly to the restricted route network. Operating costs, the maintenance/reliability record and associated dispatch delays are discussed. Problems with overwater operations, and the secondary boom phenomena are examined. Monthly average load factors for various routes, major causes of technical delays, aircraft technical performance, and aircraft tracks are graphically depicted.

  10. Formulation and demonstration of a robust mean variance optimization approach for concurrent airline network and aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendralingam, Navindran

    Conceptual design of aircraft and the airline network (routes) on which aircraft fly on are inextricably linked to passenger driven demand. Many factors influence passenger demand for various Origin-Destination (O-D) city pairs including demographics, geographic location, seasonality, socio-economic factors and naturally, the operations of directly competing airlines. The expansion of airline operations involves the identificaion of appropriate aircraft to meet projected future demand. The decisions made in incorporating and subsequently allocating these new aircraft to serve air travel demand affects the inherent risk and profit potential as predicted through the airline revenue management systems. Competition between airlines then translates to latent passenger observations of the routes served between OD pairs and ticket pricing---this in effect reflexively drives future states of demand. This thesis addresses the integrated nature of aircraft design, airline operations and passenger demand, in order to maximize future expected profits as new aircraft are brought into service. The goal of this research is to develop an approach that utilizes aircraft design, airline network design and passenger demand as a unified framework to provide better integrated design solutions in order to maximize expexted profits of an airline. This is investigated through two approaches. The first is a static model that poses the concurrent engineering paradigm above as an investment portfolio problem. Modern financial portfolio optimization techniques are used to leverage risk of serving future projected demand using a 'yet to be introduced' aircraft against potentially generated future profits. Robust optimization methodologies are incorporated to mitigate model sensitivity and address estimation risks associated with such optimization techniques. The second extends the portfolio approach to include dynamic effects of an airline's operations. A dynamic programming approach is

  11. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  12. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  13. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  14. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  15. The Empirical Analysis of Impact of Alliances on Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Alamdari, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    Airline alliances are dominating the current air transport industry with the largest carriers of the world belonging to one of the four alliance groupings - "Wings", Star Alliance, one world, SkyTeam - which represent 56% of world Revenue Passenger Kilometers. Although much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of alliance membership on performance of airlines, it would be of interest to ascertain the degree of impact perceived by participating airlines in alliances. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of all the airlines, belonging to the four global alliance groupings on the impact alliances have had on their traffic and on their performance in general To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management departments of airlines participating in the four global strategic alliances was carried out. With this framework the survey has examined which type of cooperation among carriers (FFP, Code Share, Strategic Alliance without antitrust immunity, Strategic Alliance with antitrust immunity) has produced the most positive impact on traffic and which type of route (short haul, long haul, hub-hub, hub-non hub, non hub-non hub) has been mostly affected. In addition, the respondent airlines quantified the effect alliances have had on specific areas of their operation, such as load factors, traffic, costs, revenue and fares. Their responses have been analysed under each global alliances grouping, under airline and under geographic region to establish which group, type of carrier and geographic region has benefited most. The results show that each of the four global alliances groupings has experienced different results according to the type of collaboration agreed amongst their member airlines.

  16. A population based estimation of the driver protection provided by passenger cars: France 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Lenguerrand, Erik

    2008-11-01

    The technology used in cars to protect occupants is constantly developing. Demonstrating the beneficial effects in the field is complex as the most recent vehicles are generally used by drivers who differ from other drivers and who drive in different traffic conditions. This paper presents an overall estimation of the consequences of changes in the secondary safety of cars, taking account of most of these factors. The data come from information collected about injury road traffic crashes by the police in France between 1996 and 2005. The risk of the driver being killed has been evaluated for the 144,034 drivers involved in two-car crashes and for the 63,621 drivers involved in single-car crashes. The study shows that when a recent car is in collision with an older car the driver of the former is better protected than the driver of the latter. These improvements in secondary safety are not observed in the case of single-car crashes, very probably because of higher impact speeds. Our findings also confirm the need for protection systems to be better adapted to the specific characteristics of users and for an improvement in the crash compatibility of vehicles, in particular to overcome the consequences of differences between the masses of vehicles.

  17. An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Skourias, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of airline alliances on the allied partners output by comparing the traffic change observed between the pre- and the post-alliance period. First, a simple methodology based on traffic passenger modelling is developed, and then an empirical analysis is conducted using time series from four global strategic alliances (Wings, Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) and 124 alliance routes. The analysis concludes that, all other things being equal, strategic alliances do lead to a 9.4%, on average, improvement in passenger volume.

  18. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  19. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  20. Determination of the flight equipment maintenance costs of commuter airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Labor and materials costs associated with maintaining and operating 12 commuter airlines carrying an average of from 42 to 1,100 passengers daily in a variety of aircraft types were studied to determine the total direct maintenance cost per flight hour for the airframe, engine, and avionics and other instruments. The distribution of maintenance costs are analyzed for two carriers, one using turboprop aircraft and the other using piston engine aircraft.

  1. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  2. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  3. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  4. An explosives detection system for airline security using coherent x-ray scattering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert W.; Mahdavieh, Jacob; Smith, Richard C.; Subramanian, Ravi

    2008-08-01

    L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems (SDS) has developed a new system for automated alarm resolution in airline baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on coherent x-ray scattering spectroscopy. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated in tests with concealed explosives at the Transportation Security Laboratory and airline passenger baggage at Orlando International Airport. The system uses x-ray image information to identify suspicious objects and performs targeted diffraction measurements to classify them. This extra layer of detection capability affords a significant reduction in the rate of false alarm objects that must presently be resolved by opening passenger bags for hand inspection.

  5. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  6. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  7. Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the current downturn in demand for air travel, major airlines are revising and rationalizing their networks in an attempt to improve financial performance and strengthen their defences against both new entrants and traditional rivals. Expansion of commercial agreements or alliances with other airlines has become a key reaction to the increasingly competitive marketplace. In the absence, for regulatory reasons, of cross-border mergers these are the principal means by which the industry can consolidate internationally. This paper analyzes the developments which have been taking place and attempts to itentify the implications for airline network structures and the function of different hub airports. The range of services available to passengers in long-haul markets to/from Europe is evaluated before and after recent industry reorganization. Hubs are crucial to interlink the route networks of parmers in an alliance. However, duplication between nearby hub airports that find themselves within the same airline alliance can lead to loss of service at the weaker locations. The extent to which the alliance hubs in Europe duplicate or complement each other in terms of network coverage is assessed and this methodology also enables the optimal partnerships for "unattached" airlines to be identified. The future role of the various European hubs is considered under different scenarios of global alliance development. The paper concludes by considering possible longer-term developments. In an environment where the low-cost carriers will provide a major element of customer choice, it is suggested that the traditional airlines will retrench around their hubs, surrendering many secondary cities to the low-cost sector. Further reduction in the number of alliances could threaten more of the European hubs. For both regulatory and commercial reasons, the end result may be just one airline alliance - so recreating in the deregulated market the historic rule of IATA.

  8. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  9. Cruise Passenger Protection Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2013-07-23

    07/23/2014 Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 113-488. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  11. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  12. Anthropometry of Airline Stewardesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    dimensions of the airline stewardesses who, as will be shown below, differ significantly in many respects from other female populations. Lacking...measurements over clothing were negligible except for one dimension , bust circumference. In this instance, arrange- ments were made with the clinic nurse...metatarsal- phalangeal joints. N 422 MEAN 8.81 + 0.02 CM. S.D. 0.47 ± 0.02 CM. MINIMUM 7.50 CM. MAXIMUM 10.50 CM. C.V. 5.29 % 3.47 ± 0.01

  13. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  14. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... processing and accounting for baggage and wheelchairs. This information is critical to determining the cost... Department contacts noted below at least ten (10) calendar days prior to the meeting. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... (phone), 202-366-7152 (fax), Blane.Workie@dot.gov . TTY users may reach these individuals via the...

  15. 76 FR 41726 - Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... reservations, transportation of unaccompanied minors, pet transportation, third-party services such as hotel... Points/Points Acceleration 15. Commissions on Travel Packages--Hotel/Car Rental/etc. 16. Travel Insurance... confined to their hotel or place of visit. We invite interested persons to comment on this proposal....

  16. Job Tenure Factors for Airline Passenger Baggage Screeners.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Wanted to learn something new 3.0 4.0 4.0 19. Like working with co-workers companionship) 3.0 3.5 4.0 20. Doing airport security work - 4.0 3.0 21...importantly, airport security personnel found considerable gratification in the importance of their work, were very proud of the work they perform, and had...limited contact with people would cause them to become dissatisfied and leave. A number of examples of "isolated" work stations in airport security were

  17. The development of a test specification to determine the rollover protection of passengers in light commercial vehicles fitted with canopies.

    PubMed

    Honiball, E J; van Niekerk, J L

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, a basic test specification is proposed to assess the structural integrity of a canopy that covers the load-area of a light commercial vehicle (LCV) used to carry passengers in the rear. The proposed test specification is a first step towards improving the safety of these passengers during rollover accidents. Different test methods were evaluated for applicability, ease of use and financial implications. The mass and geometric characteristics of three different one-ton LCVs were experimentally obtained and used to determine the minimum lateral velocity that will result in a rollover should a tripping mechanism be encountered. These velocities, in conjunction with other published data, were used to determine the energy required for a pendulum qualification test. It was decided that 7.7 kJ of energy delivered by a pendulum travelling between 4 and 7 m/s just prior to impact would be the most representative load case. A finite element analysis (FEA) of the proposed impact test on a specimen canopy was completed. Thereafter, the actual pendulum impact test was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed test procedure as well as the correlation with the FEA. It was shown that both FEA and actual testing are viable qualification procedures and that they can in fact be used to reliably assess the strength of the canopy. Finally, the outline of a test specification was developed and proposed, which can be used by national regulatory institutions to assess the structural integrity of commercially manufactured canopies.

  18. Customers' attributional judgments towards complaint handling in airline service: a confirmatory study based on attribution theory.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-06-01

    Besides flight safety, complaint handling plays a crucial role in airline service. Based upon Kelley's attribution theory, in the present study customers' attributions were examined under different conditions of complaint handling by the airlines. There were 531 passengers (216 women; ages 21 to 63 years, M = 41.5, SD = 11.1) with experiences of customer complaints who were recruited while awaiting boarding. Participants received one hypothetical scenario of three attributional conditions about complaint handling and then reported their attributional judgments. The findings indicated that the passengers were most likely to attribute the company's complaint handling to unconditional compliance when the airline company reacted to customer complaints under low distinctiveness, high consistency, and when consensus among the airlines was low. On the other hand, most passengers attributed the company's complaint handling to conditional compliance under the conditions in which distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus were all high. The results provide further insights into how different policies of complaint management affect customers' attributions. Future directions and managerial implications are also discussed.

  19. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines: an update.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony

    2007-12-01

    In 1998, the Air Transport Medicine (ATM) Committee of the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) made its first recommendations concerning medical kits for commercial airlines. These were updated in 2002 and the ATM has continued to monitor medical kit usage, as well as pharmaceutical developments, and a further revision is now needed. This has taken into account ongoing work of the International Civil Aviation Organization and recommendations of the International Air Transport Association in the field of passenger and crew health. Based on the above, the Committee proposes the following update to its 2002 recommendations.

  20. Airline Operations Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  1. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  2. Public health response to commercial airline travel of a person with Ebola virus infection - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Regan, Joanna J; Jungerman, Robynne; Montiel, Sonia H; Newsome, Kimberly; Objio, Tina; Washburn, Faith; Roland, Efrosini; Petersen, Emily; Twentyman, Evelyn; Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Naughton, Mary; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Lippold, Susan A; Tabony, Laura; McCarty, Carolyn L; Kinsey, Cara Bicking; Barnes, Meghan; Black, Stephanie; Azzam, Ihsan; Stanek, Danielle; Sweitzer, John; Valiani, Anita; Kohl, Katrin S; Brown, Clive; Pesik, Nicki

    2015-01-30

    Before the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, there were few documented cases of symptomatic Ebola patients traveling by commercial airline, and no evidence of transmission to passengers or crew members during airline travel. In July 2014 two persons with confirmed Ebola virus infection who were infected early in the Nigeria outbreak traveled by commercial airline while symptomatic, involving a total of four flights (two international flights and two Nigeria domestic flights). It is not clear what symptoms either of these two passengers experienced during flight; however, one collapsed in the airport shortly after landing, and the other was documented to have fever, vomiting, and diarrhea on the day the flight arrived. Neither infected passenger transmitted Ebola to other passengers or crew on these flights. In October 2014, another airline passenger, a U.S. health care worker who had traveled domestically on two commercial flights, was confirmed to have Ebola virus infection. Given that the time of onset of symptoms was uncertain, an Ebola airline contact investigation in the United States was conducted. In total, follow-up was conducted for 268 contacts in nine states, including all 247 passengers from both flights, 12 flight crew members, eight cleaning crew members, and one federal airport worker (81 of these contacts were documented in a report published previously). All contacts were accounted for by state and local jurisdictions and followed until completion of their 21-day incubation periods. No secondary cases of Ebola were identified in this investigation, confirming that transmission of Ebola during commercial air travel did not occur.

  3. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  4. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John H.; Rutner, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America, This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  5. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit.

  6. Passenger aircraft cabin air quality: trends, effects, societal costs, proposals.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    2000-08-01

    As aircraft operators have sought to substantially reduce propulsion fuel cost by flying at higher altitudes, the energy cost of providing adequate outside air for ventilation has increased. This has lead to a significant decrease in the amount of outside air provided to the passenger cabin, partly compensated for by recirculation of filtered cabin air. The purpose of this review paper is to assemble the available measured air quality data and some calculated estimates of the air quality for aircraft passenger cabins to highlight the trend of the last 25 years. The influence of filter efficiencies on air quality, and a few medically documented and anecdotal cases of illness transmission aboard aircraft are discussed. Cost information has been collected from the perspective of both the airlines and passengers. Suggestions for air quality improvement are given which should help to result in a net, multistakeholder savings and improved passenger comfort.

  7. Molecular bacterial diversity and bioburden of commercial airliner cabin air.

    PubMed

    La Duc, Myron T; Stuecker, Tara; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2007-11-01

    Culture-independent, biomarker-targeted bacterial enumeration and identification strategies were employed to estimate total bacterial burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of 4 flights on 2 commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. The total viable microbial population ranged from below detection limits to 4.1 x 10(6) cells/m(3) of air, as assessed by the ATP assay. A gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in bacterial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. Representatives of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, as well as Gram-positive bacteria, were isolated in varying abundance. Neisseria meningitidis rRNA gene sequences were retrieved in great abundance from Airline A followed by Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Pseudomonas synxantha sequences dominated Airline B clone libraries, followed by those of N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. The cabin air samples examined herein housed low bacterial diversity and were often dominated by a particular subset of bacteria: opportunistic pathogenic inhabitants of the human respiratory tract and oral cavity.

  8. Estimation of tuberculosis risk on a commercial airliner.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gwangpyo; Thompson, Kimberly M; Nardell, Edward A

    2004-04-01

    This article estimates the risk of tuberculosis (TB) transmission on a typical commercial airliner using a simple one box model (OBM) and a sequential box model (SBM). We used input data derived from an actual TB exposure on an airliner, and we assumed a hypothetical scenario that a highly infectious TB source case (i.e., 108 infectious quanta per hour) travels as a passenger on an 8.7-hour flight. We estimate an average risk of TB transmission on the order of 1 chance in 1,000 for all passengers using the OBM. Applying the more realistic SBM, we show that the risk and incidence decrease sharply in a stepwise fashion in cabins downstream from the cabin containing the source case assuming some potential for airflow from more contaminated to less contaminated cabins. We further characterized spatial variability in the risk within the cabin by modeling a previously reported TB outbreak in an airplane to demonstrate that the TB cases occur most likely within close proximity of the source TB patient.

  9. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  10. Airline Chair-rest Deconditioning: Induction of Immobilization Thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Rehrer, N. J.; Mohler, S. R.; Quach, D. T.; Evans, D. G.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence hematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep various thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accomodations (via sitting immobilization), travelers' medical history (via tissue injury), cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity), and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalized patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilization of prolonged air travel. In the healthy flying population immobilization factors associated with prolonged (> 5 hr) C-RID such as total body dehydration, hypovolemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced various blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DART, but factors such as history of vascular thromboemboli, various insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than 3 pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest- or bed- rest-deconditioning treatments cause deep various thromboemboli in healthy people.

  11. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Rehrer, Nancy J.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Quach, David T.; Evans, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accommodations (via sitting immobilisation); travellers' medical history (via tissue injury); cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity); and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalised patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilisation of prolonged air travel.In the healthy flying population, immobilisation factors associated with prolonged (>5 hours) C-RD such as total body dehydration, hypovolaemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced venous blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DVT, but factors such as a history of vascular thromboemboli, venous insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than three pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest or bed-rest deconditioning treatments cause DVT in healthy people.

  12. Customers' expectations of complaint handling by airline service: privilege status and reasonability of demands from a social learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2009-04-01

    In the airline industry, membership and cabin class are noticeable servicescape features of customers' privilege status. Customers may learn that higher privilege customers are more desired and endured by the airline. From the customers' point of view, those with higher privilege may expect their demands to be complied with when they complain. The present study employed hypothetical scenarios to investigate how the privilege status of passengers and reasonability of their demands influenced their expectations toward the compliance of airline personnel. Analysis showed that higher privilege customers were more likely to expect airline personnel to comply with their demands. Moreover, participants with medium or high levels of privilege status had greater expectations of compliance even when demands were unreasonable. In sum, customer expectations toward complaint handling reflected predictions based on social learning.

  13. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  14. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  15. NASA Airline Operations Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation NASA airline operations center (AOC) research. It includes information on using IBM Watson in the AOC. It also reviews a dispatcher decision support tool call the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. It should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  16. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  17. Teen Drivers’ Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise L.; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers’ fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers’ perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. Method A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Findings Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. Conclusions The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle. PMID:27346920

  18. Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Some Empirical Findings," Management Science 25 (November 1979)s 1045-1056. 2. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics , published monthly by U.S. Civil...Times, various issues 1976-1986. 6. Traffic, ICAO Digest of Statistics , Series T, various editions 1976-1980. 7. World Airline Accident Summary...34 statistical license" and added the rankings from each of the four measures considered separately to produce a final ranking shown in Table 2.2 [7

  19. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  20. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  1. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  2. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  3. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  4. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to determine if improved operations technologies are economically viable for US airlines, and to determine the level of environmental benefits available from such technologies. Though these operational changes are being implemented primarily with the reduction of delay and improvement of throughput in mind, economic factors will drive the rate of airline adoption. In addition, the increased awareness of environmental impacts makes these effects an important aspect of decision-making. Understanding this relationship may help policymakers make decisions regarding implementation of these advanced technologies at airports, and help airlines determine appropriate levels of support to provide for these new technologies. In order to do so, the author models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline in response to the introduction of advanced equipage allowing improved operations procedures. The airline response included changes in deployed fleet, assignment of aircraft to routes, and acquisition of new aircraft. From these responses, changes in total fleet-level CO2 emissions and airline profit were tallied. As awareness of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions has grown, several agencies (ICAO, NASA) have moved to place goals for emissions reduction. NASA, in particular, has set goals for emissions reduction through several areas of aircraft technology. Among these are "Operational Improvements," technologies available in the short-term through avionics and airport system upgrades. The studies in this thesis make use of the Fleet-Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a simulation tool developed by Purdue University in support of a NASA-sponsored research effort. This tool models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline through an allocation problem. The problem is contained within a systems dynamics type approach that allows feedback between passenger demand, ticket price, and the airline fleet composition

  5. Projecting Future Scheduled Airline Demand, Schedules and NGATS Benefits Using TSAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Viken, Jeff; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nickolas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) developed by Virginia Tech s Air Transportation Systems Lab and NASA Langley can provide detailed analysis of the effects on the demand for air travel of a full range of NASA and FAA aviation projects. TSAM has been used to project the passenger demand for very light jet (VLJ) air taxi service, scheduled airline demand growth and future schedules, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) benefits, and future passenger revenues for the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. TSAM can project the resulting demand when new vehicles and/or technology is inserted into the long distance (100 or more miles one-way) transportation system, as well as, changes in demand as a result of fare yield increases or decreases, airport transit times, scheduled flight times, ticket taxes, reductions or increases in flight delays, and so on. TSAM models all long distance travel in the contiguous U.S. and determines the mode choice of the traveler based on detailed trip costs, travel time, schedule frequency, purpose of the trip (business or non-business), and household income level of the traveler. Demand is modeled at the county level, with an airport choice module providing up to three airports as part of the mode choice. Future enplanements at airports can be projected for different scenarios. A Fratar algorithm and a schedule generator are applied to generate future flight schedules. This paper presents the application of TSAM to modeling future scheduled air passenger demand and resulting airline schedules, the impact of NGATS goals and objectives on passenger demand, along with projections for passenger fee receipts for several scenarios for the FAA Airport and Airway Trust Fund.

  6. An Examination of the U.S. Regional Airline Policies Regarding Child Restraint Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carstenson, Larry; Sluti, Donald; Luedtke, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    A prior study examined the policies of U.S. air carriers with regard to the use of infant restraint systems on board commercial aircraft. This study expands on that earlier study by examining the policies of commuter air carriers in the United States regarding the use of infant restraint systems. The management policy of the commuter air carriers has been investigated and officials of the commuter air carriers were surveyed to determine how the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft varied among commuter airlines. The topics investigated included seat space for infants, restraint systems for infants, and amenities for infant passengers. The results of this study have been analyzed to ascertain if any recommendations can be made to the commuter airlines regarding the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft.

  7. A Conceptual Design of a Short Takeoff and Landing Regional Jet Airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Most jet airliner conceptual designs adhere to conventional takeoff and landing performance. Given this predominance, takeoff and landing performance has not been critical, since it has not been an active constraint in the design. Given that the demand for air travel is projected to increase dramatically, there is interest in operational concepts, such as Metroplex operations that seek to unload the major hub airports by using underutilized surrounding regional airports, as well as using underutilized runways at the major hub airports. Both of these operations require shorter takeoff and landing performance than is currently available for airliners of approximately 100-passenger capacity. This study examines the issues of modeling performance in this now critical flight regime as well as the impact of progressively reducing takeoff and landing field length requirements on the aircraft s characteristics.

  8. Impact of scaling and body movement on contaminant transport in airliner cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Sagnik; Poussou, Stephane B.; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Chen, Qingyan

    2011-10-01

    Studies of contaminant transport have been conducted using small-scale models. This investigation used validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to examine if a small-scale water model could reveal the same contaminant transport characteristics as a full-scale airliner cabin. But due to similarity problems and the difficulty of scaling the geometry, a perfect scale up from a small water model to an actual air model was found to be impossible. The study also found that the seats and passengers tended to obstruct the lateral transport of the contaminants and confine their spread to the aisle of the cabin. The movement of a crew member or a passenger could carry a contaminant in its wake to as many rows as the crew member or passenger passed. This could be the reason why a SARS infected passenger could infect fellow passengers who were seated seven rows away. To accurately simulate the contaminant transport, the shape of the moving body should be a human-like model.

  9. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  10. The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; deWit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The deregulation of US aviation in 1978 resulted in the reconfiguration of airline networks into hub-and-spoke systems, spatially concentrated around a small number of central airports or 'hubs' through which an airline operates a number of daily waves of flights. A hub-and-spoke network requires a concentration of traffic in both space and time. In contrast to the U.S. airlines, European airlines had entered the phase of spatial network concentration long before deregulation. Bilateral negotiation of traffic fights between governments forced European airlines to focus their networks spatially on small number of 'national' airports. In general, these star-shaped networks were not coordinated in time. Transfer opportunities at central airports were mostly created 'by accident'. With the deregulation of the EU air transport market from 1988 on, a second phase of airline network concentration started. European airlines concentrated their networks in time by adopting or intensifying wave-system structures in their flight schedules. Temporal concentration may increase the competitive position of the network in a deregulated market because of certain cost and demand advantages.

  11. 75 FR 76021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  12. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  13. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  14. Threat of death and autobiographical memory: a study of passengers from Flight AT236

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Margaret C.; Palombo, Daniela J.; Nazarov, Anthony; Kumar, Namita; Khuu, Wayne; Levine, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated autobiographical memory in a group of passengers onboard a trans-Atlantic flight that nearly ditched at sea. The consistency of traumatic exposure across passengers, some of whom developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), provided a unique opportunity to assess verified memory for life-threatening trauma. Using the Autobiographical Interview, which separates episodic from non-episodic details, passengers and healthy controls (HCs) recalled three events: the airline disaster (or a highly negative event for HCs), the September 11, 2001 attacks, and a non-emotional event. All passengers showed robust mnemonic enhancement for episodic details of the airline disaster. Although neither richness nor accuracy of traumatic recollection was related to PTSD, production of non-episodic details for traumatic and non-traumatic events was elevated in PTSD passengers. These findings indicate a robust mnemonic enhancement for trauma that is not specific to PTSD. Rather, PTSD is associated with altered cognitive control operations that affect autobiographical memory in general. PMID:26167422

  15. Perspectives of those impacted: airline pilot's perspective.

    PubMed

    Butler, G C; Nicholas, J; Lackland, D T; Friedberg, W

    2000-11-01

    The airline pilot operates within an environment that consists of circadian dysrhythmia, reduced atmospheric pressure, mild hypoxia, low humidity, and exposure to sound, vibration, cosmic-radiation, and magnetic-field exposure. These occupational exposures present physiological challenges to the long term health of the airline pilot. In particular, exposure to cosmic radiation and its carcinogenic potential have recently received considerable attention. Given the complexity of the environment and possible synergistic exposures, there is an immediate requirement for comprehensive research into both cosmic-radiation and magnetic-field exposures in airline pilots. In response, the Airline Pilots Association International in conjunction with the Medical University of South Carolina (Department of Biometry and Epidemiology) has initiated an extensive research program into these occupational exposures. These investigations include ground based calculations, flight-dose estimates, epidemiological survey and exposure assessment, and biological marker analysis.

  16. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  17. NASA Research to Support the Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation that was a review of NASA projects that support airline operations. It covered NASA tasks that have provided new tools to the airline operations center and flight deck including the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool, Dynamic Weather Routes, Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests, and Airplane State Awareness and Prediction Technologies. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  18. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  19. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  20. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  1. 23 CFR 1200.21 - Occupant protection grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adopt and implement effective occupant protection programs to reduce highway deaths and injuries... nationally Certified Child Passenger Safety Technician during official posted hours. (4) Child passenger... Passenger Safety Technicians to staff each child inspection station and inspection events located in...

  2. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    PubMed Central

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their relevance, more than 90% of the world airports are still interconnected upon removal of this core. With standard and unconventional removal measures we compare both empirical and topological perceptions for the fragmentation of the world. We identify how the WAN is organized into different classes of clusters based on the physical proximity of airports and analyze the consequence of this fragmentation. PMID:25005934

  3. The Future of Regulation in the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherington, P. W.; Hill, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Federal regulation of airlines is analyzed to predict the amount of regulation to be expected in the future. It is stated that the regulatory powers will increase because of the advantages that such regulation provides to the airlines. Six propositions are submitted as guidelines for future airlines regulation. The loss of revenue experienced by the airlines is examined and methods for improving the economic situation are defined.

  4. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  5. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  6. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  7. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  8. 76 FR 51119 - Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific Airlines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Office of the Secretary Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific... directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding California-Palomar Airlines, Inc. d/b/a California Pacific Airlines fit, willing, and able, and awarding to it a...

  9. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  10. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  11. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  12. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  13. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Massachusetts § 52.1161 Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. (a) Definitions: (1... at an educational facility offering secondary level or higher training including vocational...

  17. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  18. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families.

  19. Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George

    1993-01-01

    As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

  20. Addressing the Influence of Space Weather on Airline Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite-based augmentation systems has made it possible to navigate aircraft safely using radio signals emitted by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System. As a signal propagates through the earth's ionosphere, it suffers delay that is proportional to the total electron content encountered along the raypath. Since the magnitude of this total electron content is strongly influenced by space weather, the safety and reliability of GNSS for airline navigation requires continual monitoring of the state of the ionosphere and calibration of ionospheric delay. This paper examines the impact of space weather on GNSS-based navigation and provides an overview of how the Wide Area Augmentation System protects its users from positioning error due to ionospheric disturbances

  1. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  2. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins.

  3. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  4. U.S. Airlines: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-06

    carriers to compete and earn an adequate profit . Marketin2 Practices Limit the Ability of Airlines Entering New Markets to Compete Airline marketing...industry allows American and United each to receive over $300 million per year in excess of the costs of the service provided (including a reasonable profit ...Prices Have Worsened Carriers’ Financial Problems Airline industry profitability has been low for several years. The industry lost money in 4 out of the

  5. Inter-annual variations of CO2 observed by commercial airliner in the CONTRAIL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Niwa, Yosuke; Umezawa, Taku

    2016-04-01

    Since 2005, we have conducted an observation program for greenhouse gases using the passenger aircraft of the Japan Airlines named Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL). Over the past 10 years, successful operation of Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) has delivered more than 6 million in-situ CO2 data from about 12000 flights between Japan and Europe, Australia, North America, or Asia. The large number of CME data enable us to well characterize spatial distributions and seasonal changes of CO2 in wide regions of the globe especially the Asia-Pacific regions. While the mean growth rates for the past 10 years were about 2 ppm/year, large growth rates of about 3 ppm/year were found in the wide latitudinal bands from 30S to 70N from the second half of 2012 to the first half of 2013. The multiyear data sets have the potential to help understand the global/regional CO2 budget. One good example is the significant inter-annual difference in CO2 vertical profiles observed over Singapore between October 2014 and October 2015, which is attributable to the massive biomass burnings in Indonesia in 2015.

  6. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  7. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  8. 19 CFR 4.68 - Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels. 4.68 Section 4.68 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... Clearances § 4.68 Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels. No vessel...

  9. 14 CFR 382.45 - Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.45 Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers... request. (b) If you have a Web site, it must provide notice to consumers that they can obtain a copy of... Building, Room W96-432, Washington, DC 20590, and (4) On the Aviation Consumer Protection Division's...

  10. 14 CFR 382.45 - Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.45 Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers... request. (b) If you have a Web site, it must provide notice to consumers that they can obtain a copy of... Building, Room W96-432, Washington, DC 20590, and (4) On the Aviation Consumer Protection Division's...

  11. 14 CFR 382.45 - Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.45 Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers... request. (b) If you have a Web site, it must provide notice to consumers that they can obtain a copy of... Building, Room W96-432, Washington, DC 20590, and (4) On the Aviation Consumer Protection Division's...

  12. 14 CFR 382.45 - Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRAVEL Information for Passengers § 382.45 Must carriers make copies of this Part available to passengers... request. (b) If you have a Web site, it must provide notice to consumers that they can obtain a copy of... Building, Room W96-432, Washington, DC 20590, and (4) On the Aviation Consumer Protection Division's...

  13. Flight Training Technology for Regional/Commuter Airline Operations: Regional Airline Association/NASA Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T. (Editor); Lauber, J. K. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Programs which have been developed for training commercial airline pilots and flight crews are discussed. The concept of cockpit resource management and the concomitant issues of management techniques, interpersonal communication, psychological factors, and flight stress are addressed. Training devices and simulation techniques are reported.

  14. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  15. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  16. Detection of structural deterioration and associated airline maintenance problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henniker, H. D.; Mitchell, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Airline operations involving the detection of structural deterioration and associated maintenance problems are discussed. The standard approach to the maintenance and inspection of aircraft components and systems is described. The frequency of inspections and the application of preventive maintenance practices are examined. The types of failure which airline transport aircraft encounter and the steps taken to prevent catastrophic failure are reported.

  17. Aircraft seating comfort: the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Florian; Guenzkofer, Fabian; Sedlmeier, Claudia; Sabbah, Olaf; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important factors influencing aircraft seating comfort in economy class, is legroom. In an airline interior mock up, with the ability to adjust the seat pitch in a range of 28 inches to 43 inches, a study to investigate the influence of seat pitch on passengers' well-being was conducted. In a pre-study, aspects of subjective postural sensations and spatial perception were identified, and a questionnaire was developed. In the main study, 30 subjects rated at different seat pitch settings the spatial perception and the ability of adopting and changing sitting postures. As a result a functional relationship between overall well-being, the subjects' anthropometry and seat pitch was developed. Furthermore it was identified, that there is a maximum overall well-being at a seat pitch of 34 inches to 40 inches, depending on the passengers' anthropometry. A further enlargement of seat pitch, led to a reduction of well-being.

  18. Investigations of doses on board commercial passenger aircraft using CR-39 and thermoluminescent detectors.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, T; Bilski, P; Olko, P; Spurny, F; Turek, K

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of cosmic radiation dose rates (from the neutron and the non-neutron components) on board passenger aircraft were performed using environmental packages with thermoluminescent TL and CR-39 etched track detectors. The packages were calibrated at the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field Facility and evaluated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Krakow (TL + CR-39) and at the German Aerospace Centre in Cologne (CR-39). Detector packages were exposed on board passenger aircraft operated by LOT Polish Airlines, flown between February and May 2001. The values of effective dose rate determined, averaged over the measuring period, ranged between 2.9 and 4.4 microSv h(-1). The results of environmental measurements agreed to within 10% with values calculated from the CARI-6 code.

  19. Fuzzification of Electromagnetic Interference Patterns Onboard Commercial Airliners Due to Wireless Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The use of portable wireless technology has increased dramatically over the past few years. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). Personnel from NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes. In previous work, the IPL data collected was graphically plotted and presented using MATLAB. This paper provides an introductory result of modeling EMI patterns using Fuzzy Logic, using the graphical analysis of the IPL data summarized. The application of fuzzy logic seeks to provide a means of estimating IPL at various locations within an airplane passenger cabin using simple modeling parameters. Fuzzy logic methods may provide a means to assess IPL characteristics of aircraft that have not been subject to expensive measurement or modeling processes and may also be useful for estimating the merit of aircraft design changes intended to minimize the potential for EMI.

  20. Radiation-based techniques for use in the border protection context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creagh, Dudley

    2014-02-01

    Most airline travelers will be familiar with the current overt passenger examination procedures: metal detectors and small tunnel X-ray examination systems. The mix of overt and covert systems used to prevent dangerous goods and contraband from passing through the portal is constantly changing, dictated by policy decisions made by governments. The United States of America and the European Union are the largest regulatory bodies, and their procedures are adopted by smaller countries: Australia, for example.This paper discusses a wide variety of techniques used by Border Protection Agencies. Most of these examination systems involve the use of the emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation and descriptions of these systems will comprise the bulk of this paper.However, a brief discussion of the use of neutron scattering will be given to demonstrate how systems for the examination of large objects may develop in the future.

  1. Procedures in complex systems: the airline cockpit.

    PubMed

    Degani, A; Wiener, E L

    1997-05-01

    In complex human-machine systems, successful operations depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks done. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots and to ensure a safe, logical, efficient, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the objectives of the job. However, procedures can become a hodge-podge. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to noncompliance by operators. Based on a field study with three major airlines, the authors propose a model for procedure development called the "Four P's": philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. Using this model as a framework, the authors discuss the intricate issue of designing flight-deck procedures, and propose a conceptual approach for designing any set of procedures. The various factors, both external and internal to the cockpit, that must be considered for procedure design are presented. In particular, the paper addresses the development of procedures for automated cockpits--a decade-long, and highly controversial issue in commercial aviation. Although this paper is based on airline operations, we assume that the principles discussed here are also applicable to other high-risk supervisory control systems, such as space flight, manufacturing process control, nuclear power production, and military operations.

  2. Magnetic field exposure of commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Hood; Nicholas; Butler; Lackland; Hoel; Mohr

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Airline pilots are exposed to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical and electronic systems. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the flight deck magnetic fields to which commercial airline pilots are exposed when flying on different aircraft types over a 75-hour flight-duty month.METHODS: Magentic field measurements were taken using personal dosimeters capable of measuring magnetic fields in the 40-800 Hz frequency range. Dosimeters were carried by either the Captain or the First Officer on Boeing 737/200, Boeing 747/400, Boeing 767/300ER, and Airbus 320 aircraft. The data were analyzed by aircraft type, with statistics based on block hours. Block hours begin when the aircraft departs the gate prior to take off and end when the aircraft returns to the gate after landing.RESULTS: Approximately 1008 block hours were recorded at a sampling rate of 3 seconds. Total block time exposure to the pilots ranged from a harmonic geometric mean of 6.7 milliGauss (mG) for the Boeing 767/300ER to 12.7 mG for the Boeing 737/200.CONCLUSIONS: Measured flight deck magnetic field levels were substantially above the 0.8 to 1 mG level typically found in the home or office and suggest the need for further study to evaluate potential health effects of long-term exposure.

  3. Synthetic Vision for Airliners and General Aviaion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'Video News Release'(?) for AWIN, the Aviation Weather Information Network. Includes animations. Narration: Bad weather and poor visibility can be potentially hazardous to aircraft and flight crews. Both can contribute to deadly accidents. The NASA Aviation Safety Program is working on innovative cockpit technologies that could help pilots avoid flying into rough weather, terrain or obstacles. Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) - a 'weather channel' in the sky - would give flight crews, air-traffic controllers and airline dispatchers timely moving map displays to help them make better re-routing decisions. 'Synthetic vision' would offer pilots a clear electronic picture including topography, traffic, even airport runways. Sensors, sattellites and terrain databases would create a kind of virtual-reality of what's outside - no matter what the weather or time of day. NASA isn't working alone to make air travel safer, it is teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry to develop new systems for airliners and general aviation aircraft. Their partnership is expected to make a difference worldwide and ensure many safe and smooth landings

  4. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

  5. 19 CFR 122.156 - Release of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Service or by a Customs officer acting on behalf of that agency. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of passengers. 122.156 Section 122.156 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza on passenger aircraft: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thornley, Craig N; Mills, Clair; Roberts, Sally; Perera, Shanika; Peters, Julia; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian; Wilson, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the risk of transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza (pandemic A/H1N1) from an infected high school group to other passengers on an airline flight and the effectiveness of screening and follow-up of exposed passengers. Design Retrospective cohort investigation using a questionnaire administered to passengers and laboratory investigation of those with symptoms. Setting Auckland, New Zealand, with national and international follow-up of passengers. Participants Passengers seated in the rear section of a Boeing 747-400 long haul flight that arrived on 25 April 2009, including a group of 24 students and teachers and 97 (out of 102) other passengers in the same section of the plane who agreed to be interviewed. Main outcome measures Laboratory confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infection in susceptible passengers within 3.2 days of arrival; sensitivity and specificity of influenza symptoms for confirmed infection; and completeness and timeliness of contact tracing. Results Nine members of the school group were laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic A/H1N1 infection and had symptoms during the flight. Two other passengers developed confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infection, 12 and 48 hours after the flight. They reported no other potential sources of infection. Their seating was within two rows of infected passengers, implying a risk of infection of about 3.5% for the 57 passengers in those rows. All but one of the confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infected travellers reported cough, but more complex definitions of influenza cases had relatively low sensitivity. Rigorous follow-up by public health workers located 93% of passengers, but only 52% were contacted within 72 hours of arrival. Conclusions A low but measurable risk of transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 exists during modern commercial air travel. This risk is concentrated close to infected passengers with symptoms. Follow-up and screening of exposed passengers is slow and difficult once they have left the

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to by airlines as “tourist class,” “economy class,” or as “single class” when the airline offers only one...

  8. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  9. 46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., vessels may carry at least 12 hand red flare distress signals approved under approval series 160.021 or... teams; (iii) Procedures for moving passengers from the vessel's spaces to areas protected from fire...

  10. 46 CFR 199.630 - Alternatives for passenger vessels in a specified service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., vessels may carry at least 12 hand red flare distress signals approved under approval series 160.021 or... teams; (iii) Procedures for moving passengers from the vessel's spaces to areas protected from fire...

  11. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  12. An Open-Access Modeled Passenger Flow Matrix for the Global Air Network in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J.; Fik, Timothy J.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data. PMID:23691194

  13. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  14. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  15. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  16. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  17. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  18. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-09-04

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California.

  19. Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers for influenza A/H1N1 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early diagnosis and treatment. Passengers seated on the same row, two rows in front or behind a patient infectious for influenza, during a flight of ≥ 4 h were considered close contacts. This study evaluates the timeliness of flight-contact tracing (CT) as performed following national and international CT requests addressed to the Center of Infectious Disease Control (CIb/RIVM), and implemented by the Municipal Health Services of Schiphol Airport. Methods Elapsed days between date of flight arrival and the date passenger lists became available (contact details identified - CI) was used as proxy for timeliness of CT. In a retrospective study, dates of flight arrival, onset of illness, laboratory diagnosis, CT request and identification of contacts details through passenger lists, following CT requests to the RIVM for flights landed at Schiphol Airport were collected and analyzed. Results 24 requests for CT were identified. Three of these were declined as over 4 days had elapsed since flight arrival. In 17 out of 21 requests, contact details were obtained within 7 days after arrival (81%). The average delay between arrival and CI was 3,9 days (range 2-7), mainly caused by delay in diagnosis of the index patient after arrival (2,6 days). In four flights (19%), contacts were not identified or only after > 7 days. CI involving Dutch airlines was faster than non-Dutch airlines (P < 0,05). Passenger locator cards did not improve timeliness of CI. In only three flights contact details were identified within 2 days after arrival. Conclusion CT for influenza A/H1N1 2009 among flight passengers was not successful for timely provision of prophylaxis. CT had little additional value for alerting passengers for disease symptoms, as this information already was provided

  20. An analysis of short haul airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The demand and supply characteristics of short haul air transportation systems are investigated in terms of airline operating costs. Direct, indirect, and ground handling costs are included. Supply models of short haul air transportation systems are constructed.

  1. Some airline experience in preventing engine rotor failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used by airlines, with the assistance of the engine manufacturers to achieve control over the type of problems which lead to uncontained failure and avoid many potential problems are discussed.

  2. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  3. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  4. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  5. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  6. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or cruise ship may designate areas within the vessel as passenger access areas. (b) A passenger... measures for access control, of a ferry, passenger vessel, or cruise ship that is open to passengers. It...

  7. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal... (NPRM). SUMMARY: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness... responders during emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to...

  8. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  9. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...We, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), are proposing accessibility guidelines for the construction and alteration of passenger vessels covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to ensure that the vessels are readily accessible to and usable by passengers with disabilities. The guidelines would apply to passenger vessels, other than ferries......

  10. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to these... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions...

  11. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to these... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions...

  12. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  13. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  14. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  15. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  16. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her by... them when smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a...

  17. 14 CFR 125.217 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Seat Belt” sign is lighted. (d) Each passenger shall comply with instructions given him or her by... them when smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so... passenger or crewmember smoke in any lavatory. (c) Each passenger required by § 125.211(b) to occupy a...

  18. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew...

  19. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew...

  20. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew...

  1. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  2. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

  3. 76 FR 9806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to the OMB Desk Officer for Customs and Border Protection... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...

  4. 75 FR 1069 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...: 2010-107] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection: 1651-0103. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department...

  5. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  6. The Effects of Cold Exposure on Wet Aircraft Passengers: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    lation. AnnualRex. Physiol. 35:391-430, 1973. 6 9. Therminarias A., Flore P., Oddou-Chirpaz M.F., 13. Guyton A.C. The autonomic nevous system ; the Gharib C...spray system (CWSS) aboard commercial passenger aircraft has been suggested as a mechanism of reducing passenger death and injury from the fire and...exposure as well as the degree of protection provided to the individual, particularly the cardiorespiratory system , by CWSS would need to be fully

  7. Altitude Chamber Testing of the Passenger Oxygen System (POS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    altitude chamber flight if you have a cold, sore throat , or congestion. You should inform the medical observer during the pre-flight check of any...the V-22 like cargo, has removable ballistic protection, and requires no aircraft modifications. One or two POS units can be installed in the CV-22...roll-on/roll-off” system to support passengers or paratroopers during high altitude operations and patients during medevac. POS includes a device

  8. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  9. Climatic similarity and biological exchange in the worldwide airline transportation network

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I

    2007-01-01

    Recent increases in the rates of biological invasion and spread of infectious diseases have been linked to the continued expansion of the worldwide airline transportation network (WAN). Here, the global structure of the WAN is analysed in terms of climatic similarity to illuminate the risk of deliberate or accidental movements of climatically sensitive organisms around the world. From over 44 000 flight routes, we show, for each month of an average year, (i) those scheduled routes that link the most spatially distant but climatically similar airports, (ii) the climatically best-connected airports, and (iii) clusters of airports with similar climatic features. The way in which traffic volumes alter these findings is also examined. Climatic similarity across the WAN is skewed (most geographically close airports are climatically similar) but heavy-tailed (there are considerable numbers of geographically distant but climatically similar airports), with climate similarity highest in the June–August period, matching the annual peak in air traffic. Climatically matched, geographically distant airports form subnetworks within the WAN that change throughout the year. Further, the incorporation of passenger and freight traffic data highlight at greater risk of invasion those airports that are climatically well connected by numerous high capacity routes. PMID:17426013

  10. Market Potential Study for Standing Cabin Concept for Domestic Low-Cost Commercial Airlines in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romli, Fairuz I.; Dasuki, Norhafizah; Yazdi Harmin, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    An affordable air transportation has become the operational aim of many airlines these days. This is to cater the growing air travel demands from people of different social and economic status. One of the revolutionary proposals to reduce the operational costs, hence the flight ticket price, is by introducing the so-called standing cabin concept. This concept involves transporting passengers during the entire flight in their standing position with a proper support of a vertical seat. As can be expected with many new inventions, despite its clear advantages, the concept has been met with mixed reactions from the public. This study intends to establish whether the standing cabin concept has a market potential to be implemented for domestic flights in Malaysia. The public perception is determined from collected data through a survey done at two major local low-cost airport terminals. It can be concluded from the results that the concept has a good market potential for application on flights with duration of less than two hours.

  11. "A brilliant ball of fire." The sabotage of United Airlines Flight 629.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G K

    1986-03-01

    Among the known causes of aircraft disasters, sabotage is perhaps the most terrifying and difficult to comprehend. Bombs have been exploded in at least 34 commercial aircraft, with the resultant loss of more than 300 lives. Motives for these acts include profit, the deaths of certain persons, and politics. On November 1, 1955, United Airlines Flight 629, bound to Denver-Portland, exploded and burned in flight near Longmont, Colorado, a few minutes after takeoff, with the loss of all 44 on board. Investigation revealed that the plane had been destroyed by the explosion of a bomb that had been placed in the rear luggage hold in Denver. Twelve days after the disaster, John Gilbert Graham, the son of one of the female passengers, was arrested and charged with murder. He reportedly admitted placing a time bomb on board the aircraft, apparently in order to collect $37,500.00 in life insurance that he had taken on his mother's life. Though he soon recanted, he was convicted of murder and was executed. The potential for additional such crimes remains.

  12. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  13. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  14. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  15. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  16. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    PubMed

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process.

  17. Social-Cognitive Biases in Simulated Airline Luggage Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeremy R.; Madhavan, Poomima

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrated how social cognitive biases affect the decision making process of air1ine luggage screeners. Participants (n = 96) performed a computer simulated task to detect hidden weapons in 200 x-ray images of passenger luggage. Participants saw each image for two (high time pressure) or six seconds (low time pressure). Participants observed pictures of the "passenger" who owns the luggage . The "pre-anchor group" answered questions about the passenger before the luggage image appeared, the "post-snchor" group answered questions after the luggage appeared, and the "no-anchor group" answered no questions. Participants either stopped or did not stop the bag. and rated their confidence in their decision. Participants under high time pressure had lower hit rates and higher false alarms, Significant differences between the pre-, no-, and post-anchor groups were based on the gender and race of the passengers. Participants had higher false alarm rates in response to male than female passengers.

  18. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  19. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  20. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  1. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  2. 77 FR 22795 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for comments; Extension of an existing information collection. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs...

  3. 78 FR 46998 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for comments; Extension of an existing information collection. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs...

  4. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  5. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  6. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  7. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  8. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  9. Graphical and Statistical Analysis of Airplane Passenger Cabin RF Coupling Paths to Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Portable wireless technology provides many benefits to modern day travelers. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters, both intentional and unintentional, and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). IPL data is required for assessing the threat of PEDs to aircraft radios, and is very dependent upon airplane size, the interfering transmitter position within the airplane, and the location of the particular antenna for the aircraft system of concern. NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines personnel performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes.

  10. 78 FR 65155 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Isolation or Security Protection of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... navigation systems (aircraft control domain); 2. Operator business and administrative support (operator... electronic system security protection against, access by unauthorized sources internal to the airplane. The... Airplanes; Isolation or Security Protection of the Aircraft Control Domain and the Airline...

  11. Examining Informal Learning in Commercial Airline Pilots' Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corns, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic sequential mixed methods research methodology was used to examine commercial airline pilots' (N =156) types and frequencies of informal learning activities, perceptions of workplace informal learning, and opinions on how organizations should support workplace informal learning outside of the formal learning environment. This study…

  12. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  13. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  14. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  15. Modeling of Space Radiation Exposure Estimation Program for Pilots, Crew and Passengers on Commercial Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Dokgo, Kyunghwan; Choi, Enjin; Park, Jong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Hang-Pyo

    2014-03-01

    There has been a rapid increase of the concern on the space radiation effect on pilots, crew and passengers at the commercial aircraft altitude (~ 10 km) recently. It is because domestic airline companies, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines have just begun operating the polar routes over the North Pole since 2006 and 2009 respectively. CARI-6 and CARI-6M are commonly used space radiation estimation programs which are provided officially by the U.S. federal aviation administration (FAA). In this paper, the route doses and the annual radiation doses for Korean pilots and cabin crew were estimated by using CARI-6M based on 2012 flight records. Also the modeling concept was developed for our own space radiation estimation program which is composed of GEANT4 and NRLMSIS00 models. The GEANT4 model is used to trace the incident particle transports in the atmosphere and the NRLMSIS00 model is used to get the background atmospheric densities of various neutral atoms at the aircraft altitude. Also presented are the results of simple integration tests of those models and the plan to include the space weather variations through the solar proton event (SPE) prediction model such as UMASEP and the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) prediction model such as Badhwar-O¡¯Neill 2010.

  16. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  17. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  18. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR) tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR), to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya) and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network

  19. Train Timetable Evaluation from the Viewpoints of Passengers by Microsimulation of Train Operation and Passenger Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimatsu, Taketoshi; Hirai, Chikara; Tomii, Norio

    In order to evaluate train timetables from passengers' points of view, it is indispensable to estimate the disutilities of passengers. This can be done by estimating the movements of passengers and trains accurately. In particular, when there are many passengers, an interaction between the passengers and trains must be considered. To this end, we have developed a microsimulation system to simulate both train operation and passengers' train choice behavior. The system can simulate train choice behaviors of more than one million passengers as well as their positions in trains. It is possible to estimate the delays caused by congestion in trains as well. The system is based on models of different attitudes of the passengers with respect to the train choice behavior, with includes the choice of the earliest train, transfer avoidance, and congestion avoidance; a passengers' train choice behavior reflects his/her preferences. We applied this system to an actual railway line in a metropolitan area and evaluated two train schedules by calculating the generalized cost that reflects each passenger's disutility in his/her experience. Through the numerical experiments, we have confirmed that the proposed method is very useful for evaluating timetables from passengers' points of view.

  20. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Operations Program Management § 91.1035 Passenger awareness. (a) Prior to each takeoff, the pilot in...

  5. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “fasten seat belt” sign is lighted. (e) Each... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  6. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... safety belt about him or her and keep it fastened while any “fasten seat belt” sign is lighted. (e) Each... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  7. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  8. Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Timothy H. [D-NY-1

    2009-02-09

    03/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Workforce Protections. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1422, which became Public Law 111-119 on 12/21/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. The NASA Ames integral aircraft passenger seat concept - A human engineering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A new NASA Ames concept for an aircraft passenger seat has been under research and development since 1968. It includes many human-factor features that will provide protection to the passenger from vibration, jostle, and high impact. It is comfortable and safer than any of the seats presently in use. An in-depth design, fabrication, and impact analysis was conducted in order to design a seat that will maximize passenger protection in high g impacts (20 g horizontal -Gx, 36 g vertical +Gz, 16 g lateral Gy). The method for absorbing impact energy was accomplished with a combination of stretching stainless steel cables, thread breaking of stitches, hydraulic mechanism and the special Temper Form cushions. The restraint system for the seat consisted of a lap belt and shoulder harness inertia reel combination.

  10. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  11. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  12. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  13. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  14. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire § 177.870 Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. (a) Vehicles transporting passengers and property... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or...

  15. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  16. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  17. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  18. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  19. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  20. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  1. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  2. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  3. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  4. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  5. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  6. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  7. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  8. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  9. Measurement of cabin air quality aboard commercial airliners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagda, Niren L.; Koontz, Michael D.; Konheim, Arnold G.; Katharine Hammond, S.

    Between April and June 1989, 92 randomly selected flights were monitored to determine prevailing levels of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and other pollutants in the airliner cabin environment. The monitored flights included 69 smoking flights, 8 of which were international, and 23 nonsmoking flights, all of which were domestic. Selected ETS contaminants (nicotine, respirable suspended particles and carbon monoxide), as well as ozone, microbial aerosols, carbon dioxide and other environmental variables were measured in different parts of airliner cabins. Particle and nicotine concentrations were highest in the smoking section and were somewhat higher in the boundary region near smoking than in other no-smoking sections or on nonsmoking flights. Levels of these ETS tracers were correlated with smoking rates observed by field technicians, and their levels in the boundary section were higher when more proximate to the smoking section. CO 2 levels were sufficiently high and humidity levels were sufficiently low to pose potential comfort problems for aircraft occupants. Ozone levels were well within existing standards for airliner environments, and levels of microbial aerosols were below those in residential environments that have been characterized through cross-sectional studies.

  10. Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

  11. Strategic Classification and Examination of the Development of Current Airline Alliance Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhi H.; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Previous research argues that despite the fact that strategic alliances have become an important feature of the world airline industry, little rigorous analysis has been done on the effects of these alliances. This is partially because there is a lack of precise definitions to specify different types of airline alliances in the literature. This research identifies several categories of airline alliances through a strategic classification of the current alliance activities involving the major airlines for the period 1989 to 1999. The classification enables this research to examine how strategic alliance activities are evolving, particularly to compare how airlines in North America, the European Union and the Asia Pacific region have committed to different alliances. Findings show that there is a significant difference between the number and scope of alliances adopted in the three aviation markets. These findings facilitate research to further analyse the impact of market liberalization on various formations of strategic airline alliances.

  12. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  13. Medical assistance during commercial airline flights: analysis of 11 years experience of the Paris Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) between 1989 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Szmajer, M; Rodriguez, P; Sauval, P; Charetteur, M P; Derossi, A; Carli, P

    2001-08-01

    Emergencies arising during commercial airline flights may have serious consequences. We report the experience of the Paris Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) in providing in-flight assistance to Air France between 1989 and 1999. During this period medical advice was sought 380 times during the carriage of about 350 million passengers. Analysis of the patient files suggests that serious emergencies were rare and that cardiopulmonary resuscitation was required only exceptionally. However the relative frequency of cardiac and neurological emergencies in our analysis supports the necessity of carrying adequate medical equipment and of having direct access to expert medical advice. The results suggest the requirement for a rigorous prospective epidemiological study of in-flight emergencies to evaluate the effectiveness of current practice and possible modifications of equipment and protocols for patient management.

  14. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  15. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  16. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  17. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.7 Passenger briefings. (a)...

  18. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers...

  19. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipment or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  20. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equipment or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  1. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equipment or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  2. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or line handling gear, in the way of sail booms, running rigging, or paddle wheels, or along pulpits... of sail booms or running rigging; (v) Spaces below deck that are unsuitable for passengers or...

  3. An Examination and Comparison of Airline and Navy Pilot Career Earnings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    an accurate picture of the probable average 1986 salary. This will be done in the following manner:Z6 I. The FAPA first year salary will be used. 2...984,573 $ 942,272 AOCP Source: Author 97 ’k TABLE 4$ AIRLINE PENSIONI PLANS Pension Plans 1984-1985 Majors Airlines National Airlines American 60% Airborne...May 29. Robert Joed.!cke and Mark Pin’erton The Airline Industy Picture Book, Shearson Lema-n--Brothers, (May 141 ’I 30. "Eastern Unions File Suits," A

  4. Translating Research Into Airline Practice: Case Studies In Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Chappell, Sherry; Daniel, Doug; Mancuso, Vince; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Airline training departments are avid customers for research that will help them enhance the effectiveness of training and the safety of flight operations. However, various factors often make it difficult for training department managers to draw upon the large body of human factors research, e.g.: research may not address the specific questions facing the training departments, the research literature may not be in a form that training managers can readily interpret, researchers' recommendations may be too expensive or impractical to implement, etc. This panel will discuss ways in which researchers can work with training departments to design research and translate findings into products that airlines can use readily. This collaboration is most effective when it is an integral part of the study from its inception. To illustrate the process of collaboration we will use as a case study the recently completed LOFT (Line Oriented Flight Training) Debriefing research project. We will summarize the findings from that study and discuss how we translated those findings into two training tools: a manual on how to facilitate LOFT debriefings and a video that illustrates facilitation techniques in a realistically enacted debriefing. In some cases, instead of starting a new research project, training department needs can be addressed by reviewing the existing research literature and using expert opinion to develop products that specifically address those needs. To illustrate this approach we will discuss a recent informal working group of scientists and airline personnel that met to develop training material to enhance situation awareness. This group reviewed scientific literature and ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System) reports, analyzed contributing factors, and produced a model for managing situation awareness.

  5. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  6. Deep vein thrombosis and airline travel--the deadly duo.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2003-02-01

    A number of deaths from pulmonary embolism caused by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) have been attributed to long-distance airplane travel. Although airplanes provide the most convenient means of long-distance travel, the aircraft environment can take a physical toll on passengers. This article describes the causes and risk factors for discusses preventive strategies, and offers recommendations for making air travel safer.

  7. Cultural changes (1986-96) in a Norwegian airline company.

    PubMed

    Mjøs, Kjell

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate cultural changes in a Norwegian airline company over a time span of 10 years. A questionnaire including parameters characterizing culture was administered to air crews in 1986 (n = 137) and in 1996 (n = 50). The performance part of a simulator study in 1996 indicated a significant reduction in operational failures compared with the 1986 study. The data further demonstrated significant changes in cultural variables, such as reduced Dominance and Masculinity, and improved Social climate and Communication. The direction of change in scores on the cultural variables corresponded with the principles on which the remedial actions were based.

  8. Tweeting the Friendly Skies: Investigating Information Exchange among Twitter Users about Airlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasan, Nirupama Dharmavaram; Lee, Chei Sian; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate airline users' microblog postings pertaining to their travel-related information exchange so as to assess their wants, preferences and feedback about airline products and services. Examining such real-time information exchange is important as users rely on this for various purposes such as…

  9. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  10. "American Way's" Flight Pattern: A Profile of American Airline's In-Flight Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rising, Suzanne

    The success of "American Way," American Airline's in-flight magazine, comes from three major factors: the success of American Airlines itself, the high advertising revenue of the magazine, and the quality editorial material produced. Beginning in 1966, "American Way" has evolved from a brochure of flight information and travel…

  11. Don't Plan Another Meeting--Without Calling An Airline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Delaine R.

    1977-01-01

    An increasing number of training managers and other meeting planners are taking advantage of the free meeting planning help--plus discounts on car rentals, meeting speakers, AV productions, and more--that the major airlines have begun to provide. The article presents a look at these services along with material from several airlines. (MF)

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of airline accommodations are available? 301-10.121 Section 301-10.121 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to...

  13. Why do airlines want and use thrust reversers? A compilation of airline industry responses to a survey regarding the use of thrust reversers on commercial transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Although thrust reversers are used for only a fraction of the airplane operating time, their impact on nacelle design, weight, airplane cruise performance, and overall airplane operating and maintenance expenses is significant. Why then do the airlines want and use thrust reversers? In an effort to understand the airlines need for thrust reversers, a survey of the airline industry was made to determine why and under what situations thrust reversers are currently used or thought to be needed. The survey was intended to help establish the cost/benefits trades for the use of thrust reversers and airline opinion regarding alternative deceleration devices. A compilation and summary of the responses given to the survey questionnaire is presented.

  14. Helicopter passenger survival suit standards in the UK offshore oil industry.

    PubMed

    Leese, W L; Norman, J N

    1979-02-01

    Special protective clothing for helicopter passengers in transit to and from installations in the U.K. offshore oil industry is considered essential. Such clothing is required to increase the survival chances in the unlikely event of a helicopter ditching. This paper discusses the nature of the threat to life in such an event and proposes standards for the specific protective clothing required to meet it. Test criteria are also outlined, to ensure that standards set are maintained.

  15. Medical guidelines for space passengers--II.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B; Antuñano, Melchor J; Garber, Mitchell A; Hastings, John D; Illig, Petra A; Jordan, Jon L; Landry, Roger F; McMeekin, Robert R; Northrup, Susan E; Ruehle, Charles; Saenger, Arleen; Schneider, Victor S

    2002-11-01

    It now appears likely that commercial entities will carry paying passengers on suborbital spaceflights in this decade. The stresses of spaceflight, the effects of microgravity, and the limited capability for medical care onboard make it advisable to develop a system of medical clearance for such space tourists. The Aerospace Medical Association, therefore, organized a Space Passenger Task Force whose first report on medical guidelines was published in 2001. That report consisted of a list of conditions that would disqualify potential passengers for relatively long orbital flights. The Task Force reconvened in 2002 to focus on less stringent medical screening appropriate for short duration suborbital flights. It was assumed that such commercial flights would involve: 1) small spacecraft carrying 4-6 passengers; 2) a cabin maintained at sea-level "shirt-sleeve" condition; 3) maximum accelerations of 2.0-4.5 G; 4) about 30 min in microgravity. The Task Force addressed specific medical problems, including space motion sickness, pregnancy, and medical conditions involving the risk of sudden incapacitation. The Task Force concluded that a medical history should be taken from potential passengers with individualized follow-up that focuses on areas of concern.

  16. Operational flight evaluation of the two-segment approach for use in airline service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwind, G. K.; Morrison, J. A.; Nylen, W. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    United Airlines has developed and evaluated a two-segment noise abatement approach procedure for use on Boeing 727 aircraft in air carrier service. In a flight simulator, the two-segment approach was studied in detail and a profile and procedures were developed. Equipment adaptable to contemporary avionics and navigation systems was designed and manufactured by Collins Radio Company and was installed and evaluated in B-727-200 aircraft. The equipment, profile, and procedures were evaluated out of revenue service by pilots representing government agencies, airlines, airframe manufacturers, and professional pilot associations. A system was then placed into scheduled airline service for six months during which 555 two-segment approaches were flown at three airports by 55 airline pilots. The system was determined to be safe, easy to fly, and compatible with the airline operational environment.

  17. Passenger well-being in airplanes.

    PubMed

    Hinninghofen, H; Enck, P

    2006-10-30

    Passenger well-being is influenced by cabin environmental conditions which interact with individual passenger characteristics like age and health conditions. Cabin environment is composed of different aspects, some of which have a direct influence on gastrointestinal functions and may directly generate nausea, such as cabin pressure, oxygen saturation, and motion or vibration. For example, it has been shown that available cabin pressure during normal flight altitude can significantly inhibit gastric emptying and induce dyspepsia-like symptoms when associated with a fibre-rich meal. Other aspects of the cabin environment such as space and variability of seating, air quality, and noise, also have been shown to modulate (reduce or increase) discomfort and nausea during flights. Individual passenger characteristics and health status also have been demonstrated to increase vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and discomfort.

  18. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  19. Passenger ride quality in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Richards, L. G.; Conner, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships are presented which can be used to account for passenger ride quality in transport aircraft. These relations can be used to predict passenger comfort and satisfaction under a variety of flight conditions. Several applications are detailed, including evaluation of use of spoilers to attenuate trailing vortices, identifying key elements in a complex maneuver which leads to discomfort, determining noise/motion tradeoffs, evaluating changes in wing loading, and others. Variables included in the models presented are motion, noise, temperature, pressure, and seating.

  20. 5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... safety information. (e) On a vessel on a voyage of more than 24 hours duration, passengers shall...

  5. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning set... to the prohibition in this section is the transportation of passengers between ports in Puerto...

  6. 14 CFR 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger origin-destination survey. Sec... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... carriers) shall participate in a Passenger Origin-Destination (O & D) Survey covering domestic...

  7. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... apply to vehicles transporting passengers and property. (b) No Class 1 (explosive) materials or other hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except...

  8. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  9. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger train service that results in serious injury or death to one or more persons and property damage... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Specific Requirements §...

  10. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for loading/unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including push-out windows; (3) Proper responses to such emergency situations as fires and unruly passengers; (4) Proper procedures at...

  11. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for loading/unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including push-out windows; (3) Proper responses to such emergency situations as fires and unruly passengers; (4) Proper procedures at...

  12. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  13. Older Driver and Passenger Collaboration for Wayfinding in Unfamiliar Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryden, Kelly Jane; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer; Lowndes, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Passenger collaboration offers a potential compensatory strategy to assist older drivers who have difficulty driving in unfamiliar areas (wayfinding). This article describes a survey of 194 healthy, community-dwelling older drivers and their regular passengers to investigate how passengers assist drivers, and to identify the characteristics of…

  14. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  15. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant issues the original...

  16. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  17. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  18. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  19. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  20. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  1. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a “Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet the requirements of this chapter...

  2. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  3. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  9. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  10. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  11. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  12. 49 CFR 374.315 - Transportation of passengers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation of passengers with disabilities....315 Transportation of passengers with disabilities. Service provided by a carrier to passengers with disabilities is governed by the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq., and regulations promulgated...

  13. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  14. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  15. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner.... (b) The master of a vessel required to prepare a crew and passenger list by paragraph (a) of...

  16. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  17. A Total Factor Productivity Based Structure for Tactical Cluster Assessment: Empirical Investigation in the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Fleming, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and assess the efficiency of the United States (U.S.) airline industry through the total factor productivity (TFP) method. While airlines use various resources to produce a heterogeneous group of outputs, this article focuses on certain fundamental outputs as final products of selected airlines. The results from this analysis indicate that the national airlines (US. domestic carriers) have higher TFP as compared to the major airlines. While major airlines have drastically cut costs in the past few years, they also need to improve efficiency or risk going out of business. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency and productivity of a selection of U.S. airlines for the years 1996 through 2001. These years have been chosen as a good example of years in which the industry experienced normal growth and generally positively returns. Subsequent to 2001 the industry experienced two severe external shocks, namely, the September 11, 2001. terrorist attacks and the Iraq war. These anomalous shocks make the years after 2001 inconsistent with respect to the type of index developed in this article.

  18. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines Correction In proposed rule document 2013-14367, appearing on pages 38102- 38159 in the issue...

  19. Techniques for Forecasting Air Passenger Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques of forecasting the air passenger traffic are outlined. These techniques can be broadly classified into four categories: judgmental, time-series analysis, market analysis and analytical. The differences between these methods exist, in part, due to the degree of formalization of the forecasting procedure. Emphasis is placed on describing the analytical method.

  20. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the FRA and Amtrak jointly drafted performance metrics and standards for intercity passenger rail service... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in...

  1. A graph-theoretic method to quantify the airline route authority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces a graph-theoretic method to quantify the legal statements in route certificate which specifies the airline routing restrictions. All the authorized nonstop and multistop routes, including the shortest time routes, can be obtained, and the method suggests profitable route structure alternatives to airline analysts. This method to quantify the C.A.B. route authority was programmed in a software package, Route Improvement Synthesis and Evaluation, and demonstrated in a case study with a commercial airline. The study showed the utility of this technique in suggesting route alternatives and the possibility of improvements in the U.S. route system.

  2. Airline pilot scan patterns during simulated ILS approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of instrument landing system approaches were conducted using seven airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in a Federal Aviation Administration qualified simulator. The test matrix included both manual and coupled approaches with and without atmospheric turbulence in Category II visibility conditions. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use different scan techniques for the manual and coupled conditions and that the introduction of atmospheric turbulence does not greatly affect the scan behavior in either case. The pilots consistently ranked the instruments in terms of most used to least used. The ranking obtained from the oculometer data agrees with the pilot ranking for the flight director and airspeed, the most important instruments. However, the pilots apparently ranked the other instruments in terms of their concern for information rather than according to their actual scanning behavior.

  3. On the treatment of airline travelers in mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin; Gallagher, Nancy; Marano, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of infectious diseases is facilitated by the ability of infected humans to travel thousands of miles in short time spans, rapidly transporting pathogens to distant locations. Mathematical models of the actual and potential spread of specific pathogens can assist public health planning in the case of such an event. Models should generally be parsimonious, but must consider all potentially important components of the system to the greatest extent possible. We demonstrate and discuss important assumptions relative to the parameterization and structural treatment of airline travel in mathematical models. Among other findings, we show that the most common structural treatment of travelers leads to underestimation of the speed of spread and that connecting travel is critical to a realistic spread pattern. Models involving travelers can be improved significantly by relatively simple structural changes but also may require further attention to details of parameterization.

  4. Disorders of the menstrual cycle in airline stewardesses.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, R; Terrés, A; Chavarria, A

    1980-05-01

    Of 200 airline stewardesses, 39% underwent unfavourable changes in the menstrual cycle after commencing aeronautical activities while 11% who had previous disorders healed soon after joining the company. Although 48% of the stewardesses underwent changes in menstruation during flight, in about half of these the menstrual flow increased and in the other half it decreased or disappeared, only to reappear with greater intensity after the flight; 38% of the stewardesses manifected suffering from pelvic discomfort after long flights. Sufficient research in this field has not been done. Therefore, it is difficult to trace the exact origin and mechanism of these changes in the menstrual cycle. Stress and internal desynchronitation due to disruption of circadian rhythm may intervene in generating these disorders.

  5. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  6. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  7. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  8. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  9. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  10. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs...

  11. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day.

    PubMed

    de Mello, M T; Esteves, A M; Pires, M L N; Santos, D C; Bittencourt, L R A; Silva, R S; Tufik, S

    2008-12-01

    Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airline presented major errors. Errors made by 515 captains and 472 co-pilots were analyzed using data from flight operation quality assurance systems. To analyze the times of day (shifts) during which incidents occurred, we divided the light-dark cycle (24:00) in four periods: morning, afternoon, night, and early morning. The differences of risk during the day were reported as the ratio of morning to afternoon, morning to night and morning to early morning error rates. For the purposes of this research, level 3 events alone were taken into account, since these were the most serious in which company operational limits were exceeded or when established procedures were not followed. According to airline flight schedules, 35% of flights take place in the morning period, 32% in the afternoon, 26% at night, and 7% in the early morning. Data showed that the risk of errors increased by almost 50% in the early morning relative to the morning period (ratio of 1:1.46). For the period of the afternoon, the ratio was 1:1.04 and for the night a ratio of 1:1.05 was found. These results showed that the period of the early morning represented a greater risk of attention problems and fatigue.

  12. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  13. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  14. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... re-exported aircraft bore the livery, colors and logos of Syrian Pearl Airlines, a national of Syria.... Coast Guard ALJ Docketing Center, 40 South Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202-4022. BIS may...

  15. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  16. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration..., DC, on May 31, 2012. Patricia Hu, Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research...

  17. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology...

  18. 77 FR 18306 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau... 20, 2012. Patricia Hu Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research and...

  19. Preliminary Survey of Icing Conditions Measured During Routine Transcontinental Airline Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1952-01-01

    Icing data collected on routine operations by four DC-4-type aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters are presented as preliminary information obtained from a statistical icing data program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of many airline companies and the United States Air Force. The program is continuing on a much greater scale to provide large quantities of data from many air routes in the United States and overseas. Areas not covered by established air routes are also being included in the survey. The four aircraft which collected the data presented in this report were operated by United Air Lines over a transcontinental route from January through May, 1951. An analysis of the pressure-type icing-rate meter was satisfactory for collecting statistical data during routine operations. Data obtained on routine flight icing encounters from.these four instrumented aircraft, although insufficient for a conclusive statistical analysis, provide a greater quantity and considerably more realistic information than that obtained from random research flights. A summary of statistical data will be published when the information obtained daring the 1951-52 icing season and that to be obtained during the 1952-53 season can be analyzed and assembled. The 1951-52 data already analyzed indicate that the quantity, quality, and range of icing information being provided by this expanded program should afford a sound basis for ice-protection-system design by defining the important meteorological parameters of the icing cloud.

  20. The Risk of Melanoma in Airline Pilots and Cabin Crew A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R.; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T.; EE; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E.; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Importance Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. Objective To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. Data Sources PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). Study Selection All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Data Extraction and Synthesis Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Main Outcomes and Measures Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Results Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Conclusions and Relevance Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational

  1. Multistep-Ahead Air Passengers Traffic Prediction with Hybrid ARIMA-SVMs Models

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Wei; Xiong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid ARIMA-SVMs prediction models have been established recently, which take advantage of the unique strength of ARIMA and SVMs models in linear and nonlinear modeling, respectively. Built upon this hybrid ARIMA-SVMs models alike, this study goes further to extend them into the case of multistep-ahead prediction for air passengers traffic with the two most commonly used multistep-ahead prediction strategies, that is, iterated strategy and direct strategy. Additionally, the effectiveness of data preprocessing approaches, such as deseasonalization and detrending, is investigated and proofed along with the two strategies. Real data sets including four selected airlines' monthly series were collected to justify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Empirical results demonstrate that the direct strategy performs better than iterative one in long term prediction case while iterative one performs better in the case of short term prediction. Furthermore, both deseasonalization and detrending can significantly improve the prediction accuracy for both strategies, indicating the necessity of data preprocessing. As such, this study contributes as a full reference to the planners from air transportation industries on how to tackle multistep-ahead prediction tasks in the implementation of either prediction strategy. PMID:24723814

  2. Tests and analyses applicable to passenger ride quality of large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, R. B.; Brumaghin, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was undertaken to determine airline passenger reaction to vibration environments that might be encountered in a supersonic transport or other large commercial jet aircraft. The principal problem addressed was to determine accelerations of vertical and lateral vibration that people find objectionable. Further questions experimentally posed were: (1) what is the relationship between human reactions to vertical and lateral vibration, (2) to single- and combined-frequency vibration, and (3) to single- and combined-axis vibration? Interest was confined to reactions to vibration in the frequency range of 0.20 to 7.0 Hz, a range typical of the vibration environment of a large airplane. Results indicated an increasing sensitivity to vertical vibration as frequency was increased from 1.0 to 7.0 Hz. Subjects were found most sensitive to lateral vibration in the 1.0 to 3.0 Hz range. There was a nearly linear decrease in sensitivity as frequency of lateral vibration was increased from 3.0 to 7.0 Hz.

  3. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study.

  4. An Analysis of the Proposed Airline Competition Enhancement Act of 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    reservation systems currently dominating the travel industry. The airline provides the subscribing travel agency with the terminal(s), software...concerning the booking and the customer is kept on file at the travel agency and transmitted to the airline’s central processing system where the...It evolved into an international reservation system and extensive travel agency automation network that is powered by seven IBM mainframe computers

  5. First Encounters of the Close Kind: The Formation Process of Airline Flight Crews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Everyday there are over 16,500 major commercial airline flights (DC-9, 737 or larger) departing in the United States (G. Mercer, personal communication...ten persons . Yet despite these design and regulatory imperative, the majority of behavioral research in the airline industry has been directed at topics...Flight 90 came back down, hitting the 14th Street Bridge before it crashed into the ice covered Potomac River, killing 74 persons on the aircraft and

  6. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  7. Controlling Hazardous Releases while Protecting Passengers in Civil Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimer, Sara P.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2015-11-01

    The threat of accidental or deliberate toxic chemicals released into public spaces is a significant concern to public safety, and the real-time detection and mitigation of such hazardous contaminants has the potential to minimize harm and save lives. Furthermore, the safe evacuation of occupants during such a catastrophe is of utmost importance. This research develops a comprehensive means to address such scenarios, through both the sensing and control of contaminants, and the modeling of and potential communication to occupants as they evacuate. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed of a simplified public space characterized by a long conduit (e.g. airport terminal) with unidirectional ambient flow that is capable of detecting and mitigating the hazardous contaminant (via boundary ports) over several time horizons using model predictive control optimization. Additionally, a physical prototype is built to test the real-time feasibility of this computational flow control model. The prototype is a blower wind-tunnel with an elongated test section with the capability of sensing (via digital camera) an injected `contaminant' (propylene glycol smoke), and then mitigating that contaminant using actuators (compressed air operated vacuum nozzles) which are operated by a set of pressure regulators and a programmable controller. Finally, an agent-based model is developed to simulate ``agents'' (i.e. building occupants) as they evacuate a public space, and is coupled with the computational flow control model such that agents must interact with a dynamic, threatening environment. NSF-CMMI #0856438.

  8. The impact of Southwest Airline's contribution to atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide totals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Cody L.

    Over the last century, aviation has grown to become an economical juggernaut. The industry creates innovation, connects people, and maintains a safety goal unlike any other field. However, as the world becomes more populated with technology and individuals, a general curiosity as to how human activity effects the planet is becoming of greater interest. This study presents what one domestic airline in the United States, Southwest Airlines, contributes to the atmospheric make-up of the planet. Utilizing various sources of quantifiable data, an outcome was reached that shows the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide produced by Southwest Airlines from 2002 to 2013. This topic was chosen due to the fact that there are no real quantifiable values of emission statistics from airlines available to the public. Further investigation allowed for Southwest Airlines to be compared to the overall Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide contributions of the United States for the year 2011. The results showed that with the absence of any set standard on emissions, it is vital that one should be established. The data showed that the current ICAO standard emission values showed a higher level of emissions than when Southwest Airline's fleet was analyzed using their actual fleet mix.

  9. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  10. Collisions with passenger cars and moose, Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Björnstig, U; Eriksson, A; Thorson, J; Bylund, P O

    1986-01-01

    The number of collisions between motor vehicles and moose is increasing in many countries. Collisions with large, high animals such as moose cause typical rear- and downward deformation of the windshield pillars and front roof, most pronounced for small passenger cars; the injury risk increases with the deformation of the car. A strengthening of the windshield pillars and front roof and the use of antilacerative windshields would reduce the injury risk to car occupants. PMID:3953927

  11. Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-30

    U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier flights. For these purposes, CBP administers the Automated Targeting...Passenger Screening at Airport Security Checkpoints ................................. 14 9/11 Commission Recommendations and CAPPS II...individuals at either international ports of entries upon arrival at a U.S. port of entry or at airport security checkpoints prior U.S. air carrier

  12. Hard Braking Events Among Novice Teenage Drivers By Passenger Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ≤−0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure. PMID:21243109

  13. Hard Braking Events Among Novice Teenage Drivers By Passenger Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G; Lee, Suzanne E; Dingus, Thomas A

    2009-06-22

    In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ≤-0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure.

  14. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  15. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this section as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) system), the electronic data interchange system... electronic transmission system configured for batch transmission of data and receipt from the CBP system of... interactive electronic transmission system configured for transmitting individual passenger data for...

  16. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) system), the electronic data interchange system... electronic transmission system configured for batch transmission of data and receipt from the CBP system of... interactive electronic transmission system configured for transmitting individual passenger data for...

  17. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  18. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  19. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  20. Aircraft sound quality for passenger comfort and enhanced product image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, Gregory H.; Bultemeier, Eric J.; West, Erik; Angerer, James R.; Bhat, Waman V.

    2005-09-01

    Passenger cabin noise requirements for commercial airplanes are being expanded beyond the traditional focus on noise annoyance and speech intelligibility. There is increasing recognition that the passenger response to the cabin soundscape is much more complex; affecting perceptions of product quality, and impacting fatigue and comfort. Tailoring the soundscape for a preferred cabin environment requires the development of metrics that capture a range of passenger responses. In a preliminary exploration of potential metrics, a series of experiments were undertaken to investigate passenger preference for several classes of stationary and transient sounds within the passenger cabin. The design, implementation, and data analysis for these experiments is discussed, along with the application of results to enhance cabin comfort and to convey product quality. Key findings confirm what has been found in sound quality studies in other industries: sound level alone does not fully account for passenger preference.

  1. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    PubMed

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  2. Nothing good ever happens after midnight: observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nights among young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensing country.

    PubMed

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Twisk, Divera

    2015-02-01

    terms of: (a) a higher young male driver presence, (b) young male drivers carrying more frequently multiple passengers and (c) a higher prevalence of illegal BACs. After midnight, no evidence was found for a protective effect of the presence of one passenger on alcohol use. Of the young male drivers, 5% were over the legal limit and 3 in 5 young males who were over the limit carried passengers. However, the indicative result that young male drivers with multiple passengers were less likely to have been drinking than solo drivers or drivers with just one passenger, is suggestive of a protective effect of multiple passengers. These results may guide preventive strategies, including police enforcement and designated driver programmes.

  3. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  4. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  5. Passenger leukocytes and microchimerism: what role in tolerance induction?

    PubMed

    Wood, Kathryn J

    2003-05-15

    The role of passenger leukocytes in determining the outcome after transplantation is complex. In some settings, donor-derived passenger leukocytes can initiate graft rejection, whereas in others they contribute to graft acceptance. Both donor and recipient factors contribute to this potential dual role. Understanding the interaction between passenger leukocytes and the recipient's immune system, particularly after liver transplantation, may provide important clues for developing novel strategies for inducing specific unresponsiveness to donor alloantigens.

  6. Microbial assessment of cabin air quality on commercial airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Stuecker, Tara; Bearman, Gregory; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    The microbial burdens of 69 cabin air samples collected from commercial airliners were assessed via conventional culture-dependent, and molecular-based microbial enumeration assays. Cabin air samples from each of four separate flights aboard two different carriers were collected via air-impingement. Microbial enumeration techniques targeting DNA, ATP, and endotoxin were employed to estimate total microbial burden. The total viable microbial population ranged from 0 to 3.6 x10 4 cells per 100 liters of air, as assessed by the ATP-assay. When these same samples were plated on R2A minimal medium, anywhere from 2% to 80% of these viable populations were cultivable. Five of the 29 samples examined exhibited higher cultivable counts than ATP derived viable counts, perhaps a consequence of the dormant nature (and thus lower concentration of intracellular ATP) of cells inhabiting these air cabin samples. Ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed these samples to consist of a moderately diverse group of bacteria, including human pathogens. Enumeration of ribosomal genes via quantitative-PCR indicated that population densities ranged from 5 x 10 1 ' to IO 7 cells per 100 liters of air. Each of the aforementioned strategies for assessing overall microbial burden has its strengths and weaknesses; this publication serves as a testament to the power of their use in concert.

  7. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  8. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ahmet; Al-Deleamy, Louai S; Kendirli, Tansel M

    2007-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common types of peripheral vertigo, characterized by violent whirling vertigo after a positional change. Although the condition is termed "benign," the clinical presentation can be incapacitating for pilots in certain maneuvers. We present a case of an airline transport pilot with the complaint of vertigo for 5 d. The vertigo was aggravated by head movements when looking up or rolling over, lasting for a few seconds. The patient was diagnosed with BPPV, and he was treated with physical therapy with the use of Epley maneuver. The airman applied for his First-Class medical examination after the treatment was successfully completed. The aviation medical examiner (AME) issued the airman medical certificate after contacting and receiving verbal approval from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Aerospace Medical Certification Division (AMCD). While evaluating aviators who have had BPPV, AMEs should not issue medical certificates for any class until the condition is fully resolved. Although the AME Guide states that certification of pilots with other types of vertigo requires an FAA decision, once the patient is successfully treated and free of symptoms, approval for issuing the medical certificate can be obtained through contacting AMCD and by submitting all information and documentation pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  10. 16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH TURN STILES - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  11. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-10 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1811-09 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-09 Section 86.1811-09 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1811-09 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1811-10 - Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1811-10 Section 86.1811-10 Protection...

  16. Estimates of cosmic radiation exposure on Tunisian passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Neïla; Bennaceur, Raouf

    2008-01-01

    Radiation field produced by cosmic radiations in the earth's atmosphere is very complex and is significantly different from that found in the nuclear industry and other environments at ground level. Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to high levels of cosmic radiations of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 60, the European Union introduced a revised Basic Safety Standard Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionising radiations, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. We computed the dose received by some Tunisian flights, using CARI-6, EPCARD, PCAIRE, and SIEVERT codes. Calculations performed during the year 2007, on mostly regular passenger flights of the Nouvelair Tunisian Company, indicate a mean effective dose rate ranging between 3 and 4 microSv/h. We give the general background and details, focusing on the situation in Tunisia with respect to radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure. As far as we know, such a study has not previously been carried out.

  17. 75 FR 7599 - Notice of Public Hearing; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Notice of Public Hearing; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission... Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility Program. DATES: The due date for submitting a request to... make presentations concerning the Commission's passenger vessel financial responsibility program....

  18. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  19. Cancer incidence in airline cabin crew: experience from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Linnersjo, A; Hammar, N; Dammstrom, B; Johansson, M; Eliasch, H

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the cancer incidence in Swedish cabin crew. Methods: Cancer incidence of cabin crew at the Swedish Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) (2324 women and 632 men) employed from 1957 to 1994 was determined during 1961–96 from the Swedish National Cancer Register. The cancer incidence in cabin crew was compared with that of the general Swedish population by comparing observed and expected number of cases through standardised incidence ratios (SIR). A nested case-control study was performed, including cancer cases diagnosed after 1979 and four controls per case matched by gender, age, and calendar year. Results: The SIR for cancer overall was 1.01 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.24) for women and 1.16 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.55) for men. Both men and women had an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin (SIR 2.18 and 3.66 respectively) and men of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 4.42). Female cabin attendants had a non-significant increase of breast cancer (SIR 1.30; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.74). No clear associations were found between length of employment or cumulative block hours and cancer incidence. Conclusions: Swedish cabin crew had an overall cancer incidence similar to that of the general population. An increased incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer may be associated with exposure to UV radiation, either at work or outside work. An increased risk of breast cancer in female cabin crew is consistent with our results and may in part be due to differences in reproductive history. PMID:14573710

  20. Cardiovascular emergencies in cruise ship passengers.

    PubMed

    Novaro, Gian M; Bush, Howard S; Fromkin, Kenneth R; Shen, Michael Y; Helguera, Marcelo; Pinski, Sergio L; Asher, Craig R

    2010-01-15

    More than 10 million people, many elderly and likely to harbor cardiovascular (CV) disease, embark on cruise ship travel worldwide every year. The clinical presentation and outcome of CV emergencies presenting during cruise ship travel remain largely unknown. Our department provides contracted cardiology consultations to several large cruise lines. We prospectively maintained a registry of all such consultations during a 2-year period. One hundred consecutive patients were identified (age 66 +/- 14 years, range 18 to 90, 76% men). The most common symptom was chest pain (50%). The most common diagnosis was acute coronary syndrome (58%; ST elevation in 21% and non-ST elevation in 37%). On-board mortality was 3%. Overall, 73% of patients required hospital triage. Of the 25 patients triaged to our institution, 17 underwent a revascularization procedure. One patient died. Ten percent of patients had cardiac symptoms in the days or weeks before boarding; all required hospital triage. Access to a baseline electrocardiogram would have been clinically useful in 23% of cases. In conclusion, CV emergencies, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, are not uncommon on cruise ships. They are often serious, requiring hospital triage and coronary revascularization. A pretravel medical evaluation is recommended for passengers with a cardiac history or a high-risk profile. Passengers should be encouraged to bring a copy of their electrocardiogram on board if abnormal. Cruise lines should establish mechanisms for prompt consultation and triage.

  1. ASPS: American Suborbital Passenger System 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyczalek, Floyd A.

    1994-11-01

    With the evaporation of funding support for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), realization of a single stage to orbit flight system has been deferred. With the resource down sizing of the NASP management and technical team, development of the NASP concept appears to be delayed beyond the year 2030. To fill this gap for shorter flight times to remote destinations over 8,000 km, it is now proposed to convert the existing NASA shuttle to a passenger configuration and air launch horizontally from a Boeing 747 aircraft as the first stage carrier after climb to launch altitude. This US Shuttle concept may permit the transport of 100 passengers to destinations 10,000 km distant during a flight duration of 90 minutes, and during flight durations of about 120 minutes to any commercial destination on the planet Earth. This long distance system takes advantage of the existing shuttle and Boeing 747 airframe and propulsion technology, and can be implemented within the next decade.

  2. Passenger Deletions Generate Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Florian L.; Colla, Simona; Aquilanti, Elisa; Manzo, Veronica; Genovese, Giannicola; Lee, Jaclyn; Eisenson, Dan; Narurkar, Rujuta; Deng, Pingna; Nezi, Luigi; Lee, Michelle; Hu, Baoli; Hu, Jian; Sahin, Ergun; Ong, Derrick; Fletcher-Sananikone, Eliot; Ho, Dennis; Kwong, Lawrence; Brennan, Cameron; Wang, Y. Alan; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes via homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighboring genes. We hypothesized that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities in the case where the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes exercising an essential function. The glycolytic gene Enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in Glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by expression of ENO2. We demonstrate that shRNA-mediated extinction of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival, and tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate (PhAH) is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger deleted genes encoding functionally-redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers harboring such genomic events. PMID:22895339

  3. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios: Results of Limited Functional Testing With United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated, in Victorville, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.

    2002-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, the FCC adopted a FIRST REPORT AND ORDER, released it on April 22, 2002, and on May 16, 2002 published in the Federal Register a Final Rule, permitting marketing and operation of new products incorporating UWB technology. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This report provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  4. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as... informed of the required safety information. (e) On a vessel on a voyage of more than 24 hours...

  5. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor vehicle... be transported. (f) Division 6.1 (poisonous) or Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) materials on passenger... Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) material, or any paranitroaniline, in any amount, in or on any bus...

  6. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor vehicle... be transported. (f) Division 6.1 (poisonous) or Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) materials on passenger... Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) material, or any paranitroaniline, in any amount, in or on any bus...

  7. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 135.117 Section 135.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Operations § 135.117 Briefing of passengers before flight. (a) Before each takeoff each pilot...

  8. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance with... designated for safety purposes as no smoking areas, and crewmember instructions with regard to these...

  9. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance with... designated for safety purposes as no smoking areas, and crewmember instructions with regard to these...

  10. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...This final rule is intended to further the safety of passenger train occupants through both enhancements and additions to FRA's existing requirements for emergency systems on passenger trains. In this final rule, FRA is adding requirements for emergency passage through vestibule and other interior passageway doors and enhancing emergency egress and rescue access signage requirements. FRA is......

  11. 77 FR 153 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) is intended to further the safety of passenger train occupants through both enhancements and additions to FRA's existing requirements for emergency systems on passenger trains. In this NPRM, FRA is proposing to add requirements for interior vestibule doors and enhance emergency egress and rescue access signage requirements. FRA is also proposing to......

  12. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Engine. (2) Transmission. (3) Right front fender. (4) Left front fender. (5) Hood. (6) Right front door...) Front bumper. (12) Rear bumper. (13) Right rear quarter panel (passenger cars). (14) Left rear quarter panel (passenger cars). (15) Right-side assembly (MPVs). (16) Left-side assembly (MPVs). (17) Pickup...

  13. 75 FR 38878 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities: Passenger Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...The Department is issuing a new Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) rule to ensure nondiscrimination on the basis of disability by passenger vessel operators (PVOs). This rulemaking concerns service and policy issues. Issues concerning physical accessibility standards will be addressed at a later time, in conjunction with proposed passenger vessel accessibility guidelines drafted by the......

  14. 27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft... Sales in Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels. Persons who carry on the business of a retail dealer in liquors or of a retail dealer in beer on trains, aircraft, boats, or...

  15. 27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft... Sales in Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels. Persons who carry on the business of a retail dealer in liquors or of a retail dealer in beer on trains, aircraft, boats, or...

  16. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  17. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  18. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  19. 49 CFR 1562.23 - Aircraft operator and passenger requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. 1562... Certain Operations § 1562.23 Aircraft operator and passenger requirements. (a) General. To operate into or out of DCA, an aircraft operator must: (1) Designate a security coordinator responsible...

  20. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  1. 49 CFR 223.8 - Additional requirements for passenger equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for passenger equipment. 223.8 Section 223.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER...

  2. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  3. Shuttle passenger couch. [design and performance of engineering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Stephenson, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design and fabrication of a full scale shuttle passenger couch engineering model are reported. The model was utilized to verify anthropometric dimensions, reach dimensions, ingress/egress, couch operation, storage space, restraint locations, and crew acceptability. These data were then incorported in the design of the passenger couch verification model that underwent performance tests.

  4. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, or... Great Lakes port from a Canadian Great Lakes port. (b) The master of a vessel required to prepare a...

  5. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  6. A Comparison of Center/TRACON Automation System and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Benefits from information sharing between an air traffic service provider and a major air carrier are evaluated. Aircraft arrival time schedules generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) were provided to the American Airlines System Operations Control Center in Fort Worth, Texas, during a field trial of a specialized CTAS display. A statistical analysis indicates that the CTAS schedules, based on aircraft trajectories predicted from real-time radar and weather data, are substantially more accurate than the traditional airline arrival time estimates, constructed from flight plans and en route crew updates. The improvement offered by CTAS is especially advantageous during periods of heavy traffic and substantial terminal area delay, allowing the airline to avoid large predictive errors with serious impact on the efficiency and profitability of flight operations.

  7. Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the accounting and stock price performance of two Canadian airlines, WestJet and Air Canada, over a five year period, taking into account the aftermath of the systemic shock to the airline industry produced by the September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorist attacks and subsequent events such as the 2002 SARS outbreak, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the accompanying rise in jet fuel prices. Our study focuses on the viability of low-cost versus conventional-cost business models in Canada under the current business environment and the ability of airlines to withstand and effectively respond to catastrophic industry events. Furthermore, we link the effectiveness of the airlines responses to these events to specific elements of their respective business models. We test our hypothesis through a case study. We focus on WestJet as a typical low-cost airline and compare its accounting and stock performance to Air Canada, a legacy carrier and rival in several business sectors. We find WestJet to be much less affected by catastrophic industry events. By decomposing each airline s return volatility, we observe that WestJet s systematic and unsystematic risk increased only slightly during the industry's post-9-11 turmoil when compared to Air Canada. In addition, we find that both WestJet s accounting and stock performance have been highly superior to those of Air Canada. We argue that WestJet s business model provides the firm with significantly more financial and operational flexibility than its legacy rival, Air Canada. WestJet's lower operating costs, high consumer trust, product offering, corporate structure, workforce and work practices, as well as operational procedures are all factors that appear to contribute to its relative success.

  8. Simulated airline service experience with laminar-flow control leading-edge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Fisher, David F.; Jennett, Lisa A.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The first JetStar leading edge flight test was made November 30, 1983. The JetStar was flown for more than 3 years. The titanium leading edge test articles today remain in virtually the same condition as they were in on that first flight. No degradation of laminar flow performance has occurred as a result of service. The JetStar simulated airline service flights have demonstrated that effective, practical leading edge systems are available for future commercial transports. Specific conclusions based on the results of the simulated airline service test program are summarized.

  9. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  10. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  11. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  12. Effect of helicopter noise on passenger annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of helicopter interior noise on passenger annoyance for both reverie and listening situations was investigated. The relative effectiveness of several metrics for quantifying annoyance response for these situations was also studied. The noise stimuli were based upon recordings of the interior noise of civil helicopter research aircraft. These noises were presented at levels ranging from approximately 70 to 86 d with various tonal components selectively attenuated to give a range of spectra. The listening task required the subjects to listen to and record phonetically-balanced words presented within the various noise environments. Results indicate that annoyance during a listening condition is generally higher than annoyance under a reverie condition for corresponding interior noise environments. Attenuation of the tonal components results in increases in listening performance but has only a small effect upon annoyance for a given noise level.

  13. STOL ride quality criteria - Passenger acceptance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to mathematically model human reaction to variables involved in transportation systems offers a very desirable tool both for the prediction of passenger acceptance of proposed systems, and for establishing acceptance criteria for the system designer. As a first step in the development of a general model for STOL systems, a mathematical formulation is presented which accepts as inputs nine variables felt to be important in flight under STOL-type conditions and presents an index of human response as the output. The variables used are three linear motions, three angular motions, pressure, temperature and noise level. The results are used to establish specifications for stability augmentation systems to improve the ride quality of existing STOL aircraft.

  14. Gastrointestinal illness on passenger cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Merson, M H; Hughes, J M; Wood, B T; Yashuk, J C; Wells, J G

    1975-02-17

    Medical logs of 2,445 cruises taken by 38 vessels over a 20-month period beginning Jan 1, 1972, were reviewed. On 92% of the cruises, the recorded incidence of gastrointestinal illness was 1% or less; on 2% of cruises, it was 5% or greater. The actual incidence of gastrointestinal illness determined by a questionnaire survey of passengers sailing on nine cruises was found to be at least four times as high as that recorded in the medical logs. Although the cause of the illnesses was not known, there was evidence that transmission took place aboard ship. A survey of food-handling practices and water systems aboard selected ships demonstrated a significant potential for transmission of foodborne and waterborne disease.

  15. A study of the financial history of the U.S. scheduled airlines and the improvement of airline profitability through technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The financial history of the U.S. scheduled airline industry was investigated to determine the causes of the erratic profit performance of the industry and to evaluate potential economic gains from technology advances of recent years. Operational and economic factors affecting past and future profitability of the industry are discussed, although no attempt was made to examine the profitability of individual carriers. The results of the study indicate that the profit erosion of the late 1960's and early 1970's was due more to excess capacity than to inadequate fare levels, but airline problems were severely compounded by the rapid fuel price escalation in 1974 and 1975. Near-term solutions to the airline financial problems depend upon the course of action by the industry and the CAB and the general economic health of the nation. For the longer term, the only acceptable alternative to continued fare increases is a reduction in unit operating costs through technological advance. The next generation of transports is expected to incorporate technologies developed under Government sponsorship in the 1960's and 1970's with significant improvements in fuel consumption and operating costs.

  16. Airbags & children: making correct choices in child passenger restraints.

    PubMed

    Kamerling, Susan Nudelman

    2002-01-01

    Countless numbers of young lives are lost each year due to motor vehicle crashes. One of the most effective means of reducing the number of children killed and injured as occupants in motor vehicles is through the use of child passenger restraints. Seat belts and child safety seats save lives and reduce the severity of injuries sustained by occupants in motor vehicle crashes. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and influence families on the proper way to safely transport all motor vehicle passengers. Therefore, nurses working with infants, children, and families have a moral and professional obligation to understand the basics of child passenger safety. At the very least, nurses should be able to direct families appropriately for specifics related to child passenger restraints. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of child passenger safety through a historical, theoretical, and clinical approach. Proper child restraint use is reviewed based on current recommendations for age and size. The potential hazards of child restraint misuse, with an in-depth discussion on airbags, is presented. The discussion on airbags serves to dispel any misconceptions that may be held about airbags. The article includes two case studies that illustrate the injury potential of relatively common misuse patterns. The clinical implications for maternal-child nurses include the recognition that child passenger deaths are primarily due to child restraint nonuse and misuse and the realization of nursing's role in the promotion of proper child passenger restraint.

  17. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, N. W.; Kirchstetter, T.; Martien, P. T.; Apte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  18. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Nicholas W.; Apte, Joshua S.; Martien, Philip T.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  19. An automated system for global atmospheric sampling using B-747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, K. Q.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.; Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The global air sampling program utilizes commercial aircrafts in scheduled service to measure atmospheric constituents. A fully automated system designed for the 747 aircraft is described. Airline operational constraints and data and control subsystems are treated. The overall program management, system monitoring, and data retrieval from four aircraft in global service is described.

  20. Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel…

  1. Newspaper Front Page Coverage of "the Korean Airliner Boeing 747 Massacre" in Six Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jong Geun

    A study investigated three United States and three foreign newspapers to determine the direction or bias of coverage of the 1983 Korean Airline (KAL) incident and any differences in coverage. It was hypothesized (1) that the amount of space allotted to the story in U. S. newspapers would be greater than that in foreign newspapers; (2) that there…

  2. Pilot's Guide to an Airline Career, Including Sample Pre-Employment Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, W.L.

    Occupational information for persons considering a career as an airline pilot includes a detailed description of the pilot's duties and material concerning preparation for occupational entry and determining the relative merits of available jobs. The book consists of four parts: Part I, The Job, provides an overview of a pilot's duties in his daily…

  3. Sur une ligne aerienne. Carrieres bilinques (On an Airline. Bilingual Careers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argue, Valerie; Ullmann, Rebecca

    This multimedia kit for French instruction at the secondary level aims to acquaint students with some basic airline terminology in French. One goal of the modular course is to show students the practical link that exists between the study of French and the work world. The kit is represented by a teacher's guide, a student handbook, and a…

  4. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.9 Arranging for entry...

  5. Development and Preliminary Results of CTAS on Airline Operational Control Center Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard; Beatty, Roger; Falcone, Richard; Engelland, Shawn; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Continued growth and expansion of air traffic and increased air carrier economic pressures have mandated greater flexibility and collaboration in air traffic management. The ability of airspace users to select their own routes, so called "free-flight", and to more actively manage their fleet operations for maximum economic advantage are receiving great attention. A first step toward greater airspace user and service provider collaboration is information sharing. In this work, arrival scheduling and airspace management data generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and used by the FAA service provider is shared with an airline with extensive operations within the CTAS operational domain. The design and development of a specialized airline CTAS "repeater" system is described, as well as some preliminary results of the impact and benefits of this information on the air carrier's operations. FAA controller per aircraft scheduling information, such as that provided by CTAS, has never before been shared in real-time with an airline. Expected airline benefits include improved fleet planning and arrival gate management, more informed "hold-go" decisions, and avoidance of costly aircraft diversions to alternate airports when faced with uncertain airborne arrival delays.

  6. Development and Preliminary Results of CTAS on Airline Operational Control Center Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard; Beatty, Roger; Engelland, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Continued growth and expansion of air traffic and increased air carrier economic pressures have mandated greater flexibility and collaboration in air traffic management. The ability of airspace users to select their own routes, so called "free-flight", and to more actively manage their fleet operations for maximum economic advantage are receiving great attention. A first step toward greater airspace user and service provider collaboration is information sharing. In this work, arrival scheduling and airspace management data generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and used by the FAA service provider is shared with an airline with extensive operations within the CTAS operational domain. The design and development of a specialized airline CTAS "repeater" system is described, as well as some preliminary results of the impact and benefits of this information on the air carrier's operations. FAA controller per aircraft scheduling information, such as that provided by CTAS, has never before been shared in real-time with an airline. Expected airline benefits include improved fleet planning and arrival gate management, more informed "hold-go decisions, and avoidance of costly aircraft diversions to alternate airports when faced with uncertain airborne arrival delays.

  7. Field Evaluation of Whole Airliner Decontamination Technologies for Narrow-Body Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Field Evaluation of Whole Airliner Decontamination Technologies for Narrow- Body Aircraft William F. Gale Hyacinth S. Gale Air Transportation...be the case with most decontamination chemistries, as VHP breaks down readily to water and oxygen. Nonetheless, the use of a fully closed-loop

  8. 78 FR 6067 - BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and Expenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... public that it is conducting a mandatory survey titled Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues... Investment and Trade in Services Survey Act (22 U.S.C. 3101-3108, as amended). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... annual public reporting burden for this collection of information is 4 hours per response. Send...

  9. 14 CFR 135.336 - Airline transport pilot certification training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Instructor duties, privileges, responsibilities, and limitations; (iv) Training policies and procedures; and... training program. 135.336 Section 135.336 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.336 Airline transport pilot certification training program. (a)...

  10. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  11. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... director: (1) A list of names of all airline employees authorized to break Customs seals on liquor kits in... the seals on aircraft liquor kits shall check the contents at once. The employees shall immediately... on the liquor kits and those recorded on the stores list; and (3) Differences in quantity as shown...

  12. A summary of investigations of severe turbulence incidents using airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, P. F.; Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Work done on the NASA-Ames data base of digital flight records from airliners involved in severe turbulence incidences is summarized. The summary includes descriptions of the archived cases, data processing procedures, estimated errors, analysis procedures, and significant results to date. Thirteen severe turbulence cases are listed.

  13. "Checklist Complete". Or Is It? Closing a Task in the Airline Cockpit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    For airline pilots, the call of "checklist complete" is officially prescribed talk to claim that the crew's joint conduct of a checklist is over, and the task can be understood as closed. However, very often this call is not the final talk for the task. This paper uses naturally occurring data, transcriptions of pilots interacting on actual…

  14. Passenger demographics and subjective response to commuter aircraft in the northeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noskowitz, D.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results are compared for comfort and environmental studies taken in conjunction with a STOL program. Data were taken on flights of four different airlines, each flying different aircraft. Two of the lines are classified as commuter airlines flying between relatively close destinations. The aircraft involved are: the De Havilland Twin Otter, a Canadian aircraft; the French Nord 262; the Beechcraft 99 Airliner and the Sikorsky S-61 helicopter, both American.

  15. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... route after a Class I or IA brake test was performed), a commuter or passenger train that has in its... Class I or IA brake test. Passenger equipment hauled or used in service in a commuter or passenger train... brakes. Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier II passenger trains which...

  16. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... route after a Class I or IA brake test was performed), a commuter or passenger train that has in its... Class I or IA brake test. Passenger equipment hauled or used in service in a commuter or passenger train... brakes. Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier II passenger trains which...

  17. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... route after a Class I or IA brake test was performed), a commuter or passenger train that has in its... Class I or IA brake test. Passenger equipment hauled or used in service in a commuter or passenger train... brakes. Commuter, short-distance intercity, and short-distance Tier II passenger trains which...

  18. 19 CFR 4.7b - Electronic passenger and crew arrival manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... miles apart and which is being used to transport only passengers and/or vehicles, or railroad cars, which are being used, or have been used, in transporting passengers or goods. Passenger. “Passenger.... “Commercial vessel” means any civilian vessel being used to transport persons or property for compensation...

  19. 14 CFR 125.183 - Carriage of cargo in passenger compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... position that obscures any passenger's view of the “seat belt” sign, “no smoking” sign, or any required... passenger compartment. (5) Its location does not obscure any passenger's view of the “seat belt” sign, “no... emergency landing conditions applicable to the passenger seats of the airplane in which the bin is...

  20. Clearing the airways: advocacy and regulation for smoke-free airlines

    PubMed Central

    Holm, A; Davis, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the advocacy and regulatory history surrounding bans on smoking in commercial airliners. Methods: Review of historical documents, popular press articles, and other sources to trace the timeline of events leading up to the US ban on smoking in airliners and subsequent efforts by airlines and other nations. Results: In early years, efforts by flight attendants and health advocates to make commercial airliners smoke-free were not productive. Advocacy efforts between 1969 and 1984 resulted in maintenance of the status quo, with modest exceptions (creation of smoking and non-smoking sections of aircraft, and a ban on cigar and pipe smoking). Several breakthrough events in the mid 1980s, however, led to an abrupt turnaround in regulatory efforts. The first watershed event was the publication in 1986 of the National Academy of Science's report on the airliner cabin environment, which recommended banning smoking on all commercial flights. Subsequently, following concerted lobbying efforts by health advocates, Congress passed legislation banning smoking on US domestic flights of less than two hours, which became effective in 1988. The law was made permanent and extended to flights of less than six hours in 1990. This landmark legislation propelled the adoption of similar rules internationally, both by airlines and their industry's governing bodies. Though the tobacco industry succeeded in stalling efforts to create smoke-free airways, it was ultimately unable to muster sufficient grassroots support or scientific evidence to convince the general public or policymakers that smoking should continue to be allowed on airlines. Conclusions: The movement to ban smoking in aircraft represents a case study in effective advocacy for smoke-free workplaces. Health advocates, with crucial assistance from flight attendants, used an incremental advocacy process to push for smoking and non-smoking sections on US commercial flights, then for smoking bans on short

  1. The European project CASAM for the protection of commercial airliners in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergnolle, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    As part of mass transportation systems, commercial aircraft are a potential target for terrorists because they represent one of the best achievements of our society. As a result, an attack would have a large psychological impact on people and economic activity. Several European Commission-funded Research and Technology programs, such as SAFEE and PALMA, are dedicated to technologies and systems that will be implemented onboard aircraft in the near future to increase the security of commercial flights. One of these programs, CASAM, is focusing on a potential solution to reduce aircraft vulnerability against Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) during takeoff, ascent and landing. A specific onboard jamming system will be developed, meeting stringent yet competitive requirements that deal with high reliability, low cost and minimal installation constraints. The overall objective of the CASAM Project1 is to design and validate a closed-loop, laser-based DIRCM (Directed IR Countermeasure) module for jamming fired missiles. It will comply with commercial air transportation constraints, including the normal air traffic control rules. For example, the following aspects will be considered: - Environmental friendliness for ground objects and inhabitants close to airports, aircraft safety (maintenance, handling and usage) and high efficiency against the recognized threats; - Upgradability for further and future disseminated threats - Adherence to commercial operation budgets and processes

  2. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  3. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  4. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  5. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  6. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  7. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft...

  8. An outbreak of gastroenteritis on a passenger cruise ship.

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, M.; Noah, N. D.; Evans, B.; Harper, D.; Rowe, B.; Lowes, J. A.; Pearson, A.; Goode, B.

    1986-01-01

    In an outbreak of gastroenteritis on board a cruise ship 251 passengers and 51 crew were affected and consulted the ship's surgeon during a 14-day period. There was a significant association between consumption of cabin tap water and reported illness in passengers. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were isolated from passengers and crew and coliforms were found in the main water storage tank. Contamination of inadequately chlorinated water by sewage was the most likely source of infection. A low level of reported illness and late recognition of the outbreak delayed investigation of what was probably the latest in a series of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness on board this ship. There is a need for a national surveillance programme which would monitor the extent of illness on board passenger cruise ships as well as a standard approach to the action taken when levels of reported illness rise above a defined level. PMID:3537115

  9. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  10. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either letters... belts should be fastened must: (a) When illuminated, be legible to each person seated in the...

  11. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either letters... belts should be fastened must: (a) When illuminated, be legible to each person seated in the...

  12. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  13. Targeting of passenger protein domains to multiple intracellular membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Janiak, F; Glover, J R; Leber, B; Rachubinski, R A; Andrews, D W

    1994-01-01

    The role of passenger domains in protein targeting was examined by fusing previously characterized targeting motifs to different protein sequences. To compare the targeting requirements for a variety of subcellular compartments, targeting of the fusion proteins was examined for endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and peroxisomes in vitro and in yeast. Although most passenger domains were only partially passive to translocation, motif-dependent targeting via motifs positioned at either end of one passenger domain (gPA) was demonstrated for all of the subcellular compartments tested. The data presented extend earlier suggestions that translocation competence is an intrinsic property of the passenger protein. However, the properties that determine protein targeting are not mutually exclusive for the compartments tested. Therefore, although the primary determinant of specificity is the targeting motif, our results suggest that translocation competence of the targeted protein augments the fidelity of transport. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8198533

  14. Photograph of original drawing (original in possession of National Passenger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of original drawing (original in possession of National Passenger Railroad Corporation). Canopy Plans, Sections, and Details (n.d.) - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER 75 IN BACKGROUND LEFT, AND BOOM SPEEDER 59 IN BACKGROUND RIGHT - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  16. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

  17. 33 CFR 183.205 - Passenger carrying area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stem inside the passenger carrying area, the forward vertical line is where a line 45 degrees to the horizontal when the boat is level is tangent to the curve of the stem, as illustrated in Figure 5. For...

  18. 33 CFR 183.305 - Passenger carrying area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stem inside the passenger carrying area, the forward vertical line is where a line 45 degrees to the horizontal when the boat is level is tangent to the curve of the stem, as illustrated in Figure 5. For...

  19. 33 CFR 183.305 - Passenger carrying area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stem inside the passenger carrying area, the forward vertical line is where a line 45 degrees to the horizontal when the boat is level is tangent to the curve of the stem, as illustrated in Figure 5. For...

  20. 33 CFR 183.205 - Passenger carrying area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stem inside the passenger carrying area, the forward vertical line is where a line 45 degrees to the horizontal when the boat is level is tangent to the curve of the stem, as illustrated in Figure 5. For...