Science.gov

Sample records for airline transport pilot

  1. Airline Transport Pilot Preferences for Predictive Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment assessed certain issues about the usefulness of predictive information: (1) the relative time criticality of failures, (2) the subjective utility of predictive information for different parameters or sensors, and (3) the preferred form and prediction time for displaying predictive information. To address these issues, three separate tasks were administered to 22 airline pilots. As shown by the data, these pilots preferred predictive information on parameters they considered vital to the safety of the flight. These parameters were related to the checklists performed first for alert messages. These pilots also preferred to know whether a parameter was changing abnormally and the time to a certain value being reached. Furthermore, they considered this information most useful during the cruise, the climb, and the descent phases of flight. Lastly, these pilots preferred the information to predict as far ahead as possible.

  2. 14 CFR 61.167 - Airline transport pilot privileges and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airline transport pilot privileges and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.167 Airline transport pilot privileges and limitations. (a) Privileges. (1) A...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 141 - Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airline Transport Pilot Certification... Part 141—Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an airline transport pilot certification course under this part, for the...

  4. 14 CFR 142.54 - Airline transport pilot certification training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airline transport pilot certification... Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.54 Airline transport pilot certification training program... airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane category multiengine class rating; (b) Has at least...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 141 - Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airline Transport Pilot Certification... Part 141—Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an airline transport pilot certification course under this part, for the...

  6. 14 CFR 135.336 - Airline transport pilot certification training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airline transport pilot certification... SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.336 Airline transport pilot certification training program. (a) A... instructor: (1) Holds an airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane category multiengine...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 141 - Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airline Transport Pilot Certification... Part 141—Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an airline transport pilot certification course under this part, for the...

  8. 14 CFR 121.410 - Airline transport pilot certification training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airline transport pilot certification... Airline transport pilot certification training program. (a) A certificate holder may obtain approval to... to meet the requirements of § 61.156 of this chapter unless the instructor: (1) Holds an...

  9. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  10. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Airline Transport Pilot Certificate 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an aircraft type rating course other than an airline transport pilot certificate, for: (a) A...

  12. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  13. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Airline Transport Pilot Certificate 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an aircraft type rating course other than an airline transport pilot certificate, for: (a) A...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Airline Transport Pilot Certificate 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an aircraft type rating course other than an airline transport pilot certificate, for: (a) A...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Airline Transport Pilot Certificate 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an aircraft type rating course other than an airline transport pilot certificate, for: (a) A...

  17. Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel…

  18. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than...

  19. Flight simulator requirements for airline transport pilot training - An evaluation of motion system design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T.; Bussolari, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of motion platform systems on pilot behavior is considered with emphasis placed on civil aviation applications. A dynamic model for human spatial orientation based on the physiological structure and function of the human vestibular system is presented. Motion platform alternatives were evaluated on the basis of the following motion platform conditions: motion with six degrees-of-freedom required for Phase II simulators and two limited motion conditions. Consideration was given to engine flameout, airwork, and approach and landing scenarios.

  20. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  1. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  2. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than the ATP certification level, in a multiengine airplane with a single-pilot station must perform... engine airplane with a single-pilot station. An applicant for a type rating, at other than the...

  3. Aviation Centers Take Off as Airlines Face Pilot Shortfall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses aviation training requirements for pilots planning to fly for commercial airlines within or outside the United States. Describes two aviation training programs at Western Michigan University, a fast-track 13-month program and the traditional four-year program required for U.S. pilots. Notes that decreasing numbers of pilots trained in…

  4. Incidence of cancer among commercial airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Rafnsson, V.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; Tulinius, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the cancer pattern in a cohort of commercial pilots by follow up through the Icelandic Cancer Registry.
METHODS—This is a retrospective cohort study of 458 pilots with emphasis on subcohort working for an airline operating on international routes. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cancer cases were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and incidences of cancer at specific sites for men provided by the Cancer Registry. Numbers of separate analyses were made according to different exposure variables.
RESULTS—The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62 to 1.46) in the total cohort and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.81) among those operating on international routes. The SIR for malignant melanoma of the skin was 10.20, 95% CI 3.29 to 23.81 in the total cohort and 15.63, 95% CI 5.04 to 36.46 in the restricted cohort. Analyses according to number of block-hours and radiation dose showed that malignant melanomas were found in the subgroups with highest exposure estimates, the SIRs were 13.04 and 28.57 respectively. The SIR was 25.00 for malignant melanoma among those who had been flying over five time zones.
CONCLUSIONS—The study shows a high occurrence of malignant melanoma among pilots. It is open to discussion what role exposure of cosmic radiation, numbers of block-hours flown, or lifestyle factors—such as possible excessive sunbathing—play in the aetiology of cancer among pilots. This calls for further and more powerful studies. The excess of malignant melanoma among those flying over five time zones suggests that the importance of disturbance of the circadian rhythm should be taken into consideration in future studies.


Keywords: cancer registry; malignant melanoma of the skin; cosmic radiation; block-hours; time zones PMID:10810099

  5. Reasons for eliminating the "age 60" regulation for airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1981-08-01

    The calendar age of 60 is no longer medically justifiable as an upper age limit for airline pilots. Advances in gerontologic studies, clinical medicine, and operational flight proficiency evaluations, now allow individual pilot assessments for health status and performance capability. Individualizing the career duration of pilots by eliminating the present age 60 upper limitation will enhance flight safety and efficiency as healthy pilots continue their productive careers.

  6. Examining Informal Learning in Commercial Airline Pilots' Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corns, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic sequential mixed methods research methodology was used to examine commercial airline pilots' (N =156) types and frequencies of informal learning activities, perceptions of workplace informal learning, and opinions on how organizations should support workplace informal learning outside of the formal learning environment. This study…

  7. The impact of transition training on adapting to Technically Advanced Aircraft at regional airlines: Perceptions of pilots and instructor pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Renzo, John Carl, Jr.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis about pilot and instructor pilot perceptions of how effectively pilots learn and use new technology, found in Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA), given initial type of instrumentation training. New aviation technologies such as Glass Cockpits in technically advanced aircraft are complex and can be difficult to learn and use. The research questions focused on the type of initial instrumentation training to determine the differences among pilots trained using various types of instrumentation ranging from aircraft equipped with traditional analog instrumentation to aircraft equipped with glass cockpits. A convenience sample of Pilots in Training (PT) and Instructor Pilots (IP) was selected from a regional airline. The research design used a mixed methodology. Pilots in training completed a thirty-two question quantitative questionnaire and instructor pilots completed a five question qualitative questionnaire. Findings and conclusions. This investigation failed to disprove the null hypothesis. The type of instrumentation training has no significant effect on newly trained regional airline pilot perceived ability to adapt to advanced technology cockpits. Therefore, no evidence exists from this investigation to support the early introduction and training of TAA. While the results of this investigation were surprising, they are nonetheless, instructive. Even though it would seem that there would be a relationship between exposure to and use of technically advanced instrumentation, apparently there was no perceived relationship for this group of airline transport pilots. However, a point of interest is that these pilots were almost evenly divided in their opinion of whether or not their previous training had prepared them for transition to TAA. The majority also believed that the type of initial instrumentation training received does make a difference when transitioning to TAA. Pilots believed

  8. Predictors of skin cancer in commercial airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Swearingen, Christopher J.; Kilmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skin cancers among commercial airline pilots have been reported to occur at increased rates in pilot populations worldwide. The reasons for these increases are unclear, but postulated factors include ionizing radiation, circadian disruption and leisure sun exposure. Aims To investigate the potential association of these occupational and lifestyle factors, as well as medical history and skin type, with non-melanoma skin cancer in pilots. Methods Data were collected using a confidential Internet survey administered in collaboration with the Air Line Pilots Association International to all active pilots in four US commercial airlines. Pilots with non-melanoma skin cancer were compared to those without using multivariable analysis. Results The response rate was 19%. Among pilots flying <20 years prior to diagnosis, factors associated with increased odds of non-melanoma skin cancer were at-risk skin type, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer. Off-duty sunscreen use and family history of melanoma were protective. Among pilots with ≥20 years flight time prior to diagnosis, childhood sunburns and family history of non-melanoma skin cancer persisted as risk factors, with the addition of flight time at high latitude. Conclusions Further investigation regarding the potential health impact of long-term flying at high latitudes is recommended. Additionally, occupational health programmes for pilots should stress awareness of and protection against established risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. PMID:19465434

  9. Analyses and Comparisons of Cognitive Learning Preferences among Airline Pilots, Corporate Pilots, and Aviation Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of research with 28 first/second-year and 52 third/fourth-year aviation students, 671 corporate pilots and 1990 airline pilots showed that pilots strongly preferred sequential and bilateral cognitive processing. Because these styles are reflected in aviation teaching methods, relational learners are effectively screened out of pilot…

  10. Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)

  11. Situation Awareness Information Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John

    1998-01-01

    Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

  12. Sleep complaints and fatigue of airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Reis, Cátia; Mestre, Catarina; Canhão, Helena; Gradwell, David; Paiva, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to determine daytime sleepiness and sleep complaints prevalence and the corresponding influence on perceived fatigue and to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic parameters and labour variables on sleep complaints, sleepiness and fatigue. A questionnaire was developed including socio-economic and labour issues and instruments, focused in sleep and fatigue. The response rate was 32% and the final sample had 435 pilots. The prevalence of sleep complaints was 34.9%, daytime sleepiness 59.3% and fatigue 90.6%. The high prevalence of sleep complaints, sleepiness and fatigue was disclosed in pilots, with those who fly short/medium having an added risk of fatigue. PMID:27656269

  13. Sleep complaints and fatigue of airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Reis, Cátia; Mestre, Catarina; Canhão, Helena; Gradwell, David; Paiva, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to determine daytime sleepiness and sleep complaints prevalence and the corresponding influence on perceived fatigue and to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic parameters and labour variables on sleep complaints, sleepiness and fatigue. A questionnaire was developed including socio-economic and labour issues and instruments, focused in sleep and fatigue. The response rate was 32% and the final sample had 435 pilots. The prevalence of sleep complaints was 34.9%, daytime sleepiness 59.3% and fatigue 90.6%. The high prevalence of sleep complaints, sleepiness and fatigue was disclosed in pilots, with those who fly short/medium having an added risk of fatigue.

  14. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  15. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  16. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day.

    PubMed

    de Mello, M T; Esteves, A M; Pires, M L N; Santos, D C; Bittencourt, L R A; Silva, R S; Tufik, S

    2008-12-01

    Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airline presented major errors. Errors made by 515 captains and 472 co-pilots were analyzed using data from flight operation quality assurance systems. To analyze the times of day (shifts) during which incidents occurred, we divided the light-dark cycle (24:00) in four periods: morning, afternoon, night, and early morning. The differences of risk during the day were reported as the ratio of morning to afternoon, morning to night and morning to early morning error rates. For the purposes of this research, level 3 events alone were taken into account, since these were the most serious in which company operational limits were exceeded or when established procedures were not followed. According to airline flight schedules, 35% of flights take place in the morning period, 32% in the afternoon, 26% at night, and 7% in the early morning. Data showed that the risk of errors increased by almost 50% in the early morning relative to the morning period (ratio of 1:1.46). For the period of the afternoon, the ratio was 1:1.04 and for the night a ratio of 1:1.05 was found. These results showed that the period of the early morning represented a greater risk of attention problems and fatigue.

  17. Pilot's Guide to an Airline Career, Including Sample Pre-Employment Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, W.L.

    Occupational information for persons considering a career as an airline pilot includes a detailed description of the pilot's duties and material concerning preparation for occupational entry and determining the relative merits of available jobs. The book consists of four parts: Part I, The Job, provides an overview of a pilot's duties in his daily…

  18. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  19. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purposes other than receiving flight training, may apply for a commercial pilot certificate and ratings... placed on an airline transport pilot certificate. A person who is a military pilot or former military.... airline transport pilot certificate may be issued the rating at the airline transport pilot...

  20. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purposes other than receiving flight training, may apply for a commercial pilot certificate and ratings... placed on an airline transport pilot certificate. A person who is a military pilot or former military.... airline transport pilot certificate may be issued the rating at the airline transport pilot...

  1. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes other than receiving flight training, may apply for a commercial pilot certificate and ratings... placed on an airline transport pilot certificate. A person who is a military pilot or former military.... airline transport pilot certificate may be issued the rating at the airline transport pilot...

  2. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes other than receiving flight training, may apply for a commercial pilot certificate and ratings... placed on an airline transport pilot certificate. A person who is a military pilot or former military.... airline transport pilot certificate may be issued the rating at the airline transport pilot...

  3. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purposes other than receiving flight training, may apply for a commercial pilot certificate and ratings... placed on an airline transport pilot certificate. A person who is a military pilot or former military.... airline transport pilot certificate may be issued the rating at the airline transport pilot...

  4. Preliminary Study on a Transportation Network of a Hypersonic Airliner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    上野, 篤史; 鈴木, 宏二郎

    The commercial success of a hypersonic airliner is discussed from a viewpoint of its operational convenience. In the hypersonic regime, a lift-to-drag ratio is generally small due to a large wave drag, which results not only in small cruising range but also in an operational inconvenience. To overcome this drawback, we propose a transportation network with multiple hypersonic airliners. The analysis of the operation diagram demonstrates that the travel time of passengers can be significantly reduced in the absence of the arrival and departure in late evening or early morning thanks to the combination of the high flight velocity and flexible network operation, even if the range of the hypersonic transport is limited to 7,330km. Consequently, the network operation will greatly enhance the potential of the hypersonic aircraft for future high-speed global transportation system.

  5. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots.

  6. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots. PMID:23412012

  7. Airline Pilot Cosmic Radiation and Circadian Disruption Exposure Assessment from Logbooks and Company Records

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Waters, Martha A.; Yong, Lee C.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Zivkovich, Zachary; Cassinelli II, Rick T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: US commercial airline pilots, like all flight crew, are at increased risk for specific cancers, but the relation of these outcomes to specific air cabin exposures is unclear. Flight time or block (airborne plus taxi) time often substitutes for assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation. Our objectives were to develop methods to estimate exposures to cosmic radiation and circadian disruption for a study of chromosome aberrations in pilots and to describe workplace exposures for these pilots. Methods: Exposures were estimated for cosmic ionizing radiation and circadian disruption between August 1963 and March 2003 for 83 male pilots from a major US airline. Estimates were based on 523 387 individual flight segments in company records and pilot logbooks as well as summary records of hours flown from other sources. Exposure was estimated by calculation or imputation for all but 0.02% of the individual flight segments’ block time. Exposures were estimated from questionnaire data for a comparison group of 51 male university faculty. Results: Pilots flew a median of 7126 flight segments and 14 959 block hours for 27.8 years. In the final study year, a hypothetical pilot incurred an estimated median effective dose of 1.92 mSv (absorbed dose, 0.85 mGy) from cosmic radiation and crossed 362 time zones. This study pilot was possibly exposed to a moderate or large solar particle event a median of 6 times or once every 3.7 years of work. Work at the study airline and military flying were the two highest sources of pilot exposure for all metrics. An index of work during the standard sleep interval (SSI travel) also suggested potential chronic sleep disturbance in some pilots. For study airline flights, median segment radiation doses, time zones crossed, and SSI travel increased markedly from the 1990s to 2003 (Ptrend < 0.0001). Dose metrics were moderately correlated with records-based duration metrics (Spearman’s r = 0.61–0.69). Conclusions: The methods

  8. Beyond 'Inop': Logbook Communication Between Airline Mechanics and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Pamela A.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Jordan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    When mechanical discrepancies occur on aircraft, effective communication between pilots and mechanics can facilitate identification of the problem. A survey of pilots and mechanics was conducted to determine how often they were able to discuss discrepancies directly and to identify factors that influenced the detail they provided about discrepancies in the aircraft logbook. Logistical factors such as short turn times between flights and crew schedules appeared to present barriers to face-to-face meetings between pilots and mechanics. Guidelines for pilot logbook entries. Pilots reported receiving significantly less training on writing logbook entries and spent significantly less time making individual entries than mechanics. Mechanics indicated greater concern about the Federal Aviation Administration reading their entries than pilots. Mechanics indicated they had little opportunity to follow up with pilots to clarify a logbook entry once pilots departed the aircraft.

  9. 14 CFR 135.243 - Pilot in command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., unless that person holds an airline transport pilot certificate with appropriate category and class... holds an airline transport pilot certificate, appropriate type ratings, and an instrument rating. (b... airplane, holds an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane...

  10. Grounded for an ethical dilemma: disequilibrium in a commercial airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Friedlander, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the case of a 41-year-old airline pilot with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who requests that his diagnosis not be disclosed to his commercial airline employer or his aviation medical examiner because it may result in the suspension of medical certification. The legal and ethical requirements for physicians reporting impaired pilots are discussed as well as practical recommendations for handling such situations. The argument is made that a physician's obligation to honor patient confidentiality should not take precedence over his or her duty to protect the safety and well-being of the airplane passengers and the general public. If the patient chooses not to self-report, a physician has an ethical obligation to report the patient's medical condition to the Federal Aviation Administration.

  11. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience

    PubMed Central

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. Methods We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromo-some painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. Results There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Conclusions This data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk. PMID:19074211

  12. Airline Safety and Pilot Training Improvement Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2009-07-29

    10/15/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  14. Neurobiological differences in mental rotation and instrument interpretation in airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Sladky, Ronald; Stepniczka, Irene; Boland, Edzard; Tik, Martin; Lamm, Claus; Hoffmann, André; Buch, Jan-Philipp; Niedermeier, Dominik; Field, Joris; Windischberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Airline pilots and similar professions require reliable spatial cognition abilities, such as mental imagery of static and moving three-dimensional objects in space. A well-known task to investigate these skills is the Shepard and Metzler mental rotation task (SMT), which is also frequently used during pre-assessment of pilot candidates. Despite the intuitive relationship between real-life spatial cognition and SMT, several studies have challenged its predictive value. Here we report on a novel instrument interpretation task (IIT) based on a realistic attitude indicator used in modern aircrafts that was designed to bridge the gap between the abstract SMT and a cockpit environment. We investigated 18 professional airline pilots using fMRI. No significant correlation was found between SMT and IIT task accuracies. Contrasting both tasks revealed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and medial precuneus for IIT, whereas SMT elicited significantly stronger activation in pre- and supplementary motor areas, as well as lateral precuneus and superior parietal lobe. Our results show that SMT skills per se are not sufficient to predict task accuracy during (close to) real-life instrument interpretation. While there is a substantial overlap of activation across the task conditions, we found that there are important differences between instrument interpretation and non-aviation based mental rotation. PMID:27323913

  15. Neurobiological differences in mental rotation and instrument interpretation in airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Sladky, Ronald; Stepniczka, Irene; Boland, Edzard; Tik, Martin; Lamm, Claus; Hoffmann, André; Buch, Jan-Philipp; Niedermeier, Dominik; Field, Joris; Windischberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Airline pilots and similar professions require reliable spatial cognition abilities, such as mental imagery of static and moving three-dimensional objects in space. A well-known task to investigate these skills is the Shepard and Metzler mental rotation task (SMT), which is also frequently used during pre-assessment of pilot candidates. Despite the intuitive relationship between real-life spatial cognition and SMT, several studies have challenged its predictive value. Here we report on a novel instrument interpretation task (IIT) based on a realistic attitude indicator used in modern aircrafts that was designed to bridge the gap between the abstract SMT and a cockpit environment. We investigated 18 professional airline pilots using fMRI. No significant correlation was found between SMT and IIT task accuracies. Contrasting both tasks revealed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and medial precuneus for IIT, whereas SMT elicited significantly stronger activation in pre- and supplementary motor areas, as well as lateral precuneus and superior parietal lobe. Our results show that SMT skills per se are not sufficient to predict task accuracy during (close to) real-life instrument interpretation. While there is a substantial overlap of activation across the task conditions, we found that there are important differences between instrument interpretation and non-aviation based mental rotation. PMID:27323913

  16. Neurobiological differences in mental rotation and instrument interpretation in airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Sladky, Ronald; Stepniczka, Irene; Boland, Edzard; Tik, Martin; Lamm, Claus; Hoffmann, André; Buch, Jan-Philipp; Niedermeier, Dominik; Field, Joris; Windischberger, Christian

    2016-06-21

    Airline pilots and similar professions require reliable spatial cognition abilities, such as mental imagery of static and moving three-dimensional objects in space. A well-known task to investigate these skills is the Shepard and Metzler mental rotation task (SMT), which is also frequently used during pre-assessment of pilot candidates. Despite the intuitive relationship between real-life spatial cognition and SMT, several studies have challenged its predictive value. Here we report on a novel instrument interpretation task (IIT) based on a realistic attitude indicator used in modern aircrafts that was designed to bridge the gap between the abstract SMT and a cockpit environment. We investigated 18 professional airline pilots using fMRI. No significant correlation was found between SMT and IIT task accuracies. Contrasting both tasks revealed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and medial precuneus for IIT, whereas SMT elicited significantly stronger activation in pre- and supplementary motor areas, as well as lateral precuneus and superior parietal lobe. Our results show that SMT skills per se are not sufficient to predict task accuracy during (close to) real-life instrument interpretation. While there is a substantial overlap of activation across the task conditions, we found that there are important differences between instrument interpretation and non-aviation based mental rotation.

  17. 14 CFR 61.11 - Expired pilot certificates and re-issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pilot certificates and ratings have expired and will not be reissued: (1) An airline transport pilot certificate issued before May 1, 1949, or an airline transport pilot certificate that contains a horsepower... with a lighter-than-air or free-balloon rating issued before July 1, 1945. (c) An airline...

  18. 14 CFR 61.11 - Expired pilot certificates and re-issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pilot certificates and ratings have expired and will not be reissued: (1) An airline transport pilot certificate issued before May 1, 1949, or an airline transport pilot certificate that contains a horsepower... with a lighter-than-air or free-balloon rating issued before July 1, 1945. (c) An airline...

  19. 14 CFR 61.11 - Expired pilot certificates and re-issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilot certificates and ratings have expired and will not be reissued: (1) An airline transport pilot certificate issued before May 1, 1949, or an airline transport pilot certificate that contains a horsepower... with a lighter-than-air or free-balloon rating issued before July 1, 1945. (c) An airline...

  20. 14 CFR 61.11 - Expired pilot certificates and re-issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilot certificates and ratings have expired and will not be reissued: (1) An airline transport pilot certificate issued before May 1, 1949, or an airline transport pilot certificate that contains a horsepower... with a lighter-than-air or free-balloon rating issued before July 1, 1945. (c) An airline...

  1. Method for rehabilitation of the alcohol-addicted pilot in a commercial airline.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, F R; Kidera, G J

    1978-05-01

    Based upon data available from the National Council on Alcoholism and encouraged by the emerging concept of alcoholism as a disease responsive to the multidisciplinary approach to its management, a program to assist alcoholic employees was instituted in 1968 at the United Airlines Maintenance Operations Center in San Francisco. This program was developed through the tripartite efforts of management, union and the medical department. Using this basic model, a similar effort to assist flight crew members of our San Francisco pilot domicile emerged in 1970. The method is oriented to the three-fold process of identification, referral for treatment, and followup. The mechanism of identification includes an intervention process. Treatment is accomplished in a specialty hospital embracing the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. The essential monthly followup is continued for 2 years. Twenty-five pilots in United's system have been returned to flight deck duties after treatment and recertification. PMID:655998

  2. Airline pilot scanning behavior during approaches and landing in a Boeing 737 simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of approaches using airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in an FAA qualified simulator was conducted. The test matrices include both manual and coupled approaches for VFR, Category 1 and Category 2 conditions. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot's eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use a different scan technique for the manual and coupled (auto-pilot with manual throttle) conditions. For the manual approach 73 percent of the time was spent on the Flight Director and 13 percent on airspeed as opposed to 50 percent on Flight Director and 23 percent on airspeed for the coupled approaches. For the visual portion of approach from less than 100m to touchdown or when the touchdown point came into view, the pilots tend to fixate on their aim or touchdown area until the flare initiation, at which time they let their eye-point-of-regard move up the runway to use the centerline lights for rollout guidance.

  3. The Risk of Melanoma in Airline Pilots and Cabin Crew A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R.; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T.; EE; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E.; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Importance Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. Objective To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. Data Sources PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). Study Selection All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Data Extraction and Synthesis Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Main Outcomes and Measures Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Results Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Conclusions and Relevance Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational

  4. Choice reaction time to visual motion during prolonged rotary motion in airline pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, J. D.; Clark, B.

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen airline pilots were studied to determine the effect of preceding rotary accelerations on the choice reaction time to the horizontal acceleration of a vertical line on a cathode-ray tube. On each trial, one of three levels of rotary and visual acceleration was presented with the rotary stimulus preceding the visual by one of seven periods. The two accelerations were always equal and were presented in the same or opposite directions. The reaction time was found to increase with increases in the time the rotary acceleration preceded the visual acceleration, and to decrease with increased levels of visual and rotary acceleration. The reaction time was found to be shorter when the accelerations were in the same direction than when they were in opposite directions. These results suggest that these findings are a special case of a general effect that the authors have termed 'gyrovisual modulation'.

  5. Measurement of neutron radiation exposure of commercial airline pilots using bubble detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.J.; Kosierb, R. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Cousins, T. . Space Systems and Technology Section); Hudson, D.F. ); Guery, G. )

    1994-06-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been used over a 1-yr period by commercial airline pilots from Air Canada and Air France to measure the high-altitude neutron radiation exposure produced by galactic cosmic rays. The present work yielded measurements of the neutron flux of 1.0 to 4.6 n/cm[sup 2][center dot]s, and the neutron dose equivalent rates of 1.7 to 7.7 [mu]S[nu]/h. These measurements are in agreement with previous studies using high-altitude aircraft and conventional neutron instrumentation. The total dose equivalents for the Air Canada flights are also consistent with predictions of the CARI code. Considering that the neutron component contributes [approximately] 50% of the total dose equivalent, this study indicates that the annual dose for the air crew member would exceed the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) for the general public.

  6. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. Aims The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots (n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence (n = 45). Method Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Results Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Conclusions Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots. PMID:24701252

  7. The effects of risk perception and flight experience on airline pilots' locus of control with regard to safety operation behaviors.

    PubMed

    You, Xuqun; Ji, Ming; Han, Haiyan

    2013-08-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to integrate two research traditions, social cognition approach and individual state approach, and to understand the relationships between locus of control (LOC), risk perception, flight time, and safety operation behavior (SOB) among Chinese airline pilots. The study sample consisted of 193 commercial airline pilots from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results showed that internal locus of control directly affected pilot safety operation behavior. Risk perception seemed to mediate the relationship between locus of control and safety operation behaviors, and total flight time moderated internal locus of control. Thus, locus of control primarily influences safety operation behavior indirectly by affecting risk perception. The total effect of internal locus of control on safety behaviors is larger than that of external locus of control. Furthermore, the safety benefit of flight experience is more pronounced among pilots with high internal loci of control in the early and middle flight building stages. Practical implications for aviation safety and directions for future research are also discussed.

  8. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  9. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies. PMID:22678613

  10. Circadian adaptation of airline pilots during extended duration operations between the USA and Asia.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; van den Berg, Margo; Mulrine, Hannah; Signal, Leigh; Mangie, Jim

    2013-10-01

    This study tracked circadian adaptation among airline pilots before, during, and after trips where they flew from Seattle (SEA) or Los Angeles (LAX) to Asia (7--9 time zones westward), spent 7--12 d in Asia, and then flew back to the USA. In Asia, pilots' exposures to local time cues and sleep opportunities were constrained by duty (short-haul flights crossing ≤ 1 time zone/24 h). Fourteen captains and 16 first officers participated (median age = 56 versus 48 yrs, p.U) < 0.001). Their sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 d pre-trip to 5 d post-trip. For every flight, Karolinska Sleepiness and Samn-Perelli Fatigue scales and 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) tests were completed pre-flight and at top of descent (TOD). Participants had ≥ 3 d free of duty prior to outbound flight(s). From 72--24 h prior to departure (baseline sleep), mean total sleep/24 h (TST) = 7.00 h (SD = 1.18 h) and mean sleep efficiency = 87% (SD = 4.9%). Most pilots (23/30) flew direct to and from Asia, but 7 LAX-based pilots flew via a 1-d layover in Honolulu (HNL). On flights with ≥ 2 pilots, mean total in-flight sleep varied from 0.40 to 2.09 h outbound and from 0.74 to 1.88 h inbound. Duty patterns in Asia were variable, with ≤ 2 flights/d (mean flight duration = 3.53 h, SD = 0.53 h). TST on days 17 in Asia did not differ from baseline (p.F) = 0.2031). However, mean sleep efficiency was significantly lower than baseline on days 5--7 (p.F) = 0.0041). More pilots were on duty between 20:00 and 24:00 h on days 57 (mean = 21%) than on days 24 (mean = 14%). Sleep propensity distribution phase markers and chi-square periodogram analyses suggest that adaptation to local time was complete by day 4 in Asia. On pre-flight PVT tests in Asia, the slowest 10% of responses improved for flights departing 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0484). At TOD, the slowest 10% of responses improved across days for flights arriving 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0349) and 20:00--01:59 h (p

  11. Circadian adaptation of airline pilots during extended duration operations between the USA and Asia.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; van den Berg, Margo; Mulrine, Hannah; Signal, Leigh; Mangie, Jim

    2013-10-01

    This study tracked circadian adaptation among airline pilots before, during, and after trips where they flew from Seattle (SEA) or Los Angeles (LAX) to Asia (7--9 time zones westward), spent 7--12 d in Asia, and then flew back to the USA. In Asia, pilots' exposures to local time cues and sleep opportunities were constrained by duty (short-haul flights crossing ≤ 1 time zone/24 h). Fourteen captains and 16 first officers participated (median age = 56 versus 48 yrs, p.U) < 0.001). Their sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 d pre-trip to 5 d post-trip. For every flight, Karolinska Sleepiness and Samn-Perelli Fatigue scales and 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) tests were completed pre-flight and at top of descent (TOD). Participants had ≥ 3 d free of duty prior to outbound flight(s). From 72--24 h prior to departure (baseline sleep), mean total sleep/24 h (TST) = 7.00 h (SD = 1.18 h) and mean sleep efficiency = 87% (SD = 4.9%). Most pilots (23/30) flew direct to and from Asia, but 7 LAX-based pilots flew via a 1-d layover in Honolulu (HNL). On flights with ≥ 2 pilots, mean total in-flight sleep varied from 0.40 to 2.09 h outbound and from 0.74 to 1.88 h inbound. Duty patterns in Asia were variable, with ≤ 2 flights/d (mean flight duration = 3.53 h, SD = 0.53 h). TST on days 17 in Asia did not differ from baseline (p.F) = 0.2031). However, mean sleep efficiency was significantly lower than baseline on days 5--7 (p.F) = 0.0041). More pilots were on duty between 20:00 and 24:00 h on days 57 (mean = 21%) than on days 24 (mean = 14%). Sleep propensity distribution phase markers and chi-square periodogram analyses suggest that adaptation to local time was complete by day 4 in Asia. On pre-flight PVT tests in Asia, the slowest 10% of responses improved for flights departing 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0484). At TOD, the slowest 10% of responses improved across days for flights arriving 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0349) and 20:00--01:59 h (p

  12. An error-dependent model of instrument-scanning behavior in commercial airline pilots. Ph.D. Thesis - May 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new flexible model of pilot instrument scanning behavior is presented which assumes that the pilot uses a set of deterministic scanning patterns on the pilot's perception of error in the state of the aircraft, and the pilot's knowledge of the interactive nature of the aircraft's systems. Statistical analyses revealed that a three stage Markov process composed of the pilot's three predicted lookpoints (LP), occurring 1/30, 2/30, and 3/30 of a second prior to each LP, accurately modelled the scanning behavior of 14 commercial airline pilots while flying steep turn maneuvers in a Boeing 737 flight simulator. The modelled scanning data for each pilot were not statistically different from the observed scanning data in comparisons of mean dwell time, entropy, and entropy rate. These findings represent the first direct evidence that pilots are using deterministic scanning patterns during instrument flight. The results are interpreted as direct support for the error dependent model and suggestions are made for further research that could allow for identification of the specific scanning patterns suggested by the model.

  13. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  14. Limits of Expertise: Rethinking Pilot Error and the Causes of Airline Accidents. CRM/HF Conference, Held in Denver, Colorado on April 16-17, 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, Key; Berman, Ben; Loukopoulos, Loukisa

    2007-01-01

    Reviewed NTSB reports of the 19 U.S. airline accidents between 1991-2000 attributed primarily to crew error. Asked: Why might any airline crew in situation of accident crew--knowing only what they knew--be vulnerable. Can never know with certainty why accident crew made specific errors but can determine why the population of pilots is vulnerable. Considers variability of expert performance as function of interplay of multiple factors.

  15. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with < median intake of whole grains (P = 0·03) and red and processed meat (P = 0·01): 0·69 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·96) and 1·56 (95 % CI 1·13, 2·16), respectively. Our data suggest that a high intake of niacin from food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  16. Impact of layover length on sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and sustained attention of long-haul airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study

  17. Impact of layover length on sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and sustained attention of long-haul airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study

  18. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  19. The Relationship of a Pilot's Educational Background, Aeronautical Experience and Recency of Experience to Performance In Initial Training at a Regional Airline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, Nancy R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a pilot's educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience relate to their performance during initial training at a regional airline. Results show that variables in pilots' educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience do predict performance in training. The most significant predictors include years since graduation from college, multi-engine time, total time and whether or not a pilot had military flying experience. Due to the pilot shortage, the pilots entering regional airline training classes since August 2013 have varied backgrounds, aeronautical experience and recency of experience. As explained by Edward Thorndike's law of exercise and the law of recency, pilots who are actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit strong performance in those areas and pilots who have not been actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit degraded performance in those areas. Through correlation, chi-square and multiple regression analysis, this study tests this theory as it relates to performance in initial training at a regional airline.

  20. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  1. 14 CFR 121.437 - Pilot qualification: Certificates required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pilots) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificates required... Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (a) No pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft...

  2. 14 CFR 121.437 - Pilot qualification: Certificates required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pilots) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificates required... Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (a) No pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft...

  3. 14 CFR 121.437 - Pilot qualification: Certificates required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pilots) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificates required... Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (a) No pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft...

  4. 14 CFR 121.437 - Pilot qualification: Certificates required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilots) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificates required... Pilot qualification: Certificates required. (a) No pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft...

  5. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  6. Personality comparison of airline pilot incumbents, applicants, and the general population norms on the 16PF.

    PubMed

    Wakcher, Sandra; Cross, Kara; Blackman, Melinda C

    2003-06-01

    Personality comparisons using Cattell's 16PF were made between 137 pilot incumbents, 81 pilot applicants, and the general population norms. No significant differences were found between the scores on the personality factors for the Pilot Incumbents and the Pilot Applicants. Further, the incumbents and applicants who had previous military training versus those who did not had highly similar personalities. However, on nearly every personality factor a significant difference was found between the general population norms and the sample of Pilot Incumbents and Applicants. The Pilot Incumbent/Applicant group scored significantly more intelligent, emotionally stable, and mature in comparison to the general population norms. We believe that it is the high-risk nature of this occupation that leads applicants, wishing to pursue this field, to assess very carefully their own person-job fit and self-select themselves, thus ultimately producing this very distinct "pilot personality profile" described in 1995 by Bartram.

  7. Impact of scaling and body movement on contaminant transport in airliner cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Sagnik; Poussou, Stephane B.; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Chen, Qingyan

    2011-10-01

    Studies of contaminant transport have been conducted using small-scale models. This investigation used validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to examine if a small-scale water model could reveal the same contaminant transport characteristics as a full-scale airliner cabin. But due to similarity problems and the difficulty of scaling the geometry, a perfect scale up from a small water model to an actual air model was found to be impossible. The study also found that the seats and passengers tended to obstruct the lateral transport of the contaminants and confine their spread to the aisle of the cabin. The movement of a crew member or a passenger could carry a contaminant in its wake to as many rows as the crew member or passenger passed. This could be the reason why a SARS infected passenger could infect fellow passengers who were seated seven rows away. To accurately simulate the contaminant transport, the shape of the moving body should be a human-like model.

  8. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 183.23 - Pilot examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot examiners. 183.23 Section 183.23... REGULATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR Kinds of Designations: Privileges § 183.23 Pilot examiners. Any pilot examiner, instrument rating examiner, or airline transport pilot examiner may— (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot certificate; (2) A type rating... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...

  11. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot certificate; (2) A type rating... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...

  12. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot certificate; (2) A type rating... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...

  13. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot certificate; (2) A type rating... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...

  14. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment.

  15. Climatic similarity and biological exchange in the worldwide airline transportation network

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I

    2007-01-01

    Recent increases in the rates of biological invasion and spread of infectious diseases have been linked to the continued expansion of the worldwide airline transportation network (WAN). Here, the global structure of the WAN is analysed in terms of climatic similarity to illuminate the risk of deliberate or accidental movements of climatically sensitive organisms around the world. From over 44 000 flight routes, we show, for each month of an average year, (i) those scheduled routes that link the most spatially distant but climatically similar airports, (ii) the climatically best-connected airports, and (iii) clusters of airports with similar climatic features. The way in which traffic volumes alter these findings is also examined. Climatic similarity across the WAN is skewed (most geographically close airports are climatically similar) but heavy-tailed (there are considerable numbers of geographically distant but climatically similar airports), with climate similarity highest in the June–August period, matching the annual peak in air traffic. Climatically matched, geographically distant airports form subnetworks within the WAN that change throughout the year. Further, the incorporation of passenger and freight traffic data highlight at greater risk of invasion those airports that are climatically well connected by numerous high capacity routes. PMID:17426013

  16. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  17. Taking risks and taking advice: The role of experience in airline pilot diversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    The research asks how pilots make diversion decisions, what factors determine whether they are make well or poorly, and how they may be improved. The results support the view that experienced decision makers may solve problems in a way that is qualitatively different from the approaches of less experienced decision makers. The results also support a concept of expertise that goes beyond a stock of specialized recognitional templates, to include domain-specific methods for processing information. Such metacognitive skills evolve through long experience. They may enhance both the accuracy and the efficiency of decision processes.

  18. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  19. Effects of historical and predictive information on ability of transport pilot to predict an alert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1994-01-01

    In the aviation community, the early detection of the development of a possible subsystem problem during a flight is potentially useful for increasing the safety of the flight. Commercial airlines are currently using twin-engine aircraft for extended transport operations over water, and the early detection of a possible problem might increase the flight crew's options for safely landing the aircraft. One method for decreasing the severity of a developing problem is to predict the behavior of the problem so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken. To investigate the pilots' ability to predict long-term events, a computer workstation experiment was conducted in which 18 airline pilots predicted the alert time (the time to an alert) using 3 different dial displays and 3 different parameter behavior complexity levels. The three dial displays were as follows: standard (resembling current aircraft round dial presentations); history (indicating the current value plus the value of the parameter 5 sec in the past); and predictive (indicating the current value plus the value of the parameter 5 sec into the future). The time profiles describing the behavior of the parameter consisted of constant rate-of-change profiles, decelerating profiles, and accelerating-then-decelerating profiles. Although the pilots indicated that they preferred the near term predictive dial, the objective data did not support its use. The objective data did show that the time profiles had the most significant effect on performance in estimating the time to an alert.

  20. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed. PMID:14648170

  1. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed.

  2. Why do airlines want and use thrust reversers? A compilation of airline industry responses to a survey regarding the use of thrust reversers on commercial transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Although thrust reversers are used for only a fraction of the airplane operating time, their impact on nacelle design, weight, airplane cruise performance, and overall airplane operating and maintenance expenses is significant. Why then do the airlines want and use thrust reversers? In an effort to understand the airlines need for thrust reversers, a survey of the airline industry was made to determine why and under what situations thrust reversers are currently used or thought to be needed. The survey was intended to help establish the cost/benefits trades for the use of thrust reversers and airline opinion regarding alternative deceleration devices. A compilation and summary of the responses given to the survey questionnaire is presented.

  3. A Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Transport Aircraft Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a fixed-base research simulator to assess the directional handling qualities for various rudder pedal feel characteristics for commercial transport airplanes. That is, the effects of static pedal force at maximum pedal travel, breakout force, and maximum pedal travel on handling qualities were studied. An artificial maneuver with a severe lateral wind shear and requiring runway tracking at an altitude of 50 feet in a crosswind was used to fully exercise the rudder pedals. Twelve active airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew approximately 500 maneuvers. The pilots rated the maneuver performance with various rudder pedal feel characteristics using the Cooper- Harper rating scale. The test matrix had 15 unique combinations of the 3 static pedal feel characteristics. A 10-term, second-order equation for the Cooper-Harper pilot rating as a function of the 3 independent pedal feel parameters was fit to the data. The test matrix utilized a Central Composite Design that is very efficient for fitting an equation of this form. The equation was used to produce contour plots of constant pilot ratings as a function of two of the parameters with the third parameter held constant. These contour plots showed regions of good handling qualities as well as regions of degraded handling qualities. In addition, a numerical equation solver was used to predict the optimum parameter values (those with the lowest pilot rating). Quantitative pilot performance data were also analyzed. This analysis found that the peak values of the cross power spectra of the pedal force and heading angle could be used to quantify the tendency toward directional pilot induced oscillations (PIO). Larger peak values of the cross power spectra were correlated with larger (degraded) Cooper-Harper pilot ratings. Thus, the subjective data (Cooper-Harper pilot ratings) were consistent with the objective data (peak values of the cross power

  4. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  5. 14 CFR 61.11 - Expired pilot certificates and re-issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with a lighter-than-air or free-balloon rating issued before July 1, 1945. (c) An airline transport... pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air or free-balloon rating that was issued after June 30,...

  6. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  7. 76 FR 51119 - Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific Airlines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Office of the Secretary Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific Airlines for Certificate Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Order to Show... Airlines, Inc. d/b/a California Pacific Airlines fit, willing, and able, and awarding to it a...

  8. The National Map - Utah Transportation Pilot Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  9. High-Speed Civil Transport Forecast: Simulated Airlines Scenarios for Mach 1.6, Mach 2.0, and Mach 2.4 Configurations for Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Metwally, M.

    1996-03-01

    The report describes the development of a database of fuel burn and emissions from projected High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleets that reflect actual airlines` networks, operational requirement, and traffic flow as operated by simulated world wide airlines for Mach 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 HSCT configurations. For the year 2015, McDonnell Douglas Corporation created two supersonic commercial air traffic networks consisting of origin-destination city pair routes and associated traffic levels. The first scenario represented a manufacturing upper limit producible HSCT fleet availability by year 2015. The fleet projection of the Mach 2.4 configuration for this scenario was 1059 units with a traffic capture of 70 percent. The second scenario focused on the number of units that can minimally be produced by the year 2015. Using realistic production rates, the HSCT fleet projection amounts to 565 units. The traffic capture associated with this fleet was estimated at 40 percent. The airlines network was extracted from the actual networks of 21 major world airlines. All the routes were screened for suitability for HSCT operations. The route selection criteria included great circle distance, difference between flight path distance and great circle distance to avoid overland operations, and potential flight frequency.

  10. High-Speed Civil Transport Forecast: Simulated Airlines Scenarios for Mach 1.6, Mach 2.0, and Mach 2.4 Configurations for Year 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1996-01-01

    The report describes the development of a database of fuel burn and emissions from projected High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleets that reflect actual airlines' networks, operational requirement, and traffic flow as operated by simulated world wide airlines for Mach 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 HSCT configurations. For the year 2015, McDonnell Douglas Corporation created two supersonic commercial air traffic networks consisting of origin-destination city pair routes and associated traffic levels. The first scenario represented a manufacturing upper limit producible HSCT fleet availability by year 2015. The fleet projection of the Mach 2.4 configuration for this scenario was 1059 units with a traffic capture of 70 percent. The second scenario focused on the number of units that can minimally be produced by the year 2015. Using realistic production rates, the HSCT fleet projection amounts to 565 units. The traffic capture associated with this fleet was estimated at 40 percent. The airlines network was extracted from the actual networks of 21 major world airlines. All the routes were screened for suitability for HSCT operations. The route selection criteria included great circle distance, difference between flight path distance and great circle distance to avoid overland operations, and potential flight frequency.

  11. 14 CFR 121.435 - Pilot qualification: Certificate and experience requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) unless he holds an airline transport pilot certificate and an appropriate type rating for that aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Certificate and... Qualifications § 121.435 Pilot qualification: Certificate and experience requirements. Link to an...

  12. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT`s) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT`s. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  13. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT's) on a universal airline network.Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT's. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  14. Airline Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  15. 14 CFR 135.243 - Pilot in command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... holds an airline transport pilot certificate, appropriate type ratings, and an instrument rating. (b... person serve, as pilot in command of an aircraft under VFR unless that person— (1) Holds at least a... rating; or (4) For helicopter operations conducted VFR over-the-top, holds a helicopter instrument...

  16. 14 CFR 135.243 - Pilot in command qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... holds an airline transport pilot certificate, appropriate type ratings, and an instrument rating. (b... person serve, as pilot in command of an aircraft under VFR unless that person— (1) Holds at least a... rating; or (4) For helicopter operations conducted VFR over-the-top, holds a helicopter instrument...

  17. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certificate or commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot... predicated on the use of a fail-passive rollout control system, at least one manual rollout using visual... this paragraph shall be initiated by a fail-passive disconnect of the rollout control system— (A)...

  18. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certificate or commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot... predicated on the use of a fail-passive rollout control system, at least one manual rollout using visual... this paragraph shall be initiated by a fail-passive disconnect of the rollout control system— (A)...

  19. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certificate or commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot... predicated on the use of a fail-passive rollout control system, at least one manual rollout using visual... this paragraph shall be initiated by a fail-passive disconnect of the rollout control system— (A)...

  20. Effects of physical examination and diet consultation on serum cholesterol and health-behavior in the Korean pilots employed in commercial airline.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the "B" airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35-5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation.

  1. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days.

  2. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  3. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 141 - Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Aircraft loading; weight and balance; use of charts, graphs, tables, formulas, and computations; and the effects on aircraft performance; (10) Aerodynamics relating to an aircraft's flight characteristics and... school's approved training course, consisting of the approved areas of operation listed in paragraph...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 141 - Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Aircraft loading; weight and balance; use of charts, graphs, tables, formulas, and computations; and the effects on aircraft performance; (10) Aerodynamics relating to an aircraft's flight characteristics and... school's approved training course, consisting of the approved areas of operation listed in paragraph...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of airline...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.121 What classes of airline accommodations are available? Airlines are constantly updating their offerings. However, for the purposes of...

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What classes of airline...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.121 What classes of airline accommodations are available? Airlines are constantly updating their offerings. However, for the purposes of...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What classes of airline...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.121 What classes of airline accommodations are available? Airlines are constantly updating their offerings. However, for the purposes of...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.105 - What are the basic requirements for using airlines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for using airlines? 301-10.105 Section 301-10.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline § 301-10.105 What are the basic requirements for using airlines? The requirements for using airlines fall into three categories: (a) Using...

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What classes of airline...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.121 What classes of airline accommodations are available? Airlines are constantly updating their offerings. However, for the purposes of...

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What classes of airline...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.121 What classes of airline accommodations are available? Airlines are constantly updating their offerings. However, for the purposes of...

  11. Concentration of Airline Operations at Individual Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelerman, W.; Deneufville, R.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that it is a natural property of air transportation networks for competitive airlines to concentrate their operations at individual airports serving a given market. This implies that a strategy of developing satellite airports is doomed to failure unless the competitives behavior of the airlines is restricted. The results are demonstrated by tracing out the implications of observed patterns of traveller behavior as regards choice of carrier on the optimal game strategy for any particular airline. Analytic results for a two airline, two airport situation are extrapolated to the more general case, and specific supportive evidence from current operations are cited.

  12. Flight simulator platform motion and air transport pilot training.

    PubMed

    Lee, A T; Bussolari, S R

    1989-02-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined in two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations in platform motion design. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  13. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  14. 78 FR 44873 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... rule; correction. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a final rule published on July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42324... entitled, ``Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations'' (78 FR 42324... requirements for an airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate in Sec. 61.159(a) by adding paragraph...

  15. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  16. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  17. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  18. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  19. A systematic approach to advanced cockpit warning systems for air transport operations: Line pilot preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.; Simpson, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Line pilots (fifty captains, first officers, and flight engineers) from 8 different airlines were administered a structured questionnaire relating to future warning system design and solutions to current warning system problems. This was followed by a semantic differential to obtain a factor analysis of 18 different cockpit warning signals on scales such as informative/distracting, annoying/soothing. Half the pilots received a demonstration of the experimental text and voice synthesizer warning systems before answering the questionnaire and the semantic differential. A control group answered the questionnaire and the semantic differential first, thus providing a check for the stability of pilot preferences with and without actual exposure to experimental systems. Generally, the preference data obtained revealed much consistency and strong agreement among line pilots concerning advance cockpit warning system design.

  20. The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; deWit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The deregulation of US aviation in 1978 resulted in the reconfiguration of airline networks into hub-and-spoke systems, spatially concentrated around a small number of central airports or 'hubs' through which an airline operates a number of daily waves of flights. A hub-and-spoke network requires a concentration of traffic in both space and time. In contrast to the U.S. airlines, European airlines had entered the phase of spatial network concentration long before deregulation. Bilateral negotiation of traffic fights between governments forced European airlines to focus their networks spatially on small number of 'national' airports. In general, these star-shaped networks were not coordinated in time. Transfer opportunities at central airports were mostly created 'by accident'. With the deregulation of the EU air transport market from 1988 on, a second phase of airline network concentration started. European airlines concentrated their networks in time by adopting or intensifying wave-system structures in their flight schedules. Temporal concentration may increase the competitive position of the network in a deregulated market because of certain cost and demand advantages.

  1. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  2. An analysis of short haul airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The demand and supply characteristics of short haul air transportation systems are investigated in terms of airline operating costs. Direct, indirect, and ground handling costs are included. Supply models of short haul air transportation systems are constructed.

  3. Flight Training Technology for Regional/Commuter Airline Operations: Regional Airline Association/NASA Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T. (Editor); Lauber, J. K. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Programs which have been developed for training commercial airline pilots and flight crews are discussed. The concept of cockpit resource management and the concomitant issues of management techniques, interpersonal communication, psychological factors, and flight stress are addressed. Training devices and simulation techniques are reported.

  4. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices. PMID:26897619

  5. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  6. Detection of structural deterioration and associated airline maintenance problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henniker, H. D.; Mitchell, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Airline operations involving the detection of structural deterioration and associated maintenance problems are discussed. The standard approach to the maintenance and inspection of aircraft components and systems is described. The frequency of inspections and the application of preventive maintenance practices are examined. The types of failure which airline transport aircraft encounter and the steps taken to prevent catastrophic failure are reported.

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  12. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  13. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  14. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  15. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  16. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  17. Flow and contaminant transport in an airliner cabin induced by a moving body: Model experiments and CFD predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poussou, Stephane B.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; Plesniak, Michael W.; Sojka, Paul E.; Chen, Qingyan

    2010-08-01

    The effects of a moving human body on flow and contaminant transport inside an aircraft cabin were investigated. Experiments were performed in a one-tenth scale, water-based model. The flow field and contaminant transport were measured using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. Measurements were obtained with (ventilation case) and without (baseline case) the cabin environmental control system (ECS). The PIV measurements show strong intermittency in the instantaneous near-wake flow. A symmetric downwash flow was observed along the vertical centerline of the moving body in the baseline case. The evolution of this flow pattern is profoundly perturbed by the flow from the ECS. Furthermore, a contaminant originating from the moving body is observed to convect to higher vertical locations in the presence of ventilation. These experimental data were used to validate a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. The CFD model can effectively capture the characteristic flow features and contaminant transport observed in the small-scale model.

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  2. Operational flight evaluation of the two-segment approach for use in airline service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwind, G. K.; Morrison, J. A.; Nylen, W. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    United Airlines has developed and evaluated a two-segment noise abatement approach procedure for use on Boeing 727 aircraft in air carrier service. In a flight simulator, the two-segment approach was studied in detail and a profile and procedures were developed. Equipment adaptable to contemporary avionics and navigation systems was designed and manufactured by Collins Radio Company and was installed and evaluated in B-727-200 aircraft. The equipment, profile, and procedures were evaluated out of revenue service by pilots representing government agencies, airlines, airframe manufacturers, and professional pilot associations. A system was then placed into scheduled airline service for six months during which 555 two-segment approaches were flown at three airports by 55 airline pilots. The system was determined to be safe, easy to fly, and compatible with the airline operational environment.

  3. Comparison of myocardial ischemia during intense mental stress using flight simulation in airline pilots with coronary artery disease to that produced with conventional mental and treadmill exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Doorey, Andrew; Denenberg, Barry; Sagar, Vidya; Hanna, Tracy; Newman, Jack; Stone, Peter H

    2011-09-01

    Mental stress increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although laboratory mental stress often causes less myocardial ischemia than exercise stress (ES), it is unclear whether mental stress is intrinsically different or differences are due to less hemodynamic stress with mental stress. We sought to evaluate the hemodynamic and ischemic response to intense realistic mental stress created by modern flight simulators and compare this response to that of exercise treadmill testing and conventional laboratory mental stress (CMS) testing in pilots with coronary disease. Sixteen airline pilots with angiographically documented coronary disease and documented myocardial ischemia during ES were studied using maximal treadmill ES, CMS, and aviation mental stress (AMS) testing. AMS testing was done in a sophisticated simulator using multiple system failures as stressors. Treadmill ES testing resulted in the highest heart rate, but AMS caused a higher blood pressure response than CMS. Maximal rate-pressure product was not significantly different between ES and AMS (25,646 vs 23,347, p = 0.08), although these were higher than CMS (16,336, p <0.0001). Despite similar hemodynamic stress induced by ES and AMS, AMS resulted in significantly less ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia than ES. Differences in induction of ischemia by mental stress compared to ES do not appear to be due to the creation of less hemodynamic stress. In conclusion, even with equivalent hemodynamic stress, intense realistic mental stress induced by flight simulators results in significantly less myocardial ischemia than ES as measured by ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia.

  4. University Flight Operations Internships with Major Airlines: Airline Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NewMyer, David A.; Ruiz, Jose R.; Rogers, Ryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Compares the internship programs among the top 12 airlines; discusses some of the myths surrounding these programs; and looks at the benefits to the participants, the airlines, and universities. (Contains 16 references.) (JOW)

  5. 76 FR 5237 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... fifth audit report in a Federal Register Notice published on December 3, 2010, at 75 FR 75532. The FHWA... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit... compliance by each State participating in the Pilot Program, 23 U.S.C. 327(g) mandates semiannual...

  6. 77 FR 27273 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... 77 FR 10599. The FHWA received one comment from Caltrans. This notice provides the final draft of the... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit... compliance by each State participating in the Pilot Program, 23 U.S.C. 327(g) mandates semiannual...

  7. 77 FR 26355 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... February 22, 2012, at 77 FR 10599. The FHWA received one comment from Caltrans. This notice provides the... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit... compliance by each State participating in the Pilot Program, 23 U.S.C. 327(g) mandates semiannual...

  8. Managing Uncertainty during a Corporate Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study of Communication During an Airline Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Michael W.; Dougherty, Debbie S.; Pierce, Tamyra A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined pilots' (N at T1 = 140; N at T2 = 126; N at T3 = 104) reactions to communication and uncertainty during the acquisition of their airline by another airline. Quantitative results indicate that communication helped to reduce uncertainty and was predictive of affective responses to the acquisition. However, contrary to…

  9. Eastern Airlines' Volunteer Program. Progress Report. March 15, 1972 - May 25, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    During the second semester of the 1971-72 school year, a pilot effort was initiated to use Eastern Airlines personnel as volunteer teachers. With the assistance of Eastern Airlines Officials and the Dade County Public Schools Division of Instruction, six community schools in the Northeast, North Central and South Central districts were opened to…

  10. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  11. Transition to Glass: Pilot Training for High-Technology Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Moses, John H.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the activities of a major commercial air carrier between 1993 and late 1996 as it acquired an advanced fleet of high-technology aircraft (Boeing 757). Previously, the airline's fleet consisted of traditional (non-glass) aircraft, and this report examines the transition from a traditional fleet to a glass one. A total of 150 pilots who were entering the B-757 transition training volunteered for the study, which consisted of three query phases: (1) first day of transition training, (2) 3 to 4 months after transition training, and (3) 12 to 14 months after initial operating experience. Of these initial 150 pilots, 99 completed all three phases of the study, with each phase consisting of probes on attitudes and experiences associated with their training and eventual transition to flying the line. In addition to the three questionnaires, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted. Although the primary focus of this study was on the flight training program, additional factors such as technical support, documentation, and training aids were investigated as well. The findings generally indicate that the pilot volunteers were highly motivated and very enthusiastic about their training program. In addition, the group had low levels of apprehension toward automation and expressed a high degree of satisfaction toward their training. However, there were some concerns expressed regarding the deficiencies in some of the training aids and lack of a free-play flight management system training device.

  12. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  13. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  14. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  15. Improving Airline Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under a NASA-Ames Space Act Agreement, Coryphaeus Software and Simauthor, Inc., developed an Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS). This software, developed for the aerospace and airline industry, enables the replay of Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) data in a flexible, user-configurable, real-time, high fidelity 3D (three dimensional) environment.

  16. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  17. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  18. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  19. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  20. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight...

  1. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  2. 75 FR 75532 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit... semiannual audits during each of the first 2 years of State participation. This notice announces and solicits comments on the fifth audit report for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)....

  3. [Functional dynamics of the pilots of heavy transport helicopters in the course of a flight shift].

    PubMed

    Kamenskiĭ, Iu N

    1982-01-01

    Before and after flights about 300 crewmembers of heavy transport helicopters were examined, using psychophysiological and integral methods that yield professionally important information. During a flight shift the health state of helicopter pilots varies via three stages: habituation, initial decline and distinct lassitude, with the latter developing after 5 h flight load. In order to increase human reliability in the pilot-helicopter system, it is advisable to allow 4 h flight time during a flight shift onboard helicopters of the above type. In this case the pilot exposure to vibration effects will also be limited. The paper describes a maximally permissible spectrum of vibration velocity for a 4 h exposure.

  4. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  5. Human in the Loop Simulation Measures of Pilot Response Delay in a Self-Separation Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Sturdy, James; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Wing, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation experiment was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess airline transport pilots performance and reported acceptance of the use of procedures relying on airborne separation assistance and trajectory management tools. This study was part of a larger effort involving two NASA centers that includes multiple HITL experiments planned over the next few years to evaluate the use of automated separation assurance (SA) tools by both air traffic controllers and pilots. This paper presents results of measured pilot response delay that subject pilots incurred when interacting with cockpit tools for SA and discusses possible implications for future concept and procedures design.

  6. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  7. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  8. A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tupolev Tu-144 Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Robert A.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Cox, Timothy H.; Princen, Norman H.

    2000-01-01

    Two U.S. research pilots evaluated the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic transport aircraft on three dedicated flights: one subsonic and two supersonic profiles. The flight profiles and maneuvers were developed jointly by Tupolev and U.S. engineers. The vehicle was found to have unique operational and flight characteristics that serve as lessons for designers of future supersonic transport aircraft. Vehicle subsystems and observed characteristics are described as are flight test planning and ground monitoring facilities. Maneuver descriptions and extended pilot narratives for each flight are included as appendices.

  9. Procedures in complex systems: the airline cockpit.

    PubMed

    Degani, A; Wiener, E L

    1997-05-01

    In complex human-machine systems, successful operations depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks done. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots and to ensure a safe, logical, efficient, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the objectives of the job. However, procedures can become a hodge-podge. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to noncompliance by operators. Based on a field study with three major airlines, the authors propose a model for procedure development called the "Four P's": philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. Using this model as a framework, the authors discuss the intricate issue of designing flight-deck procedures, and propose a conceptual approach for designing any set of procedures. The various factors, both external and internal to the cockpit, that must be considered for procedure design are presented. In particular, the paper addresses the development of procedures for automated cockpits--a decade-long, and highly controversial issue in commercial aviation. Although this paper is based on airline operations, we assume that the principles discussed here are also applicable to other high-risk supervisory control systems, such as space flight, manufacturing process control, nuclear power production, and military operations. PMID:11541101

  10. Synthetic Vision for Airliners and General Aviaion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'Video News Release'(?) for AWIN, the Aviation Weather Information Network. Includes animations. Narration: Bad weather and poor visibility can be potentially hazardous to aircraft and flight crews. Both can contribute to deadly accidents. The NASA Aviation Safety Program is working on innovative cockpit technologies that could help pilots avoid flying into rough weather, terrain or obstacles. Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) - a 'weather channel' in the sky - would give flight crews, air-traffic controllers and airline dispatchers timely moving map displays to help them make better re-routing decisions. 'Synthetic vision' would offer pilots a clear electronic picture including topography, traffic, even airport runways. Sensors, sattellites and terrain databases would create a kind of virtual-reality of what's outside - no matter what the weather or time of day. NASA isn't working alone to make air travel safer, it is teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry to develop new systems for airliners and general aviation aircraft. Their partnership is expected to make a difference worldwide and ensure many safe and smooth landings

  11. Eastern Airlines LOFT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with scenario design and development issues, Eastern Airlines committed itself to the full four-hour LOFT training format without the additional time for specific maneuvers. Abnormals and emergency conditions, pacing, and quiet periods are included in the scenarios which are written for the instructor to follow verbatim. Simulator capabilities, performance assessment; training vs. checking; crew composition and scheduling; satisfactory completion; the use of video performance printouts; the number of instructors; instructor training and standardization; and initial, transition, and upgrade training are discussed.

  12. Airlines look at 150-seaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetman, B.; Woolley, D.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of economic changes and deregulation on the structuring of airlines are considered. The rebalancing of airline fleets from large aircraft to 150-seaters due to changing interest rates and lower fuel cost is examined. The conversion of turbofan-powered aircraft to propeller-powered aircraft is proposed.

  13. Are windshear training aid recommendations appropriate for other than large jet transports? Pilot procedures: Shear models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in vugraph form on pilot procedures in windshear, typical winds in a downburst, a downburst encounter at takeoff by a large jet transport and a light turboprop twin, and a comparison of pitch algorithms in an approach encounter with downburst shear. It is observed that the light turboprop appears no less tolerant of a downburst encounter than the large jet.

  14. 77 FR 10599 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit... semiannual audits during each of the first 2 years of State participation and annual audits during each subsequent year of State participation. This notice announces and solicits comments on the sixth audit...

  15. 75 FR 9638 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... the fourth audit report in a Federal Register Notice published on December 23, 2009, at 74 FR 68308... the fourth audit report in a Federal Register Notice published December 22, 2009, at 74 FR 68308. The... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans...

  16. To Educate Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dayton Y.

    1968-01-01

    As the highly trained ex-military pilots of World War II began to retire from commercial flying, there was concern over the pilot shortage, especially among the airlines with their growing needs. Miami-Dade Junior College, in January 1965, was the first to respond to this need. Although initial enrollment was expected to be small, 150 applications…

  17. Medical Handbook for Pilots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides information on an airline pilot's physical and mental status and related medical factors which may affect his/her performance. Contents include information on the physical examination for pilots, the flyer's environment, hypoxia, hyperventilation, gas in the body, the ears, alcohol, drugs and flying, carbon monoxide, vision,…

  18. "Checklist Complete". Or Is It? Closing a Task in the Airline Cockpit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    For airline pilots, the call of "checklist complete" is officially prescribed talk to claim that the crew's joint conduct of a checklist is over, and the task can be understood as closed. However, very often this call is not the final talk for the task. This paper uses naturally occurring data, transcriptions of pilots interacting on actual…

  19. The Empirical Analysis of Impact of Alliances on Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Alamdari, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    Airline alliances are dominating the current air transport industry with the largest carriers of the world belonging to one of the four alliance groupings - "Wings", Star Alliance, one world, SkyTeam - which represent 56% of world Revenue Passenger Kilometers. Although much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of alliance membership on performance of airlines, it would be of interest to ascertain the degree of impact perceived by participating airlines in alliances. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of all the airlines, belonging to the four global alliance groupings on the impact alliances have had on their traffic and on their performance in general To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management departments of airlines participating in the four global strategic alliances was carried out. With this framework the survey has examined which type of cooperation among carriers (FFP, Code Share, Strategic Alliance without antitrust immunity, Strategic Alliance with antitrust immunity) has produced the most positive impact on traffic and which type of route (short haul, long haul, hub-hub, hub-non hub, non hub-non hub) has been mostly affected. In addition, the respondent airlines quantified the effect alliances have had on specific areas of their operation, such as load factors, traffic, costs, revenue and fares. Their responses have been analysed under each global alliances grouping, under airline and under geographic region to establish which group, type of carrier and geographic region has benefited most. The results show that each of the four global alliances groupings has experienced different results according to the type of collaboration agreed amongst their member airlines.

  20. 75 FR 69734 - Application of Island Airlines, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Island Airlines, LLC for Commuter Air Carrier Authorization AGENCY... it should not issue an order finding Island Airlines, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding...

  1. Food irradiation and airline catering.

    PubMed

    Preston, F S

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  2. Food irradiation and airline catering

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  3. Airline Operations Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  4. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  5. Well Clear: General Aviation and Commercial Pilots' Perceptioin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots' WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots' WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  6. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  7. Advanced Transport Delay Compensation Algorithms: Results of Delay Measurement and Piloted Performance Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of delay measurement and piloted performance tests that were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the adaptive compensator and the state space compensator for alleviating the phase distortion of transport delay in the visual system in the VMS at the NASA Langley Research Center. Piloted simulation tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of two novel compensators in comparison to the McFarland predictor and the baseline system with no compensation. Thirteen pilots with heterogeneous flight experience executed straight-in and offset approaches, at various delay configurations, on a flight simulator where different predictors were applied to compensate for transport delay. The glideslope and touchdown errors, power spectral density of the pilot control inputs, NASA Task Load Index, and Cooper-Harper rating of the handling qualities were employed for the analyses. The overall analyses show that the adaptive predictor results in slightly poorer compensation for short added delay (up to 48 ms) and better compensation for long added delay (up to 192 ms) than the McFarland compensator. The analyses also show that the state space predictor is fairly superior for short delay and significantly superior for long delay than the McFarland compensator.

  8. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  9. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John H.; Rutner, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America, This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  10. Optimization in the airline industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, C.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss applications of operations research techniques in the airline industry. Specifically, we present models and solution procedures for crew scheduling, fleet assignment and service design. The crew scheduling problem involves the assignment of crews to scheduled flights, and the fleet assignment problem involves the assignment of aircraft to flights. Service design requires the determination of both the flight schedule and the fleet assignment. We summarize our computational experiences in solving various problems for large domestic and international airlines.

  11. 14 CFR 61.151 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.151 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of airline transport pilot...

  12. 14 CFR 61.151 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.151 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of airline transport pilot...

  13. 14 CFR 61.151 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.151 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of airline transport pilot...

  14. 14 CFR 61.151 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.151 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of airline transport pilot...

  15. 14 CFR 61.151 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.151 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of airline transport pilot...

  16. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller and Controller/Controller Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Davison, Hayley J.

    2000-01-01

    The increased ability to exchange information between Pilots, Controllers, Dispatchers, and other agents is a key component of advanced Air Traffic Management. The importance of shared information as well as current and evolving practices in information sharing are presented for a variety of interactions including: Controller/Pilot interactions, Pilot/Airline interactions, Controller/Controller interactions, and Airline/ATM interactions.

  17. 75 FR 41579 - Submitting Airline Data via the Internet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ..., traffic, operational, and consumer reports to BTS via the Internet on December 20, 2006, (71 FR 76226.... 12866: Regulatory and Planning Review Under Executive Order No. 12866, (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Transportation 14 CFR Parts 217, 234, 241, et al. Submitting Airline Data via the Internet; Final Rule...

  18. Transportation to clinic: findings from a pilot clinic-based survey of low-income suburbanites.

    PubMed

    Silver, Diana; Blustein, Jan; Weitzman, Beth C

    2012-04-01

    Health care policymakers have cited transportation barriers as key obstacles to providing health care to low-income suburbanites, particularly because suburbs have become home to a growing number of recent immigrants who are less likely to own cars than their neighbors. In a suburb of New York City, we conducted a pilot survey of low income, largely immigrant clients in four public clinics, to find out how much transportation difficulties limit their access to primary care. Clients were receptive to the opportunity to participate in the survey (response rate = 94%). Nearly one-quarter reported having transportation problems that had caused them to miss or reschedule a clinic appointment in the past. Difficulties included limited and unreliable local bus service, and a tenuous connection to a car. Our pilot work suggests that this population is willing to participate in a survey on this topic. Further, since even among those attending clinic there was significant evidence of past transportation problems, it suggests that a population based survey would yield information about substantial transportation barriers to health care.

  19. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  20. Flight test experience and controlled impact of a remotely piloted jet transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Timothy W.; Kempel, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the FAA conducted the controlled impact demonstration (CID) program using a large, four-engine, remotely piloted jet transport airplane. Closed-loop primary flight was controlled through the existing onboard PB-20D autopilot which had been modified for the CID program. Uplink commands were sent from a ground-based cockpit and digital computer in conjunction with an up-down telemetry link. These uplink commands were received aboard the airplane and transferred through uplink interface systems to the modified PB-20D autopilot. Both proportional and discrete commands were produced by the ground system. Prior to flight tests, extensive simulation was conducted during the development of ground-based digital control laws. The control laws included primary control, secondary control, and racetrack and final approach guidance. Extensive ground checks were performed on all remotely piloted systems; however, piloted flight tests were the primary method and validation of control law concepts developed from simulation. The design, development, and flight testing of control laws and systems required to accomplish the remotely piloted mission are discussed.

  1. Space weather and commercial airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Hunter, R.; Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    Space weather phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. With the introduction of new ultra-long-haul “over-the-pole” routes, “more-electric” aircraft in the future, and the increasing use of satellites in the operation, the need for a better understanding of the space weather impacts on future airline operations becomes all the more compelling. This paper will present the various space weather effects, some provisional results of an ongoing 3-year study to monitor cosmic radiation in aircraft, and conclude by summarising some of the identified key operational issues, which must be addressed, with the help of the science community, if the airlines want to benefit from the availability of space weather services.

  2. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  3. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  4. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  5. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  6. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  7. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  8. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients. PMID:19330974

  9. Fitness to fly post craniotomy--a survey of medical advice from long-haul airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Seth, R; Mir, S; Dhir, J S; Cheeseman, C; Singh, J

    2009-04-01

    Commercial airline passengers are subject to numerous medical risks while in transit. Seventeen long-haul airline companies were questioned concerning fitness to travel and the case of a patient wishing to travel post craniotomy. Three airline companies gave satisfactory medical information, while the remaining airlines felt it was the decision of the operating surgeon rather than the airline company. A literature review shows that post operative pneumocephalus and the risk of tension pneumocephalus is the major medical concern when transporting patients post craniotomy. Evidence is contradictory with respect to the importance of this potentially life threatening problem. Postoperative 100% oxygen may improve the rate of pneumocephalus absorption. Airline companies have an unstandardised approach to unique medical problems, resulting in increased responsibility for the attending surgeon who may be ill equipped to deal with poorly researched aviation medicine. PMID:19306175

  10. Fitness to fly post craniotomy--a survey of medical advice from long-haul airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Seth, R; Mir, S; Dhir, J S; Cheeseman, C; Singh, J

    2009-04-01

    Commercial airline passengers are subject to numerous medical risks while in transit. Seventeen long-haul airline companies were questioned concerning fitness to travel and the case of a patient wishing to travel post craniotomy. Three airline companies gave satisfactory medical information, while the remaining airlines felt it was the decision of the operating surgeon rather than the airline company. A literature review shows that post operative pneumocephalus and the risk of tension pneumocephalus is the major medical concern when transporting patients post craniotomy. Evidence is contradictory with respect to the importance of this potentially life threatening problem. Postoperative 100% oxygen may improve the rate of pneumocephalus absorption. Airline companies have an unstandardised approach to unique medical problems, resulting in increased responsibility for the attending surgeon who may be ill equipped to deal with poorly researched aviation medicine.

  11. 75 FR 44305 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 2.37 miles of its line of railroad...

  12. 76 FR 9402 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI On January 28, 2011, Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway) filed with the Surface.... 10903 to abandon an approximately 5.45-mile rail line between milepost 45.26 (Engineer's Profile...

  13. Further tests of a model-based scheme for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, W. W.; Levison, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was demonstrated for assessing longitudinal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft on the basis of closed-loop criteria. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling quality problems that included the presence of flexible aircraft modes. Using closed-loop performance requirements derived from task analyses and pilot interviews, predictions of performance/workload tradeoffs were obtained using an analytical pilot/vehicle model. A subsequent manned simulation study yielded objective performance measures and Cooper-Harper pilot ratings that were largely consistent with each other and with analytic predictions.

  14. United Airlines LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, D.; Traub, B.

    1981-01-01

    Line oriented training is used in a broader, more generic sense that as a specific program under FAR 12.1409 and AC 120-35. A company policy was adopted more than twenty years ago requiring that all pilot checks and recurrent training be conducted with a full crew occupying the seats they occupy on the line. Permission was obtained to reschedule the hours for recurrent proficiency training to include one and one-half hours of LOFT flight. The number of emergencies and abnormal procedures which could be undertaken were considered and the introduction of an a occasional incapacitation revealed which person is the most difficult to replace on the widebodies. By using the LOFT concept, every training period can be structured like a typical line flight. The use of LOFT in simulator syllabus development and problems that need to be refined are discussed.

  15. Looking for Action: Talk and Gaze Home Position in the Airline Cockpit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the embodied nature of discourse for a professional work setting. It examines language in interaction in the airline cockpit, and specifically how shifts in pilots' eye gaze direction can indicate the action of talk, that is, what talk is doing and its relative contribution to work-in-progress. Looking towards the other…

  16. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  17. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  18. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  19. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft. PMID:20478517

  20. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  1. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  2. 14 CFR 61.35 - Knowledge test: Prerequisites and passing grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., 2014, for the knowledge test for an airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane category multiengine class rating, a graduation certificate for the airline transport pilot certification...

  3. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  4. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  5. 14 CFR 61.163 - Aeronautical experience: Powered-lift category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a powered-lift category rating must have at...

  6. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  7. Piloted methane/air jet flames: Transport effects and aspects of scalar structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.; Frank, J.H.; Karpetis, A.N.; Chen, J.-Y.

    2005-12-01

    Previously unpublished results from multiscalar point measurements in the series of piloted CH{sub 4}/air jet flames [R.S. Barlow, J.H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27 (1998) 1087-1095] are presented and analyzed. The emphasis is on features of the data that reveal the relative importance of molecular diffusion and turbulent transport in these flames. The complete series A-F is considered. This includes laminar, transitional, and turbulent flames spanning a range in Reynolds number from 1100 to 44,800. Results on conditional means of species mass fractions, the differential diffusion parameter, and the state of the water-gas shift reaction all show that there is an evolution in these flames from a scalar structure dominated by molecular diffusion to one dominated by turbulent transport. Long records of 6000 single-point samples at each of several selected locations in flame D are used to quantify the cross-stream (radial) dependence of conditional statistics of measured scalars. The cross-stream dependence of the conditional scalar dissipation is determined from 6000-shot, line-imaging measurements at selected locations. The cross-stream dependence of reactive scalars, which is most significant in the near field of the jet flame, is attributed to radial differences in both convective and local time scales of the flow. Results illustrate some potential limitations of common modeling assumptions when applied to laboratory-scale flames and, thus, provide a more complete context for interpretation of comparisons between experiments and model calculations.

  8. Piloted methane/air jet flames : transport effects and aspects of scalar structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Karpetis, Adionos N.; Chen, J. Y.; Barlow, Robert S.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2005-02-01

    Previously unpublished results from multiscalar point measurements in the series of piloted CH{sub 4}/air jet flames [R.S. Barlow, J.H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 27 (1998) 1087-1095] are presented and analyzed. The emphasis is on features of the data that reveal the relative importance of molecular diffusion and turbulent transport in these flames. The complete series A-F is considered. This includes laminar, transitional, and turbulent flames spanning a range in Reynolds number from 1100 to 44,800. Results on conditional means of species mass fractions, the differential diffusion parameter, and the state of the water-gas shift reaction all show that there is an evolution in these flames from a scalar structure dominated by molecular diffusion to one dominated by turbulent transport. Long records of 6000 single-point samples at each of several selected locations in flame D are used to quantify the cross-stream (radial) dependence of conditional statistics of measured scalars. The cross-stream dependence of the conditional scalar dissipation is determined from 6000-shot, line-imaging measurements at selected locations. The cross-stream dependence of reactive scalars, which is most significant in the near field of the jet flame, is attributed to radial differences in both convective and local time scales of the flow. Results illustrate some potential limitations of common modeling assumptions when applied to laboratory-scale flames and, thus, provide a more complete context for interpretation of comparisons between experiments and model calculations.

  9. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  10. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  11. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  12. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  13. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  14. GM1 Ganglioside in Parkinson’s Disease: Pilot Study of Effects on Dopamine Transporter Binding

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jay S.; Cambi, Franca; Gollomp, Stephen M.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Brašić, James R.; Leiby, Benjamin; Sendek, Stephanie; Wong, Dean F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective GM1 ganglioside has been suggested as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD), potentially having symptomatic and disease modifying effects. The current pilot imaging study was performed to examine effects of GM1 on dopamine transporter binding, as a surrogate measure of disease progression, studied longitudinally. Methods Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data were obtained from a subset of subjects enrolled in a delayed start clinical trial of GM1 in PD1: 15 Early-start (ES) subjects, 14 Delayed-start (DS) subjects, and 11 Comparison (standard-of-care) subjects. Treatment subjects were studied over a 2.5 year period while Comparison subjects were studied over 2 years. Dynamic PET scans were performed over 90 minutes following injection of [11C]methylphenidate. Regional values of binding potential (BPND) were analyzed for several striatal volumes of interest. Results Clinical results for this subset of subjects were similar to those previously reported for the larger study group. ES subjects showed early symptomatic improvement and slow symptom progression over the study period. DS and Comparison subjects were initially on the same symptom progression trajectory but diverged once DS subjects received GM1 treatment. Imaging results showed significant slowing of BPND loss in several striatal regions in GM1-treated subjects and in some cases, an increased BPND in some striatal regions was detected after GM1 use. Interpretation Results of this pilot imaging study provide additional data to suggest a potential disease modifying effect of GM1 on PD. These results need to be confirmed in a larger number of subjects. PMID:26099170

  15. An analysis of airline landing flare data based on flight and training simulator measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Schulman, T. M.; Clement, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Landings by experienced airline pilots transitioning to the DC-10, performed in flight and on a simulator, were analyzed and compared using a pilot-in-the-loop model of the landing maneuver. By solving for the effective feedback gains and pilot compensation which described landing technique, it was possible to discern fundamental differences in pilot behavior between the actual aircraft and the simulator. These differences were then used to infer simulator fidelity in terms of specific deficiencies and to quantify the effectiveness of training on the simulator as compared to training in flight. While training on the simulator, pilots exhibited larger effective lag in commanding the flare. The inability to compensate adequately for this lag was associated with hard or inconsistent landings. To some degree this deficiency was carried into flight, thus resulting in a slightly different and inferior landing technique than exhibited by pilots trained exclusively on the actual aircraft.

  16. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat "unconventional" aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method was able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  17. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat 'unconventional' aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method is able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  18. Trends in energy use and fuel efficiency in the US commercial airline industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.

    1981-12-01

    The record of the US commercial airline industry in improving fuel efficiency from 1973 to 1980 is examined. The components of the efficiency changes and how much fuel they saved are identified. The analysis focused only on the transportion of passengers, excluding helicopter service, commuter service, and flights devoted solely to transporting cargo. (MHR)

  19. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  20. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  1. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  2. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  3. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  4. Transportable vitrification system pilot demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge WETF sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation West End Treatment Facility (WETF) sludge was vitrified in a pilot-scale EnVitCo melter at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department (ESED) Vitrification Facility. Although much smaller than the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) melter, this melter is similar in design to the one in the TVS. The TVS was built by EnVitCo for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for the treatment of low level and mixed wastes. A total of three tests were done by ESED personnel with guidance from SRTC TVS personnel. The purpose of these tests was to determine what problems might occur during the vitrification of WETF sludge feed in the TVS. The demonstration was successfully completed and the glasses produced passed the TCLP tests for all the hazardous waste components (Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni). An overview of these tests and experimental results on glass container testing, glass pouring, glass product characterization, electrode and refractory wear, and offgas composition and particulate measurements will be given.

  5. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-05-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  6. Airline Disaster Highlights Need for Ethical Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kate

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Syracuse University professor/reporter's experiences covering the airline disaster that killed 35 Syracuse students. Discusses the problems of ethically covering a story where a lot of grief is involved. (MS)

  7. Network topology and correlation features affiliated with European airline companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ding-Ding; Qian, Jiang-Hai; Liu, Jin-Gao

    2009-01-01

    The physics information of four specific airline flight networks in European Continent, namely the Austrian airline, the British airline, the France-Holland airline and the Lufthhansa airline, was quantitatively analyzed by the concepts of a complex network. It displays some features of small-world networks, namely a large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length for these specific airline networks. The degree distributions for the small degree branch reveal power law behavior with an exponent value of 2-3 for the Austrian and the British flight networks, and that of 1-2 for the France-Holland and the Lufthhansa airline flight networks. So the studied four airlines are sorted into two classes according to the topology structure. Similarly, the flight weight distributions show two kinds of different decay behavior with the flight weight: one for the Austrian and the British airlines and another for the France-Holland airline and the Lufthhansa airlines. In addition, the degree-degree correlation analysis shows that the network has disassortative behavior for all the value of degree k, and this phenomenon is different from the international airline network and US airline network. Analysis of the clustering coefficient ( C(k)) versus k, indicates that the flight networks of the Austrian Airline and the British Airline reveal a hierarchical organization for all airports, however, the France-Holland Airline and the Lufthhansa Airline show a hierarchical organization mostly for larger airports. The correlation of node strength ( S(k)) and degree is also analyzed, and a power-law fit S(k)∼k1.1 can roughly fit all data of these four airline companies. Furthermore, we mention seasonal changes and holidays may cause the flight network to form a different topology. An example of the Austrian Airline during Christmas was studied and analyzed.

  8. Analysis of severe atmospheric disturbances from airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E., Jr.; Schultz, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced methods were developed to determine time varying winds and turbulence from digital flight data recorders carried aboard modern airliners. Analysis of several cases involving severe clear air turbulence encounters at cruise altitudes has shown that the aircraft encountered vortex arrays generated by destabilized wind shear layers above mountains or thunderstorms. A model was developed to identify the strength, size, and spacing of vortex arrays. This model is used to study the effects of severe wind hazards on operational safety for different types of aircraft. It is demonstrated that small remotely piloted vehicles and executive aircraft exhibit more violent behavior than do large airliners during encounters with high-altitude vortices. Analysis of digital flight data from the accident at Dallas/Ft. Worth in 1985 indicates that the aircraft encountered a microburst with rapidly changing winds embedded in a strong outflow near the ground. A multiple-vortex-ring model was developed to represent the microburst wind pattern. This model can be used in flight simulators to better understand the control problems in severe microburst encounters.

  9. Analysis of severe atmospheric disturbances from airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E., Jr.; Schultz, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced methods were developed to determine time varying winds and turbulence from digital flight data recorders carried aboard modern airliners. Analysis of several cases involving severe clear air turbulence encounters at cruise altitudes has shown that the aircraft encountered vortex arrays generated by destabilized wind shear layers above mountains or thunderstorms. A model was developed to identify the strength, size, and spacing of vortex arrays. This model is used to study the effects of severe wind hazards on operational safety for different types of aircraft. The study demonstrates that small remotely piloted vehicles and executive aircraft exhibit more violent behavior than do large airliners during encounters with high-altitude vortices. Analysis of digital flight data from the accident at Dallas/Ft. Worth in 1985 indicates that the aircraft encountered a microburst with rapidly changing winds embedded in a strong outflow near the ground. A multiple-vortex-ring model was developed to represent the microburst wind pattern. This model can be used in flight simulators to better understand the control problems in severe microburst encounters.

  10. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  11. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines: an update.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Claude

    2002-06-01

    As expected, the issue of medical kits for commercial airlines continues to attract attention, especially in light of the recent United States regulation on the subject. As promised in its first recommendation in 1998, the Air Transport Medicine (ATM) Committee has continued to monitor medical kit usage as well as pharmaceutical scientific developments and wishes to propose an update to its 1998 recommendation. Lists of contents are provided for emergency medical kits of two types: 1) those without defibrillator/monitor or monitor; and 2) those with defibrillator/monitor or monitor alone. Follow up and updates on this issue will be an ongoing task of the ATM Committee.

  12. 14 CFR 61.23 - Medical certificates: Requirement and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... medical certificate: (i) When exercising the pilot-in-command privileges of an airline transport pilot certificate; (ii) When exercising the second-in-command privileges of an airline transport pilot certificate... aircraft for a recreational pilot, private pilot, commercial pilot, or airline transport pilot...

  13. Texas International Airlines LOFT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerville, J.

    1981-01-01

    A line-oriented flight training program which allows the crew to work as a team to solve all problems, abnormal or emergency, within the crew concept. A line-oriented check ride takes place every six months for the pilot as a proficiency check. There are advantages and disadvantages to this program. One disadvantage is that since it is designed as a check-ride, the scenarios must be structured so that the average pilot will complete the check-ride without complication. This system is different from a proficiency check which can be stopped at a problem area so training to proficiency can take place before proceeding with the check.

  14. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  15. The potential role of maglev in short-haul airline operations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Intercity travel is predominately by commercial air transport. However, airports are becoming increasingly congested at a time when there is often substantial local opposition to the expansion of airport infrastructure because of the environmental impacts. This paper explores the potential for integrating high-speed maglev systems into the airport infrastructure, but more importantly into airline operations. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Simulated airline service experience with laminar-flow control leading-edge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.; Fisher, David F.; Jennett, Lisa A.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The first JetStar leading edge flight test was made November 30, 1983. The JetStar was flown for more than 3 years. The titanium leading edge test articles today remain in virtually the same condition as they were in on that first flight. No degradation of laminar flow performance has occurred as a result of service. The JetStar simulated airline service flights have demonstrated that effective, practical leading edge systems are available for future commercial transports. Specific conclusions based on the results of the simulated airline service test program are summarized.

  17. An explosives detection system for airline security using coherent x-ray scattering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert W.; Mahdavieh, Jacob; Smith, Richard C.; Subramanian, Ravi

    2008-08-01

    L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems (SDS) has developed a new system for automated alarm resolution in airline baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on coherent x-ray scattering spectroscopy. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated in tests with concealed explosives at the Transportation Security Laboratory and airline passenger baggage at Orlando International Airport. The system uses x-ray image information to identify suspicious objects and performs targeted diffraction measurements to classify them. This extra layer of detection capability affords a significant reduction in the rate of false alarm objects that must presently be resolved by opening passenger bags for hand inspection.

  18. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  19. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  20. Techniques for Improving Pilot Recovery from System Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2001-01-01

    This project examined the application of intelligent cockpit systems to aid air transport pilots at the tasks of reacting to in-flight system failures and of planning and then following a safe four dimensional trajectory to the runway threshold during emergencies. Two studies were conducted. The first examined pilot performance with a prototype awareness/alerting system in reacting to on-board system failures. In a full-motion, high-fidelity simulator, Army helicopter pilots were asked to fly a mission during which, without warning or briefing, 14 different failures were triggered at random times. Results suggest that the amount of information pilots require from such diagnostic systems is strongly dependent on their training; for failures they are commonly trained to react to with a procedural response, they needed only an indication of which failure to follow, while for 'un-trained' failures, they benefited from more intelligent and informative systems. Pilots were also found to over-rely on the system in conditions were it provided false or mis-leading information. In the second study, a proof-of-concept system was designed suitable for helping pilots replan their flights in emergency situations for quick, safe trajectory generation. This system is described in this report, including: the use of embedded fast-time simulation to predict the trajectory defined by a series of discrete actions; the models of aircraft and pilot dynamics required by the system; and the pilot interface. Then, results of a flight simulator evaluation with airline pilots are detailed. In 6 of 72 simulator runs, pilots were not able to establish a stable flight path on localizer and glideslope, suggesting a need for cockpit aids. However, results also suggest that, to be operationally feasible, such an aid must be capable of suggesting safe trajectories to the pilot; an aid that only verified plans entered by the pilot was found to have significantly detrimental effects on performance and

  1. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... receipt may be given only to an airline which: (i) Is a common carrier for the transportation of bonded... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport or... airline exporting transit air cargo for direct exportation begins when a receipt, as provided in...

  2. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... receipt may be given only to an airline which: (i) Is a common carrier for the transportation of bonded... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport or... airline exporting transit air cargo for direct exportation begins when a receipt, as provided in...

  3. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... receipt may be given only to an airline which: (i) Is a common carrier for the transportation of bonded... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport or... airline exporting transit air cargo for direct exportation begins when a receipt, as provided in...

  4. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... receipt may be given only to an airline which: (i) Is a common carrier for the transportation of bonded... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport or... airline exporting transit air cargo for direct exportation begins when a receipt, as provided in...

  5. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... receipt may be given only to an airline which: (i) Is a common carrier for the transportation of bonded... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport or... airline exporting transit air cargo for direct exportation begins when a receipt, as provided in...

  6. Pilot/Controller Coordinated Decision Making in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Chris; Miller, Ronald c.; Orasanu, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: NextGen technologies promise to provide considerable benefits in terms of enhancing operations and improving safety. However, there needs to be a thorough human factors evaluation of the way these systems will change the way in which pilot and controllers share information. The likely impact of these new technologies on pilot/controller coordinated decision making is considered in this paper using the "operational, informational and evaluative disconnect" framework. Method: Five participant focus groups were held. Participants were four experts in human factors, between x and x research students and a technical expert. The participant focus group evaluated five key NextGen technologies to identify issues that made different disconnects more or less likely. Results: Issues that were identified were: Decision Making will not necessarily improve because pilots and controllers possess the same information; Having a common information source does not mean pilots and controllers are looking at the same information; High levels of automation may lead to disconnects between the technology and pilots/controllers; Common information sources may become the definitive source for information; Overconfidence in the automation may lead to situations where appropriate breakdowns are not initiated. Discussion: The issues that were identified lead to recommendations that need to be considered in the development of NextGen technologies. The current state of development of these technologies provides a good opportunity to utilize recommendations at an early stage so that NextGen technologies do not lead to difficulties in resolving breakdowns in coordinated decision making.

  7. Well clear: General aviation and commercial pilots' perception of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Joseph T.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how different pilot types perceived the subjective concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and to observe if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as the effects of other variables. Pilots' perceptions of the WCB were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Together, these metrics provided quantitative and qualitative data about pilot WCB perception. The objective results of this study showed significant differences in WCB perception between two different pilot types, as well as WCB significant differences when comparing two different intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). These differences were dependent on other manipulated variables, including intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels. Subjectively, there were evident differences in WCB perception across pilot types; general aviation (GA) pilots appeared to trust UAS aircraft slightly more than did the more experienced Airline Transport Pilots (ATPs). Overall, it is concluded that pilots' mental models of the WCB are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, while being more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  8. Pilot noise exposure during a Boeing 747-400 round trip: Judgement of noise and analysis in respect to hearing impairment of pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooman, Hans Juergen

    1992-01-01

    Noise level measurements are made on Boeing 747 aircraft to determine the potential hazards to airline pilots. Measuring results have shown that most pilots work under conditions that where noise constitutes a health hazard. Long and short term effects of noise exposure in pilots is examined as well as the legal ramifications of this potential hazard.

  9. 14 CFR 61.165 - Additional aircraft category and class ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... helicopter class rating. A person applying for an airline transport certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with another...

  10. Error prevention as developed in airlines.

    PubMed

    Logan, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future. PMID:18406922

  11. The microbiological composition of airliner cabin air.

    PubMed

    Wick, R L; Irvine, L A

    1995-03-01

    Hundreds of millions of passengers travel on U.S. airliners annually. These large numbers, together with the close proximity required onboard, raise a concern about microbiologic disease transmission in cabin air. Previous air quality surveys generally concentrated on environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter. They largely ignored the microorganisms also present. We sampled the microbiologic climate of 45 domestic and international flights. We also sampled common locations in a major southwestern city. The concentration of microorganisms in airline cabin air is much lower than in ordinary city locations. We conclude that the small number of microorganisms found in U.S. airliner cabin environments does not contribute to the risk of disease transmission among passengers.

  12. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  13. Comparison of flying qualities derived from in-flight and ground-based simulators for a jet-transport airplane for the approach and landing pilot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective was to provide information to the flight controls/flying qualities engineer that will assist him in determining the incremental flying qualities and/or pilot-performance differences that may be expected between results obtained via ground-based simulation (and, in particular, the six-degree-of-freedom Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS)) and flight tests. Pilot opinion and performance parameters derived from a ground-based simulator and an in-flight simulator are compared for a jet-transport airplane having 32 different longitudinal dynamic response characteristics. The primary pilot tasks were the approach and landing tasks with emphasis on the landing-flare task. The results indicate that, in general, flying qualities results obtained from the ground-based simulator may be considered conservative-especially when the pilot task requires tight pilot control as during the landing flare. The one exception to this, according to the present study, was that the pilots were more tolerant of large time delays in the airplane response on the ground-based simulator. The results also indicated that the ground-based simulator (particularly the Langley VMS) is not adequate for assessing pilot/vehicle performance capabilities (i.e., the sink rate performance for the landing-flare task when the pilot has little depth/height perception from the outside scene presentation).

  14. Jet fuels of higher volatility: An airline view

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, M.H.

    1982-05-01

    Use of jet fuels of higher volatility is reviewed by some airlines periodically on a routine basis. Most often, however, airlines become concerned when aviation kerosine supply problems are encountered or anticipated. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the known principles of fuel selection and how they influence airline consideration.

  15. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  16. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  17. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  18. A Comparison of CTAS and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hsu, Rose Y.

    1999-01-01

    A statistically-based comparison of aircraft times of arrival between Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) air traffic control scheduling and airline predictions is presented. CTAS is found to provide much improved values, forming the foundation for airline operational improvements, as observed during an airline field trial of a CTAS display.

  19. Structure and external factors of chinese city airline network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Tao

    2010-08-01

    Abstract We investigate the structural properties of Chinese city airline network (CCAN), where nodes and edges denote cities and direct flights. The degree distribution follows a double power law and a clear hierarchical layout is observed. The population exhibits a weakly positive correlation with the number of flights, yet it does not show obvious correlation with the transportation flow. The distance is an important parameter in CCAN, that is, the number of flights decays fast with the increasing of the distance. In comparison, the tertiary industry has the most important influence on the Chinese air passenger transportation. Statistically speaking, when the tertiary industry value increases by 1%, the next period's volume will increase by 0.73%.

  20. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of colloidal actinide transport at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): 1. crushed-dolomite column flow...

    SciTech Connect

    Yelton, W.G.; Behl, Y.K.; Kelly, J.W.; Dunn, M.; Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu, Am, U, Th, and Np has been recognized as a potentially important phenomenon affecting the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being developed for safe disposal of transuranic radioactive waste. In a human intrusion scenario, actinide-bearing colloidal particles may be released from the repository and be transported by brines (approximately 0.8 to 3 molal ionic strength) through the Culebra, a thin fractured microcrystalline (mean grain size 2 micrometers) dolomite aquifer overlying the repository. Transport experiments were conducted using sieved, uniformly packed crushed Culebra rock or nonporous dolomite cleavage rhombohedra. Experiments with mineral fragments and fixed and live WIPP-relevant bacteria cultures showed significant levels of retardation due to physical filtration effects. Humic substances were not attenuated by the Culebra dolomite. Comparison of elution curves of latex microspheres in columns prepared with microcrystalline rock and nonporous rock showed minimal effect of Culebra micropores on colloid transport. These data form part of the basis to parameterize numerical codes being used to evaluate the performance of the WIPP.

  2. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  3. Congress holds hearings on airliner cabin IAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.E.; Miro, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    This article reports on congressional hearings on airliner cabin IAQ. The topics of the article include lax enforcement of existing standards, inadequate standards, proposed new standards, epidemiological investigations of the possibility of transmission of airborne infectious diseases, and comparison of FAA standards with ASHRAE standards for buildings.

  4. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... airline passenger protections. See 73 FR 74586 (December 8, 2008). After reviewing and considering the... deceptive'' practice. That rule took effect on April 29, 2010. See 74 FR 68983 (December 30, 2009). In...

  5. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  6. Fatigue Factors in Regional Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Weldon, Keri J.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Smith, Roy M.; Johnson, Julie M.; Gander, Philippa H.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes human sleep and circadian physiology regarding their role as contributors to fatigue engendered by flight operations. The demands of regional airline operations are then examined for potential areas where these physiological factors will be affected. Finally, approaches to systematically investigate these issues scientifically will be described.

  7. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  8. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  9. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  10. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  11. Piloted Simulation Study of a Dual Thrust-Cutback Procedure for Reducing High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was performed for the purpose of indicating the noise reduction benefits and piloting performance that could occur for a typical 4-engine high-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration during takeoff when a dual thrust-cutback procedure was employed with throttle operation under direct computer control. Two thrust cutbacks were employed with the first cutback performed while the vehicle was accelerating on the run-way and the second cutback performed at a distance farther downrange. Added vehicle performance improvements included the incorporation of high-lift increments into the aerodynamic database of the vehicle and the use of limited engine oversizing. Four single-stream turbine bypass engines that had no noise suppression of any kind were used with this configuration. This approach permitted establishing the additional noise suppression level that was needed to meet Federal Air Regulation Part 36 Stage 3 noise levels for subsonic commercial jet aircraft. Noise level results were calculated with the jet mixing and shock noise modules of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP).

  12. 78 FR 70954 - Transport Format for the Submission of Regulatory Study Data; Notice of Pilot Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... supported by FDA is the SAS Transport (XPORT) version 5 file format. Although XPORT has been a reliable... regulatory submissions of clinical data to FDA utilize SAS Institute's open transport called XPORT version 5... provide previously submitted study data using both the SAS XPORT version 5 format and the CDISC SDS...

  13. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  14. On the Treatment of Airline Travelers in Mathematical Models

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Michael A.; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Staples, J. Erin; Gallagher, Nancy; Marano, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of infectious diseases is facilitated by the ability of infected humans to travel thousands of miles in short time spans, rapidly transporting pathogens to distant locations. Mathematical models of the actual and potential spread of specific pathogens can assist public health planning in the case of such an event. Models should generally be parsimonious, but must consider all potentially important components of the system to the greatest extent possible. We demonstrate and discuss important assumptions relative to the parameterization and structural treatment of airline travel in mathematical models. Among other findings, we show that the most common structural treatment of travelers leads to underestimation of the speed of spread and that connecting travel is critical to a realistic spread pattern. Models involving travelers can be improved significantly by relatively simple structural changes but also may require further attention to details of parameterization. PMID:21799782

  15. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.153 Eligibility requirements: General. To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certificate... foreign airline transport pilot license with instrument privileges, or a foreign commercial pilot...

  16. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.153 Eligibility requirements: General. To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certificate... foreign airline transport pilot license with instrument privileges, or a foreign commercial pilot...

  17. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.153 Eligibility requirements: General. To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certificate... foreign airline transport pilot license with instrument privileges, or a foreign commercial pilot...

  18. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.153 Eligibility requirements: General. To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certificate... foreign airline transport pilot license with instrument privileges, or a foreign commercial pilot...

  19. Piloted simulation tests of propulsion control as backup to loss of primary flight controls for a mid-size jet transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Davis, Gloria; Conley, Joe; Hardy, Gordon; Gibson, Jim; Blake, Matthew; Bryant, Don; Williams, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Failures of aircraft primary flight-control systems to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. , DC-1O crash, B-747 crash, C-5 crash, B-52 crash, and others). Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) investigated the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control of several airplanes, including the B-720, Lear 24, F-15, C-402, and B-747. A series of three piloted simulation tests have been conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate propulsion control for safely landing a medium size jet transport which has experienced a total primary flight-control failure. The first series of tests was completed in July 1992 and defined the best interface for the pilot commands to drive the engines. The second series of tests was completed in August 1994 and investigated propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) display requirements and various command modes. The third series of tests was completed in May 1995 and investigated PCA full-flight envelope capabilities. This report describes the concept of a PCA, discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of piloted simulation evaluations of the concept by a cross-section of air transport pilots.

  20. Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Gilette, J. L.; Poch, L. A.; Suermann, J. F.

    1999-02-16

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years.

  1. Modeling of Space Radiation Exposure Estimation Program for Pilots, Crew and Passengers on Commercial Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Dokgo, Kyunghwan; Choi, Enjin; Park, Jong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Hang-Pyo

    2014-03-01

    There has been a rapid increase of the concern on the space radiation effect on pilots, crew and passengers at the commercial aircraft altitude (~ 10 km) recently. It is because domestic airline companies, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines have just begun operating the polar routes over the North Pole since 2006 and 2009 respectively. CARI-6 and CARI-6M are commonly used space radiation estimation programs which are provided officially by the U.S. federal aviation administration (FAA). In this paper, the route doses and the annual radiation doses for Korean pilots and cabin crew were estimated by using CARI-6M based on 2012 flight records. Also the modeling concept was developed for our own space radiation estimation program which is composed of GEANT4 and NRLMSIS00 models. The GEANT4 model is used to trace the incident particle transports in the atmosphere and the NRLMSIS00 model is used to get the background atmospheric densities of various neutral atoms at the aircraft altitude. Also presented are the results of simple integration tests of those models and the plan to include the space weather variations through the solar proton event (SPE) prediction model such as UMASEP and the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) prediction model such as Badhwar-O¡¯Neill 2010.

  2. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  3. Fractographic Examination of the Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder from American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Matthew R.; Schultheisz, Carl R.; Reeder, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The first major structural component failure of a composite part on a commercial airplane occurred during the crash of American Airlines Flight 587. The fractured composite lugs that attached the vertical stabilizer to the aircraft tail and the fractured composite honeycomb rudder were examined as part of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the accident. In this paper the composite fractures are described and the resulting clues to the failure events are discussed.

  4. An Operational evaluation of head up displays for civil transport operations. NASA/FAA phase 3 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Bray, R. S.; Harrison, R. L.; Hemingway, J. C.; Scott, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of head-up displays (HUDs) in commercial jet transport approach and landing operations was evaluated. Ten airline captains currently qualified in the B-727 aircraft flew a series of instrument landing system (ILS) and nonprecision approaches in a motion base simulator using both a flight director HUD concept and a flightpath HUD concept as well as conventional head-down instruments under a variety of environmental and operational conditions to assess: (1) the potential benefits of these HUDs in airline operations; (2) problems which might be associated with their use; and (3) flight crew training requirements and flight crew operating procedures suitable for use with the HUDs. Results are presented in terms of objective simulator based performance measures, subject pilot opinion and rating data, and observer data.

  5. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  6. A controlled field pilot for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, L.H.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.; Nehrir, A.; Humphries, S.; Keith, C.; Shaw, J.; Rouse, J.; Cunningham, A.; Benson, S.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Lewicki, J.L.; Wells, A.; Diehl, R.; Strazisar, B.; Fessenden, J.; Rahn, Thomas; Amonette, J.; Barr, J.; Pickles, W.; Jacobson, J.; Silver, E.; Male, E.; Rauch, H.; Gullickson, K.; Trautz, R.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.; Wielopolski, L.

    2009-01-01

    A field facility has been developed to allow controlled studies of near surface CO2 transport and detection technologies. The key component of the facility is a shallow, slotted horizontal well divided into six zones. The scale and fluxes were designed to address large scale CO2 storage projects and desired retention rates for those projects. A wide variety of detection techniques were deployed by collaborators from 6 national labs, 2 universities, EPRI, and the USGS. Additionally, modeling of CO2 transport and concentrations in the saturated soil and in the vadose zone was conducted. An overview of these results will be presented. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning About Cockpit Automation: From Piston Trainer to Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casner, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments explored the idea of providing cockpit automation training to airline-bound student pilots using cockpit automation equipment commonly found in small training airplanes. In a first experiment, pilots mastered a set of tasks and maneuvers using a GPS navigation computer, autopilot, and flight director system installed in a small training airplane Students were then tested on their ability to complete a similar set of tasks using the cockpit automation system found in a popular jet transport aircraft. Pilot were able to successfully complete 77% of all tasks in the jet transport on their first attempt. An analysis of a control group suggests that the pilot's success was attributable to the application of automation principles they had learned in the small airplane. A second experiment looked at two different ways of delivering small-aeroplane cockpit automation training: a self-study method, and a dual instruction method. The results showed a slight advantage for the self-study method. Overall, the results of the two studies cast a strong vote for the incorporation of cockpit automation training in curricula designed for pilot who will later transition to the jet fleet.

  8. Screening for influenza infection in international airline travelers.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alasdair R; Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2009-10-01

    We sought the collaboration of an international airline and border control agencies to study the feasibility of entry screening to identify airline travelers at increased risk of influenza infection. Although extensive and lengthy negotiations were required, we successfully developed a multisector collaboration and demonstrated the logistical feasibility of our screening protocol. We also determined the staffing levels required for a larger study to estimate the prevalence of influenza in international airline travelers.

  9. A study of the financial history of the U.S. scheduled airlines and the improvement of airline profitability through technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The financial history of the U.S. scheduled airline industry was investigated to determine the causes of the erratic profit performance of the industry and to evaluate potential economic gains from technology advances of recent years. Operational and economic factors affecting past and future profitability of the industry are discussed, although no attempt was made to examine the profitability of individual carriers. The results of the study indicate that the profit erosion of the late 1960's and early 1970's was due more to excess capacity than to inadequate fare levels, but airline problems were severely compounded by the rapid fuel price escalation in 1974 and 1975. Near-term solutions to the airline financial problems depend upon the course of action by the industry and the CAB and the general economic health of the nation. For the longer term, the only acceptable alternative to continued fare increases is a reduction in unit operating costs through technological advance. The next generation of transports is expected to incorporate technologies developed under Government sponsorship in the 1960's and 1970's with significant improvements in fuel consumption and operating costs.

  10. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  11. [Utility of a pneumatic system to transport erythrocyte concentrates: pilot study].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Torres, Noemí Patricia; Virgen-Díaz, Surid; León-Olvera, Daira L; Hernández-Pérez, Ana L; Calderón-Abbo, Moisés C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: los sistemas de transporte de componentes eritrocitarios deben ser seguros y modernos. En este trabajo se analiza la seguridad de un sistema neumático como medio de transporte de concentrados eritrocitarios del servicio de transfusiones al servicio de la terapia posquirúrgica. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron las muestras piloto de 50 concentrados eritrocitarios, previa homogeneización del tubo con pinza rotatoria. Se obtuvieron 1.5 mL de la muestra antes de enviar el concentrado eritrocitario por el sistema neumático y 1.5 mL después de su llegada a su destino. Las muestras fueron colocadas en tubos de cristal para su análisis. También se analizaron la concentración de hemoglobina, el nivel de hematócrito y la concentración de potasio extracelular.

  12. Piloted Simulation Investigation of a Supersonic Transport Configuration (LaRC.4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Martinez, Debbie; Derry, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a description of the test facilities and software utilized during a joint NASA/aerospace industry study of improved control laws and desired inceptor characteristics for a candidate supersonic transport air-craft design. Details concerning the characteristics of the simulation cockpit, image generator and display systems, and motion platform are described. Depictions of the various display formats are included. The test schedule, session log, and flight cards describing the maneuvers performed is included. A brief summary of high-lights of the study is given. Modifications made to the industry-provided simulation model are described. This report is intended to serve as a reference document for industry researchers.

  13. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  14. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  15. Fare Deals from Scheduled Airlines: A Primer for Migratory Geographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    Airline travel provides those interested in geography with opportunities to see and photograph rural and urban scenes. Author describes circuitous routing, joint fares, and stopover techniques that maximize domestic and international air travel experiences. Defines various airline and travel agent terminology. (Author/BC)

  16. WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) horizon free field fluid transport characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes the first attempt to measure the free field brine transport characteristics of the host rock. The data, which have been used to estimate the brine permeability, also suggest free field pore pressure values. One borehole was located in a competent predominantly halite bed with the test region positioned approximately nine meters from the rib. A second borehole intersected Marker Bed 139, which is a one meter thick fractured predominantly anhydrite layer. For this second borehole, the test region was positioned approximately 12 meters from the invert/rib intersection. A description of the tests provided in Section 2. Data obtained during these tests are described in Section 3. Analysis of these data and the associated uncertainties inherent in the data interpretation are presented in Section 4. Test results are given in Section 5. Conclusions are provided in Section 6. 13 refs., 65 figs.

  17. Norepinephrine transporter function and tolerance to hypergravitational stress: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Christoph; Strempel, Sebastian; Boese, Andrea; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Tank, Jens; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Pharmacological norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition improves orthostatic tolerance on a tilt table while increasing heart rate. We tested the cardiovascular response to NET inhibition during a graded human centrifuge run in seven healthy men. g-Load was increased in 0.5 g steps with 3 g maximal g-load. On two separate days, patients were tested after selective NET inhibition with reboxetine or with placebo in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. Resting diastolic blood pressure increased moderately with NET inhibition. Resting heart rate was profoundly increased by NET inhibition. NET inhibition augmented the heart rate response while attenuating the increase in blood pressure during hypergravitation. NET inhibition could be tested for its potential to improve cardiovascular g-tolerance.

  18. Final design proposal: Beta Systems-El Toro. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muenzberg, Steve; Gillespie, Shane; Coogan, Jim; Monahan, Pat; Bruen, Liam; Wincer, Bob; Wilkey, Rob

    1991-01-01

    El Toro is a remotely piloted airplane designed to operate as a commercial aircraft in a fictional 'Aeroworld' where the passengers are ping-pong balls and the distances between cities are on the order of thousands of feet. The present design for El Toro will profitably meet the requirements for operation in Aeroworld with a ticket price comparable the ticket prices of current transportation. The extended range of El Toro allows for numerous flights to be flown before the battery pack needs to be changed. This drastically reduces the operating costs to the airlines, allowing them to charge less for a ticket or else to realize a higher profit margin.

  19. 14 CFR 61.39 - Prerequisites for practical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, an applicant for an airline transport pilot certificate or an... practical test and has completed the pilot in command aircraft qualification training program that is... airline transport pilot certificate or an additional rating to an airline transport pilot certificate...

  20. 14 CFR 61.39 - Prerequisites for practical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, an applicant for an airline transport pilot certificate or an... practical test and has completed the pilot in command aircraft qualification training program that is... airline transport pilot certificate or an additional rating to an airline transport pilot certificate...

  1. 14 CFR 61.39 - Prerequisites for practical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, an applicant for an airline transport pilot certificate or an... practical test and has completed the pilot in command aircraft qualification training program that is... airline transport pilot certificate or an additional rating to an airline transport pilot certificate...

  2. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight proficiency. (a) General. (1) The practical test for an airline transport pilot certificate is given for— (i...) An aircraft type rating. (2) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot practical...

  3. 14 CFR 61.167 - Privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.167 Privileges. (a) A person who holds an airline transport pilot certificate is entitled to the same privileges as a person who holds a commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating. (b) An airline transport...

  4. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, a person who is applying for an airline transport pilot... issued an airline transport pilot certificate with the limitation, “Holder does not meet the pilot...

  5. 14 CFR 61.167 - Privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.167 Privileges. (a) A person who holds an airline transport pilot certificate is entitled to the same privileges as a person who holds a commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating. (b) An airline transport...

  6. 14 CFR 61.167 - Privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.167 Privileges. (a) A person who holds an airline transport pilot certificate is entitled to the same privileges as a person who holds a commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating. (b) An airline transport...

  7. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight proficiency. (a) General. (1) The practical test for an airline transport pilot certificate is given for— (i...) An aircraft type rating. (2) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot practical...

  8. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, a person who is applying for an airline transport pilot... issued an airline transport pilot certificate with the limitation, “Holder does not meet the pilot...

  9. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, a person who is applying for an airline transport pilot... issued an airline transport pilot certificate with the limitation, “Holder does not meet the pilot...

  10. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight proficiency. (a) General. (1) The practical test for an airline transport pilot certificate is given for— (i...) An aircraft type rating. (2) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot practical...

  11. 14 CFR 61.156 - Training requirements: Airplane category-multiengine class rating or airplane type rating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-multiengine class rating or airplane type rating concurrently with airline transport pilot certificate. 61.156... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots... concurrently with airline transport pilot certificate. After July 31, 2014, a person who applies for...

  12. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight proficiency. (a) General. (1) The practical test for an airline transport pilot certificate is given for— (i...) An aircraft type rating. (2) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot practical...

  13. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, a person who is applying for an airline transport pilot... issued an airline transport pilot certificate with the limitation, “Holder does not meet the pilot...

  14. 14 CFR 61.167 - Privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.167 Privileges. (a) A person who holds an airline transport pilot certificate is entitled to the same privileges as a person who holds a commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating. (b) An airline transport...

  15. Pilot Alcohol Violations Reported in U.S. Newspapers, 1990–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Chadd K.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol violations by airline pilots are rare yet remain a public concern. Such incidents often generate widespread news coverage. This study examines the frequency and characteristics of alcohol violation incidents involving airline pilots reported in U.S. newspapers. Methods The database of Lexis-Nexis™, which contains full-text articles for over 350 newspapers, was searched to identify alcohol violation incidents involving airline pilots in the U.S. between January 1990 and June 2006. Information pertaining to the pilot, flight, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and consequence was ascertained for each incident based on the newspaper coverage. Results During the study period, newspapers reported on a total of 13 incidents of alcohol violations involving 17 pilots. All but two of the incidents occurred during January 2002 through June 2006. The majority (85%) of the incidents were first identified by airport personnel, such as security screeners, based on suspicion of alcohol use by the pilot. Subsequent alcohol testing revealed a mean BAC of 90 mg/dL (ranging from 10 mg · dL−1 to 182 mg · dL−1). Of the 17 pilots, 6 were known to be prosecuted criminally, including 5 who were sentenced to jail terms. Discussion Incidents of alcohol violations by airline pilots reported in U.S. newspapers have increased in recent years. This increase is likely due in part to increased detection resulting from enhanced aviation security and enforcement following the September 2001 terrorist attacks. PMID:17183928

  16. 49 CFR 230.110 - Pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pilots. 230.110 Section 230.110 Transportation... and Equalizing System § 230.110 Pilots. (a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached... clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance...

  17. 49 CFR 230.110 - Pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilots. 230.110 Section 230.110 Transportation... and Equalizing System § 230.110 Pilots. (a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached... clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance...

  18. Line-oriented flight training: Northwest Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunn, H. T.

    1981-01-01

    An exemption from certain FAA regulations which stereotype simulator flight training was obtained and pilots with current line experience were used to prepare and develop scenarios for a program in which each crew member would be trained to recognize and properly use all available resouces. The development of the scenarios for training to proficiency and pilot reaction to the training sessions are discussed.

  19. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  20. Mortality among British Columbia pilots.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, D A; Band, P R; Threlfall, W J; Gallagher, R P

    1991-04-01

    We studied the mortality experience of all pilots who died in the province of British Columbia between 1950 and 1984, using proportional mortality ratios (PMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR). There were 341 deaths during that time in males whose usual occupation was listed as pilot. The PMR for aircraft accidents was significantly elevated (PMR = 3196, 95% C.I. 2810, 3634), and the PMR for atherosclerotic heart disease was significantly depressed (PMR = 47, 95% C.I. 30, 70). Although based on small numbers of deaths, and not statistically significant, elevated PCMRs were seen for cancers of the colon, brain, and nervous system, as well as for Hodgkin's disease. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiologic studies of commercial airline pilots. PMID:2031640

  1. Identification of vortex-induced clear-air turbulence using airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, E. K.; Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E.; Mehta, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The nature and cause of clear-air turbulence is being investigated, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, using the flight records available from airline encounters with severe turbulence. This paper presents two case studies of severe turbulence which indicate that the airplanes involved encountered vortex arrays which were generated by destabilized wind-shear layers near the tropopause. In order to identify and analyze vortex patterns (i.e., vortex strength, size, and spacings), potential-flow models of vortex arrays were developed that describe reasonably well the wind patterns derived from the airliner flight records. The results of this analysis indicate that in the two cases studied, the vortex cores had diameters in the range of 900 to 1,200 ft with tangential velocities in the range of 70 to 85 ft/sec. This study presents the first identification and analysis of vortex arrays from airline flight data. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and previous observations.

  2. How well do pilots sleep during long-haul flights?

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2010-09-01

    It is imperative that shiftworkers in safety-critical workplaces obtain sufficient sleep to operate effectively. This presents a challenge to long-haul airline pilots who are required to supplement normal bed sleep with sleep on-board an aircraft during flight. In the current study, the sleep/wake behaviour of 301 airline pilots operating long-haul flight patterns was monitored for at least 2 weeks using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. The data indicate that sleep opportunities in on-board rest facilities during long-haul flights result in a similar amount of sleep, but only 70% as much recovery, as duration-matched bed sleeps. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study indicates that in-flight sleep provides airline pilots with 70% as much restoration as duration-matched bed sleep. To increase the restoration provided by in-flight sleep, airlines could take measures to improve the quality, or increase the amount, of sleep obtained by pilots during flights. PMID:20737332

  3. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  4. Airline Maintenance Manpower Optimization from the De Novo Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, James J. H.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    Human resource management (HRM) is an important issue for today’s competitive airline marketing. In this paper, we discuss a multi-objective model designed from the De Novo perspective to help airlines optimize their maintenance manpower portfolio. The effectiveness of the model and solution algorithm is demonstrated in an empirical study of the optimization of the human resources needed for airline line maintenance. Both De Novo and traditional multiple objective programming (MOP) methods are analyzed. A comparison of the results with those of traditional MOP indicates that the proposed model and solution algorithm does provide better performance and an improved human resource portfolio.

  5. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  6. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  7. Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety.

  8. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.

  9. 14 CFR 133.21 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... services of at least one person who holds, a current commercial or airline transport pilot certificate... Commercial or Airline Transport Pilot Certificate, with a rating appropriate for the rotorcraft prescribed...

  10. 14 CFR 61.71 - Graduates of an approved training program other than under this part: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... date of graduation. (b) A person may apply for an airline transport pilot certificate, type rating, or...) Applied for the airline transport pilot certificate, type rating, or both within the 60-day period...

  11. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmon, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear on 31 May 1984 is discussed by an airline employee. The specs of the plane are given, the weather conditions are listed, and the actions taken by the flight crew are discussed.

  12. Some airline experience in preventing engine rotor failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used by airlines, with the assistance of the engine manufacturers to achieve control over the type of problems which lead to uncontained failure and avoid many potential problems are discussed.

  13. 49 CFR 381.400 - What is a pilot program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is a pilot program? 381.400 Section 381.400... PILOT PROGRAMS Initiation of Pilot Programs § 381.400 What is a pilot program? (a) A pilot program is a... that would be subject to the regulations. (b) During a pilot program, the participants would be...

  14. 49 CFR 381.400 - What is a pilot program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a pilot program? 381.400 Section 381.400... PILOT PROGRAMS Initiation of Pilot Programs § 381.400 What is a pilot program? (a) A pilot program is a... that would be subject to the regulations. (b) During a pilot program, the participants would be...

  15. Design, development and trials of an airline passenger telephone system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Jim; Mckinlay, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The design, development and trials of a satellite telephone system for airline passengers is described. The requirements for ground and space infrastructure are discussed and the aeronautical system is described. Design criteria for the antennas and avionic boxes are given and system operation and technical flight trial requirements are discussed, together with test methodology and development towards fully commercial trials. Finally, an indication of development requirements to achieve the desired aims of airline users is given.

  16. Materials Examination of the Vertical Stabilizer from American Airlines Flight 587

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Matthew R.; Schultheisz, Carl R.; Reeder, James R.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    The first in-flight failure of a primary structural component made from composite material on a commercial airplane led to the crash of American Airlines Flight 587. As part of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the accident, the composite materials of the vertical stabilizer were tested, microstructure was analyzed, and fractured composite lugs that attached the vertical stabilizer to the aircraft tail were examined. In this paper the materials testing and analysis is presented, composite fractures are described, and the resulting clues to the failure events are discussed.

  17. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again. PMID:25353240

  18. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  19. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  20. Piloted Simulation Tests of Propulsion Control as Backup to Loss of Primary Flight Controls for a B747-400 Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Hardy, Gordon; Sullivan, Barry; Jones, Jerry; Williams, Diane; Soukup, Paul; Winters, Jose

    1997-01-01

    Partial failures of aircraft primary flight control systems and structural damages to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. DC-10, B-747, C-5, B-52, and others). Following the DC-10 accident at Sioux City, Iowa in 1989, the National Transportation Safety Board recommended 'Encourage research and development of backup flight control systems for newly certified wide-body airplanes that utilize an alternate source of motive power separate from that source used for the conventional control system.' This report describes the concept of a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of a PCA piloted simulation test and evaluation of the B747-400 airplane conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in December, 1996. The purpose of the test was to develop and evaluate propulsion control throughout the full flight envelope of the B747-400 including worst case scenarios of engine failures and out of trim moments. Pilot ratings of PCA performance ranged from adequate to satisfactory. PCA performed well in unusual attitude recoveries at 35,000 ft altitude, performed well in fully coupled ILS approaches, performed well in single engine failures, and performed well at aft cg. PCA performance was primarily limited by out-of-trim moments.

  1. The dental X-ray file of crew members in the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS).

    PubMed

    Keiser-Nielsen, S; Johanson, G; Solheim, T

    1981-11-01

    In 1977, the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) established a dental X-ray file of all crew members. Its aim was to have immediately available an adequate set of physical antemortem data useful for identification in case of a fatal crash. Recently, an investigation into the quality and suitability of this material was carried out. The radiographs of 100 Danish, 100 Norwegian, and 100 Swedish pilots were picked at random and evaluated for formal deficiences, technical deficiencies, treatment pattern as useful for identification purposes, and the presence of pathology. The major results of the investigation were that a number of formal and technical deficiencies were disclosed, that the treatment pattern would seem adequate for identification purposes, and that a number of pathological findings were made, several of which had to be considered possible safety risks in the form of barodontalgia.

  2. 14 CFR 61.71 - Graduates of an approved training program other than under this part: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... date of graduation. (b) A person may apply for an airline transport pilot certificate, type rating, or..., except for the airline transport pilot certification training program required by § 61.156, for that... (2) Applied for an airline transport pilot certificate, type rating, or both within the 60-day...

  3. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.153 Eligibility requirements: General. To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certificate, a person must: (a) Meet the following age requirements: (1) For an airline transport...

  4. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline... paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, a person who is applying for an airline transport pilot.... (d) An applicant is issued an airline transport pilot certificate with the limitation, “Holder...

  5. 14 CFR 61.39 - Prerequisites for practical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... complete the airline transport pilot certification training program in § 61.156 and pass the knowledge test for an airline transport pilot certificate with a multiengine class rating after July 31, 2014; (2.... (b) An applicant for an airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane category...

  6. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: An analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  7. Mortality from cancer and other causes among male airline cockpit crew in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo; Auvinen, Anssi; Ballard, Terri J; Caldora, Massimiliano; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hammer, Gaël P; Irvine, David; Langner, Ingo; Paridou, Alexandra; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Tzonou, Anastasia

    2003-10-10

    Airline pilots and flight engineers are exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin and other occupational and life-style factors that may influence their health status and mortality. In a cohort study in 9 European countries we studied the mortality of this occupational group. Cockpit crew cohorts were identified and followed-up in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Sweden, including a total of 28,000 persons. Observed and expected deaths for the period 1960-97 were compared based on national mortality rates. The influence of period and duration of employment was analyzed in stratified and Poisson regression analyses. The study comprised 547,564 person-years at risk, and 2,244 deaths were recorded in male cockpit crew (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.67). Overall cancer mortality was decreased (SMR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.63-0.74). We found an increased mortality from malignant melanoma (SMR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15-2.67) and a reduced mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.44-0.62). No consistent association between employment period or duration and cancer mortality was observed. A low cardiovascular mortality and an increased mortality caused by aviation accidents were noted. Our study shows that cockpit crew have a low overall mortality. The results are consistent with previous reports of an increased risk of malignant melanoma in airline pilots. Occupational risk factors apart from aircraft accidents seem to be of limited influence with regard to the mortality of cockpit crew in Europe.

  8. Mortality from cancer and other causes among male airline cockpit crew in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo; Auvinen, Anssi; Ballard, Terri J; Caldora, Massimiliano; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hammer, Gaël P; Irvine, David; Langner, Ingo; Paridou, Alexandra; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Tzonou, Anastasia

    2003-10-10

    Airline pilots and flight engineers are exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin and other occupational and life-style factors that may influence their health status and mortality. In a cohort study in 9 European countries we studied the mortality of this occupational group. Cockpit crew cohorts were identified and followed-up in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Sweden, including a total of 28,000 persons. Observed and expected deaths for the period 1960-97 were compared based on national mortality rates. The influence of period and duration of employment was analyzed in stratified and Poisson regression analyses. The study comprised 547,564 person-years at risk, and 2,244 deaths were recorded in male cockpit crew (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.67). Overall cancer mortality was decreased (SMR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.63-0.74). We found an increased mortality from malignant melanoma (SMR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15-2.67) and a reduced mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.44-0.62). No consistent association between employment period or duration and cancer mortality was observed. A low cardiovascular mortality and an increased mortality caused by aviation accidents were noted. Our study shows that cockpit crew have a low overall mortality. The results are consistent with previous reports of an increased risk of malignant melanoma in airline pilots. Occupational risk factors apart from aircraft accidents seem to be of limited influence with regard to the mortality of cockpit crew in Europe. PMID:12918075

  9. Robustness of airline alliance route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Simo, Pep; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the robustness of the three major airline alliances' (i.e., Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) route networks. Firstly, the normalization of a multi-scale measure of vulnerability is proposed in order to perform the analysis in networks with different sizes, i.e., number of nodes. An alternative node selection criterion is also proposed in order to study robustness and vulnerability of such complex networks, based on network efficiency. And lastly, a new procedure - the inverted adaptive strategy - is presented to sort the nodes in order to anticipate network breakdown. Finally, the robustness of the three alliance networks are analyzed with (1) a normalized multi-scale measure of vulnerability, (2) an adaptive strategy based on four different criteria and (3) an inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion. The results show that Star Alliance has the most resilient route network, followed by SkyTeam and then oneworld. It was also shown that the inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion - inverted efficiency - shows a great success in quickly breaking networks similar to that found with betweenness criterion but with even better results.

  10. Impact of the Near-Earth Space Environment on Human Radiation Exposure at Commercial Airline Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Blattnig, S. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Kunches, J.; Kress, B. T.; Murray, J. J.; Wilson, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. The FAA reports that pregnant crew members may run a risk as high as 1.3 per thousand births of severe illness to their children as a result of background radiation exposure. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. Health concerns for frequent-flyer passengers are similar to the health concerns of the crew. There is a need for a capability to monitor background radiations levels at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. Efforts are currently underway to develop a global, nowcast (real-time) capability for calculating ionizing radiation exposure at commercial airline altitudes. The state-of-the-art in physics-based transport of high energy galactic cosmic ray and solar cosmic ray particles will be presented. Paramount to reliable real-time transport calculations is an accurate and timely specification of the boundary conditions, such as the incident differential energy flux and geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, using a combination of satellite observations and empirical space radiation environment models. However, empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment can only advance with continued observations and development of physics-based models of the heliosphere and the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In this paper we also discuss the state-of-the-art in space

  11. Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the current downturn in demand for air travel, major airlines are revising and rationalizing their networks in an attempt to improve financial performance and strengthen their defences against both new entrants and traditional rivals. Expansion of commercial agreements or alliances with other airlines has become a key reaction to the increasingly competitive marketplace. In the absence, for regulatory reasons, of cross-border mergers these are the principal means by which the industry can consolidate internationally. This paper analyzes the developments which have been taking place and attempts to itentify the implications for airline network structures and the function of different hub airports. The range of services available to passengers in long-haul markets to/from Europe is evaluated before and after recent industry reorganization. Hubs are crucial to interlink the route networks of parmers in an alliance. However, duplication between nearby hub airports that find themselves within the same airline alliance can lead to loss of service at the weaker locations. The extent to which the alliance hubs in Europe duplicate or complement each other in terms of network coverage is assessed and this methodology also enables the optimal partnerships for "unattached" airlines to be identified. The future role of the various European hubs is considered under different scenarios of global alliance development. The paper concludes by considering possible longer-term developments. In an environment where the low-cost carriers will provide a major element of customer choice, it is suggested that the traditional airlines will retrench around their hubs, surrendering many secondary cities to the low-cost sector. Further reduction in the number of alliances could threaten more of the European hubs. For both regulatory and commercial reasons, the end result may be just one airline alliance - so recreating in the deregulated market the historic rule of IATA.

  12. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics reported on in the proceedings include: Industrial reform and air transport development in China; the economic effects of airline deregulation and the Open-Sky policy of Korea; Open Skies in India; Japanese domestic air fares under the regulatory regime; the competitive position of airline networks; air transport and regional economic development in the European Union; and corporate dilemmas and strategies of European Airlines.

  13. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  14. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  15. Performance Analysis of the SensorNet's Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot Viewer at the Dorchester West Bound Interstate Weigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Colon Mendoza, R.A.; Lagos, L.E.; Hill, D.E.

    2008-07-01

    Since the 9-11 attacks, the United States has increased its focus on developing technologies designed to warn us in the event of another attack and to prevent these attacks from happening in the first place. The SensorNet research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Computer Science and Engineering Division is participating in this effort by developing systems to give critical real-time information to federal, state, and local emergency response decision makers. SensorNet has approached this goal by putting together a system with several sensors and programs called the Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot project (SETCP). The SETCP utilizes interstate weigh stations not only to weigh the passing trucks but also to check for gamma and neutron radiation inside the truck without the aid of a human in close proximity. The system also collects additional data that help identify the truck (the truck's length, weight, license plate number, and photographs of the truck). The objective of this research work was to characterize and analyze the data collected from the South Carolina weigh station on I-26W and compare it with previous data analysis on the performance of the Tennessee weigh station on I-40E. The purpose was to find patterns in the trucks with radioactive alarms and, regional truck traffic, as well as to find patterns of inconsistency in the system (illogical length measurements of the truck, inaccurate readings and character recognition of the license plate). During a three-month period, radioactive alarms and traffic patterns were identified and characterized by grouping all of the data and making graphs and charts in Microsoft Excel to show the flow of traffic, the type of truck traffic, the number of alarms and other information. Inconsistence patterns were found by analyzing the data, looking for missing or illogical information, and determining how often it happens. The improvements of these inconsistencies were also analyzed after

  16. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  2. Emerging Climate-data Needs in the Air Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the nature of climate information needed within the air-transport sector. Air transport is not a single economic sector with uniform needs for climate data: airport, airline, and air-navigation services are the principal sub-sectors, each with their own particular climate-related decision contexts. For example, airports function as fixed infrastructure that is primarily affected by probabilities of extreme events that could hamper runway/taxiway operations, interfere with worker availability, or impede travel to and from the airport by passengers. Airlines, in contrast, are more concerned with changes in atmospheric conditions (upper-air turbulence, convective weather events, etc.) that might require consideration in long-term decisions related to flight-planning processes and aircraft equipage. Air-navigation service providers have needs that are primarily concerned with assurance of safe spatial separation of aircraft via sensor data and communications links. In addition to present-day commercial air transport, we discuss what climate data may be needed for new types of air transport that may emerge in the next couple of decades. These include, for example, small aircraft provided on-demand to non-pilot travelers, high-altitude supersonic business and commercial jets, and very large numbers of un-manned aircraft. Finally, we give examples relating to key technical challenges in providing decision-relevant climate data to the air-transport sector. These include: (1) identifying what types of climate data are most relevant the different decisions facing the several segments of this industry; (2) determining decision-appropriate time horizons for forecasts of this data; and (3) coupling the uncertainties inherent in these forecasts to the decision process.

  3. The Edge supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  4. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO2 was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO2 injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO2 injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO2 breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO3- and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO2 plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO2 concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO2 could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  6. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  7. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  8. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  9. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  10. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  11. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  12. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  13. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  14. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  15. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  16. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  17. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  18. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  19. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  20. 78 FR 6067 - BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and Expenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC006 BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and... public that it is conducting a mandatory survey titled Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues... survey is intended to collect information on U.S. airline operators' foreign revenues and expenses....

  1. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  2. Concorde with the airlines. [operating costs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyman, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The only supersonic aircraft in airline service, Concorde, offers the first actual test of supersonic cruise feasibility and the only real experience relative to passenger, airline, and community acceptance. The dominant characteristic of Concorde operations is low aircraft utilization, due partly to the restricted route network. Operating costs, the maintenance/reliability record and associated dispatch delays are discussed. Problems with overwater operations, and the secondary boom phenomena are examined. Monthly average load factors for various routes, major causes of technical delays, aircraft technical performance, and aircraft tracks are graphically depicted.

  3. Variability of cloudiness at airline cruise altitudes from GASP measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Additional statistics relating to the climatology of cloud cover at airline cruise altitudes are presented. The data were obtained between 1975 and 1979 from commercial airliners participating in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). The statistics describe the seasonal, latitudinal and altitudinal variation in cloudiness parameters as well as differences in the high-altitude cloud structure attributed to cyclone and convective-cloud generation processes. The latitudinal distribution of cloud cover derived form the GASP data was found to agree with high-altitude satellite observations. The relationships between three different measures of cloudiness and the relative vorticity at high altitudes is also discussed.

  4. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  5. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  6. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    PubMed

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process.

  7. Piloted Simulation Assessment of a High-Speed Civil Transport Configuration. [conducted with the Langley six-degree-of-freedom Visual Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Raney, David L.; Glaab, Louis J.; Derry, Stephen D.

    2002-01-01

    An assessment of a proposed configuration of a high-speed civil transport was conducted by using NASA and industry research pilots. The assessment was conducted to evaluate operational aspects of the configuration from a pilot's perspective, with the primary goal being to identify potential deficiencies in the configuration. The configuration was evaluated within and at the limits of the design operating envelope to determine the suitability of the configuration to maneuver in a typical mission as well as in emergency or envelope-limit conditions. The Cooper-Harper rating scale was used to evaluate the flying qualities of the configuration. A summary flying qualities metric was also calculated. The assessment was performed in the Langley six-degree-of-freedom Visual Motion Simulator. The effect of a restricted cockpit field-of-view due to obstruction by the vehicle nose was not included in this study. Tasks include landings, takeoffs, climbs, descents, overspeeds, coordinated turns, and recoveries from envelope limit excursions. Emergencies included engine failures, loss of stability augmentation, engine inlet unstarts, and emergency descents. Minimum control speeds and takeoff decision, rotation, and safety speeds were also determined.

  8. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots

    PubMed Central

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. METHODS: Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. RESULTS: There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ2 test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population. PMID:25083084

  9. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen papers (presentations) from the 8th World Conference on Transportation Research are presented. Topics include European Airline competition, cost analyses, performance evaluations, deregulation; aviation policy in Southeast Asia; corporate involvement in European business transportation; and cycles in the airline industry.

  10. An integer programming model for gate assignment problem at airline terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Chong Kok; Nordin, Syarifah Zyurina

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on a gate assignment problem (GAP) at the airlines terminal. Our problem is to assign an arrival plane to a suitable gate. There are two considerations needed to take. One of its is passenger walking distance from arrival gate to departure gate while another consideration is the transport baggage distance from one gate to another. Our objective is to minimize the total distance between the gates that related to assign the arrival plane to the suitable gates. An integer linear programming (ILP) model is proposed to solve this gate assignment problem. We also conduct a computational experiment using CPLEX 12.1 solver in AIMMS 3.10 software to analyze the performance of the model. Results of the computational experiments are presented. The efficiency of flights assignment is depends on the ratio of the weight for both total passenger traveling distances and total baggage transport distances.

  11. Radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RAMSEY, JAMES L.; BLAINE,R.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; WALLACE,M.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, and (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty. The presented results indicate that radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite does not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, no radionuclide transport to the boundary with the accessible environment was observed; thus the associated CCDFs for comparison with the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194) are degenerate in the sense of having a probability of zero of exceeding a release of zero.

  12. Integrating causal reasoning at different levels of abstraction. [in problem-solving system functioning as pilot assistant in commercial air transport emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, Eva; Corker, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a problem-solving system which uses a multilevel causal model of its domain is described. The system functions in the role of a pilot's assistant in the domain of commercial air transport emergencies. The model represents causal relationships among the aircraft subsystems, the effectors (engines, control surfaces), the forces that act on an aircraft in flight (thrust, lift), and the aircraft's flight profile (speed, altitude, etc.). The causal relationships are represented at three levels of abstraction: Boolean, qualitative, and quantitative, and reasoning about causes and effects can take place at each of these levels. Since processing at each level has different characteristics with respect to speed, the type of data required, and the specificity of the results, the problem-solving system can adapt to a wide variety of situations. The system is currently being implemented in the KEE(TM) development environment on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  13. Projecting Future Scheduled Airline Demand, Schedules and NGATS Benefits Using TSAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Viken, Jeff; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nickolas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) developed by Virginia Tech s Air Transportation Systems Lab and NASA Langley can provide detailed analysis of the effects on the demand for air travel of a full range of NASA and FAA aviation projects. TSAM has been used to project the passenger demand for very light jet (VLJ) air taxi service, scheduled airline demand growth and future schedules, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) benefits, and future passenger revenues for the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. TSAM can project the resulting demand when new vehicles and/or technology is inserted into the long distance (100 or more miles one-way) transportation system, as well as, changes in demand as a result of fare yield increases or decreases, airport transit times, scheduled flight times, ticket taxes, reductions or increases in flight delays, and so on. TSAM models all long distance travel in the contiguous U.S. and determines the mode choice of the traveler based on detailed trip costs, travel time, schedule frequency, purpose of the trip (business or non-business), and household income level of the traveler. Demand is modeled at the county level, with an airport choice module providing up to three airports as part of the mode choice. Future enplanements at airports can be projected for different scenarios. A Fratar algorithm and a schedule generator are applied to generate future flight schedules. This paper presents the application of TSAM to modeling future scheduled air passenger demand and resulting airline schedules, the impact of NGATS goals and objectives on passenger demand, along with projections for passenger fee receipts for several scenarios for the FAA Airport and Airway Trust Fund.

  14. Health, sleep, and mood perceptions reported by airline crews flying short and long hauls.

    PubMed

    Haugli, L; Skogstad, A; Hellesøy, O H

    1994-01-01

    The present study is part of a major questionnaire survey of work environment and health of air crew in the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) Norway in 1989. The 1240 respondents (response rate 83%) answered 250 questions about health, job-strain, well-being, sleep problems, organization, and communication. The study charts self-reported incidences of health problems focusing on differences between cockpit and cabin crews. The study also evaluates possible effects of transmeridian and short distance flying on health, taking into account gender, job demands, working conditions of the respondents, and aircraft design. Common problems, reported by more than 30%, are dry skin, lower back pain, colds, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Pilots report least, while female cabin attendants register most problems. Crews flying long distance transmeridian routes report more health problems than short distance personnel. Among pilots, irritability, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and low back pain are the most frequently reported problems. Cabin attendants more often complain of skin and eye disorders, digestive disturbances, and musculoskeletal pains. The study supports earlier findings that transmeridian air travel causes digestive disturbances, fatigue, and sleep disturbances in both cockpit and cabin crews of both genders. Among female cabin attendants, there is a nonsignificant tendency of more menstrual disorders among those flying long hauls.

  15. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  16. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  17. Isolated dextrocardia in a commercial pilot candidate.

    PubMed

    Syburra, Thomas; Sütsch, Gabor; Huber, Samuel; Schnüriger, Hans; Lachat, Mario; Suter, Jost

    2005-02-01

    Positional anomalies of the heart are rare and are seldom found during routine physical examinations. We describe the case of a 25-yr-old Swiss airline pilot candidate whose aeromedical examination was normal except that an unusual ECG raised suspicion, leading to a diagnosis of dextrocardia with a normal arrangement of atria and abdominal viscera. This diagnosis in a pilot candidate should raise concern because a high percentage of such individuals have congenital heart defects. Further tests were conducted to rule out associated cardiac malformations, conduction anomalies, or rhythm disturbances. Testing also excluded other associated diseases such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome. Dextrocardia is not listed as a disqualifying condition in the applicable aeromedical regulations (Joint Aviation Authorities Medical Manual, Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing guidelines). Therefore, after demonstrating that there were no physical, hemodynamic, or electrophysiological abnormalities, the candidate was allowed to enroll in civilian pilot training without restrictions.

  18. Cockpit-cabin communication: II. Shall we tell the pilots?

    PubMed

    Chute, R D; Wiener, E L

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article (Chute & Wiener, 1995), we explored the coordination between the "two cultures" in an airliner's crew: cockpit and cabin. In this article, we discuss a particular problem: the dilemma facing the cabin crew when they feel that they have safety-critical information and must decide whether to take it to the cockpit. We explore the reasons for the reluctance of the flight attendant to come forward with the information, such as self-doubt about the accuracy or importance of the information, fear of dismissal or rebuke by the pilots, and misunderstanding of the sterile cockpit rule. Insight into crew attitudes was based on our examination of accident and incident reports and data from questionnaires submitted by pilots and flight attendants at two airlines. The results show confusion and disagreement about what is permissible to take to the cockpit when it is sterile, as well as imbalances in authority and operational knowledge. Possible remedies are proposed.

  19. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC.

  20. 14 CFR 61.23 - Medical certificates: Requirement and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... medical certificate: (i) When exercising the privileges of an airline transport pilot certificate; or (ii) If that person has reached his or her 60th birthday and serves as a pilot in 14 CFR part 121... in an aircraft for a recreational pilot, private pilot, commercial pilot, or airline transport...

  1. 14 CFR 61.23 - Medical certificates: Requirement and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... medical certificate: (i) When exercising the privileges of an airline transport pilot certificate; or (ii) If that person has reached his or her 60th birthday and serves as a pilot in 14 CFR part 121... in an aircraft for a recreational pilot, private pilot, commercial pilot, or airline transport...

  2. 14 CFR 61.23 - Medical certificates: Requirement and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... medical certificate: (i) When exercising the privileges of an airline transport pilot certificate; or (ii) If that person has reached his or her 60th birthday and serves as a pilot in 14 CFR part 121... in an aircraft for a recreational pilot, private pilot, commercial pilot, or airline transport...

  3. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  4. Pilot selection and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Personality and situational factors relevant to individual and group performance in highly demanding environments, such as those faced by astronauts or by jet transport crew, are discussed. It is emphasized that although technical competence and proficiency in pilot selection are prerequisites for safety, operating a modern jet transport is a group endeavor that requires the effective coordination of the entire crew. A self-report test battery for measuring positive and negative personality traits of pilot candidates, termed the Personal Characteristics Inventory, is described.

  5. Systems analysis, long-term radionuclide transport, and dose assessments, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico, September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lappin, A.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Davies, P.B.; Borns, D.J. ); Reeves, M.; Pickens, J. ); Iuzzolino, H.J. )

    1990-12-01

    This study supports the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and has two main objectives. First, it describes current ideas about the characteristics and potential impacts of the disturbed-rock zone (DRZ) known to develop with time around excavations at the WIPP horizon. Second, it presents new calculations of radionuclide migration within and from the WIPP repository for steady-state undisturbed conditions and for two cases that consider human intrusion into the repository. At the WIPP, the presence of a DRZ has been confirmed by geophysical studies, gas-flow tests, and direct observations. The DRZ will allow gas or brine from waste-emplacement panels to bypass panel seals and flow into adjacent portions of the underground workings unless preventive measures are taken. Revised calculations of the undisturbed performance of the repository indicate that no radionuclides will be released into the Culebra Dolomite within the regulatory period of 10,000 years. The human-intrusion calculations included here assume a connection between the WIPP repository, an occurrence of pressurized brine within the underlying Castile Formation, and the overlying Culebra Dolomite. 61 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. 14 CFR 61.169 - Letters of authorization for institutions of higher education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.169 Letters of authorization for institutions of higher education... letter of authorization for the purpose of certifying its graduates for an airline transport...

  7. The Out of Service Guest Pilot Evaluation of the Two-segment Noise Abatement Approach in the Boeing B727-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nylen, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Guest pilot evaluation results of an approach profile modification for reducing ground level noise under the approach of jet aircraft runways are reported. Evaluation results were used to develop a two segmented landing approach procedure and equipment necessary to obtain pilot, airline, and FAA acceptance of the two segmented flight as a routine way of operating aircraft on approach and landing. Data are given on pilot workload and acceptance of the procedure.

  8. In-depth survey report of American Airlines plating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, V. D., Jr.

    1982-12-01

    An in depth survey was conducted at the American Airlines Maintenance and Engineering Center as part of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study evaluating measures to control occupational health hazards associated with the metal plating industry. This American Airlines plating facility, employing approximately 25 workers, is primarily engaged in plating hard chromium, nickel and cadmium on aircraft engine and landing gear parts. Six tanks were studied, including an electroless nickel tank. Area and personal samples for chromium, nickel, cadmium, and cyanide were collected. Ventilation airflow and tank dimensions were measured and data recorded on plating operations. The relationships between air contaminants emitted, local exhaust ventilation flow rate, tank size, and plating activity were evaluated.

  9. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  10. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  11. Determination of the flight equipment maintenance costs of commuter airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Labor and materials costs associated with maintaining and operating 12 commuter airlines carrying an average of from 42 to 1,100 passengers daily in a variety of aircraft types were studied to determine the total direct maintenance cost per flight hour for the airframe, engine, and avionics and other instruments. The distribution of maintenance costs are analyzed for two carriers, one using turboprop aircraft and the other using piston engine aircraft.

  12. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  13. Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

  14. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  15. Strategic Classification and Examination of the Development of Current Airline Alliance Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhi H.; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Previous research argues that despite the fact that strategic alliances have become an important feature of the world airline industry, little rigorous analysis has been done on the effects of these alliances. This is partially because there is a lack of precise definitions to specify different types of airline alliances in the literature. This research identifies several categories of airline alliances through a strategic classification of the current alliance activities involving the major airlines for the period 1989 to 1999. The classification enables this research to examine how strategic alliance activities are evolving, particularly to compare how airlines in North America, the European Union and the Asia Pacific region have committed to different alliances. Findings show that there is a significant difference between the number and scope of alliances adopted in the three aviation markets. These findings facilitate research to further analyse the impact of market liberalization on various formations of strategic airline alliances.

  16. Deregulation: increased competition is making airlines more efficient and responsive to consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-06

    The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 gave domestic airlines, after 40 years of regulation, the freedom to decide where they would fly and what fares they would charge. GAO's review of airline operations before and after deregulation through 1984 shows that most passengers benefited as the industry became more competitive: fare increases were lower, on average, than what might have been expected under continued regulation; the numbers of flights and available seats increased; airlines have been more responsive to consumer preferences through a wider range of price/service options; and operating efficiency has increased. Increasing airport congestion may bring federal action to restrict airline access - action that could offset some of deregulation's benefits. While some favorable trends in fares and services have emerged, further changes are likely as airlines continue to adapt to deregulation.

  17. A pilot genetic study of the continuum between compulsivity and impulsivity in females: the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Baca-García, Enrique; Salgado, Beatríz Rodríguez; Segal, Helen Dolengevich; Lorenzo, Concepción Vaquero; Acosta, Mercedes Navio; Romero, Manuel Arrojo; Hernández, Montserrat Díaz; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Fernandez Piqueras, Jose; de Leon, Jose

    2005-06-01

    According to some authors the obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum includes on one extreme, the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and on the other extreme the most impulsive behaviors. This is a controversial idea and other authors define the OC spectrum in different ways. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is one of the main genes that control serotonergic function. A polymorphism in the promoter area of this gene classifies subjects with low expression as S individuals (s/s or s/l) and subjects with high expression as L individuals (l/l). This polymorphism was studied in female OCD patients (n = 24), non-impulsive controls (n = 112) and impulsive suicidal patients (n = 118) to support the OC spectrum hypothesis from a genetic perspective. A linear association exists among the serotonin transporter promoter functional genotypes (S versus L individuals) (chi2 linear by linear association = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003). The frequency of S individuals (s/l or s/s) was lowest in OCD (54%, 13/24); intermediate in non-impulsive controls (71%, 80/112) and highest in impulsive suicide attempters (82%, 96/117). More importantly, future studies need to consider that genetics may be related to behavioral dimensions (compulsivity to impulsivity) instead of to specific psychiatric disorders defined in clinical terms.

  18. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  19. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, C.E.; Vicroy, D.D.; Simmon, D.A.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  20. Preliminary Reactive Geochemical Transport Modeling Study on Changes in Water Chemistry Induced by CO2 Injection at Frio Pilot Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.; Benson, S.

    2006-12-01

    A total of 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into the Frio ~{!0~}C~{!1~} sandstone layer at a depth of 1500 m over a period of 10 days. The pilot, located near Dayton, Texas, employed one injection well and one observation well, separated laterally by about 30 m. Each well was perforated over 6 m in the upper portion of the 23-m thick sandstone. Fluid samples were taken from both wells before, during, and after the injection. Following CO2 breakthrough, observations indicate drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in concentrations of HCO3- (100 to 3000 mg/L), in Fe (30 to 1100), and dissolved organic carbon. Numerical modeling was used in this study to understand changes of aqueous HCO3- and Fe caused by CO2 injection. The general multiphase reactive geochemical transport simulator TOUGHREACT was used, which includes new fluid property module ECO2N with an accurate description of the thermophysical properties of mixtures of water, brine, and CO2 at conditions of interest for CO2 storage. A calibrated 1-D radial well flow model was employed for the present reactive geochemical transport simulations. Mineral composition used was taken from literatures relevant to Frio sandstone. Increases in HCO3- concentration were well reproduced by an initial simulation. Several scenarios were used to capture increases in Fe concentration including (1) dissolution of carbonate minerals, (2) dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides, (3) de-sorption of previously coated Fe. Future modeling, laboratory and field investigations are proposed to better understand the CO2-brine-mineral interactions at the Frio site. Results from this study could have broad implication for subsurface storage of CO2 and potential water quality impacts.

  1. Human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua; Hsiao, Yu-Jung

    2016-09-01

    A breakdown analysis of civil aviation accidents worldwide indicates that the occurrence of runway excursions represents the largest portion among all aviation occurrence categories. This study examines the human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions, by applying a SHELLO model to categorize the human risk factors and to evaluate the importance based on the opinions of 145 airline pilots. This study integrates aviation management level expert opinions on relative weighting and improvement-achievability in order to develop four kinds of priority risk management strategies for airline pilots to reduce runway excursions. The empirical study based on experts' evaluation suggests that the most important dimension is the liveware/pilot's core ability. From the perspective of front-line pilots, the most important risk factors are the environment, wet/containment runways, and weather issues like rain/thunderstorms. Finally, this study develops practical strategies for helping management authorities to improve major operational and managerial weaknesses so as to reduce the human risks related to runway excursions. PMID:27344128

  2. Radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,JAY DEAN; SHINTA,A.; SMITH,L.N.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that no releases to the accessible environment take place due to radionuclide movement through the anhydrite marker beds, through the Dewey Lake Red Beds or directly to the surface, and also that the releases to the Culebra Dolomite are small. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for release to the Culebra Dolomite fall to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  3. Effects of Persisting Emotional Impact from Child Abuse and Norepinephrine Transporter Genetic Variation on Antidepressant Efficacy in Major Depression: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet Bhagat; Bousman, Chad A.; Ng, Chee Hong; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest child abuse and serotonergic polymorphism influence depression susceptibility and anti-depressant efficacy. Polymorphisms of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) may also be involved. Research in the area is possibly clouded by under reporting of abuse in researcher trials. Methods Adults (n=51) with major depressive disorder has 8 weeks treatment with escitalopram or venlafaxine. Abuse history was obtained, the ongoing emotional impact of which was measured with the 15-item impact of event scale (IES-15). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was applied serially. Two NET polymorphisms (rs2242446 and rs5569) were assayed, blinded to HDRS ratings and abuse history. Results No subjects reporting abuse with high impact in adulthood (IES-15 ≥26, n=12) remitted; whereas 77% reporting low impact (IES-15 <26; n=26) remitted (p<0.001). Subjects reporting high impact abuse (n=12) had a 50-fold (95% confidence interval=4.85–514.6) greater odds of carrying rs2242446-TT genotype, but the small sample size leaves this finding vulnerable to type I error. Conclusion The level of persisting impact of child abuse appears relevant to antidepressant efficacy, with susceptibility to such possibly being influence by NET rs2242446 polymorphism. Larger studies may be merited to expand on this pilot level finding given potential for biomarker utility. PMID:25912538

  4. Norepinephrine transporter expression is inversely associated with glycaemic indices: a pilot study in metabolically diverse persons with overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, L.; Corcoran, S. J.; Esler, M. D.; Phillips, S. E.; Sari, C. I.; Grima, M. T.; Karapanagiotidis, S.; Wong, C. Y.; Eikelis, N.; Mariani, J. A.; Kobayashi, D.; Dixon, J. B.; Lambert, G. W.; Lambert, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to examine the cross‐sectional relationship between the expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET), the protein responsible for neuronal uptake‐1, and indices of glycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, in overweight and obese individuals. Methods Thirteen non‐medicated, non‐smoking subjects, aged 58 ± 1 years (mean ± standard error of the mean), body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 1.0 kg m−2, with wide‐ranging plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, range 5.1% to 6.5%) participated. They underwent forearm vein biopsy to access sympathetic nerves for the quantification of NET by Western blot, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, echocardiography and assessments of whole‐body norepinephrine kinetics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Results Norepinephrine transporter expression was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose (r = −0.62, P = 0.02), glucose area under the curve during OGTT (AUC0–120, r = −0.65, P = 0.02) and HbA1c (r = −0.67, P = 0.01), and positively associated with steady‐state glucose utilization during euglycaemic clamp (r = 0.58, P = 0.04). Moreover, NET expression was inversely related to left ventricular posterior wall dimensions (r = −0.64, P = 0.02) and heart rate (r = −0.55, P = 0.05). Indices of hyperinsulinaemia were not associated with NET expression. In stepwise linear regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index and blood pressure, HbA1c was an independent inverse predictor of NET expression, explaining 45% of its variance. Conclusions Hyperglycaemia is associated with reduced peripheral NET expression. Further studies are required to identify the direction of causality. PMID:27812376

  5. Cosmic radiation and magnetic fields: Exposure assessment and health outcomes among airline flight crews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Joyce Shealy

    Airline flight crews are chronically exposed to cosmic radiation and to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical system. Potential disease risks have been identified in health studies among commercial flight crews outside of the United States and among military pilots within the United States. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify exposure to both cosmic radiation and magnetic fields onboard aircraft, (2) to develop a methodology for estimating career cosmic radiation doses to individual crew members, and (3) to compare mortality among United States commercial pilots and navigators with that of all occupational groups. Cosmic radiation equivalent doses to bone marrow and skeletal tissue were calculated on a flight-by-flight basis. Flight-by-flight calculations were used to develop an estimation methodology for cumulative (career) cosmic radiation doses. Magnetic fields were measured directly onboard aircraft during flight. Health outcomes among United States commercial pilots and navigators were investigated using proportional mortality ratios, proportional cancer mortality ratios, and mortality odds ratios. Based on the sample used in this study, the cosmic radiation equivalent dose to bone marrow and skeletal tissue associated with air travel ranges from 30 to 570 microsieverts per 100 flight hours (not including ground time) depending on altitude, latitude, phase of solar cycle, and flight duration. Magnetic field exposure appears to be characterized by frequencies between 100 and 800 hertz and varies in strength depending on stages of flight, location within the aircraft, and aircraft type. Based on limited measurements, maximum field strengths may increase from 0.6 microtesla in economy class to 1.2 microtesla in first class, suggesting that cockpit exposures may be higher. Potential synergistic effects of cosmic radiation and magnetic fields may be associated with certain cancers found in excess among flight crews, in particular

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference include: 1) The Global Airline Company: Agent of Market Power or Competition? 2) Airport Pavement Management; 3) Reservation System Providers and the Impact of Codeshare Arrangements on Screen Display; 4) Strategic Classification of Current Airline Alliances and Examination of Critical Factors Involving the Formations - an Explorative Perspective; 5) Airport Privatization Policy and Performance Measurement in Korea; 6) Pilot and Air Traffic Controller Relationships: The Role of Interdependence and Relative Influence; 7) Liberalization of Air Cargo Services: Background and an Economic Analysis; 8) The Implication of Hub and Spoke Network on the Airline Alliance Strategy.

  7. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  8. 14 CFR 61.83 - Eligibility requirements for student pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for student pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots. To be eligible for a student...

  9. 14 CFR 61.83 - Eligibility requirements for student pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for student pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots. To be eligible for a student...

  10. 14 CFR 61.83 - Eligibility requirements for student pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for student pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots. To be eligible for a student...

  11. 14 CFR 61.83 - Eligibility requirements for student pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for student pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots. To be eligible for a student...

  12. 14 CFR 61.83 - Eligibility requirements for student pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for student pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.83 Eligibility requirements for student pilots. To be eligible for a student...

  13. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  14. 14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... an aircraft requiring that the PIC hold an airline transport pilot certificate, include the procedures and maneuvers for an airline transport pilot certificate in the particular type of aircraft, if...) No program manager or owner may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as a pilot in command of...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... an aircraft requiring that the PIC hold an airline transport pilot certificate, include the procedures and maneuvers for an airline transport pilot certificate in the particular type of aircraft, if...) No program manager or owner may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as a pilot in command of...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... an aircraft requiring that the PIC hold an airline transport pilot certificate, include the procedures and maneuvers for an airline transport pilot certificate in the particular type of aircraft, if...) No program manager or owner may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as a pilot in command of...

  17. 14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an aircraft requiring that the PIC hold an airline transport pilot certificate, include the procedures and maneuvers for an airline transport pilot certificate in the particular type of aircraft, if...) No program manager or owner may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as a pilot in command of...

  18. 14 CFR 61.160 - Aeronautical experience-airplane category restricted privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) and must contain the following limitation, “Restricted in accordance with 14 CFR 61.167.” The pilot is... INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.160 Aeronautical experience—airplane category restricted privileges... pilot may apply for an airline transport pilot certificate with an airplane category multiengine...

  19. Transportation Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanning, M. L.; Michelson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology for the analysis of transportation systems consisting of five major interacting elements is reported. The analysis begins with the causes of travel demand: geographic, economic, and demographic characteristics as well as attitudes toward travel. Through the analysis, the interaction of these factors with the physical and economic characteristics of the transportation system is determined. The result is an evaluation of the system from the point of view of both passenger and operator. The methodology is applicable to the intraurban transit systems as well as major airlines. Applications of the technique to analysis of a PRT system and a study of intraurban air travel are given. In the discussion several unique models or techniques are mentioned: i.e., passenger preference modeling, an integrated intraurban transit model, and a series of models to perform airline analysis.

  20. 14 CFR 61.113 - Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command. 61.113 Section 61.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND...

  1. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Rehrer, Nancy J.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Quach, David T.; Evans, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accommodations (via sitting immobilisation); travellers' medical history (via tissue injury); cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity); and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalised patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilisation of prolonged air travel.In the healthy flying population, immobilisation factors associated with prolonged (>5 hours) C-RD such as total body dehydration, hypovolaemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced venous blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DVT, but factors such as a history of vascular thromboemboli, venous insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than three pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest or bed-rest deconditioning treatments cause DVT in healthy people.

  2. Airline Chair-rest Deconditioning: Induction of Immobilization Thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Rehrer, N. J.; Mohler, S. R.; Quach, D. T.; Evans, D. G.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence hematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep various thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accomodations (via sitting immobilization), travelers' medical history (via tissue injury), cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity), and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalized patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilization of prolonged air travel. In the healthy flying population immobilization factors associated with prolonged (> 5 hr) C-RID such as total body dehydration, hypovolemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced various blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DART, but factors such as history of vascular thromboemboli, various insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than 3 pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest- or bed- rest-deconditioning treatments cause deep various thromboemboli in healthy people.

  3. Translating Research Into Airline Practice: Case Studies In Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Chappell, Sherry; Daniel, Doug; Mancuso, Vince; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Airline training departments are avid customers for research that will help them enhance the effectiveness of training and the safety of flight operations. However, various factors often make it difficult for training department managers to draw upon the large body of human factors research, e.g.: research may not address the specific questions facing the training departments, the research literature may not be in a form that training managers can readily interpret, researchers' recommendations may be too expensive or impractical to implement, etc. This panel will discuss ways in which researchers can work with training departments to design research and translate findings into products that airlines can use readily. This collaboration is most effective when it is an integral part of the study from its inception. To illustrate the process of collaboration we will use as a case study the recently completed LOFT (Line Oriented Flight Training) Debriefing research project. We will summarize the findings from that study and discuss how we translated those findings into two training tools: a manual on how to facilitate LOFT debriefings and a video that illustrates facilitation techniques in a realistically enacted debriefing. In some cases, instead of starting a new research project, training department needs can be addressed by reviewing the existing research literature and using expert opinion to develop products that specifically address those needs. To illustrate this approach we will discuss a recent informal working group of scientists and airline personnel that met to develop training material to enhance situation awareness. This group reviewed scientific literature and ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System) reports, analyzed contributing factors, and produced a model for managing situation awareness.

  4. 49 CFR 381.400 - What is a pilot program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is a pilot program? 381.400 Section 381.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS WAIVERS, EXEMPTIONS, AND PILOT PROGRAMS Initiation of...

  5. Flight evaluation of three-dimensional area navigation for jet transport noise abatement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, D. G.; Bourquin, K. R.; White, K. C.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The NASA, working with American Airlines, has completed the first phase of research to evaluate the operational feasibility of two-segment approaches for noise abatement. For these tests, area navigation was used to establish the upper glide slope and an ILS was used to establish the lower. The flight director was modified to provide command information during the entire approach. Twenty-eight pilots representing the airlines, professional pilot associations, FAA, and NASA participated. With an ILS approach for comparison, the procedure gave a noise reduction of 18 EPNdB at the outer marker and 8 EPNdB 1.1 n. mi. from touchdown.

  6. Examining the relation between the serotonin transporter 5-HTTPLR genotype x trauma exposure interaction on a contemporary phenotypic model of posttraumatic stress symptomatology: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Galea, Sandro; Southwick, Steven M.; Gelernter, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the specificity of the interaction of serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype x trauma exposure in relation to contemporary structural models of PTSD symptomatology, which suggest that 4- or 5-factor models provide a better representation of this phenotypic expression of this disorder. Methods One hundred forty-nine respondents of a representative sample of adults affected by Hurricane Ike were interviewed 2 to 5 months after this 2008 disaster. Results After adjustment for age, sex, and ancestral proportion scores, the interaction of 5-HTTPLR genotype x trauma exposure was significantly associated with both severity (β=.40, p<.001) and probable diagnosis (Wald=4.55, p=.033; odds ratio=3.81, 95%CI=1.11–13.03) of Ike-related PTSD. Respondents with the low-expression variant of the 5-HTTPLR polymorphism (S allele) who were highly exposed to Hurricane Ike reported significantly greater severity of PTSD symptoms and were more likely to screen positive for PTSD than respondents homozygous for the L allele who were highly exposed to Hurricane Ike. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 5-factor model of intercorrelated re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal symptoms provided the best structural representation of PTSD symptomatology. The 5-HTTPLR genotype x exposure interaction was significant only for anxious arousal (β=.44, p<.001) and re-experiencing (β=.35, p<.001) symptoms, but not avoidance, numbing, or dysphoric arousal symptoms (all β’s≤.20, all p’s>.13). Limitations The small sample size and employment of self-report measures may limit generalizability of these findings. Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that the low-expression variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism modifies risk for PTSD, but that this effect may be specific to anxious arousal and re-experiencing symptoms. PMID:23183127

  7. An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Skourias, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of airline alliances on the allied partners output by comparing the traffic change observed between the pre- and the post-alliance period. First, a simple methodology based on traffic passenger modelling is developed, and then an empirical analysis is conducted using time series from four global strategic alliances (Wings, Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) and 124 alliance routes. The analysis concludes that, all other things being equal, strategic alliances do lead to a 9.4%, on average, improvement in passenger volume.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  9. "American Way's" Flight Pattern: A Profile of American Airline's In-Flight Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rising, Suzanne

    The success of "American Way," American Airline's in-flight magazine, comes from three major factors: the success of American Airlines itself, the high advertising revenue of the magazine, and the quality editorial material produced. Beginning in 1966, "American Way" has evolved from a brochure of flight information and travel tips to a profitable…

  10. 29 CFR 825.800 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable to Airline... affect the hours of service requirement for determining the eligibility of airline flight crew employees, the calculation of leave for those employees, and the recordkeeping requirements for employers......

  11. 29 CFR 825.801 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours of service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... personal commute time or time spent on vacation, medical, or sick leave. (c) An airline flight crew... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours...

  12. 29 CFR 825.801 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours of service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... personal commute time or time spent on vacation, medical, or sick leave. (c) An airline flight crew... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours...

  13. 29 CFR 825.800 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable to Airline... affect the hours of service requirement for determining the eligibility of airline flight crew employees, the calculation of leave for those employees, and the recordkeeping requirements for employers......

  14. Tweeting the Friendly Skies: Investigating Information Exchange among Twitter Users about Airlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasan, Nirupama Dharmavaram; Lee, Chei Sian; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate airline users' microblog postings pertaining to their travel-related information exchange so as to assess their wants, preferences and feedback about airline products and services. Examining such real-time information exchange is important as users rely on this for various purposes such as…

  15. Don't Plan Another Meeting--Without Calling An Airline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Delaine R.

    1977-01-01

    An increasing number of training managers and other meeting planners are taking advantage of the free meeting planning help--plus discounts on car rentals, meeting speakers, AV productions, and more--that the major airlines have begun to provide. The article presents a look at these services along with material from several airlines. (MF)

  16. The Airlines' View of the Value of a University Minor in Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ralph W., Jr.; Edeburn, Carl E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an opinion questionnaire sent to the personnel directors of 28 domestic airlines indicate that the majority of the respondents feel that an aviation minor would be valuable to prospective airline employees. Includes comments on what subject areas the respondents feel would be important in an aviation minor. (MLH)

  17. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... on the following collection of information was published on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 21716). DATES...; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration..., Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E36-303, RITA, BTS, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.,...

  18. Conceptual Design of a Tiltrotor Transport Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Dugan, Daniel C.; Simmons, Rickey C.; Tucker, George E.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A tiltrotor transport has considerable potential as a regional transport, increasing the air transportation system capacity by off-loading conventional runways. Such an aircraft will have a flight deck suited to its air transportation task and adapted to unique urban vertiport operating requirements. Such operations are likely to involve steep, slow instrument approaches for vertical and extremely short rolling take-offs and landings. While much of a tiltrotor transport's operations will be in common with commercial fixed-wing operations, terminal area operations will impose alternative flight deck design solutions. Control systems, displays and guidance, and control inceptors must be tailored to both routine and emergency vertical flight operations. This paper will survey recent experience with flight deck design elements suitable to a tiltrotor transport and will propose a conceptual cockpit design for such an aircraft. A series of piloted simulations using the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator have investigated cockpit design elements and operating requirements for tiltrotor transports operating into urban vertiports. These experiments have identified the need for a flight director or equivalent display guidance for steep final approaches. A flight path vector display format has proven successful for guiding tiltrotor transport terminal area operations. Experience with a Head-Up Display points to the need for a bottom-mounted display device to maximize its utility on steep final approach paths. Configuration control (flap setting and nacelle angle) requires appropriate augmentation and tailoring for civil transport operations, flown to an airline transport pilot instrument flight rules (ATP-IFR) standard. The simulation experiments also identified one thrust control lever geometry as inappropriate to the task and found at least acceptable results with the vertical thrust control lever of the XV-15. In addition to the thrust controller, the attitude control of

  19. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  20. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…