Science.gov

Sample records for airplane electronic flight

  1. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... INFORMATION CONTACT: Joe Jacobsen, FAA, Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111,...

  2. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system. The..., include with your comments a self-addressed, stamped postcard on which you have written the docket...

  3. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the control surface awareness and mode annunciation of the electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special......

  4. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  5. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Register on February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9265). One supportive comment was received and these special...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations...

  6. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77569). Only one comment was received. Clarification of Conditions That Should Be...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate...

  7. Flight evaluation of modifications to a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Zeller, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The third phase of a flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 has recently been completed. It was found that digital electronic engine control software logic changes and augmentor hardware improvements resulted in significant improvements in engine operation. For intermediate to maximum power throttle transients, an increase in altitude capability of up to 8000 ft was found, and for idle to maximum transients, an increase of up to 4000 ft was found. A nozzle instability noted in earlier flight testing was investigated on a test engine at NASA Lewis Research Center, a digital electronic engine control software logic change was developed and evaluated, and no instability occurred in the Phase 3 flight evaluation. The backup control airstart modification was evaluated, and gave an improvement of airstart capability by reducing the minimum airspeed for successful airstarts by 50 to 75 knots.

  8. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  9. Flight testing the digital electronic engine control in the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine which was flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The DEEC hardware and software throughout the F-15 flight envelope was evaluated. Real-time data reduction and data display systems were implemented. New test techniques and stronger coordination between the propulsion test engineer and pilot were developed which produced efficient use of test time, reduced pilot work load, and greatly improved quality data. The engine pressure ratio (EPR) control mode is demonstrated. It is found that the nonaugmented throttle transients and engine performance are satisfactory.

  10. Minimum time and fuel flight profiles for an F-15 airplane with a Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, E. A., Jr.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize minimum time and fuel consumption paths for an F-15 airplane powered by two F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD) engines. The benefits of using variable stall margin (uptrim) to increase performance were also determined. This study supports the NASA Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program. The basis for this comparison was minimum time and fuel used to reach Mach 2 at 13,716 m (45,000 ft) from the initial conditions of Mach 0.15 at 1524 m (5000 ft). Results were also compared to a pilot's estimated minimum time and fuel trajectory determined from the F-15 flight manual and previous experience. The minimum time trajectory took 15 percent less time than the pilot's estimate for the standard EMD engines, while the minimum fuel trajectory used 1 percent less fuel than the pilot's estimate for the minimum fuel trajectory. The F-15 airplane with EMD engines and uptrim, was 23 percent faster than the pilot's estimate. The minimum fuel used was 5 percent less than the estimate.

  11. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  12. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  13. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  14. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  15. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  16. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight...

  17. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  18. Flight Instructor: Airplane. Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The Flight Standards Service of the Federal Aviation Administration developed the guide to assist applicants who are preparing for the Flight Instructor Certificate with Airplane Rating. The guide contains comprehensive study outlines and a list of recommended study materials and tells how to obtain those publications. It also includes sample test…

  19. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  20. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  1. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  2. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  3. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Manual Requirements § 125.75 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  4. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  5. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Rotorcraft Flight Manual and that has had no flight time prior to March 1, 1979, the holder of a Type... Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual and having no flight time before March 1, 1979, the holder of a type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual....

  6. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  7. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane for eight hours or less during any...

  8. 77 FR 57039 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... feature(s) associated with the control surface awareness and mode annunciation of the electronic...

  9. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is...

  10. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors... section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a person who is qualified to instruct in...

  11. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is...

  12. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder...

  13. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder...

  14. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... having no flight time before March 1, 1979, the holder of a type certificate (including amended or... time of delivery of the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (b) The... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual....

  15. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... having no flight time before March 1, 1979, the holder of a type certificate (including amended or... time of delivery of the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (b) The... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual....

  16. 77 FR 69573 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as...-135 (76 FR 74654, December 1, 2011), effective January 30, 2012. (This amendment is not in the Model... Model EMB-550 airplane. The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet...

  17. 78 FR 14007 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features, specifically distributed electrical and electronic equipment bays in pressurized areas of the airplane. Older transport category airplane electrical/electronic equipment bay installations are located in the lower lobe where the flight crew could determine......

  18. 78 FR 11560 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...-135 (76 FR 74654, December 1, 2011), effective January 30, 2012. (This amendment is not in the Model.... Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 20, 2012 (77 FR 69573)....

  19. Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

  20. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight...

  1. The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion concepts using the NASA F-15 research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion and propulsion control concepts was demonstrated on the NASA F-15 airplane in programs such as highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC), the F100 engine model derivative (EMD), and digital electronic engine control (DEEC). (In each case, the value of flight demonstration was conclusively demonstrated.) This paper describes these programs, and discusses the results that were not expected, based on ground test or analytical prediction. The role of flight demonstration in facilitating transfer of technology from the laboratory to operational airplanes is discussed.

  2. The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion concepts using the NASA F-15 research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion and propulsion control concepts was demonstrated on the NASA F-15 airplane in programs such as highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC), the F100 engine model derivative (EMD), and digital electronic engine control (DEEC). (In each case, the value of flight demonstration was conclusively demonstrated). This paper described these programs, and discusses the results that were not expected, based on ground test or analytical prediction. The role of flight demonstration in facilitating transfer of technology from the laboratory to operational airplanes is discussed.

  3. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which one flight engineer is serving the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 and 121.505 apply to that...

  4. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  5. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which...

  6. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which...

  7. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which...

  8. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised); Private Pilot Airplane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for a Private Pilot Certificate with Airplane Rating under part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: preflight operations, airport and traffic pattern operations,…

  9. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. 121.503 Section 121.503 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  10. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. 121.503 Section 121.503 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  11. Prolonging Microgravity on Parabolic Airplane Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Three techniques have been proposed to prolong the intervals of time available for microgravity experiments aboard airplanes flown along parabolic trajectories. Typically, a pilot strives to keep an airplane on such a trajectory during a nominal time interval as long as 25 seconds, and an experimental apparatus is released to float freely in the airplane cabin to take advantage of the microgravitational environment of the trajectory for as long as possible. It is usually not possible to maintain effective microgravity during the entire nominal time interval because random aerodynamic forces and fluctuations in pilot control inputs cause the airplane to deviate slightly from a perfect parabolic trajectory, such that the freely floating apparatus bumps into the ceiling, floor, or a wall of the airplane before the completion of the parabola.

  12. Flight testing and simulation of an F-15 airplane using throttles for flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel; Wolf, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Flight tests and simulation studies using the throttles of an F-15 airplane for emergency flight control have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The airplane and the simulation are capable of extended up-and-away flight, using only throttles for flight path control. Initial simulation results showed that runway landings using manual throttles-only control were difficult, but possible with practice. Manual approaches flown in the airplane were much more difficult, indicating a significant discrepancy between flight and simulation. Analysis of flight data and development of improved simulation models that resolve the discrepancy are discussed. An augmented throttle-only control system that controls bank angle and flight path with appropriate feedback parameters has also been developed, evaluated in simulations, and is planned for flight in the F-15.

  13. Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

  14. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  15. Integrated Flight-propulsion Control Concepts for Supersonic Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    Integration of propulsion and flight control systems will provide significant performance improvements for supersonic transport airplanes. Increased engine thrust and reduced fuel consumption can be obtained by controlling engine stall margin as a function of flight and engine operating conditions. Improved inlet pressure recovery and decreased inlet drag can result from inlet control system integration. Using propulsion system forces and moments to augment the flight control system and airplane stability can reduce the flight control surface and tail size, weight, and drag. Special control modes may also be desirable for minimizing community noise and for emergency procedures. The overall impact of integrated controls on the takeoff gross weight for a generic high speed civil transport is presented.

  16. Light airplane crash tests at three flight-path angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three similar twin engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at Langley impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec and at flight-path angles of -15 deg, -30 deg, and -45 deg. Other flight parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  17. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.509 Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  18. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.507 Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  19. An overview of integrated flight-propulsion controls flight research on the NASA F-15 research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.; Stewart, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting integrated flight-propulsion control flight research using the NASA F-15 airplane for the past 12 years. The research began with the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) project, followed by the F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD). HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) became the umbrella name for a series of experiments including: the Advanced Digital Engine Controls System (ADECS), a twin jet acoustics flight experiment, self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS), performance-seeking control (PSC), and propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA). The upcoming F-15 project is ACTIVE (Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles). This paper provides a brief summary of these activities and provides background for the PCA and PSC papers, and includes a bibliography of all papers and reports from the NASA F-15 project.

  20. Flight test results for several light, canard-configured airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Philip W.

    1987-01-01

    Brief flight evaluations of two different, light, composite constructed, canard and winglet configured airplanes were performed to assess their handling qualities; one airplane was a single engine, pusher design and the other a twin engine, push-pull configuration. An emphasis was placed on the slow speed/high angle of attack region for both airplanes and on the engine-out regime for the twin. Mission suitability assessment included cockpit and control layout, ground and airborne handling qualities, and turbulence response. Very limited performance data was taken. Stall/spin tests and the effects of laminar flow loss on performance and handling qualities were assessed on an extended range, single engine pusher design.

  1. Initial results from flight testing a large, remotely piloted airplane model. [flight tests of remotely controlled scale model of F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, E. C. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    The first four flights of a remotely piloted airplane model showed that a flight envelope can be expanded rapidly and that hazardous flight tests can be conducted safely with good results. The flights also showed that aerodynamic data can be obtained quickly and effectively over a wide range of flight conditions, clear and useful impressions of handling and controllability of configurations can be obtained, and present computer and electronic technology provide the capability to close flight control loops on the ground, thus providing a new method of design and flight test for advanced aircraft.

  2. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  3. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121.414 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

  4. 78 FR 11555 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver for Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Embraer S.A. EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 26, 2012 (77 FR 70384...; Design Roll Maneuver for Electronic Flight Controls AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... design roll maneuver for electronic flight controls, specifically an electronic flight control...

  5. Flight testing a propulsion-controlled aircraft emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.

  6. A new experimental flight research technique: The remotely piloted airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layton, G. P.

    1976-01-01

    The results obtained so far with a remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) using a 3/8 scale model of an F-15 airplane, to determine the usefulness of the RPRV testing technique in high risk flight testing, including spin testing, were presented. The program showed that the RPRV technique, including the use of a digital control system, is a practical method for obtaining flight research data. The spin, stability, and control data obtained with the 3/8-scale model also showed that predictions based on wind-tunnel tests were generally reasonable.

  7. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval... from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the “or” applies. For airplanes with...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor... movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the “or” applies....

  9. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to... movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the “or” applies....

  10. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate holder... relieve that pilot of all duty with it during that rest period. (b) No pilot of an airplane that has...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval (per second) resolution 4 read out Time (GMT or Frame...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval (per second) resolution 4 read out Time (GMT or Frame...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 read out Time (GMT or Frame Counter) (range...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 read out Time (GMT or Frame Counter) (range...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B Appendix B to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... B Appendix B to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. E Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D Appendix D to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D Appendix D to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy...

  19. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.515 Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. No airman may be aloft as a...

  20. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate...

  1. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  2. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  3. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  4. 78 FR 11562 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 20, 2012 (77 FR... electronic flight control system which contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections, for... controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and rudder, controlled by...

  5. 76 FR 8319 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Roll Maneuver Requirement for Electronic Flight Controls AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system that provides roll control of the airplane through pilot inputs to the flight ] computers. These proposed special conditions...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  7. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  8. Lateral aerodynamic parameters extracted from flight data for the F-8C airplane in maneuvering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Flight test data are used to extract the lateral aerodynamic parameters of the F-8C airplane at moderate to high angles of attack. The data were obtained during perturbations of the airplane from steady turns with trim normal accelerations from 1.5g to 3.0g. The angle-of-attack variation from trim was negligible. The aerodynamic coefficients extracted from flight data were compared with several other sets of coefficients, and the extracted coefficients resulted in characteristics for the Dutch roll mode (at the highest angles of attack) similar to those of a set of coefficients that have been the basis of several simulations of the F-8C.

  9. A preliminary analysis of flight data from the AFTI/F-16 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, J. G.; Klein, V.

    1984-01-01

    Flight test data from the AFTI/F-16 airplane are analyzed. Two flight control system modes (Independent Backup Unit and Standard Normal Mode) are considered. Estimated stability and control derivatives are compared with values from the wind tunnel and F-16A flight tests. Modeling difficulties are shown to arise due to the near-neutral static stability of the airplane and the number of coordinated control surface movements commanded in the Standard Normal Mode.

  10. Solar-powered airplane design for long-endurance, high-altitude flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, J. W.; Talay, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the performance analysis and design of a solar-powered airplane for long-endurance, unmanned, high-altitude cruise flight utilizing electric propulsion and solar energy collection/storage devices. For a fixed calendar date and geocentric latitude, the daily energy balance, airplane sizing, and airplane aerodynamics relations combine to determine airplane size and geometry to meet mission requirements. Vehicle component weight loadings, aerodynamic parameters, and current and projected values of power train component characteristics form the basis of the solution. For a specified mission, a candidate airplane design is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of solar-powered long endurance flight. Parametric data are presented to illustrate the airplane's mission flexibility.

  11. Flight Tests of a Ministick Controller in an F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoliker, Patrick C.; Carter, John

    2003-01-01

    In March of 1999, five pilots performed flight tests to evaluate the handling qualities of an F/A-18 research airplane equipped with a small-displacement center stick (ministick) controller that had been developed for the JAS 39 Gripen airplane (a fighter/attack/ reconnaissance airplane used by the Swedish air force). For these tests, the ministick was installed in the aft cockpit (see figure) and production support flight control computers (PSFCCs) were used as interfaces between the controller hardware and the standard F/A-18 flight-control laws. The primary objective of the flight tests was to assess any changes in handling qualities of the F/A-18 airplane attributable to the mechanical characteristics of the ministick. The secondary objective was to demonstrate the capability of the PSFCCs to support flight-test experiments.

  12. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.517 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. No... commercial flying, if that commercial flying plus his flying in operations under this part will exceed...

  13. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.517 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. No... commercial flying, if that commercial flying plus his flying in operations under this part will exceed...

  14. Preliminary Flight Results of a Fly-by-throttle Emergency Flight Control System on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies were followed by flight tests. The principles of throttles only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including actual landings with throttles-only control are discussed.

  15. Preliminary flight test results of a fly-by-throttle emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. G.; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies have been followed by flight tests. This paper discusses the principles of throttles-only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including landing approaches with throttles-only control to within 10 ft of the ground.

  16. Preliminary flight test results of the F100 EMD engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A flight evaluation of the F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD) is conducted. The F100 EMD is an advanced version of the F100 engine that powers the F15 and F16 airplanes. The F100 EMD features a bigger fan, higher temperature turbine, a Digital Electronic Engine Control system (DEEC), and a newly designed 16 segment afterburner, all of which results in a 15 to 20 percent increase in sea level thrust. The flight evaluations consist of investigation of performance (thrust, fuel flow, and airflow) and operability (transient response and airstart) in the F-15 airplane. The performance of the F100 EMD is excellent. Aircraft acceleration time to Mach 2.0 is reduced by 23 percent with two F100 EMD engines. Several anomalies are discovered in the operability evaluations. A software change to the DEEC improved the throttle, and subsequent Cooper Harper ratings of 3 to 4 are obtained. In the extreme upper left hand corner of the flight enveloped, compressor stalls occurr when the throttle is retarded to idle power. These stalls are not predicted by altitude facility tests or stability for the compressor.

  17. Information obtained from airplane flight tests in the year 1927-1928

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubner, W

    1929-01-01

    The information obtained from flight tests in 1927-1928 covers chiefly the effect of the structural features of an airplane on its stability, controllability, maneuverability and spinning characteristics.

  18. Correlation and assessment of structural airplane crash data with flight parameters at impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Crash deceleration pulse data from a crash dynamics program on general aviation airplanes and from transport crash data were analyzed. Structural airplane crash data and flight parameters at impact were correlated. Uncoupled equations for the normal and longitudinal floor impulses in the cabin area of the airplane were derived, and analytical expressions for structural crushing during impact and horizontal slide out were also determined. Agreement was found between experimental and analytical data for general aviation and transport airplanes over a relatively wide range of impact parameter. Two possible applications of the impulse data are presented: a postcrash evaluation of crash test parameters and an assumed crash scenario.

  19. Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, G. Merritt; Blackman, Calvin C.

    1948-01-01

    A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted by the NACA to determine the effect of ice accretion on airplane performance. The maximum loss in propeller efficiency encountered due to ice formation on the propeller blades was 19 percent. During 87 percent of the propeller icing encounters, losses of 10 percent or less were observed. Ice formations on all of the components of the airplane except the propellers during one icing encounter resulted in an increase in parasite drag of the airplane of 81 percent. The control response of the airplane in this condition was marginal.

  20. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.507 Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate...

  1. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.517 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes....

  2. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate...

  3. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.515 Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. No airman may be aloft as a...

  4. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.509 Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate...

  5. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.517 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes....

  6. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate...

  7. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.507 Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate...

  8. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.515 Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. No airman may be aloft as a...

  9. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.509 Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate...

  10. Instrument Pilot: Airplane. Flight Test Guide, Part 61 Revised 1973, AC 61-56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This flight test guide is designed to assist the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for Instrument Pilot Airplane Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information concerning pilot operations, procedures, and maneuvers relevant to the flight test required for the Instrument Rating.…

  11. Multiengine Airplane Class and Type Ratings: Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide has been prepared to assist the applicant and his instructor in preparing for a Multiengine Airplane Class or Type Rating. It contains information and guidance concerning the pilot operations, procedures, and maneuvers relevant to the flight tests: preflight operations, airport operations, takeoffs and landings, flight at…

  12. Development and Flight Evaluation of an Emergency Digital Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Webb, Lannie Dean

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system for emergency flight control of aircraft with no flight controls was developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane has been flown in a throttles-only manual mode and with an augmented system called PCA in which pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to drive the throttles. Results from a 36-flight evaluation showed that the PCA system can be used to safety land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure. The PCA system was used to recover from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Guest pilots have also evaluated the PCA system. This paper describes the principles of throttles-only flight control; a history of loss-of-control accidents; a description of the F-15 aircraft; the PCA system operation, simulation, and flight testing; and the pilot comments.

  13. Flight Data Reduction of Wake Velocity Measurements Using an Instrumented OV-10 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Stuever, Robert A.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    A series of flight tests to measure the wake of a Lockheed C- 130 airplane and the accompanying atmospheric state have been conducted. A specially instrumented North American Rockwell OV-10 airplane was used to measure the wake and atmospheric conditions. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake- measurement flight-data reduction process.

  14. Development and Flight Test of an Augmented Thrust-Only Flight Control System on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Pappas, Drew

    1996-01-01

    An emergency flight control system using only engine thrust, called Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA), has been developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. In this thrust-only control system, pilot flight path and track commands and aircraft feedback parameters are used to control the throttles. The PCA system was installed on the MD-11 airplane using software modifications to existing computers. Flight test results show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds and altitudes. The PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any non-nal flight controls have been demonstrated, including instrument landing system-coupled hands-off landings. The PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. In addition, PCA was tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control; describes the MD-11 airplane and systems; and discusses PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  15. Development and Flight Test of an Emergency Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John J.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    An emergency flight control system that uses only engine thrust, called the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, was developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. The PCA system is a thrust-only control system, which augments pilot flightpath and track commands with aircraft feedback parameters to control engine thrust. The PCA system was implemented on the MD-11 airplane using only software modifications to existing computers. Results of a 25-hr flight test show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds, altitudes, and configurations. PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any normal flight controls were demonstrated, including ILS-coupled hands-off landings. PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. The PCA system was also tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control, a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, the MD-11 airplane and its systems, PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  16. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots who made simulated instrument flight evaluations experienced improvements in airplane handling qualities in the presence of turbulence and a reduction in pilot workload. For ride quality, quantitative data show that the attitude command control system results in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  17. Flutter clearance flight tests of an OV-10A airplane modified for wake vortex flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Stewart, Eric C.

    1995-01-01

    The envelope expansion, flight flutter tests of a modified OV-10A aircraft are described. For the wake vortex research program, the airplane was modified to incorporate three forward-extending instrumentation booms, one extending forward from each wing tip and one from the right side of the fuselage. The booms were instrumented with sensors to measure the velocity and direction of local air flow. The flutter test results show that the modified OV-10A aircraft is free from flutter at speeds up to 330 KEAS at 5000 feet altitude.

  18. Commercial Pilot; Airplane. Flight Test Guide, Part 61 Revised, AC 61-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the Commercial Pilot Certificate with Airplane Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information concerning pilot operations, procedures, and maneuvers relevant to the flight test required for the certificate. Preflight duties,…

  19. Transport airplane flight deck development survey and analysis: Report and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a survey and analysis of research and development work related to improving transport airplane flight deck equipment and aircrew performance is reported. Research and development related to flight deck advancement in general, as well as that concerned directly with terminal area operations, is described and discussed.

  20. Determination of stability and control parameters of a general aviation airplane from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasy, I.

    1983-01-01

    Values for the stability and control parameters for a general aviation airplane were determined from flight data. Lateral and longitudinal transient maneuvers were analyzed by the equation error and output error methods. There was a good agreement between the parameters extracted from flight data and those predicted by wind tunnel.

  1. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 readout Time (GMT or Frame Counter) (range 0 to 4095, sampled 1 per frame)...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 readout Time (GMT or Frame Counter) (range 0 to 4095, sampled 1 per frame)...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 readout Time (GMT or Frame Counter) (range 0 to 4095, sampled 1 per frame)...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App....

  5. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  6. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  7. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  8. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  9. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  10. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.519 Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation:...

  11. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  12. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  13. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  14. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  15. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  16. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  17. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  18. Determination of aerodynamic parameters of a fighter airplane from flight data at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.; Abbasy, I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the estimation of airplane model structure and parameters is applied to data from a modern fighter airplane operating within an angle of attack range of 5 to 60 deg. The paper briefly describes the airplane, flight and wind tunnel data available, and the estimation method. The results presented contain basic longitudinal characteristics of the airplane and the estimates of aerodynamic parameters in the yawing-moment equations. These estimates are obtained from small and large amplitude maneuvers. Because the latter set of data was not suitable for airplane identification, some of the large amplitude maneuvers were joined together and then partitioned into subsets according to the values of angle of attack. Each subset was then analyzed as a separate data set. Most of the estimated parameters and functions are in good agreement with the wind tunnel measurements. The estimated lateral parameters in the model equations also demonstrate good prediction capabilities.

  19. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, an< it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flow-field properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  20. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, and it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flowfield properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of 2 were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  1. Airplane stability calculations and their verification by flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rota, Augusto

    1922-01-01

    For some time, the designers of airplanes have begun to occupy themselves with the question of longitudinal stability. In their quest to simplify calculation and data collection, the designers have attached the greatest importance to the coefficient of initial longitudinal stability. In this study a diagram was constructed from the data of the tunnel tests, which depends neither on the position of the center of gravity nor of the angle of deflection of the elevators. This diagram is constructed by means of straight lines drawn through the metacenters of the complete airplane, in a direction parallel to the tangents to the polar of the airplane relative to a system of axes fixed with reference to the airplane.

  2. New Method of Determining the Polar Curve of an Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yegorov, B. N.

    1945-01-01

    A fundamental defect of existing methods for the determination of the polar of an airplane in flight is the impossibility of obtaining the thrust or the resistance of the propeller for any type airplane with any type engine. The new method is based on the premise that for zero propeller thrust the mean angle of attack of the blade is approximately the same for all propellers if this angle is reckoned from the aerodynamic chord of the profile section. This angle was determined from flight tests. Knowing the mean angle of the blade setting the angle of attack of the propeller blade at zero thrust can be found and the propeller speed in gliding obtained. The experimental check of the new method carried out on several airplanes gave positive results. The basic assumptions for the construction of the polars and the method of analyzing the flight data are given.

  3. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots made simulated instrument flight evaluations in light-to-moderate turbulence. They were favorably impressed with the system, particularly with the elimination of control force transients that accompanied configuration changes. For ride quality, quantitative data showed that the attitude command control system resulted in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  4. 78 FR 73995 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680 series airplanes. These airplanes will have novel or unusual design features associated with connectivity of the passenger service computer systems to the airplane critical systems and data networks. The network architecture is composed of several connected networks including the following: 1. Flight-Safety related control and......

  5. 78 FR 70849 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection from Unauthorized Internal Access... regulatory adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues... between systems, including: 1. Flight-safety related control and navigation systems, 2. Operator...

  6. Flight comparison of the transonic agility of the F-111A airplane and the F-111 supercritical wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, E. L.; Sakamoto, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to investigate the improvements in maneuverability of an F-111A airplane equipped with a supercritical wing. In this configuration the aircraft is known as the F-111 TACT (transonic aircraft technology) airplane. The variable-wing-sweep feature permitted an evaluation of the supercritical wing in many configurations. The primary emphasis was placed on the transonic Mach number region, which is considered to be the principal air combat arena for fighter aircraft. An agility study was undertaken to assess the maneuverability of the F-111A aircraft with a supercritical wing at both design and off-design conditions. The evaluation included an assessment of aerodynamic and maneuver performance in conjunction with an evaluation of precision controllability during tailchase gunsight tracking tasks.

  7. Flight evaluation of advanced control systems and displays on a general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loschke, P. C.; Barber, M. R.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Mcmurtry, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    A flight-test program was conducted to determine the effect of advanced flight control systems and displays on the handling qualities of a light twin-engined airplane. A flight-director display and an attitude-command control system, used separately and in combination, transformed a vehicle with poor handling qualities during ILS approaches in turbulent air into a vehicle with good handling qualities. The attitude-command control system also improved the ride qualities of the airplane. A rate-command control system made only small improvements to the airplane's ILS handling qualities in turbulence. Both the rate- and the attitude-command control systems reduced stall warning in the test airplane, increasing the likelihood of inadvertent stalls. The final approach to the point of flare was improved by both the rate- and the attitude-command control systems. However, the small control wheel deflections necessary to flare were unnatural and tended to cause overcontrolling during flare. Airplane handling qualities are summarized for each control-system and display configuration.

  8. Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Sumner, Ann Louise; Nishioka, Marcia G; Vallarino, Jose; Turner, Douglas J; Saltman, Hannah K; Spengler, John D

    2013-07-01

    To address the knowledge gaps regarding inhalation exposure of flight crew to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on airplanes, we measured PBDE concentrations in air samples collected in the cabin air at cruising altitudes and used Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA) to evaluate the likelihood of inhalation exposure to result in the average daily dose (ADD) of a member of the flight crew to exceed EPA Reference Doses (RfDs), accounting for all other aircraft and non-aircraft exposures. A total of 59 air samples were collected from different aircraft and analyzed for four PBDE congeners-BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 (a subset were also analyzed for BDE 183). For congeners with a published RfD, high estimates of ADD were calculated for all non-aircraft exposure pathways and non-inhalation exposure onboard aircraft; inhalation exposure limits were then derived based on the difference between the RfD and ADDs for all other exposure pathways. The 95th percentile measured concentrations of PBDEs in aircraft air were <1% of the derived inhalation exposure limits. Likelihood probabilities of 95th percentile exposure concentrations >1% of the defined exposure limit were zero for all congeners with published RfDs. PMID:22739680

  9. Flight test experience and controlled impact of a large, four-engine, remotely piloted airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Horton, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A controlled impact demonstration (CID) program using a large, four engine, remotely piloted transport airplane was conducted. Closed loop primary flight control was performed from a ground based cockpit and digital computer in conjunction with an up/down telemetry link. Uplink commands were received aboard the airplane and transferred through uplink interface systems to a highly modified Bendix PB-20D autopilot. Both proportional and discrete commands were generated by the ground pilot. Prior to flight tests, extensive simulation was conducted during the development of ground based digital control laws. The control laws included primary control, secondary control, and racetrack and final approach guidance. Extensive ground checks were performed on all remotely piloted systems. However, manned flight tests were the primary method of verification and validation of control law concepts developed from simulation. The design, development, and flight testing of control laws and the systems required to accomplish the remotely piloted mission are discussed.

  10. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Robert; Allen, Michael J.; Dibley, Ryan P.; Gera, Joseph; Hodgkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    Successful flight-testing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing airplane was completed in March 2005. This program, which started in 1996, was a joint activity sponsored by NASA, Air Force Research Laboratory, and industry contractors. The test program contained two flight test phases conducted in early 2003 and early 2005. During the first phase of flight test, aerodynamic models and load models of the wing control surfaces and wing structure were developed. Design teams built new research control laws for the Active Aeroelastic Wing airplane using these flight-validated models; and throughout the final phase of flight test, these new control laws were demonstrated. The control laws were designed to optimize strategies for moving the wing control surfaces to maximize roll rates in the transonic and supersonic flight regimes. Control surface hinge moments and wing loads were constrained to remain within hydraulic and load limits. This paper describes briefly the flight control system architecture as well as the design approach used by Active Aeroelastic Wing project engineers to develop flight control system gains. Additionally, this paper presents flight test techniques and comparison between flight test results and predictions.

  11. Flight-test data on the static fore-and-aft stability of various German airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubner, Walter

    1933-01-01

    The static longitudinal stability of an airplane with locked elevator is usually determined by analysis and model tests. The present report proposes to supply the results of such measurements. The method consisted of recording the dynamic pressure versus elevator displacement at different center-of-gravity positions in unaccelerated flight.

  12. 14 CFR 121.344 - Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes. 121.344 Section 121.344 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING...

  13. 76 FR 74649 - Harmonization of Various Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes-Flight Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... November 19, 2010 (75 FR 70854). The proposal discussed changes to part 25 in four areas: 1. Selection of... (55 FR 29756), July 20, 1990. The FAA considered them unnecessary since directional and lateral... Standards for Transport Category Airplanes--Flight Rules AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.../Off 1 TE Flaps (Discrete or Analog) Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) OR 1 LE Flaps (Discrete...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B Appendix B to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1 TE flaps (discrete or analog) Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) 1 Or Analog 0-100% range...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.../Off 1 TE Flaps (Discrete or Analog) Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) OR 1 LE Flaps (Discrete...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B Appendix B to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B Appendix B to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1 TE flaps (discrete or analog) Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) 1 Or Analog 0-100% range...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.../Off 1 TE Flaps (Discrete or Analog) Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) OR 1 LE Flaps (Discrete...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B Appendix B to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1 TE flaps (discrete or analog) Each discrete position (U, D, T/O, AAP) 1 Or Analog 0-100% range...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D Appendix D to Part 125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Pt. 125, App....

  2. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D Appendix D to Part 125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Pt. 125, App....

  3. The variation in pressure in the cabin of an airplane in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Melvin N

    1931-01-01

    The pressure in the cabin of a Fairchild cabin monoplane wa surveyed in flight, and was found to decrease with increased air speed over the fuselage and to vary with the number and location of openings in the cabin. The maximum depression of 2.2 inches of water (equivalent pressure altitude at sea level of 152 feet) occurred at the high speed of the airplane in level flight with the cabin closed.

  4. Ground-to-Flight Handling Qualities Comparisons for a High Performance Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in conjunction with a ground-based piloted simulation study to enable a comparison of handling qualities ratings for a variety of maneuvers between flight and simulation of a modern high performance airplane. Specific objectives included an evaluation of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) tendencies and a determination of maneuver types which result in either good or poor ground-to-flight pilot handling qualities ratings. A General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was used for the flight evaluations, and the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator was employed for the ground based evaluations. Two NASA research pilots evaluated both the airplane and simulator characteristics using tasks developed in the simulator. Simulator and flight tests were all conducted within approximately a one month time frame. Maneuvers included numerous fine tracking evaluations at various angles of attack, load factors and speed ranges, gross acquisitions involving longitudinal and lateral maneuvering, roll angle captures, and an ILS task with a sidestep to landing. Overall results showed generally good correlation between ground and flight for PIO tendencies and general handling qualities comments. Differences in pilot technique used in simulator evaluations and effects of airplane accelerations and motions are illustrated.

  5. 78 FR 63845 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Isolation or Airplane Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or...; Isolation or Airplane Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized Internal Access AGENCY... control surfaces. The Model EMB-550 airplane is designed for 8 passengers, with a maximum of 12...

  6. Flight duration, airspeed practices and altitude management of airplanes involved in the NASA VGH General Aviation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight duration, airspeed, and altitude information obtained from NASA velocity gravity height (VGH) recorders is presented for each of 95 general aviation airplanes flown in twin- and single-engine executive, personal, instructional, commercial survey, aerial application, aerobatic, commuter, and float operations. These data complement normal acceleration data obtained from the same airplanes and reported in NASA-TM-84660, and together they provide a data base for the design and analysis of general aviation airplane operations.

  7. A flight investigation with a STOL airplane flying curved, descending instrument approach paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, M. S.; Mclaughlin, M. D.; Sawyer, R. H.; Vangunst, R.; Ryan, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A flight investigation using a De Havilland Twin Otter airplane was conducted to determine the configurations of curved, 6 deg descending approach paths which would provide minimum airspace usage within the requirements for acceptable commercial STOL airplane operations. Path configurations with turns of 90 deg, 135 deg, and 180 deg were studied; the approach airspeed was 75 knots. The length of the segment prior to turn, the turn radius, and the length of the final approach segment were varied. The relationship of the acceptable path configurations to the proposed microwave landing system azimuth coverage requirements was examined.

  8. A Summary of Flight-Determined Transonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Several Research Airplane Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R.

    1959-01-01

    Flight-determined lift and drag data from transonic flights of seven research airplane configurations of widely varying characteristics are presented and compared with wind-tunnel and rocket-model data. The airplanes are the X-5 (590 wing sweep), XF-92A, YF-102 with cambered wing, YF-102 with symmetrical wing, D-558-ii, X-3, and X-LE. The effects of some of the basic configuration differences on the lift and drag characteristics are demonstrated. As indicated by transonic similarity laws, most of the configurations demonstrate a relationship between the transonic increase in zero-lift drag and the maximum cross-sectional area. No such relationship was found between the drag-rise Mach number and its normally related parameters. A comparison of flight and wind-tunnel data shows a generally reasonable agreement, but Reynolds number differences can cause considerable variations in the drag levels of the flight and wind-tunnel tests. Maximum lift-drag ratios vary widely in the subsonic region as would be expected from differences in aspect ratio and wing thickness ratio; however, the variations diminish as the Mach number is increased through the transonic region. The attainment of maximum lift-drag ratio in level flight by several of the airplanes was limited by engine performance, stability characteristics, and buffet boundaries.

  9. Parametric study of microwave-powered high-altitude airplane platforms designed for linear flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a class of remotely piloted, microwave powered, high altitude airplane platforms is studied. The first part of each cycle of the flight profile consists of climb while the vehicle is tracked and powered by a microwave beam; this is followed by gliding flight back to a minimum altitude above a microwave station and initiation of another cycle. Parametric variations were used to define the effects of changes in the characteristics of the airplane aerodynamics, the energy transmission systems, the propulsion system, and winds. Results show that wind effects limit the reduction of wing loading and the increase of lift coefficient, two effective ways to obtain longer range and endurance for each flight cycle. Calculated climb performance showed strong sensitivity to some power and propulsion parameters. A simplified method of computing gliding endurance was developed.

  10. Flight Research Using F100 Engine P680063 in the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Conners, Timothy R.; Maxwell, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The value of flight research in developing and evaluating gas turbine engines is high. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting flight research on propulsion systems for many years. The F100 engine has been tested in the NASA F-15 research airplane in the last three decades. One engine in particular, S/N P680063, has been used for the entire program and has been flown in many pioneering propulsion flight research activities. Included are detailed flight-to-ground facility tests; tests of the first production digital engine control system, the first active stall margin control system, the first performance-seeking control system; and the first use of computer-controlled engine thrust for emergency flight control. The flight research has been supplemented with altitude facility tests at key times. This paper presents a review of the tests of engine P680063, the F-15 airplanes in which it flew, and the role of the flight test in maturing propulsion technology.

  11. 14 CFR 91.883 - Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less. 91.883 Section 91.883 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... airplane to an alternative airport in the 48 contiguous States on account of weather, mechanical, fuel,...

  12. Some effects of rainfall on flight of airplanes and on instrument indications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard V

    1941-01-01

    Several possible effects of heavy rain on the aerodynamic performance of an airplane and of heavy rain and associated atmospheric phenomena on the indications of flight instruments are briefly considered. It is concluded that the effects of heavy rain on the performance of an airplane are not so great as to force the airplane down from moderate altitudes. Serious malfunctioning of the air-speed indicator may occur, however, as a result of flooding of the pitot-static head and subsequent accumulation of water in the air-speed pressure line. In strong convective situations, like thunderstorms, the rate-of-climb indicator may also be seriously in error owing to rapid variations of atmospheric pressure when entering and emerging from the convection currents.

  13. Role of Meteorology in Flights of a Solar-Powered Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Casey

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, the Helios prototype solar-powered uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) [a lightweight, remotely piloted airplane] was deployed to the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), at Kauai, Hawaii, in an attempt to fly to altitudes above 100,000 ft (30.48 km). The goal of flying a UAV to such high altitudes has been designated a level-I milestone of the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. In support of this goal, meteorologists from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were sent to PMRF, as part of the flight crew, to provide current and forecast weather information to the pilots, mission directors, and planners. Information of this kind is needed to optimize flight conditions for peak aircraft performance and to enable avoidance of weather conditions that could adversely affect safety. In general, the primary weather data of concern for ground and flight operations are wind speeds (see Figure 1). Because of its long wing span [247 ft (.75 m)] and low weight [1,500 to 1,600 lb (about 680 to 726 kg)], the Helios airplane is sensitive to wind speeds exceeding 7 kn (3.6 m/s) at the surface. Also, clouds are of concern because they can block sunlight needed to energize an array of solar photovoltaic cells that provide power to the airplane. Vertical wind shear is very closely monitored in order to prevent damage or loss of control due to turbulence.

  14. Simulator study of flight characteristics of several large, dissimilar, cargo transport airplanes during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Deal, P. L.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom, ground based simulator study is conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of four dissimilar cargo transport airplanes. These characteristics are compared with those of a large, present-day (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The four very large transport concepts evaluated consist of single-fuselage, twin-fuselage, triple-fuselage, and span-loader configurations. The primary piloting task is the approach and landing operation. The results of his study indicate that all four concepts evaluated have unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral directional low speed flight characteristics and that considerable stability and control augmentation would be required to improve these characteristics (handling qualities) to a satisfactory level. Through the use of rate command/attitude hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn-coordination features, the handling qualities of all four large transports simulated are improved appreciably.

  15. Flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane (ATLIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Project organization and execution, airplane description and performance predictions, and the results of the flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin engine airplane (ATLIT) are presented. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34-200 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll control spoilers, and full span Fowler flaps. The conclusions for the ATLIT evaluation are based on complete stall and roll flight test results and partial performance test results. The Stalling and rolling characteristics met design expectations. Climb performance was penalized by extensive flow separation in the region of the wing body juncture. Cruise performance was found to be penalized by a large value of zero lift drag. Calculations showed that, with proper attention to construction details, the improvements in span efficiency and zero lift drag would permit the realization of the predicted increases in cruising and maximum rate of climb performance.

  16. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., 0 to 4095 ±0.125% Per Hour 4 1 sec UTC time preferred when available. Count increments each 4... practicable. 4, Heading (Primary flight crew reference) 0-360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When... error of ±5% 0.125 0.004g. 6. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1 or 0.25 for airplanes operated under §...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., 0 to 4095 ±0.125% Per Hour 4 1 sec UTC time preferred when available. Count increments each 4... practicable. 4, Heading (Primary flight crew reference) 0-360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When... error of ±5% 0.125 0.004g. 6. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1 or 0.25 for airplanes operated under §...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., 0 to 4095 ±0.125% Per Hour 4 1 sec UTC time preferred when available. Count increments each 4... practicable. 4, Heading (Primary flight crew reference) 0-360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When... error of ±5% 0.125 0.004g. 6. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1 or 0.25 for airplanes operated under §...

  19. Flight investigation of the effect of control centering springs on the apparent spiral stability of a personal-owner airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Hunter, Paul A; Hewes, Donald E; Whitten, James B

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of a flight investigation conducted on a typical high-wing personal-owner airplane to determine the effect of control centering springs on apparent spiral stability. Apparent spiral stability is the term used to describe the spiraling tendencies of an airplane in uncontrolled flight as affected both by the true spiral stability of the perfectly trimmed airplane and by out-of-trim control settings. Centering springs were used in both the aileron and rudder control systems to provide both a positive centering action and a means of trimming the airplane. The springs were preloaded so that when they were moved through neutral they produced a nonlinear force gradient sufficient to overcome the friction in the control surface at the proper setting for trim. The ailerons and rudder control surfaces did not have trim tabs that could be adjusted in flight.

  20. Flight Studies of the Horizontal-Tail Loads Experienced by a Fighter Airplane in Abrupt Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    Field measurements were made on a fighter airplane to determine the approximate magnitude of the horizontal tail loads in accelerated flight. In these flight measurements, pressures at a few points were used as an index of the tail loads by correlating these pressures with complete pressure-distribution data obtained in the NACA full-scale tunnel. In addition, strain gages and motion pictures of tail deflections were used to explore the general nature and order of magnitude of fluctuating tail loads in accelerated stalls.

  1. Determination of airplane model structure from flight data using splines and stepwise regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of airplane model structure from flight data is presented. The model is based on a polynomial spline representation of the aerodynamic coefficients, and the procedure is implemented by use of a stepwise regression. First, a form of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients amenable to the utilization of splines is developed. Next, expressions for the splines in one and two variables are introduced. Then the steps in the determination of an aerodynamic model structure and the estimation of parameters are discussed briefly. The focus is on the application to flight data of the techniques developed.

  2. Flight evaluation of an extended engine life mode on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system designed to reduce the rate of engine deterioration was developed and evaluated in flight on the NASA Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The extended engine life mode increases engine pressure ratio while reducing engine airflow to lower the turbine temperature at constant thrust. The engine pressure ratio uptrim is modulated in real time based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. The extended engine life mode logic performed well, significantly reducing turbine operating temperature. Reductions in fan turbine inlet temperature of up to 80 F were obtained at intermediate power and up to 170 F at maximum augmented power with no appreciable loss in thrust. A secondary benefit was the considerable reduction in thrust-specific fuel consumption. The success of the extended engine life mode is one example of the advantages gained from integrating aircraft flight and propulsion control systems.

  3. Flight-determined derivatives and dynamic characteristics of the CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Flight-determined longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives are presented for the CV-990 airplane for various combinations of Mach number, altitude, and flap setting throughout the flight envelope up to a Mach number of 0.87. Also presented are the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft calculated from the flight-obtained derivatives and the measured phugoid characteristics. The derivative characteristics were obtained from flight records of longitudinal and lateral-directional transient oscillation maneuvers by using a modified Newton-Raphson digital derivative determination technique. Generally the derivatives exhibited consistent variation with lift coefficient in the low-speed data and with Mach number and altitude in the high-speed data. Many also varied with flap deflection, notably spoiler effectiveness and directional stability.

  4. An in-flight investigation of ground effect on a forward-swept wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Kresse, John

    1989-01-01

    A limited flight experiment was conducted to document the ground-effect characteristics of the X-29A research airplane. This vehicle has an aerodynamic platform which includes a forward-swept wing and close-coupled, variable incidence canard. The flight-test program obtained results for errors in the airdata measurement and for incremental normal force and pitching moment caused by ground effect. Correlations with wind-tunnel and computational analyses were made. The results are discussed with respect to the dynamic nature of the flight measurements, similar data from other configurations, and pilot comments. The ground-effect results are necessary to obtain an accurate interpretation of the vehicle's landing characteristics. The flight data can also be used in the development of many modern aircraft systems such as autoland and piloted simulations.

  5. Effects of airplane flexibility on wing strains in rough air at 35,000 feet as determined by a flight investigation of a large swept-wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhyne, Richard H

    1958-01-01

    A flight investigation was made on a large sweptback-wing bomber airplane and the results are compared with data previously obtained at low altitude (5,000 feet). The effects of wing flexibility on the wing strains were, on the average, about 20 percent larger at the higher altitude.

  6. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned

  7. Determination of the Profile Drag of an Airplane Wing in Flight at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicknell, Joseph

    1939-01-01

    Flight tests were made to determine the profile-drag coefficients of a portion of the original wing surface of an all-metal airplane and of a portion of the wing made aerodynamically smooth and more nearly fair than the original section. The wing section was approximately the NACA 2414.5. The tests were carried out over a range of airplane speeds giving a maximum Reynolds number of 15,000,000. Tests were also carried out to locate the point of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer and to determine the velocity distribution along the upper surface of the wing. The profile-drag coefficients of the original and of the smooth wing portions at a Reynolds number of 15,000,000 were 0.0102 and 0.0068, respectively; i.e., the surface irregularities on the original wing increased the profile-drag coefficient 50 percent above that of the smooth wing.

  8. The Pressure Distribution over the Wings and Tail Surfaces of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine (1) the magnitude and distribution of aerodynamic loads over the wings and tail surfaces of a pursuit-type airplane in the maneuvers likely to impose critical loads on the various subassemblies of the airplane structure. (2) To study the phenomenon of center of pressure movement and normal force coefficient variation in accelerated flight, and (3) to measure the normal accelerations at the center of gravity, wing-tip, and tail, in order to determine the nature of the inertia forces acting simultaneously with the critical aerodynamic loads. The results obtained throw light on a number of important questions involving structural design. Some of the more interesting results are discussed in some detail, but in general the report is for the purpose of making this collection of airplane-load data obtained in flight available to those interested in airplane structures.

  9. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-learning process; (ii) Teaching methods and procedures; and (iii) The instructor-student relationship. (d...; (iii) Data and motion limitations of simulation; and (iv) The minimum airplane simulator equipment... environmental and fault panels; (iii) Data and motion limitations of simulation; and (iv) The minimum...

  10. Flight Investigation of the Lift and Drag Characteristics of a Swept-Wing, Multijet, Transport-Type Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tambor, Ronald

    1960-01-01

    The lift and drag characteristics of a Boeing KC-135 airplane were determined during maneuvering flight over the Mach number range from 0.70 to 0.85 for the airplane in the clean configuration at an altitude of 26,000 feet. Data were also obtained over the speed range of 130 knots to 160 knots at 9,000 feet for various flap deflections with gear down.

  11. Pitch Controllability Based on Airplane Model without Short-Period Approximation—Flight Simulator Experiment—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Osamu; Kobayashi, Osamu

    Pitch controllability of an airplane is very important for longitudinal flying qualities, therefore, much research has been conducted. However, it has not been clarified why pitch handling qualities degrades in the low speed, e.g. take-off and landing flight phases. On this topic, this paper investigates the effect of several parameters of the short-period mode and phugoid mode using a flight simulator. The results show the following conclusions: The difference between the initial phase angles in two modal components in the pitch attitude response to elevator step input plays the most important role in the pitch handling qualities among modal parameters; and the difference of the two modal natural frequencies has small effect on the pitch controllability even when flight speed decreases.

  12. Simulator evaluation of a flight-path-angle control system for a transport airplane with direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A piloted simulator was used to evaluate the flight path angle control capabilities of a system that employs spoiler direct lift control. The system was designated the velocity vector control system and was compared with a baseline flight path angle control system which used elevator for control. The simulated airplane was a medium jet transport. Research pilots flew a manual instrument landing system glide slope tracking task and a variable flight path angle task in the landing configuration to obtain comparative performance data.

  13. An analysis of life expectancy of airplane wings in normal cruising flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Abbott A

    1945-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for judging the relative importance of wing failure by fatigue and by single intense gusts, an analysis of wing life for normal cruising flight was made based on data on the frequency of atmospheric gusts. The independent variables considered in the analysis included stress-concentration factor, stress-load relation, wing loading, design and cruising speeds, design gust velocity, and airplane size. Several methods for estimating fatigue life from gust frequencies are discussed. The procedure selected for the analysis is believed to be simple and reasonably accurate, though slightly conservative.

  14. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  15. Determination of airplane model structure from flight data by using modified stepwise regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.; Murphy, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    The linear and stepwise regressions are briefly introduced, then the problem of determining airplane model structure is addressed. The MSR was constructed to force a linear model for the aerodynamic coefficient first, then add significant nonlinear terms and delete nonsignificant terms from the model. In addition to the statistical criteria in the stepwise regression, the prediction sum of squares (PRESS) criterion and the analysis of residuals were examined for the selection of an adequate model. The procedure is used in examples with simulated and real flight data. It is shown that the MSR performs better than the ordinary stepwise regression and that the technique can also be applied to the large amplitude maneuvers.

  16. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  17. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  18. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This presentation proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  19. Analysis of in-flight acoustic data for a twin-engined turboprop airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Wilby, E. G.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were made on the exterior and interior of a general aviation turboprop airplane during four flight tests. The test conditions were carefully controlled and repeated for each flight in order to determine data variability. For the first three flights the cabin was untreated and for the fourth flight the fuselage was treated with glass fiber batts. On the exterior, measured propeller harmonic sound pressure levels showed typical standard deviations of +1.4 dB, -2.3 dB, and turbulent boundary layer pressure levels, +1.2 dB, -1.6. Propeller harmonic levels in the cabin showed greater variability, with typical standard deviations of +2.0 dB, -4.2 dB. When interior sound pressure levels from different flights with different cabin treatments were used to evaluate insertion loss, the standard deviations were typically plus or minus 6.5 dB. This is due in part to the variability of the sound pressure level measurements, but probably is also influenced by changes in the model characteristics of the cabin. Recommendations are made for the planning and performance of future flight tests to measure interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft, either high-speed advanced turboprop or general aviation propellers.

  20. Analysis of sonic boom measurements near shock wave extremities for flight near Mach 1.0 and for airplane accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The analysis of the 14 low-altitude transonic flights showed that the prevailing meteorological consideration of the acoustic disturbances below the cutoff altitude during threshold Mach number flight has shown that a theoretical safe altitude appears to be valid over a wide range of meteorological conditions and provides a reasonable estimate of the airplane ground speed reduction to avoid sonic boom noise during threshold Mach number flight. Recent theoretical results for the acoustic pressure waves below the threshold Mach number caustic showed excellent agreement with observations near the caustic, but the predicted overpressure levels were significantly lower than those observed far from the caustic. The analysis of caustics produced by inadvertent low-magnitude accelerations during flight at Mach numbers slightly greater than the threshold Mach number showed that folds and associated caustics were produced by slight changes in the airplane ground speed. These caustic intensities ranged from 1 to 3 time the nominal steady, level flight intensity.

  1. Subjective response to combined noise and vibration during flight of a large twin-jet airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A NASA twin-jet airplane was used to obtain controlled noise and vibration environments during flight while obtaining subjective responses from 13 passenger-subjects (6 females and 7 males). Subjective ratings of overall comfort, comfort when considering only vibration, and comfort when considering only noise were obtained during times of different vibration and noise environments. Passenger-subjects were able to distinguish and rate noise better than vibration. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in ratings of ride comfort due to both sex type and flight experience. Males rated flying discomfort much more severely than females when rating the overall ride and the ride when considering only the noise environment. Experienced passengers also rated the overall ride to be more uncomfortable than inexperienced passengers.

  2. Flight and analytical investigations of a structural mode excitation system on the YF-12A airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, E. A.; Murphy, R. C.; Beranek, J. A.; Davis, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A structural excitation system, using an oscillating canard vane to generate force, was mounted on the forebody of the YF-12A airplane. The canard vane was used to excite the airframe structural modes during flight in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Structural modal responses generated by the canard vane forces were measured at the flight test conditions by airframe-mounted accelerometers. Correlations of analytical and experimental aeroelastic results were made. Doublet lattice, steady state double lattice with uniform lag, Mach box, and piston theory all produced acceptable analytical aerodynamic results within the restrictions that apply to each. In general, the aerodynamic theory methods, carefully applied, were found to predict the dynamic behavior of the YF-12A aircraft adequately.

  3. The Direct Measurement of Engine Power on an Airplane in Flight with a Hub Type Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gove, W D; Green, M W

    1927-01-01

    This report describes tests made to obtain direct measurements of engine power in flight. Tests were made with a Bendemann hub dynamometer installed on a modified DH-4 Airplane, Liberty 12 Engine, to determine the suitability of this apparatus. This dynamometer unit, which was designed specially for use with a liberty 12 engine, is a special propeller hub in which is incorporated a system of pistons and cylinders interposed between the propeller and the engine crankshaft. The torque and thrust forces are balanced by fluid pressures, which are recorded by instruments in the cockpit. These tests have shown the suitability of this type of hub dynamometer for measurement of power in flight and for the determination of the torque and power coefficients of the propeller. (author)

  4. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  5. Flight test evaluation of drag effects on surface coatings on the NASA Boeing 737 TCV airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George-Falvy, D.; Sikavi, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in which the effects of various surface coatings on aerodynamic drag were investigated; results of this program are described in this report. The tests were conducted at NASA-Langley Research Center on the terminal configured vehicle (TCV) Boeing 737 research airplane. The Boeing Company, as contractor with NASA under the Energy Efficient Transport (EET) program, planned and evaluated the experiment. The NASA-TCV Program Office coordinated the experiment and performed the flight tests. The principal objective of the test was to evaluate the drag reduction potential of an elastomeric polyurethane surface coating, CAAPCO B-274, which also has been considered for application on transport airplanes to protect leading edges from erosion. The smooth surface achievable with this type of coating held some promise of reducing the skin friction drag as compared to conventional production type aircraft surfaces, which are usually anodized bare metal or coated with corrosion protective paint. Requirements for high precision measurements were the principal considerations in the experiment.

  6. Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes: Wallops Flight Facility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gregg G.; Senzig, David A.; McCurdy, David A.; Roof, Christopher J.; Rapoza, Amanda S.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC), the Environmental Measurement and Modeling Division of the United States Department of Transportation s John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), and several other organizations (see Appendix A for a complete list of participating organizations and individuals) conducted a noise measurement study at NASA s Wallops Flight Facility (Wallops) near Chincoteague, Virginia during September 2000. This test was intended to determine engine installation effects on four civil transport airplanes: a Boeing 767-400, a McDonnell-Douglas DC9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beechcraft King Air. Wallops was chosen for this study because of the relatively low ambient noise of the site and the degree of control over airplane operating procedures enabled by operating over a runway closed to other uses during the test period. Measurements were conducted using a twenty microphone U-shaped array oriented perpendicular to the flight path; microphones were mounted such that ground effects were minimized and low elevation angles were observed.

  7. Flight test of a propulsion controlled aircraft system on the NASA F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight tests of the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system on the NASA F-15 airplane evolved as a result of a long series of simulation and flight tests. Initially, the simulation results were very optimistic. Early flight tests showed that manual throttles-only control was much more difficult than the simulation, and a flight investigation was flown to acquire data to resolve this discrepancy. The PCA system designed and developed by MDA evolved as these discrepancies were found and resolved, requiring redesign of the PCA software and modification of the flight test plan. Small throttle step inputs were flown to provide data for analysis, simulation update, and control logic modification. The PCA flight tests quickly revealed less than desired performance, but the extensive flexibility built into the flight PCA software allowed rapid evaluation of alternate gains, filters, and control logic, and within 2 weeks, the PCA system was functioning well. The initial objective of achieving adequate control for up-and-away flying and approaches was satisfied, and the option to continue to actual landings was achieved. After the PCA landings were accomplished, other PCA features were added, and additional maneuvers beyond those originally planned were flown. The PCA system was used to recover from extreme upset conditions, descend, and make approaches to landing. A heading mode was added, and a single engine plus rudder PCA mode was also added and flown. The PCA flight envelope was expanded far beyond that originally designed for. Guest pilots from the USAF, USN, NASA, and the contractor also flew the PCA system and were favorably impressed.

  8. A flight evaluation of a vectored thrust jet V/STOL airplane during simulated instrument approaches using the Kestrel (XV-6A) airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Culpepper, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    An in-flight investigation was made to determine the terminal-area operating problems of a vectored-thrust-jet vertical and short take-off landing (V/STOL) airplane under simulated instrument conditions. Handling-qualities data pertinent to the terminal-area approach and landing task are presented in the text, and additional documentation is included in the appendixes. Problems dealing with the cruise letdown to localizer capture, conversion to powered-lift flight, precise control of the glide slope, approach velocity or deceleration schedule, hover, and landing are discussed.

  9. 78 FR 63902 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http... of a new family of jet airplanes designed for corporate flight, fractional, charter, and private... medium bypass ratio turbofan engines mounted on aft fuselage pylons. Each engine produces approximately...

  10. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  11. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  12. Launch, Low-Speed, and Landing Characteristics Determined from the First Flight of the North American X-15 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Thomas W.; Matranga, Gene J.

    1959-01-01

    The first flight of the North American X-15 research airplane was made on June 8, 1959. This was accomplished after completion of a series of captive flights with the X-15 attached to the B-52 carrier airplane to demonstrate the aerodynamic and systems compatibility of the X-15//B-52 combination and the X-15 subsystem operation. This flight was planned as a glide flight so that the pilot need not be concerned with the propulsion system. Discussions of the launch, low-speed maneuvering, and landing characteristics are presented, and the results are compared with predictions from preflight studies. The launch characteristics were generally satisfactory, and the X-15 vertical tail adequately cleared the B-52 wing cutout. The actual landing pattern and landing characteristics compared favorably with predictions, and the recommended landing technique of lowering the flaps and landing gear at a low altitude appears to be a satisfactory method of landing the X-15 airplane. There was a quantitative correlation between flight-measured and predicted lift-drag-ratio characteristics in the clean configuration and a qualitative correlation in the landing configuration. A longitudinal-controllability problem, which became severe in the landing configuration, was evident throughout the flight and, apparently, was aggravated by the sensitivity of the side-located control stick. In the low-to-moderate angle-of-attack range covered, the longitudinal and directional stability were indicated to be adequate.

  13. Flight measurements of buffet characteristics of the F-104 airplane for selected wing-flap deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, E. L.; Sefic, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A flight program was conducted on the F-104 airplane to investigate the effects of moderate deflections of wing leading- and trailing-edge flaps on the buffet characteristics at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers. Selected deflections of the wing leading and trailing-edge flaps, individually and in combination, were used to assess buffet onset, intensity, and frequency; lift curves; and wing-rock characteristics for each configuration. Increased deflection of the trailing-edge flap delayed the buffet onset and buffet intensity rise to a significantly higher airplane normal-force coefficient. Deflection of the leading-edge flap produced some delay in buffet onset and the resulting intensity rise at low subsonic speeds. Increased deflection of the trailing-edge flap provided appreciable lift increments in the angle-of-attack range covered, whereas the leading-edge flap provided lift increments only at high angles-of-attack. The pilots appreciated the increased maneuvering envelope provided by the flaps because of the improved turn capability.

  14. Flight determined lift and drag characteristics of an F-8 airplane modified with a supercritical wing with comparison to wind-tunnel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, J. S.; Steers, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Flight measurements obtained with a TF-8A airplane modified with a supercritical wing are presented for altitudes from 7.6 kilometers (25,000 feet) to 13.7 kilometers (45,000 feet), Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2, and Reynolds numbers from 0.8 x 10 to the 7th power to 2.3 x 10 to the 7th power. Flight results for the airplane with and without area-rule fuselage fairings are compared. The techniques used to determine the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane are discussed. Flight data are compared with wind-tunnel model results, where applicable.

  15. Flight Tests of an Airplane Showing Dependence of the Maximum Lift Coefficient on the Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, H A; Hootman, James A

    1937-01-01

    Data are presented to show the extent to which the maximum lift coefficient and consequently the minimum speed of an airplane, determined by flight tests, may vary with test conditions. The data show that cl-max may vary as much as 14 percent, depending on the altitude and wing loading at which the tests were made, the position or motion of the propeller, and the rate at which the angle of attack is changing when the maximum lift coefficient is obtained. The variation of the maximum lift coefficient with these factors, which are under the control of the test engineer, shows the need of standardizing the test procedure. A further variation is shown with wing conditions as affected by weathering and vibration, factors that cannot be completely controlled.

  16. Flight-determined stability and control coefficients of the F-111A airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.; Steers, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    A complete set of linear stability and control derivatives of the F-111A airplane was determined with a modified maximum likelihood estimator. The derivatives were determined at wing sweep angles of 26 deg, 35 deg, and 58 deg. The flight conditions included a Mach number range of 0.63 to 1.43 and an angle of attack range of 2 deg to 15 deg. Maneuvers were performed at normal accelerations from 0.9g to 3.8g during steady turns to assess the aeroelastic effects on the stability and control characteristics. The derivatives generally showed consistent trends and reasonable agreement with the wind tunnel estimates. Significant Mach effects were observed for Mach numbers as low as 0.82. No large effects attributable to aeroelasticity were noted.

  17. Review of Flight Tests of NACA C and D Cowlings on the XP-42 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J Ford

    1943-01-01

    Results of flight tests of the performance and cooling characteristics of three NACA D cowlings and of a conventional NACA D cowling on the XP-42 airplane are summarized and compared. The D cowling is, in general, characterized by the use of an annular inlet and diffuser section for the engine-cooling air. The D cowlings tested were a long-nose high-inlet-velocity cowling, a short-nose high-inlet-velocity cowling, and a short-nose low inlet-velocity cowling. The use of wide-chord propeller cuffs or an axial-flow fan with the D cowlings increased the cooling pressure recoveries in the climb condition at the expense of some of the improvement in speed.

  18. In-flight acoustic measurements on a light twin-engined turboprop airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Mcdaniel, C. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1985-01-01

    Four series of flight tests were conducted to measure sound pressure levels inside and outside the cabin of a twin-engined turboprop airplane. Particular emphasis was placed on harmonics of the propeller blade passage frequency. The cabin was unfurnished for the first three flights, when the main objective was to investigate the repeatability of the data. For the fourth flight, the cabin was treated with fiberglass batts. Typically, the exterior sound pressure levels were found to vary 3 to 5 dB for a given harmonic, but variations as high as 8 dB were observed. The variability of harmonic levels within the cabin was slightly higher but depended on control of the relative phase between the propellers; when phase was not controlled the average variability was about 10 dB. Noise reductions provided by the fuselage structure were in the range of 20 to 40 dB, when an exterior microphone in the plane of rotation of the propeller was used as reference.

  19. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Yenni, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single-fuselage (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing task. The results of this study indicated that the twin-fuselage transport concept had acceptable but unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral-directional low-speed flight characteristics, and that stability and control augmentation would be required in order to improve the handling qualities. Through the use of rate-command/attitude-hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn coordination features, the handling qualities of the simulated transport were improved appreciably. The in-flight test results showed excellent agreement with those of the six-degree-of-freedom ground-based simulator handling qualities tests. As a result of the in-flight simulation study, a roll-control-induced normal-acceleration criterion was developed. The handling qualities of the augmented twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane exhibited an improvement over the handling characteristics of the reference (single-fuselage) transport.

  20. Stall Characteristics Obtained from Flight 10 of Northrop X-4 No. 2 Airplane (USAF No. 46-677)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoff, Melvin; Sisk, Thomas R

    1950-01-01

    NACA instrumentation has been installed ii the X-J4 airplanes to obtain stability and control data during the acceptance tests conducted by the Northrop Aircraft Corporation. This report presents data obtained on the stalling characteristics of the airplane in the clean and gear- down configurations. The center of gravity was located at approximately 18 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord during the tests. The results indicated that the airplane was not completely stalled when stall was gradually approached during nominally U accelerated flight but that it was completely stalled during a more abruptly approached stall in accelerated flight. The stall in accelerated flight was relatively mild, and this was attributed to the nature of the variation of lift with angle of attack for the 001-614 airfoil section, the plan form of the wing, and to the fact that the initial sideslip at the stall produced (as shown by wind-tunnel tests of a model of the airplane) a more symmetrical stall pattern.

  1. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a NASA F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. This presentation provides highlights of a technical paper that outlines this ultimate goal, including plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  2. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a NASA F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this paper provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  3. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this report provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  4. Flight evaluation of the effect of winglets on performance and handling qualities of a single-engine general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Vandam, C. P.; Brown, P. W.; Deal, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight evaluation was conducted to determine the effects of winglets on the performance and handling qualities of a light, single-engine general aviation airplane. The performance measurements were made with a pace airplane to provide calibrated airspeeds; uncalibrated panel instruments in the test airplane were used to provide additional quantitative performance data. These tests were conducted with winglets on and off during the same day to measure relative performance effects. Handling qualities were evaluated by means of pilot comments. Winglets increased cruise speed 8 knots (5.6 percent) at 3962 m (13,000 ft) density altitude and 51 percent maximum continuous power setting. Maximum speed at 3962 m was virtually unchanged. Rate of climb increased approximately 6 percent, or 0.25 m/sec (50 ft/min), at 1524 m (5000 ft). Stall speed was virtually unchanged. Handling qualities were favorably affected.

  5. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  6. Comparison of Wind-Tunnel and Flight Measurements of Stability and Control Characteristics of a Douglas A-26 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayten, Gerald G; Koven, William

    1945-01-01

    Stability and control characteristics determined from tests in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel of a 0.2375-scale model of the Douglas XA-26 airplane are compared with those measured in flight tests of a Douglas A-26 airplane. Agreement regarding static longitudinal stability as indicated by the elevator-fixed neutral points and by the variation of elevator deflection in both straight and turning flight was found to be good except at speeds approaching the stall. At these low speeds the airplane possessed noticeably improved stability, which was attributed to pronounced stalling at the root of the production wing. The pronounced root stalling did not occur on the smooth, well-faired model wing. Elevator tab effectiveness determined from model tests agreed well with flight-test tab effectiveness, but control-force variations with speed and acceleration were not in good agreement. The use of model hinge-moment data obtained at zero sideslip appeared to be satisfactory for the determination of aileron forces in sideslip. Fairly good correlation in aileron effectiveness and control forces was obtained; fabric distortion may have been responsible to some extent for higher flight values of aileron force at high speeds. Estimation of sideslip developed in an abrupt aileron roll was fair, but determination of the rudder deflection required to maintain zero sideslip in a rapid aileron roll was not entirely satisfactory.

  7. Wind-tunnel investigation of the flight characteristics of a canard general-aviation airplane configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satran, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    A 0.36-scale model of a canard general-aviation airplane with a single pusher propeller and winglets was tested in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the static and dynamic stability and control and free-flight behavior of the configuration. Model variables made testing of the model possible with the canard in high and low positions, with increased winglet area, with outboard wing leading-edge droop, with fuselage-mounted vertical fin and rudder, with enlarged rudders, with dual deflecting rudders, and with ailerons mounted closer to the wing tips. The basic model exhibited generally good longitudinal and lateral stability and control characteristics. The removal of an outboard leading-edge droop degraded roll damping and produced lightly damped roll (wing rock) oscillations. In general, the model exhibited very stable dihedral effect but weak directional stability. Rudder and aileron control power were sufficiently adequate for control of most flight conditions, but appeared to be relatively weak for maneuvering compared with those of more conventionally configured models.

  8. Presentation of flight control design and handling quality commonality by separate surface stability augmentation for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Douglas; Creighton, Thomas; Haddad, Raphael; Hendrich, Louis; Morgan, Louise; Russell, Mark; Swift, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The methodology and results for a flight control design and implementation for common handling qualities by Separate Surface Stability Augmentation (SSSA) for the family of commuter airplanes are contained. The open and closed loop dynamics and the design results of augmenting for common handling qualities are presented. The physical and technology requirements are presented for implementing the SSSA system. The conclusion of this report and recommendations for changes or improvement are discussed.

  9. Pressure distribution on wing ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes in flight Part II : pull-ups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, R V

    1928-01-01

    This paper is the second of a series of notes, each of which presents the complete results of pressure distribution tests made at Langley Field by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, on wing and tail ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes for a particular maneuver of flight. The results for pull-ups are presented in the form of curves which show the variation of pressure distribution, total loads, normal acceleration and center of pressure with respect to time.

  10. Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a 0.15-scale model of the F-106B airplane with vortex flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, Long P.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effects of vortex flaps on the flight dynamic characteristics of the F-106B in the area of low-speed, high-angle-of-attack flight was undertaken on a 0.15-scale model of the airplane in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. Static force tests, dynamic forced-oscillation tests, as well as free-flight tests were conducted to obtain a data base on the flight characteristics of the F-106B airplane with vortex flaps. Vortex flap configurations tested included a full-span gothic flap, a full-span constant-chord flap, and a part-span gothic flap.

  11. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  12. Comparison of Wind-Tunnel and Flight Measurements of Stability and Control Characteristics of a Douglas A-26 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koven, William; Kayten, Gerald G.

    1946-01-01

    Tests in Langley pressure tunnel of model XA-26 bomber were compared with those of A-26B (twin-engine attack bomber) and showed that static longitudinal stability, indicated by elevator-fixed neutral points, and variation of elevator deflection in straight and turning flight were good. Airplane possessed improved stability at low speeds which was attributed to pronounced stalling at root of production wing. At rudder-force reversal at speeds higher than those in flight tests, agreement in rudder-fixed and rudder-free static directional stability was good. Hinge moment obtained at zero sideslip was satisfactory for determining aileron forces in sideslip.

  13. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Modeling of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flaps on a GIII Airplane and Comparisons to Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark S.; Bui, Trong T.; Garcia, Christian A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    A pair of compliant trailing edge flaps was flown on a modified GIII airplane. Prior to flight test, multiple analysis tools of various levels of complexity were used to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flaps. Vortex lattice, full potential flow, and full Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis software programs were used for prediction, in addition to another program that used empirical data. After the flight-test series, lift and pitching moment coefficient increments due to the flaps were estimated from flight data and compared to the results of the predictive tools. The predicted lift increments matched flight data well for all predictive tools for small flap deflections. All tools over-predicted lift increments for large flap deflections. The potential flow and Navier-Stokes programs predicted pitching moment coefficient increments better than the other tools.

  14. [Electronic noise compensation for improving speech discrimination in airplane pilots].

    PubMed

    Matschke, R G; Pösselt, C; Veit, I; Andresen, U

    1989-02-01

    Noise exposure measurements were performed in pilots of the Federal Navy during realistic flight situations. The ambient noise levels during regular flight service were maintained at levels nearly all the time above 90 dB. To avoid occupational hearing loss, the "Noise Injury Prevention Code" issued by the insurers would demand wearing personal ear protection, e.g. ear plugs. But such equipment in the aircraft cockpit would have precisely the opposite effect, because one of the reasons for possible damage to hearing is radio communication. To be able to understand radio traffic in spite of the noisy environment, headphone volume must be raised above the noise of the engines. The use of ear plugs can be of only limited value. Whereas pilots with normal hearing show only little impairment of speech intelligibility, those with noise-induced hearing loss show substantial impairment that varies in proportion to their hearing loss. Communication abilities may be drastically reduced which may compromise the reliability of radio traffic. Cockpit noise has its maximum intensity around 125 Hz and flight helmets and ear defenders are not very effective in low frequency ranges. Sennheiser electronic KG developed an active noise compensation circuit, which makes use of the "anti noise" principle. Here the outside noises picked up by two microphones integrated into the headset are processed electronically in such a way that they largely neutralise the original noise. It had to be made sure that the radio traffic signal was not also compensated and that the signal to noise ratio was clearly increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2706059

  15. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1936-01-01

    Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.

  16. Pressure Distribution over a Wing and Tail Rib of a VE-7 and of a TS Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made to determine the pressure distribution over a rib of the wing and over a rib of the horizontal tail surface of an airplane in flight and to obtain information as to the time correlation of the loads occurring on these ribs. Two airplanes, VE-7 and TS, were selected in order to obtain the information for a thin and a thick wing section. In each case the pressure distribution was recorded for the full range of angle of attack in level flight and throughout violent maneuvers. The results show: (a) that the present rib load specifications in use by the Army Air Corps and the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, are in fair agreement with the loads actually occurring in flight, but could be slightly improved; (b) that there appears to be no definite sequence in which wing and tail surface ribs reach their respective maximum loads in different maneuvers; (c) that in accelerated flight, at air speeds less than or equal to 60 per cent of the maximum speed, the accelerations measured agree very closely with the theoretically possible maximum accelerations. In maneuvers at higher air speeds the observed accelerations were smaller than those theoretically possible. (author)

  17. The Effect of Mass Distribution on the Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics of an Airplane as Determined by Tests of a Model in the Free-flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Seacord, Charles L , Jr

    1943-01-01

    The effects of mass distribution on lateral stability and control characteristics of an airplane have been determined by flight tests of a model in the NACA free-flight tunnel. In the investigation, the rolling and yawing moments of inertia were increased from normal values to values up to five times normal. For each moment-of-inertia condition, combinations of dihedral and vertical-tail area representing a variety of airplane configurations were tested. The results of the flight tests of the model were correlated with calculated stability and control characteristics and, in general, good agreement was obtained.

  18. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Flying Qualities of a Tailless Triangular-wing Airplane Configuration as Obtained from Flights of Rocket-propelled Models at Transonic and Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcham, Grady L; Stevens, Joseph E; Norris, Harry P

    1956-01-01

    A flight investigation of rocket-powered models of a tailless triangular-wing airplane configuration was made through the transonic and low supersonic speed range at the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. An analysis of the aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, and flying qualities based on the results obtained from the successful flight tests of three models is presented.

  19. Correlation of the Drag Characteristics of a Typical Pursuit Airplane Obtained from High-Speed Wind-Tunnel and Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissen, James M; Gadebero, Burnett L; Hamilton, William T

    1948-01-01

    In order to obtain a correlation of drag data from wind-tunnel and flight tests at high Mach numbers, a typical pursuit airplane, with the propeller removed, was tested in flight at Mach numbers up to 0.755, and the results were compared with wind-tunnel tests of a 1/3-scale model of the airplane. The tests results show that the drag characteristics of the test airplane can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy from tests in the Ames 16-foot high-speed wind tunnel of the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory at both high and low Mach numbers. It is considered that this result is not unique with the airplane.

  20. Flight Characteristics of a 1/4-Scale Model of the XFV-1 Airplane (TED No. NACA DE-378)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark W.; Smaus, Louis H.

    1952-01-01

    A l/4-scale dynamically similar model of the XFV-1 airplane has been flown in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel, using the trailing flight-cable technique. This investigation was devoted to establishing the flight characteristics of the model in forward flight from hovering to wing stall, and in yawed flight (wing span alined with the relative wind) from hovering to the maximum speed at which controlled flight could be maintained. Landings, take-offs, and hovering characteristics in flights close to the ground were also investigated.. Since the remote control system for the model was rather complicated and provided artificial damping about the pitch, roll, and yaw axes, sufficient data from the control-system calibration tests are included in this report to specify the performance of the control system in relation to both the model flight tests and the design of an automatic control system for the full-scale airplane. The model in hovering flight appeared to be neutrally stable. The response of the model to the controls was very rapid, and it was always necessary to provide some amount of artificial damping to maintain control. The model could be landed with little difficulty by hovering approximately a foot above the floor and then cutting the power. Take-offs were more difficult to perform, primarily because the rate of change in power to the model motors was limited by the characteristics of the available power source. The model was,capable of controlled yawed flight at translational velocities up to and including 20 feet per second. The effectiveness of the controls decreased with increasing speed, however, and at 25 fps control in pitch, and probably roll, was lost completely. The model was flown in controlled forward flight from hovering up to 70 fps. During these flights the model appeared to be more difficult to control in yaw than it was in pitch or roll. The flights of the model were recorded by motion picture cameras. These motion pictures are

  1. Motion of the two-control airplane in rectilinear flight after initial disturbances with introduction of controls following an exponential law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemin, Alexander

    1937-01-01

    An airplane in steady rectilinear flight was assumed to experience an initial disturbance in rolling or yawing velocity. The equations of motion were solved to see if it was possible to hasten recovery of a stable airplane or to secure recovery of an unstable airplane by the application of a single lateral control following an exponential law. The sample computations indicate that, for initial disturbances complex in character, it would be difficult to secure correlation with any type of exponential control. The possibility is visualized that the two-control operation may seriously impair the ability to hasten recovery or counteract instability.

  2. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with External-airfoil Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Warren D; Clay, William C

    1937-01-01

    Wind-tunnel and flight tests have been made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a wing having external-airfoil flaps that also perform the function of ailerons. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of the airplane with several flap settings, and the rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients with the flaps deflected as ailerons were measured in the full-scale tunnel with the horizontal tail surfaces and propeller removed. The effect of the flaps on the low speed and on the take-off and landing characteristics, the effectiveness of flaps when used as ailerons, and the forces required to operate them as ailerons were determined in flight. The wind-tunnel tests showed that the flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airplane from 1.51 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap deflected 30 degrees. In the flight tests the minimum speed decreased from 46.8 miles per hour with the flaps up to 41.3 miles per hour with the flaps deflected. The required take-off run to attain a height of 50 feet was reduced from 820 to 750 feet and the landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced from 930 to 480 feet. The flaps for this installation gave lateral control that was not entirely satisfactory. Their rolling action was good but the adverse yaw resulting from their use was greater than is considerable, and the stick forces required to operate them increased too rapidly with speed.

  3. Aerodynamic and Landing Measurements Obtained During the First Powered Flight of the North American X-15 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    During the first powered flight of the North American X-15 research airplane on September 17, 1959, a Mach number of 2.1 and an altitude of 52,000 feet were attained. Static and dynamic maneuvers were performed to evaluate the characteristics of the airplane at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Data from these maneuvers as well as from the launch and landing phases are presented, discussed, and compared with predicted values. The rate of separation of the X-15 from the B-52 carrier airplane at launch was less than that predicted by wind-tunnel studies and was less rapid than in the lightweight condition of the initial glide flight. In addition, the angular motions and bank angle attained following the launch were of lesser magnitude than in the glide flight. Stable longitudinal-stability trends were apparent during the acceleration to maximum speed, and the pilot reported experiencing little or no transonic trim excursions. An inexplicable high-frequency vibration, which occurred at Mach numbers above 1.4, is being investigated further. Essentially linear lift and stability characteristics were indicated within the limited ranges of angle of attack and angle of sideslip investigated. The dynamic longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control-effectiveness characteristics appeared satisfactory to the pilot. Although the longitudinal- and lateral-directional-damping ratios showed no significant change from subsonic to supersonic speeds, on the basis of time to damp, the damping characteristics at supersonic speeds appeared to the pilot to be somewhat improved over those at subsonic speeds.

  4. Transition-flight Tests of a Model of a Low-wing Transport Vertical-take-off Airplane with Tilting Wing and Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Powell M , Jr; Parlett, Lysle P

    1956-01-01

    An investigation of the stability and control of a low-wing four-engine transport vertical-take-off airplane during the transition from hovering to normal forward flight has been conducted with a remotely controlled free-flight model. The model had four propellers distributed along the wing with the thrust axes in the wing-chord plane. The wing could be rotated to 90 degrees incidence so that the propeller thrust axes were vertical for hovering flight.

  5. Preliminary flight evaluation of F100 engine model derivative airstart capability in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, T. K.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A series of airstarts was conducted in an F-15 airplane with two prototype F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine control (DEEC) systems. The airstart envelope and time required for airstarts were defined. The success of an airstart is most heavily dependent on airspeed. Spooldown airstarts at 200 knots and higher were all successful. Spooldown airstart times ranged from 53 sec at 250 knots to 170 sec at 175 knots. Jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted airstarts were conducted at 175 knots at two altitudes, and airstart times were 50 and 60 sec, significantly faster than unassisted airstart. The effect of altitude on airstarts was small. In addition, the airstart characteristics of the two test engines were found to closely resemble each other. The F100 EMD airstart characteristics were very similar to the DEEC equipped F100 engine tested previously. Finally, the time required to spool down from intermediate power compressor rotor speed to a given compressor rotor speed was found to be a strong function of altitude and a weaker function of airspeed.

  6. Flight Measurements to Determine Effect of a Spring-Loaded Tab on Longitudinal Stability of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul A.; Reeder, John P.

    1946-01-01

    In conjunction with a program of research on the general problem of stability of airplanes in the climbing condition, tests have been made of a spring-loaded tb which. is referred to as a ?springy tab,? installed on the elevator of a low-wing scout bomber. The tab was arranged to deflect upward with decrease in speed which caused an increase in the pull force required to trim at low speeds and thereby increased the stick-free static longitudinal stability of the airplane. It was found that the springy tab would increase the stick-free stability in all flight conditions, would reduce the danger of inadvertent stalling because of the definite pull force required to stall the airplane with power on, would reduce the effect of center-of-gravity position on stick-free static stability, and would have little effect on the elevator stick forces in accelerated f11ght. Another advantage of the springy tab is that it might be used to provide almost any desired variation of elevator stick force with speed by adjusting the tab hinge-moment characteristics and the variation of spring moment with tab deflection. Unlike the bungee and the bobweight, the springy tab would provide stick-free static stability without requiring a pull force to hold the stick back while taxying. A device similar to the springy tab may be used on the rudder or ailerons to eliminate undesirable trim-force variations with speed.

  7. Wind-tunnel Tests of a 2-engine Airplane Model as a Preliminary Study of Flight Conditions Arising on the Failure of the Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 15-foot-span model of a two-engine low wing transport airplane were made as a preliminary study of the emergency arising from the failure of one engine in flight. Two methods of reducing the initial yawing moment resulting from the failure of one engine were investigated and the equilibrium conditions were explored for two basic modes on one engine, one with zero angle of sideslip and the other with several degrees of sideslip. The added drag resulting from the unsymmetrical attitudes required for flight on one engine was determined for the model airplane. The effects of the application of power upon the stability, controllability, lift, and drag of the model airplane were measured. A dynamic pressure survey of the propeller slipstream was made in the neighborhood of the tail surfaces at three angles of attack. The added parasite drag of the model airplane resulting from the unfavorable conditions of flight on one engine was estimated. From 35 to 50 percent of this added drag was due to the drag of the dead engine propeller and the other 50 to 65 percent was due to the unsymmetrical attitude of the airplane. The mode of flight on one engine in which the angle of sideslip was zero was found to require less power than the mode in which the angle of sideslip was several degrees.

  8. 78 FR 75453 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Isolation or Protection From Internal Access AGENCY: Federal... control and navigation systems, 2. Operator business and administrative support, and 3....

  9. Stability and Controls Analysis and Flight Test Results of a 24-Foot Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moua, Cheng M.; Cox, Timothy H.; McWherter, Shaun C.

    2008-01-01

    The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) F-15B flight research program investigated supersonic shock reduction using a 24-ft telescoping nose boom on an F-15B airplane. The program goal was to collect flight data for model validation up to 1.8 Mach. In the area of stability and controls, the primary concerns were to assess the potential destabilizing effect of the oversized nose boom on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the airplane and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire research flight envelope. This paper reports on the stability and control analytical methods, flight envelope clearance approach, and flight test results of the F-15B telescoping nose boom configuration. Also discussed are brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks and refueling tasks.

  10. 78 FR 15112 - Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and... guidance material for airplane performance and handling characteristics in new transport category airplanes...: Joe Jacobsen, Airplane & Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Airplane...

  11. Determination of model structure and parameters of an airplane from pre- and post-stall flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.; Murphy, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for airplane model structure determination from flight data based on modified stepwise regression (MSR), several decision criteria and postulated aerodynamic model equations is presented. The MSR is constructed to force a linear model for the aerodynamic coefficient first, then select significant nonlinear terms and reject nonsignificant terms from the model. In addition to the statistical criteria in the stepwise regression, the prediction sum of squares (PRESS) criterion and analysis of residuals are examined for the selection of an adequate model. The procedure is used in examples with simulated and real flight data. It is shown that the MSR performs better than the ordinary stepwise regression and that the technique can be also applied to the large amplitude maneuvers.

  12. Flight test operations using an F-106B research airplane modified with a wing leading-edge vortex flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Brown, Philip W.; Hallissy, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Flight tests of an F-106B aircraft equipped with a leading-edge vortex flap, which represented the culmination of a research effort to examine the effectiveness of the flap, were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the flight tests was to establish a data base on the use of a wing leading-edge vortex flap as a means to validate the design and analysis methods associated with the development of such a vortical flow-control concept. The overall experiment included: refinements of the design codes for vortex flaps; numerous wind tunnel entries to aid in verifying design codes and determining basic aerodynamic characteristics; design and fabrication of the flaps, structural modifications to the wing tip and leading edges of the test aircraft; development and installation of an aircraft research instrumentation system, including wing and flap surface pressure measurements and selected structural loads measurements; ground-based simulation to assess flying qualities; and finally, flight testing. This paper reviews the operational aspects associated with the flight experiment, which includes a description of modifications to the research airplane, the overall flight test procedures, and problems encountered. Selected research results are also presented to illustrate the accomplishments of the research effort.

  13. Flight evaluations of the effect of advanced control systems and displays on the handling qualities of a general aviation airplane.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loschke, P. C.; Barber, M. R.; Jarvis, C. R.; Enevoldson, E. K.

    1972-01-01

    Flight tests have shown that, by means of improved displays and advanced control systems, it is possible to transform a typical light airplane into a flying machine that borders on being perfect from a handling-qualities standpoint. A flight-director display and an attitude-command control system used in combination transformed a vehicle with poor handling qualities during ILS approaches in turbulent air into a vehicle with extremely good handling qualities. The attitude-command control system also improved the ride qualities of the airplane. A rate-command control system was less beneficial than an attitude-command control system. Although this paper deals primarily with general aviation aircraft, the results presented pertain to other types of aircraft. Short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft would be a natural application of the control systems because, as a result of their low speeds, they encounter many of the handling-qualities problems noted on light aircraft. The improved ride qualities should be of interest to all airline operations, and for STOL aircraft in particular, because of their prolonged exposure to low-altitude turbulence.

  14. Preliminary design-lift/cruise fan research and technology airplane flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotlieb, P.; Lewis, G. E.; Little, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a stability augmentation system for a NASA V/STOL research and technology airplane. This stability augmentation system is postulated as the simplest system that meets handling qualities levels for research and technology missions flown by NASA test pilots. The airplane studied in this report is a T-39 fitted with tilting lift/cruise fan nacelles and a nose fan. The propulsion system features a shaft interconnecting the three variable pitch fans and three power plants. The mathematical modeling is based on pre-wind tunnel test estimated data. The selected stability augmentation system uses variable gains scheduled with airspeed. Failure analysis of the system illustrates the benign effect of engine failure. Airplane rate sensor failure must be solved with redundancy.

  15. Investigation of the Forces Acting on Gliders in Automobile-pulley-winch and Airplane Towed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemperer, W B

    1942-01-01

    The magnitude, the direction, and the fluctuation of towing forces exerted upon gliders by towing them aloft behind an automobile, by means of a winch, and by airplane were measured under a variety of conditions covering a range from gentle to severe types of operation. For these tests the towing forces did not exceed 92 percent of the gross weight of the glider. The results indicate that in pulley and winch towing the towing forces are of about the same magnitude as in automobile towing. Speed increases in the accelerated phases of the towing jerks encountered in airplane towing can readily become critical as speeds in excess of placard speeds can be attained. Passage through the slipstream of the towing airplane can be equivalent to a severe gust that, at high speed, may impose high wing loads and require large control moments.

  16. Wind-tunnel static and free-flight investigation of high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a model of the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Hahne, David E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel and the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to identify factors contributing to a directional divergence at high angles of attack for the EA-6B airplane. The study consisted of static wind-tunnel tests, smoke and tuft flow-visualization tests, and free-flight tests of a 1/8.5-scale model of the airplane. The results of the investigation indicate that the directional divergence of the airplane is brought about by a loss of directional stability and effective dihedral at high angles of attack. Several modifications were tested that significantly alleviate the stability problem. The results of the free-flight study show that the modified configuration exhibits good dynamic stability characteristics and could be flown at angles of attack significantly higher than those of the unmodified configuration.

  17. An Apparatus for Varying Effective Dihedral in Flight with Application to a Study of Tolerable Dihedral on a Conventional Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, William M; Liddell, Charles J , Jr; Smith, Allan; Van Dyke, Rudolph D , Jr

    1949-01-01

    An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight by means of servo actuation of the ailerons in response to sideslip angle is described. The results of brief flight tests of the apparatus on a conventional fighter airplane are presented and discussed. The apparatus is shown to have satisfactory simulated a wide range of effective dihedral under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of a small amount of servo lag are shown to be measurable when the apparatus is simulating small negative values of dihedral. However, these effects were not considered by the pilots to give the airplane an artificial feel. The results of an investigation employing the apparatus to determine the tolerable (safe for normal fighter operation) range of effective dihedral on the test airplane are presented.

  18. Flight and Static Exhaust Flow Properties of an F110-GE-129 Engine in an F-16XL Airplane During Acoustic Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Jon K.; Webb, Lannie D.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The exhaust flow properties (mass flow, pressure, temperature, velocity, and Mach number) of the F110-GE-129 engine in an F-16XL airplane were determined from a series of flight tests flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. These tests were performed in conjunction with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LARC) as part of a study to investigate the acoustic characteristics of jet engines operating at high nozzle pressure conditions. The range of interest for both objectives was from Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.9. NASA Dryden flew the airplane and acquired and analyzed the engine data to determine the exhaust characteristics. NASA Langley collected the flyover acoustic measurements and correlated these results with their current predictive codes. This paper describes the airplane, tests, and methods used to determine the exhaust flow properties and presents the exhaust flow properties. No acoustics results are presented.

  19. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  20. Summary of flight tests to determine the spin and controllability characteristics of a remotely piloted, large-scale (3/8) fighter airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    An unpowered, large, dynamically scaled airplane model was test flown by remote pilot to investigate the stability and controllability of the configuration at high angles of attack. The configuration proved to be departure/spin resistant; however, spins were obtained by using techniques developed on a flight support simulator. Spin modes at high and medium high angles of attack were identified, and recovery techniques were investigated. A flight support simulation of the airplane model mechanized with low speed wind tunnel data over an angle of attack range of + or - 90 deg. and an angle of sideslip range of + or - 40 deg. provided insight into the effects of altitude, stability, aerodynamic damping, and the operation of the augmented flight control system on spins. Aerodynamic derivatives determined from flight maneuvers were used to correlate model controllability with two proposed departure/spin design criteria.

  1. 75 FR 70854 - Harmonization of Various Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes-Flight Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... preamble to Amendment 25- 72, Special Review: Transport Category Airplane Airworthiness Standards (55 FR... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... Conditions. In the preamble to that rulemaking (72 FR 44665), the FAA stated that we needed more time...

  2. 78 FR 6195 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 9, 2012, (77 FR... Protection: Performance Credit for Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) During Go-Around AGENCY... design feature associated with the use of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) during...

  3. 78 FR 75285 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... BD- 500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal Load Factor (g) Limiting AGENCY... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background... following: Knowledge that the limit system will protect the structure, Low stick...

  4. Flight-test of the glide-slope track and flare-control laws for an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.; Hardy, G. H.; Warner, D. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An automatic landing system was developed for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane to establish the feasibility and examine the operating characteristics of a powered-lift STOL transport flying a steep, microwave landing system (MLS) glide slope to automatically land on a STOL port. The flight test results address the longitudinal aspects of automatic powered lift STOL airplane operation including glide slope tracking on the backside of the power curve, flare, and touchdown. Three different autoland control laws were evaluated to demonstrate the tradeoff between control complexity and the resulting performance. The flight test and simulation methodology used in developing conventional jet transport systems was applied to the powered-lift STOL airplane. The results obtained suggest that an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane operating into an MLS-equipped STOL port is feasible. However, the airplane must be provided with a means of rapidly regulation lift to satisfactorily provide the glide slope tracking and control of touchdown sink rate needed for automatic landings.

  5. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.513 Flight time limitations: Overseas and international...

  6. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.519 Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation:...

  7. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.513 Flight time limitations: Overseas and international...

  8. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.513 Flight time limitations: Overseas and international...

  9. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.519 Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation:...

  10. 77 FR 70384 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver for Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http... first of a new family of jet airplanes designed for corporate flight, fractional, charter, and private... medium bypass ratio turbofan engines mounted on aft fuselage pylons. Each engine produces approximately...

  11. Maximum likelihood method for estimating airplane stability and control parameters from flight data in frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.

    1980-01-01

    A frequency domain maximum likelihood method is developed for the estimation of airplane stability and control parameters from measured data. The model of an airplane is represented by a discrete-type steady state Kalman filter with time variables replaced by their Fourier series expansions. The likelihood function of innovations is formulated, and by its maximization with respect to unknown parameters the estimation algorithm is obtained. This algorithm is then simplified to the output error estimation method with the data in the form of transformed time histories, frequency response curves, or spectral and cross-spectral densities. The development is followed by a discussion on the equivalence of the cost function in the time and frequency domains, and on advantages and disadvantages of the frequency domain approach. The algorithm developed is applied in four examples to the estimation of longitudinal parameters of a general aviation airplane using computer generated and measured data in turbulent and still air. The cost functions in the time and frequency domains are shown to be equivalent; therefore, both approaches are complementary and not contradictory. Despite some computational advantages of parameter estimation in the frequency domain, this approach is limited to linear equations of motion with constant coefficients.

  12. Free-Flight-Tunnel Investigation of the Dynamic Stability and Control Characteristics of a Chance Vought F7U-3 Airplane in Towed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, David C.; Shanks, Robert E.

    1952-01-01

    As part of a program to determine the feasibility of using a fighter airplane as a parasite in combination with a Consolidated Vultee RB-36 for long-range reconnaissance missions (project FICON), an experimental investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/17.5-scale model of a Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane in several tow configurations. The investigation consisted of flight tests in which the model was towed from a strut in the tunnel by a towline and by a direct coupling which provided complete angular freedom. The tests with the direct coupling also included a study of the effect of spring restraint in roll in order to simulate approximately the proposed full-scale arrangement in which the only freedom is that permitted by the flexibility of the launching and retrieving trapeze carried by the-bomber. For the tow configurations in which a towline was used (15 and 38 feet full scale), the model had a very unstable lateral oscillation which could not be controlled. The stability was also unsatisfactory for the tow configuration in Which the model was coupled directly to the strut with complete angular freedom. When spring restraint in roll was added, however, the stability was satisfactory. The use of the yaw damper which increased the damping in yaw to about six times the normal value of the model appeared to have no appreciable effect on the lateral oscillations in the towline configurations, but produced a slight improvement in the case of the direct coupling configurations. The longitudinal stability was satisfactory for those cases in which the lateral stability was good enough to permit study of longitudinal motions.

  13. Measurements in Flight of the Lateral-Control Characteristics of an Airplane Equipped with Full-Span Zap Flaps and Simple Circular-Arc-Type Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christophersen, Don R.; Spahr, J. Richard

    1944-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted on the OS2U-2 seaplane with simple circular-arc-type ailerons directly connected to the actuating torque tube. Two aileron test installations were made, differing only in the inclination of the projecting surface with the wing's upper surface. The lateral-control characteristics of the airplane were determined from data obtained in stalls and rudder-fixed aileron rolls. The revised ailerons were deficient in maximum rolling effectiveness, but were capable of controlling the rolling tendencies of the airplane near the stall.

  14. A study of the use of experimental stability derivatives in the calculation of the lateral disturbed motions of a swept-wing airplane and comparison with flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John D; Jaquet, Byron M

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the accuracy with which the lateral flight motions of a swept-wing airplane could be predicted from experimental stability derivatives, determined in the 6-foot-diameter rolling-flow test section and 6 by 6-foot curved-flow test section of the Langley stability tunnel. In addition, determination of the significance of including the nonlinear aerodynamic effects of sideslip in the calculations of the motions was desired. All experimental aerodynamic data necessary for prediction of the lateral flight motions are presented along with a number of comparisons between flight and calculated motions caused by rudder and aileron disturbances.

  15. Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms August 21, 1946 to August 22, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolefson, H. B.

    1946-01-01

    Tables I and II of this report summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm flights 25 and 26 of August 21, 1946 and August 22, 1946, respectively. These dta were evaluated from records of NACA instruments installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from motion-picture records of the instrument and include all cases in which variations in the instrument indications were noted during the present flights.

  16. Flight investigation of the effect of tail configuration on stall, spin, and recovery characteristics of a low-wing general aviation research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Patton, James M., Jr.; Sliwa, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the stall, spin, and recovery characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, light airplane with four interchangeable tail configurations. The four tail configurations were evaluated for effects of varying mass distribution, center-of-gravity position, and control inputs. The airplane tended to roll-off at the stall. Variations in tail configuration produced spins ranging from 40 deg to 60 deg angle of attack and turn rates of about 145 to 208 deg/sec. Some unrecoverable flat spins were encountered which required use of the airplane spin chute for recovery. For recoverable spins, antispin rudder followed by forward wheel with ailerons centered provided the quickest spin recovery. The moderate spin modes agreed very well with those predicted from spin-tunnel model tests, however, the flat spin was at a lower angle of attack and a slower rotation rate than indicated by the model tests.

  17. Force Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane with Conventional Tail Assembly in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Johnson, Joseph L.

    1947-01-01

    At the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces an investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 airplane is being conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The XP-85 airplane is a parasite fighter carried in a bomb bay of the B-36 airplane. As a part of the investigation a few force tests were made of a 1/5 scale model of the XP-85 with a conventional tail assembly installed in place of the original design five-unit tail assembly. The total area of the conventional assembly was approximately 80 percent of the area of the five-unit assembly. The results of this investigation showed that the conventional tail assembly gave about the same longitudinal stability characteristics as the original configuration and improved the directional and lateral stability.

  18. A revolutionary approach to composite construction and flight management systems for small, general aviation airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Wenninger, ED

    1992-01-01

    The design studies for two composite general aviation airplanes are presented. The main consideration for both of the designs was to avoid the typical 'metal replacement' philosophy that has hindered the widespread use of composites in general aviation aircraft. The first design is for a low wing aircraft based on the Smith Aircraft Corporation GT-3 Global Trainer. The second aircraft is a composite version of the Cessna 152. The project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in aeronautics. The results obtained from the Fall semester of 1991 and the Spring semester of 1992 are presented.

  19. 78 FR 73993 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680 Series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer systems and networks. Connectivity to, or access by, external systems and networks may result in security vulnerabilities to the airplanes' systems. The proposed......

  20. Measurements in Flight of the Flying Qualities of a Chance Vought F4U-4 Airplane: TED No. NACA 2388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddell, Charles J., Jr.; Reynolds, Robert M.; Christofferson, Frank E.

    1947-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine flying qualities of a Chance Vought F4U-4 airplane are presented and discussed herein. In addition to comprehensive measurements at low altitude (about 8000 ft), tests of limited scope were made at high altitude (about 25,000 ft). The more important characteristics, based on a comparison of the test results and opinions of the pilots with the Navy requirements, can be summarized as follows: 1. The short-period control-free oscillations of the elevator angle and the normal acceleration were satisfactorily damped. 2. The most rearward center-of-gravity locations for satisfactory static longitudinal stability with power on, as determined by the control-force variations, were approximately 30 and 27 percent M.A.C. with flaps and gear up and down, respectively. 3. In maneuvering flight the conditions for which control-force gradients of satisfactory magnitude were obtained were seriously limited by sizable changes in the gradient with center-of-gravity location, airspeed, altitude, acceleration factor, and direction of turn. 4. The elevator and rudder controls were satisfactory for landings and take-offs. 5. The trim tabs were sufficiently effective for all controls. 6. The directional and lateral dynamic stability was positive, but the rudder oscillation did not damp within one cycle. The airplane oscillation damped sufficiently at low altitude but not at high altitude. 7. Both rudder-fixed and rudder-free static directional stability were positive over a sideslip range of +/-15 deg. However, the rudder force tended to reverse at high angles of right sideslip with flaps and gear up, power on, at low speeds. 8. The stick-fixed static lateral stability (dihedral effect) was positive in all conditions, but the stick-free dihedral effect was neutral at low speeds with flap and gear down, power on. 9. The yaw due to abrupt full aileron deflection at low speed was mot excessive, and the rudder control was adequate to hold trim

  1. Flight tests of a radio-controlled airplane mode with a free-wing, free-canard configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Flight characteristics, controllability, and potential operating problems were investigated in a radio-controlled airplane model in which the wing is so attached to the fuselage that it is free to pivot about a spanwise axis forward of its aerodynamic center and is subject only to aerodynamic pitching moments imposed by lift and drag forces and a control surface. A simple technique of flying the test vehicle in formation with a pickup truck was used to obtain trim data. The test vehicle was flown through a series of maneuvers designed to permit evaluation of certain characteristics by observation. The free-wing free-canard concept was determined to be workable. Stall/spin characteristics were considered to be excellent, and no effect on longitudinal stability was observed when center of gravity changes were made. Several problems were encountered during the early stages of flight testing, such as aerodynamic lockup of the free canard and excessive control sensitivity. Lack of onboard instrumentation precluded any conclusions about gust alleviation or ride qualities.

  2. Flight Calibration of four airspeed systems on a swept-wing airplane at Mach numbers up to 1.04 by the NACA radar-phototheodolite method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jim Rogers; Bray, Richard S; COOPER GEORGE E

    1950-01-01

    The calibrations of four airspeed systems installed in a North American F-86A airplane have been determined in flight at Mach numbers up to 1.04 by the NACA radar-phototheodolite method. The variation of the static-pressure error per unit indicated impact pressure is presented for three systems typical of those currently in use in flight research, a nose boom and two different wing-tip booms, and for the standard service system installed in the airplane. A limited amount of information on the effect of airplane normal-force coefficient on the static-pressure error is included. The results are compared with available theory and with results from wind-tunnel tests of the airspeed heads alone. Of the systems investigated, a nose-boom installation was found to be most suitable for research use at transonic and low supersonic speeds because it provided the greatest sensitivity of the indicated Mach number to a unit change in true Mach number at very high subsonic speeds, and because it was least sensitive to changes in airplane normal-force coefficient. The static-pressure error of the nose-boom system was small and constant above a Mach number of 1.03 after passage of the fuselage bow shock wave over the airspeed head.

  3. Spinning Characteristics of the XN2Y-1 Airplane Obtained from the Spinning Balance and Compared with Results from the Spinning Tunnel and from Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamber, M J; House, R O

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests of a 1/10-scale model of the XN2Y-1 airplane tested in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel in which the six components of forces and moments were measured. The model was tested in 17 attitudes in which the full-scale airplane had been observed to spin, in order to determine the effects of scale, tunnel, and interference. In addition, a series of tests was made to cover the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, rates of rotation, and control setting likely to be encountered by a spinning airplane. The data were used to estimate the probable attitudes in steady spins of an airplane in flight and of a model in the free-spinning tunnel. The estimated attitudes of steady spin were compared with attitudes measured in flight and in the spinning tunnel. The results indicate that corrections for certain scale and tunnel effects are necessary to estimate full-scale spinning attitudes from model results.

  4. Flight investigation of the effects of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification on stall/spin characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, T-tail light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Patton, James M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the change in stall/spin characteristics due to the addition of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification to a four-place, low-wing, single-engine, T-tail, general aviation research airplane. Stalls and attempted spins were performed for various weights, center of gravity positions, power settings, flap deflections, and landing-gear positions. Both stall behavior and wind resistance were improved compared with the baseline airplane. The latter would readily spin for all combinations of power settings, flap deflections, and aileron inputs, but the modified airplane did not spin at idle power or with flaps extended. With maximum power and flaps retracted, the modified airplane did enter spins with abused loadings or for certain combinations of maneuver and control input. The modified airplane tended to spin at a higher angle of attack than the baseline airplane.

  5. Determination of Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics from Free-Flight Model Tests with Results at Transonic Speeds for Three Airplane Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, Clarence L; Mitchell, Jesse L

    1957-01-01

    A test technique and data analysis method has been developed for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics from free-flight tests of rocket-propelled models. The technique makes use of accelerometers and an angle-of-attack indicator to permit instantaneous measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moments. The data, obtained during transient oscillations resulting from control-surface disturbances, are analyzed by essentially nonlinear direct methods (such as cross plots of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack) and by linear indirect methods by using the equations of motion for a transient oscillation. The analysis procedure has been set forth in some detail and the feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by data measured through the transonic speed range on several airplane configurations. It was shown that the flight conditions and dynamic similitude factors for the tests described were reasonably close to typical full-scale airplane conditions.

  6. In-flight investigation of the effects of pilot location and control system design on airplane flying qualities for approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.; Chalk, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The handling qualities of large airplanes in the approach and landing flight phase were studied. The primary variables were relative pilot position with respect to center of rotation, command path time delays and phase shifts, augmentation schemes and levels of augmentation. It is indicated that the approach and landing task with large airplanes is a low bandwidth task. Low equivalent short period frequencies and relatively long time delays are tolerated only when the pilot is located at considerable distance forward of the center of rotation. The control problem experienced by the pilots, when seated behind the center of rotation, tended to occur at low altitude when they were using visual cues of rate of sink and altitude. A direct lift controller improved final flight path control of the shuttle like configurations.

  7. 14 CFR 121.344 - Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Safety Board under 49 CFR 830 of its regulations and that results in termination of the flight, the... bus status; (75) DC electrical bus status; (76) APU bleed valve position (when an information...

  8. A comparison of flight and simulation data for three automatic landing system control laws for the Augmentor wing jet STOL research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinreich, B.; Gevaert, G.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic flare and decrab control laws for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft were adapted to the unique requirements of the powered lift short takeoff and landing airplane. Three longitudinal autoland control laws were developed. Direct lift and direct drag control were used in the longitudinal axis. A fast time simulation was used for the control law synthesis, with emphasis on stochastic performance prediction and evaluation. Good correlation with flight test results was obtained.

  9. A Flight Study of the Effects on Tracking Performance of Changes in the Lateral-oscillatory Characteristics of a Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Rudolph D , Jr; Mcneill, Walter E; Drinkwater, Fred J , III

    1953-01-01

    A study of the effects of variations in lateral-oscillatory characteristics on air-to-air tracking performance has been made, using a conventional, propeller-driven fighter airplane equipped with servo devices for varying these characteristics in flight. Tracking runs were made both in smooth air and in simulated rough air. The lateral-oscillation period, damping, and roll coupling were varied over wide ranges during the investigation.

  10. 78 FR 63847 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Airplane Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer systems and networks, which may allow access to or by external computer systems and networks....

  11. Flight-determined engine exhaust characteristics of an F404 engine in an F-18 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Webb, Lannie D.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA-Langley) and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) recently completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Several types of aircraft with high nozzle pressure ratio engines were flown to satisfy a twofold objective. First, assessments were made of subsonic climb-to-cruise noise from flights conducted at varying altitudes in a Mach 0.30 to 0.90 range. Second, using data from flights conducted at constant altitude in a Mach 0.30 to 0.95 range, engineers obtained a high quality noise database. This database was desired to validate the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program and other system noise prediction codes. NASA-Dryden personnel analyzed the engine data from several aircraft that were flown in the test program to determine the exhaust characteristics. The analysis of the exhaust characteristics from the F-18 aircraft are reported. An overview of the flight test planning, instrumentation, test procedures, data analysis, engine modeling codes, and results are presented.

  12. Flight test report of the NASA icing research airplane: Performance, stability, and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. L.; Platz, S. J.; Schinstock, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Flight test results are presented documenting the effect of airframe icing on performance and stability and control of a NASA DHC-6 icing research aircraft. Kohlman System Research, Inc., provided the data acquisition system and data analysis under contract to NASA. Performance modeling methods and MMLE techniques were used to determine the effects of natural ice on the aircraft. Results showed that ice had a significant effect on the drag coefficient of the aircraft and a modest effect on the MMLE derived longitudinal stability coefficients (code version MMLE). Data is also presented on asymmetric power sign slip maneuvers showing rudder floating characteristics with and without ice on the vertical stabilizer.

  13. Preliminary flight results of an adaptive engine control system of an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1987-01-01

    Results of the flight demonstration of the adaptive engine control system (ADECS), an integrated flight and propulsion control system, are reported. The ADECS system provides additional engine thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power, with the amount of EPR uptrim modulated in accordance with the maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. As a result of EPR uptrimming, engine thrust has increased by as much as 10.5 percent, rate of climb has increased by 10 percent, and the time to climb from 10,000 to 40,000 ft has been reduced by 12.5 percent. Increases in acceleration of 9.3 and 13 percent have been obtained at intermediate and maximum power, respectively. No engine anomalies have been detected for EPR increases up to 12 percent.

  14. Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-70-1). 3: A comparison between characteristics predicted from wind-tunnel measurements and those measured in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaiz, H. H.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Daugherty, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken by NASA to evaluate the accuracy of a method for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of large supersonic cruise airplanes. This program compared predicted and flight-measured lift, drag, angle of attack, and control surface deflection for the XB-70-1 airplane for 14 flight conditions with a Mach number range from 0.76 to 2.56. The predictions were derived from the wind-tunnel test data of a 0.03-scale model of the XB-70-1 airplane fabricated to represent the aeroelastically deformed shape at a 2.5 Mach number cruise condition. Corrections for shape variations at the other Mach numbers were included in the prediction. For most cases, differences between predicted and measured values were within the accuracy of the comparison. However, there were significant differences at transonic Mach numbers. At a Mach number of 1.06 differences were as large as 27 percent in the drag coefficients and 20 deg in the elevator deflections. A brief analysis indicated that a significant part of the difference between drag coefficients was due to the incorrect prediction of the control surface deflection required to trim the airplane.

  15. The Effect of Mass Distribution on the Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics of an Airplane as Determined by Tests of a Model in the Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seacord, Charles L; Campbell, John P.

    1943-01-01

    The effects of mass distribution on lateral stability and control characteristics of an airplane have been determined by flight tests of a model in the NACA free-flight tunnel. In the investigation, the rolling and yawing movements of inertia were increased from normal values to values up to five times normal. For each moment-of-inertia condition, combinations of dihedral and vertical-tail area representing a variety of airplane configurations were tested. The results of the flight tests of the model were correlated with calculated stability and control characteristics and, in general, good agreement was obtained. The tests showed the following effects of increased rolling and yawing moments of inertia: no appreciable change in spiral stability; reductions in oscillatory stability that were serious at high values of dihedral; a reduction in the sensitivity of the model to gust disturbances; and a reduction in rolling acceleration provided by the ailerons, which caused a marked increase in time to reach a given angle of bank. The general flight behavior of the model became worse with increasing moments of inertia but, with combinations of small effective dihedral and large vertical-tail area, satisfactory flight characteristics were obtained at all moment-of-inertia conditions.

  16. 14 CFR 121.344 - Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Safety Board under 49 CFR 830 of its regulations and that results in termination of the flight, the... as provided in paragraph (l) of this section, no person may operate under this part a turbine-engine... (when an information source is installed); (38) Wind speed and direction (when an information source...

  17. 14 CFR 121.344 - Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Safety Board under 49 CFR 830 of its regulations and that results in termination of the flight, the... as provided in paragraph (l) of this section, no person may operate under this part a turbine-engine... (when an information source is installed); (38) Wind speed and direction (when an information source...

  18. 14 CFR 121.344 - Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Safety Board under 49 CFR 830 of its regulations and that results in termination of the flight, the... as provided in paragraph (l) of this section, no person may operate under this part a turbine-engine... (when an information source is installed); (38) Wind speed and direction (when an information source...

  19. X-43A: The First Flight of a Scramjet Powered Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Griff

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the X-43A Scramjet engine is shown. The topics include: 1) Scramjets; 2) Overview of X-43A; 3) What Happened the 1st Time; 4) Return to Flight; and 5) What Happened the 2nd Time.

  20. 76 FR 36870 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 8319). Only one comment was received, which was supportive, so these special conditions are...; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for Electronic Flight Controls AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... electronic flight control system that provides roll control of the airplane through pilot inputs to...

  1. 77 FR 69572 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http..., specifically an electronic flight control system which contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope... controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and rudder, controlled by...

  2. An Experimental Evaluation of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Aeroelastic Stability Augmentation in Airplane Mode of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Piatak, David J.; Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a joint NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter Textron wind-tunnel test to assess the potential of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in the airplane mode of flight are presented. GPC is an adaptive time-domain predictive control method that uses a linear difference equation to describe the input-output relationship of the system and to design the controller. The test was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using an unpowered 1/5-scale semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 that was modified to incorporate a GPC-based multi-input multi-output control algorithm to individually control each of the three swashplate actuators. Wing responses were used for feedback. The GPC-based control system was highly effective in increasing the stability of the critical wing mode for all of the conditions tested, without measurable degradation of the damping in the other modes. The algorithm was also robust with respect to its performance in adjusting to rapid changes in both the rotor speed and the tunnel airspeed.

  3. Techniques to improve maneuver stability characteristics of a nonlinear wide-body transport airplane in cruise flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    The maneuver control stability characteristics of an aircraft are a flying qualities parameter of critical importance, to ensure structural protection as well as adequate predictability to the pilot. Currently, however, maneuver stability characteristics are not uniquely addressed in the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 25, for transport aircraft. In past transport category certification programs, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has used a combination of requirements (longitudinal control, vibration and buffeting, high-speed characteristics, and out-of-trim characteristics) to ensure safe and controllable maneuver stability characteristics over a range of flight conditions and airplane configurations. Controversies exist regarding each of these regulations, however, and considerable expenditures in terms of design studies and testing time have resulted from the requirements. It is also recognized that additional engineering guidance is needed for identifying acceptable nonlinear maneuver stability characteristics, particularly as they relate to relaxed stability, highly augmented transport configurations. The current trend in large aircraft design is toward relaxed, or even negative, static margins for improved fuel efficiency. The advanced flight control systems developed for these aircraft, in many instances, have rendered current aforementioned maneuver stability criteria either too stringent or of little practical use. Current design requirements do not account for these advanced designs. The objective was to evaluate a broad spectrum of linear and nonlinear longitudinal stability characteristics to generate data for defining satisfactory and unacceptable maneuver characteristics, as defined by pilot opinion. Primary emphasis was placed on two techniques of varying column force per normal acceleration. This study was a joint venture with four pilots participating; one from NASA, one from the FAA, and two from industry.

  4. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 24 Hrs, 0 to 4095 ±0.125% Per Hour 4 1 sec UTC time preferred when available. Counter increments each... computer when practicable. 4. Heading (Primary flight crew reference) 0−360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When true or magnetic heading can be selected as the primary heading reference, a...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... trim positions should be recorded. 83. Cockpit trim control input position—roll Full Range ±5% 1 0.7... sampling interval Resolution Remarks 1. Time or relative times counts.1 24 Hrs, 0 to 4095 ± 0.125% per hour... flight crew reference) 0-360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When true or magnetic heading...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... trim positions should be recorded. 83. Cockpit trim control input position—roll Full Range ±5% 1 0.7... sampling interval Resolution Remarks 1. Time or relative times counts.1 24 Hrs, 0 to 4095 ± 0.125% per hour... flight crew reference) 0-360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When true or magnetic heading...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 24 Hrs, 0 to 4095 ±0.125% Per Hour 4 1 sec UTC time preferred when available. Counter increments each... computer when practicable. 4. Heading (Primary flight crew reference) 0−360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When true or magnetic heading can be selected as the primary heading reference, a...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... trim positions should be recorded. 83. Cockpit trim control input position—roll Full Range ±5% 1 0.7... sampling interval Resolution Remarks 1. Time or relative times counts.1 24 Hrs, 0 to 4095 ±0.125% per hour... flight crew reference) 0-360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When true or magnetic heading...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 24 Hrs, 0 to 4095 ±0.125% Per Hour 4 1 sec UTC time preferred when available. Counter increments each... computer when practicable. 4. Heading (Primary flight crew reference) 0−360° and Discrete “true” or “mag” ±2° 1 0.5° When true or magnetic heading can be selected as the primary heading reference, a...

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Airplane Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguet, L

    1921-01-01

    The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.

  12. Flight Measurements of Flying Qualities of a P-47D-30 Airplane (AAF No. 43-3441) to Determine Longitudinal Stability and Control and Stalling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Christopher C., Jr.; Goranson, R. Fabien; Reeder, John P.

    1948-01-01

    Flight tests have been made to determine the longitudinal stability and control and stalling characteristics of the P-47.E-30 airplane. The teat results show the airplane to be unstable stick free in any power-on condition even at the most forward center-of-gravity position tested. At the rearward center-of-gravity position tested the airplane also had neutral to negative stick-fixed stability with power on. The characteristics in accelerated flight were acceptable at the forward center-of-gravity position at low and high altitudes except at high speed where the control-force variations with acceleration were high. At the rearward center-of-gravity position, elevator-force reversals were experienced in turns at low speeds, and the force per g was low at all the other speeds. Ample stall warning was afforded in all the conditions tested and the stalling characteristics were very satisfactory except in the approach and wave-off conditions.

  13. Results of Measurements of Maximum Lift and Buffeting Intensities Obtained During Flight Investigation of the Northrop X-4 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Thomas F

    1953-01-01

    The variation of the intensity of buffeting experienced throughout the operational region of the semitailless Northrop X-4 airplane and the values of maximum and peak normal-force coefficients in the Mach number range from 0.42 to 0.92 have been determined. The results are compared with data obtained with the swept-wing Douglas D-558-II airplane.

  14. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. A flight test investigation of certification requirements for laminar-flow general aviation airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Gregory S.; Doty, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    A modified T210R general aviation aircraft incorporating natural laminar flow (NLF) technology has been subjected to flight tests in order to evaluate its stability and control characteristics. Attention is given to this aircraft's ability to meet certification requirements with significant NLF, as well as with the boundary-layer transition fixed near the leading edge. It is established that the large regions of NLF achieved yielded a significant cruise performance enhancement; loss of laminar flow did not result in significant changes in the stability and control characteristics of the aircraft. FAR Part 23 certification requirements were met.

  16. Matrix methods for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives of an airplane from transient flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J

    1954-01-01

    Three matrice methods are developed and presented for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives from transient flight data. In these methods the expressions for some of the stability derivatives are in the form generally used in stability calculations. The first method requires the combination of four measurements in time-history form, two of which must be incremental elevator deflection and incremental tail load and the other two measurements can be chosen from a possible three, namely incremental load factor, pitching velocity, and angle of attack. The method demonstrates the use of the tail load to separate the pitching-moment derivatives and to determine the downwash derivative. (author)

  17. Investigation of Boundary Layers on an Airplane Wing in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuper, J

    1934-01-01

    This report describes the equipment and method developed for recording the boundary layers on the surface of an airfoil in free flight. The results are in close agreement with the wind-tunnel tests of other experimenters. The intensity of the turbulent boundary layer, even at the much higher Reynolds Numbers reached, is determinable with Gruschwitz's formulas, although it was impossible to definitely establish a direct relationship between the turbulent boundary layer and the Reynolds Number within the limits of the obtained accuracy. The observations on the transition from laminar to turbulent flow check with previous wind-tunnel tests and calculations.

  18. In-flight measurement of propeller noise on the fuselage of an airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Ranaudo, Richard; Woodward, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    In-flight measurements of propeller noise on the fuselage of an OV-10A aircraft were obtained using a horizontal and a vertical microphone array. A wide range of flight conditions were tested including changes in angle of attack, sideslip angle, power coefficient, helical tip Mach number and advance ratio, and propeller direction of rotation. Results show a dependence of the level and directivity of the tones on the angle of attack and on the sideslip angle with the propeller direction of rotation, which is similar to results obtained in wind tunnel tests with advanced propeller designs. The level of the tones at each microphone increases with increasing angle of attack for inboard-down propeller rotation and decreases for inboard-up rotation. The level also increases with increasing slideslip angle for both propeller directions of rotation. Increasing the power coefficient results in a slight increase in the level of the tones. A strong shock wave is generated by the propeller blades even at relatively low helical tip Mach numbers resulting in high harmonic levels. As the helical tip Mach number and the advance ratio are increased, the level of the higher harmonics increases much faster than the level of the blade passage frequency.

  19. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a performance seeking control algorithm on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1992-01-01

    The subsonic flight test evaluation phase of the NASA F-15 (powered by F 100 engines) performance seeking control program was completed for single-engine operation at part- and military-power settings. The subsonic performance seeking control algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the propulsion system for three modes of operation. The minimum fuel flow mode minimizes fuel consumption. The minimum thrust mode maximizes thrust at military power. Decreases in thrust-specific fuel consumption of 1 to 2 percent were measured in the minimum fuel flow mode; these fuel savings are significant, especially for supersonic cruise aircraft. Decreases of up to approximately 100 degree R in fan turbine inlet temperature were measured in the minimum temperature mode. Temperature reductions of this magnitude would more than double turbine life if inlet temperature was the only life factor. Measured thrust increases of up to approximately 15 percent in the maximum thrust mode cause substantial increases in aircraft acceleration. The system dynamics of the closed-loop algorithm operation were good. The subsonic flight phase has validated the performance seeking control technology, which can significantly benefit the next generation of fighter and transport aircraft.

  20. Flight Investigation to Improve the Dynamic Longitudinal Stability and Control-Feel Characteristics of the P-63A-1 Airplane (AAF No. 42-68889) with Closely Balanced Experimental Elevators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Harold I.

    1946-01-01

    Results of flight tests of a control-feel aid presented. This device consisted of a spring and dashpot connected in series between the control stick and airplane structure. The device was tested in combination with an experimental elevator and bobweight which had given unsatisfactory dynamic stability and control-feel characteristics in previous tests. The control-feel aid effected marked improvement in both the control-feel characteristics and the control-feel dynamic longitudinal stability of the airplane.

  1. Flight-measured afterbody pressure coefficients from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet engines for Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.

    1979-01-01

    Afterbody pressure distribution data were obtained in flight from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet exhausts. The data were obtained in level flight at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.60 and at elevated load factors for Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20. The test altitude varied from 2300 meters (7500 feet) to 15,200 meters (50,000 feet) over a speed range that provided a matrix of constant Mach number and constant unit Reynolds number test conditions. The results of the full-scale flight afterbody pressure distribution program are presented in the form of plotted pressure distributions and tabulated pressure coefficients with Mach number, angle of attack, engine nozzle pressure ratio, and unit Reynolds number as controlled parameters.

  2. Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee XB-53 Airplane in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles V.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XB-53 airplane has been conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. In the investigation it was found that with flaps neutral satisfactory flight behavior at low speeds was obtainable with an increase in height of the vertical tail and with the inboard slats opened. In the flap-down slat-open condition the longitudinal stability was satisfactory, but it was impossible to obtain satisfactory lateral-flight characteristics even with the increase in height of the vertical tail because of the negative effective dihedral, low directional stability, and large-adverse yawing moments of the ailerons.

  3. Pressure-Distribution Measurements on O-2H Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H A

    1937-01-01

    Results are given of pressure-distribution measurements made over two different horizontal tail surfaces and the right wing cellule, including the slipstream area, of an observation-type biplane. Measurements were also taken of air speed, control-surface positions, control-stick forces, angular velocities, and accelerations during various abrupt maneuvers. These maneuvers consisted of push-downs and pull-ups from level flight, dive pull-outs, and aileron rolls with various thrust conditions. The results from the pressure-distribution measurements over the wing cellule are given on charts showing the variation of individual rib coefficients with wing coefficients; the data from the tail-surface pressure-distribution measurements are given mainly as total loads and moments. These data are supplemented by time histories of the measured quantities and isometric views of the rib pressure distributions occurring in abrupt maneuvers.

  4. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  5. Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boshar, John

    1947-01-01

    Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

  6. Flight Measurements of Horizontal-Tail Loads on the Bell X-5 Research Airplane at a Sweep Angle of 58.7 Deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert D

    1955-01-01

    A flight investigation was made at altitudes of 40,000, 25,000 and 15,000 feet to determine the horizontal-tail loads of the Bell X-5 research airplane at a sweep angle of 58.7 deg over the lift range of the airplane for Mach numbers from 0.61 to 1.00. The horizontal-tail loads were found to be nonlinear with lift throughout the lift ranges tested at all Mach numbers except at a Mach number of 1.00. The balancing tail loads reflected the changes which occur in the wing characteristics with increasing angle of attack. The nonlinearities were, in general, more pronounced at the higher angles of attack near the pitch-up where the balancing tail loads indicate that the wing-fuselage combination becomes unstable. No apparent effects of altitude on the balancing tail loads were evident over the comparable lift ranges of these tests at altitudes from 40,000 feet to 15,000 feet. Comparisons of balancing tail loads obtained from flight and windtunnel tests indicated discrepancies in absolute magnitudes, but the general trends of the data agree. Some differences in absolute magnitude may be accounted for by the tail load carried inboard of the strain-gage station and the load induced on the fuselage by the presence of the tail. These loads were not measured in flight.

  7. Dynamic and Flight Tests on Rubber-Cord and Oleo-Rubber-Disk Landing Gears for an F6C-4 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, William C

    1932-01-01

    The investigation described in this report was conducted for the purpose of comparing an oleo-rubber-disk and a rubber-cord landing gear, built for use on an F6C-4 airplane. The investigation consisted of drop tests under various loading conditions and flight tests on an F6C-4 airplane. In the drop tests the total work done on each gear and the work done on each of the shock-absorbing units were determined. For both drop tests and flight tests the maximum loads and accelerations were determined. The comparative results showed that the oleo gear was slightly superior in reducing the ordinary landing shocks, that it had a greater capacity for work, and that it was very superior in the reduction of the rebound. The results further showed that for drops comparable to very severe landings, the rubber-cord gear was potentially more effective as a shock-reducing mechanism. However, due to the construction of this chassis, which limited the maximum elongation of the cords, this gear was incapable of withstanding as severe tests as the oleo gear. The action of the oleo gear was greatly inferior to the action of an ideal gear. The maximum accelerations encountered during the flight tests for severe landings were 3.64g for the rubber-cord gear and 2.27g for the oleo gear. These were less than those experienced in free drops of 7 inches on either gear.

  8. Comparison of flying qualities derived from in-flight and ground-based simulators for a jet-transport airplane for the approach and landing pilot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective was to provide information to the flight controls/flying qualities engineer that will assist him in determining the incremental flying qualities and/or pilot-performance differences that may be expected between results obtained via ground-based simulation (and, in particular, the six-degree-of-freedom Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS)) and flight tests. Pilot opinion and performance parameters derived from a ground-based simulator and an in-flight simulator are compared for a jet-transport airplane having 32 different longitudinal dynamic response characteristics. The primary pilot tasks were the approach and landing tasks with emphasis on the landing-flare task. The results indicate that, in general, flying qualities results obtained from the ground-based simulator may be considered conservative-especially when the pilot task requires tight pilot control as during the landing flare. The one exception to this, according to the present study, was that the pilots were more tolerant of large time delays in the airplane response on the ground-based simulator. The results also indicated that the ground-based simulator (particularly the Langley VMS) is not adequate for assessing pilot/vehicle performance capabilities (i.e., the sink rate performance for the landing-flare task when the pilot has little depth/height perception from the outside scene presentation).

  9. 78 FR 75284 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... electronic flight control system that contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections, for...- high bypass, geared turbofan engines. Flight controls are fly-by-wire flight with two...

  10. Flight Test of a Propulsion-Based Emergency Control System on the MD-11 Airplane with Emphasis on the Lateral Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Feather, John; Goldthorpe, Steven; Kahler, Jeffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    A large, civilian, multi-engine transport MD-11 airplane control system was recently modified to perform as an emergency backup controller using engine thrust only. The emergency backup system, referred to as the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, would be used if a major primary flight control system fails. To allow for longitudinal and lateral-directional control, the PCA system requires at least two engines and is implemented through software modifications. A flight-test program was conducted to evaluate the PCA system high-altitude flying characteristics and to demonstrate its capacity to perform safe landings. The cruise flight conditions, several low approaches and one landing without any aerodynamic flight control surface movement, were demonstrated. This paper presents results that show satisfactory performance of the PCA system in the longitudinal axis. Test results indicate that the lateral-directional axis of the system performed well at high attitude but was sluggish and prone to thermal upsets during landing approaches. Flight-test experiences and test techniques are also discussed with emphasis on the lateral-directional axis because of the difficulties encountered in flight test.

  11. Hovering and Transition Flight Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/5-scale flying model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered with either a hydrogen peroxide rocket motor or a compressed-air jet exhausting through an ejector tube to simulate the turbojet engine of the airplane. The gyroscopic effects of the engine were simulated by a flywheel driven by compressed-air jets. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of a swiveling nozzle on the main jet and a movable nozzle on each wing tip; and in forward flight the model was controlled by elevons and a rudder. If the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were not represented, the model could be flown satisfactorily in hovering flight without any automatic stabilization devices. When the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were represented, however, the model could not be controlled without the aid of artificial stabilizing devices because of the gyroscopic coupling of the yawing and pitching motions. The use of pitch and yaw dampers made these motions completely stable and the model could then be controlled very easily. In the transition flight tests, which were performed only with the automatic pitch and yaw dampers operating, it was found that the transition was very easy to perform either with or without the engine gyroscopic effects simulated, although the model had a tendency to fly in a rolled and sideslipped attitude at angles of attack between approximately 25 deg and 45 deg because of static directional instability in this range.

  12. Hovering and Transition Flight Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Jet-Powered Vertical-Attitude VTOL Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/5-scale flying model of a jet-powered vertical-attitude VTOL research airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered with either a hydrogen peroxide rocket motor or a compressed-air jet exhausting through an ejector tube to simulate the turbojet engine of the airplane. The gyroscopic effects of the engine were simulated by a flywheel driven by compressed-air jets. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of a swiveling nozzle on the main jet and a movable nozzle on each wing tip; and in forward flight the model was controlled by elevons and a rudder. If the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were not represented, the model could be flown satisfactorily in hovering flight without any automatic stabilization devices. When the gyroscopic effects of the jet engine were represented, however, the model could not be controlled without the aid of artificial stabilizing devices because of the gyroscopic coupling of the yawing and pitching motions. The use of pitch and yaw dampers made these motions completely stable and the model could then be controlled very easily. In the transition flight tests, which were performed only with the automatic pitch and yaw dampers operating, it was found that the transition was very easy to perform either with or without the engine gyroscopic effects simulated, although the model had a tendency to fly in a rolled and sideslipped attitude at angles of attack between approximately 25 and 45 deg because of static directional instability in this range.

  13. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.

    1997-01-01

    Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.

  14. Emergency Flight Control Using Computer-Controlled Thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Stewart, James F.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Conley, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) systems are digital electronic control systems undergoing development to provide limited maneuvering ability through variations of individual engine thrusts in multiple-engine airplanes. Provide landing capability when control surfaces inoperable. Incorporated on existing and future airplanes that include digital engine controls, digital flight controls, and digital data buses, adding no weight for additional hardware to airplane. Possible to handle total failure of hydraulic system, depending on how surfaces respond to loss of hydraulic pressure, and broken control cables or linkages. Future airplanes incorporate data from Global Positioning System for guidance to any suitable emergency runway in world.

  15. 76 FR 36863 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... airplanes was published in the Federal Register on February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10529). Only one comment was... architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may allow access by external computer systems and networks. Connectivity by external systems and networks...

  16. 76 FR 36861 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Isolation or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Gulfstream GVI airplanes was published in the Federal Register on February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10528). Only one... features associated with connectivity of the passenger domain computer systems to the airplane ] critical... connected networks. The proposed architecture and network configuration may be used for, or interfaced...

  17. Performance improvements of a highly integrated digital electronic control system for an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Andries, M. G.; Kelly, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program is structured to conduct flight research into the benefits of integrating an aircraft flight control system with the engine control system. A brief description of the HIDEC system installed on an F-15 aircraft is provided. The adaptive engine control system (ADECS) mode is described in detail, together with simulation results and analyses that show the significant excess thrust improvements achievable with the ADECS mode. It was found that this increased thrust capability is accompanied by reduced fan stall margin and can be realized during flight conditions where engine face distortion is low. The results of analyses and simulations also show that engine thrust response is improved and that fuel consumption can be reduced. Although the performance benefits that accrue because of airframe and engine control integration are being demonstrated on an F-15 aircraft, the principles are applicable to advanced aircraft such as the advanced tactical fighter and advanced tactical aircraft.

  18. Determination of an angle of attack sensor correction for a general aviation airplane at large angles of attack as determined from wind tunnel and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, T. M.; Taylor, L. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation into the flow correction for an angle of attack sensor mounted ahead of the wing tip of a general aviation research airplane has been conducted at the Langley Research Center. This correction has been determined in wind tunnels using a full-scale model up to angles of attack of 45 deg and a 1/5-scale model up to 80 deg angle of attack. The flow correction has also been obtained in flight by using a standard technique at low angles of attack and in spinning flight at larger angles of attack, by using both a simple approximate technique and a parameter estimation technique. The results show the correction is significant, reaching 10 deg at a measured angle of attack of about 90 deg. The flow correction was sensitive to the angle of sideslip at measured angles of attack greater than 60 deg and was not influenced by wing leading-edge modifications or aileron deflections.

  19. A flight investigation of the stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vomaske, R. F.; Innis, R. C.; Swan, B. E.; Grossmith, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane are presented. The airplane is an extensively modified de Havilland Buffalo military transport. The modified airplane has two fan-jet engines which provide vectorable thrust and compressed air for the augmentor jet flap and Boundary-Layer Control (BLC). The augmentor and BLC air is cross ducted to minimize asymmetric moments produced when one engine is inoperative. The modifications incorporated in the airplane include a Stability Augmentation System (SAS), a powered elevator, and a powered lateral control system. The test gross weight of the airplane was between 165,000 and 209,000 N (37,000 and 47,000 lb). Stability, control, and handling qualities are presented for the airspeed range of 40 to 180 knots. The lateral-directional handling qualities are considered satisfactory for the normal operating range of 65 to 160 knots airspeed when the SAS is functioning. With the SAS inoperative, poor turn coordination and spiral instability are primary deficiencies contributing to marginal handling qualities in the landing approach. The powered elevator control system enhanced the controllability in pitch, particularly in the landing flare and stall recovery.

  20. NASA flight electronics environmental stress screening survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marian, E. J. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Data compiled by the Institute of Environmental Sciences were used to establish guidelines for identifying defective, abnormal, or marginal parts as well as manufacturing defects. These data are augmented with other available sources of similar information in conjunction with NASA centers' data and presented in a form that may be useful to all NASA centers in planning and developing effective environmental stress screens. Information relative to thermal and vibration screens as the most effective methods for surfacing latent failures in electronic equipment at the component level is considered.

  1. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  2. Resume of the theory of naval and aerial propulsive propellers and of airplanes in the rectilinear flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rateau, A

    1921-01-01

    Though dissimilar, these two subjects have been united because they have some points in common. The computation of the movement of an airplane can only be correctly established if we are in a position to know exactly the thrust and resisting torque of the propeller for the various values of slip, which may vary greatly according to circumstance. The first part of the work concerns propellers and introduces as a fundamental variable, the true slip (delta) with respect to the effective pitch, which is the advance per revolution of the propeller corresponding to no thrust. The second part deals with characteristic curves of an airplane.

  3. Safety in airplane flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunat, H

    1927-01-01

    This report presents methods to reduce the incidence of aviation accidents. Some of the methods discussed include enlistment and training of aviators, improvement of controls and control surfaces, and upgrading of power plants.

  4. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  5. Military applications of a cockpit integrated electronic flight bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robert P.; Seinfeld, Robert D.

    2004-09-01

    Converting the pilot's flight bag information from paper to electronic media is being performed routinely by commercial airlines for use with an on-board PC. This concept is now being further advanced with a new class of electronic flight bags (EFB) recently put into commercial operation which interface directly with major on-board avionics systems and has its own dedicated panel mounted display. This display combines flight bag information with real time aircraft performance and maintenance data. This concept of an integrated EFB which is now being used by the commercial airlines as a level 1 certified system, needs to be explored for military applications. This paper describes a system which contains all the attributes of an Electronic Flight Bag with the addition of interfaces which are linked to military aircraft missions such as those for tankers, cargo haulers, search and rescue and maritime aircraft as well as GATM requirements. The adaptation of the integrated EFB to meet these military requirements is then discussed.

  6. 78 FR 67320 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 series Airplane; Pitch and Roll Limiting by Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477- 19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or...; Pitch and Roll Limiting by Electronic Flight Control System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... feature(s) associated with the Electronic Flight Control System that limits pitch and roll...

  7. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Have 1,000 hours of flight time in two different turbojet airplanes of the same class of airplane for... hours of flight time in the same type of airplane for which the type rating is sought; or (5) Have logged at least 2,000 hours of flight time, of which 500 hours were in turbine-powered airplanes of...

  8. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Have 1,000 hours of flight time in two different turbojet airplanes of the same class of airplane for... hours of flight time in the same type of airplane for which the type rating is sought; or (5) Have logged at least 2,000 hours of flight time, of which 500 hours were in turbine-powered airplanes of...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part...

  13. 76 FR 64229 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Certificated Weight.'' (See 69 FR 5239, February 3, 2004.) In that notice, we announced our intention to.... (See 75 FR 50853, August 18, 2010.) This final rule will eliminate the need for issuing special...-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less.'' (See 75 FR 18134, April 9, 2010.) In that NPRM,...

  14. Linearized aerodynamic and control law models of the X-29A airplane and comparison with flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Flight control system design and analysis for aircraft rely on mathematical models of the vehicle dynamics. In addition to a six degree of freedom nonlinear simulation, the X-29A flight controls group developed a set of programs that calculate linear perturbation models throughout the X-29A flight envelope. The models include the aerodynamics as well as flight control system dynamics and were used for stability, controllability, and handling qualities analysis. These linear models were compared to flight test results to help provide a safe flight envelope expansion. A description is given of the linear models at three flight conditions and two flight control system modes. The models are presented with a level of detail that would allow the reader to reproduce the linear results if desired. Comparison between the response of the linear model and flight measured responses are presented to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of the linear models' ability to predict flight dynamics.

  15. Peak-Seeking Control For Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results For The Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed FA-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. This presentation also focuses on the design of the flight experiment and the practical challenges of conducting the experiment.

  16. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  17. Flight Tests of a Model of a High-wing Transport Vertical-take-off Airplane with Tilting Wing and Propellers and with Jet Controls at the Rear of the Fuselage for Pitch and Yaw Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Powell M , Jr; Parlett, Lysle P

    1957-01-01

    An investigation of the stability and control of a high-wing transport vertical-take-off airplane with four engines during constant-altitude transitions from hovering to normal forward flight was conducted with a remotely controlled free-flight model. The model had four propellers distributed along the wing with the thrust axes in the wing chord plane. The wing could be rotated to 90 degrees incidence so that the propeller thrust axes were vertical for hovering flight. An air jet at the rear of the fuselage provided pitch and yaw control for hovering and low-speed flight.

  18. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  19. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  20. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  1. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  2. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  3. 76 FR 10529 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may allow access by external computer systems and networks. Connectivity by external... architecture composed of several connected networks. The proposed architecture and network configuration may...

  4. 78 FR 21700 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and...) Transportation Airplane and Engine (TAE) Subcommittee to discuss transport airplane and engine issues. DATES: The... and Minutes FAA Report ARAC Report Transport Canada Report EASA Report Flight Controls...

  5. AIRLAB: A laboratory for flight-crucial-electronics system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. M.; Holden, D. G.; Lupton, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    A new laboratory, AIRLAB, recently completed at the NASA Langley Research Center was developed as a focus for conducting research on fault-tolerant electronic systems for flight-crucial applications. The laboratory was conceived and implemented to enhance the utilization of aeronautical research for improving the performance of future aerospace vehicles. Advanced vehicles will require highly reliable digital electronic systems to perform flight-crucial functions which if lost, would cause total failure of the vehicle. Techniques to form the basis for a validation methodology that can be used to determine the performance and reliability of advanced digital systems are being developed. Included are the development of analytical models, emulation techniques, and experimental procedures. The techniques and methods are verified using these specimens of fault-tolerant computers and systems and the capabilities of AIRLAB.

  6. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  7. 78 FR 31838 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 24, 2013 (78 FR 5148). No comments were received, and the...; Flight Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight...

  8. Structural response to discrete and continuous gusts of an airplane having wing bending flexibility and a correlation of calculated and flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, John C; Kordes, Eldon E

    1954-01-01

    An analysis is made of the structural response to gusts of an airplane having the degrees of freedom of vertical motion and wing bending flexibility and basic parameters are established. A convenient and accurate numerical solution of the response equations is developed for the case of discrete-gust encounter, an exact solution is made for the simpler case of continuous-sinusoidal-gust encounter, and the procedure is outlined for treating the more realistic condition of continuous random atmospheric turbulence, based on the methods of generalized harmonic analysis. Correlation studies between flight and calculated results are then given to evaluate the influence of wing bending flexibility on the structural response to gusts of two twin-engine transports and one four-engine bomber. It is shown that calculated results obtained by means of a discrete-gust approach reveal the general nature of the flexibility effects and lead to qualitative correlation with flight results. In contrast, calculations by means of the continuous-turbulence approach show good quantitative correlation with flight results and indicate a much greater degree of resolution of the flexibility effects.

  9. Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms. IV - July 19, 1946 to July 20, 1946 at Orlando, Florida. Part 4; July 19, 1946 to July 20, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolefson, H. B.

    1946-01-01

    Summaries of the gust and draft velocities evaluated from acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA instruments installed n P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 12 and 13 of July 19, 1946, and July 20, 1946, respectively, are presented in tables I and II herein. These data are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Inspection of the motion picture records of the pilots' instrument panels for the present flights indicated that the milliameter connected to equipment for measuring ambient air temperature read zero throughout all traverses.

  10. 76 FR 65103 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may allow access by external computer systems and networks. Connectivity by external systems and networks may result in...

  11. 78 FR 65153 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer... systems architecture composed of several connected networks. The proposed architecture and...

  12. 78 FR 75451 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer...; facsimile 425-227-1149. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed network architecture includes the...

  13. 78 FR 68775 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo...; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire/Flammability Resistance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... associated with the in-flight fire and flammability resistance of the composite fuselage. Experience...

  14. 78 FR 76249 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http...; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal Load Factor (g) Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... feature(s) associated with a flight control system that prevents the pilot from inadvertently...

  15. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background...; Flight Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...(s), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which...

  16. A Flight Investigation to Determine the Lateral Oscillatory Damping Acceptable for an Airplane in the Landing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, Walter E.; Vomaske, Richard F.

    1959-01-01

    An F-86E airplane, in which servo actuation of the ailerons and rudder provides artificial variation of the important lateral and directional aerodynamic stability parameters, has been flown by test pilots of the NASA, U.S. Air Force, and one aircraft manufacturer to determine satisfactory and acceptable levels of lateral oscillatory damping in the landing approach. In addition to normal operational use, particular consideration was given to the emergency condition of failure of stability-augmentation equipment. In this study, the pilots' opinions of the airplane dynamic stability and control characteristics in smooth and simulated rough air have been recorded according to a numerical rating scale. The results are presented in the form of boundaries in terms of cycles to damp to half amplitude, 1/C(sub 1/2), or time to damp to half amplitude, 1/T(1/2) and bank-to-sideslip ratio, and are discussed in relation to existing flying-qualities criteria. Though the present results, which were obtained at 170 knots indicated airspeed and 10,000-feet altitude, indicated that increased damping is required with increased bank-to-sideslip ratio (as found in previous work), consideration of the dampers-failed condition indicated a great reduction in the minimum acceptable damping. At moderate values of bank-to-sideslip ratio, effects of lateral-oscillation period on pilot-opinion variation with damping appeared to be taken into account by use of the parameter 1/T(sub 1/2).

  17. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  18. Subsonic Flight Tests of a 1/7-Scale Radio-Controlled Model of the North American X-15 Airplane with Particular Reference to High Angel-of-Attack Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewes, Donald E.; Hassell, James L., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation of the subsonic stability and control characteristics of an unpowered 1/7-scale model based on the North American X-15 airplane was conducted by using a radio-controlled model launched from a helicopter and flown in free-gliding flight. At angles of attack below about 20 deg. where the model motions represent those of the X-15 airplane, the model was found to be both longitudinally and laterally stable, and the all-movable tail surfaces were found to be very effective. The model could also be flown at much higher angles of attack where the model motions did not necessarily represent those of the airplane because of slight geometrical differences and Reynolds number effects, but these test results are useful in evaluating the effectiveness at these angles of the type of lateral control system used in the X-15 airplane. In some cases, the model was flown to angles of attack as high as 60 or 70 deg. without encountering divergent or uncontrollable conditions. For some flights in which the model was subjected to rapid maneuvers, spinning motions were generated by application of corrective controls to oppose the direction of rotation. Rapid recoveries from this type of motion were achieved by applying roll control in the direction of rotation.

  19. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  20. Highly integrated digital engine control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Haering, E. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. This system is being used on the F-15 airplane at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. An integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine stall margin mode are being implemented into the system. The adaptive stall margin mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the engine stall margin are continuously computed; the excess stall margin is used to uptrim the engine for more thrust. The integrated flightpath management mode optimizes the flightpath and throttle setting to reach a desired flight condition. The increase in thrust and the improvement in airplane performance is discussed in this paper.

  1. A Flight Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability Characteristics Associated with the Pitch-up of a Swept-Wing Airplane in Maneuvering Flight at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Seth B; Bray, Richard S

    1955-01-01

    This report presents the results of flight measurements of longitudinal stability and control characteristics made on a swept-wing jet aircraft to determine the origin of the pitch-up encountered in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds. For this purpose measurements were made of elevator angle, tail angle of attack, and wing-fuselage pitching moments (obtained from measurements of the balancing tail loads).

  2. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  3. Time-of-flight observation of electron swarm in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.; Yoshida, K.; Shimozuma, M.

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on the evolution of an isolated electron swarm, which is experimentally observed as spatial distributions at every moment. This observation is assumed to directly correspond to the conventional time-of-flight theory. We have measured the spatial distribution of electrons using a double-shutter technique in the drift tube, where a shutter electrode to collect electrons can be slid along the field (E /N) direction in order to capture a relative electron number at a certain range of location. As a typical parameter defined by this spatial distribution, the center-of-mass drift velocity (Wr) is determined for methane gas. The result is compared with the mean-arrival-time drift velocity (Wm) defined from the arriving electron number at fixed positions. We have also performed a theoretical analysis in which a Fourier transformed Boltzmann equation is solved to deduce both of the drift velocities from a dispersion relationship. The difference between Wr and Wm at high E /Ns (above 200 Td) is clearly ascertained in the experimental and theoretical investigations, which is attributable to the occurrence of ionization events.

  4. Flight Investigation of a Mechanical Feel Device in an Irreversible Elevator Control System of a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B Porter; Chilton, Robert G; Whitten, James B

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of measurements of the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a large airplane using a mechanical feel device in combination with a booster incorporated in the elevator-control system. Tests were made to investigate the feasibility of eliminating the aerodynamic control forces through use of a booster and of providing control-feel forces mechanically. The feel device consisted of a centering spring which restrained the control stick through a linkage which was changed as a function of the dynamic pressure. Provisions were made for trimming and for manual adjustment of the force gradient. The system was designed to approximate the control-force characteristics that would result with a conventional elevator control with linear hinge-moment characteristics.

  5. 77 FR 75071 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... Model EMB-550 airplane. The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet airplanes... mounted on aft fuselage pylons. Each engine produces approximately 6,540 pounds of thrust for...

  6. 76 FR 65105 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized Internal..., a diverse set of functions, including: 1. Flight-safety related control, communication,...

  7. Wind-tunnel and Flight Investigations of the Use of Leading-Edge Area Suction for the Purpose of Increasing the Maximum Lift Coefficient of a 35 Degree Swept-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzhauser, Curt A; Bray, Richard S

    1956-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the increase in maximum lift coefficient that could be obtained by applying area suction near the leading edge of a wing. This investigation was performed first with a 35 degree swept-wing model in the wind tunnel, and then with an operational 35 degree swept-wing airplane which was modified in accord with the wind-tunnel results. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that the maximum lift coefficient was increased more than 50 percent by the use of area suction. Good agreement was obtained in the comparison of the wind-tunnel results with those measured in flight.

  8. Flight investigation of acoustic and thrust characteristics of several exhaust nozzles installed on underwing nacelles on an F106 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. R.; Karabinus, R. J.; Freedman, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    To determine flyover noise and thrust and to investigate whether flight velocity significantly affects the noise of exhaust nozzles, a series of flight tests was conducted on three different exhaust nozzles of a type suitable for supersonic transport aircraft. The tests were conducted using an F-106B aircraft modified to carry two underwing nacelles, each containing a calibrated turbojet engine. A flyover altitude of 91 meters (300 ft) and a Mach number of 0.4 provided acoustic data that were repeatable to within + or -1.5 PNdB. Flyover results showed that an auxiliary inlet ejector nozzle was the quietest of the nozzles tested; flight velocity appeared to reduce its noise.

  9. Flight evaluation of a simplified gross thrust calculation technique using an F100 turbofan engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtenbach, F. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust calculation technique was evaluated in flight tests on an F-15 aircraft using prototype F100-PW-100 engines. The technique relies on afterburner duct pressure measurements and empirical corrections to an ideal one-dimensional analysis to determine thrust. In-flight gross thrust calculated by the simplified method is compared to gross thrust calculated by the engine manufacturer's gas generator model. The evaluation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.5 and at altitudes from 6000 meters to 13,700 meters. The flight evaluation shows that the simplified gross thrust method and the gas generator method agreed within plus or minus 3 percent. The discrepancies between the data generally fell within an uncertainty band derived from instrumentation errors and recording system resolution.

  10. In-flight and wind tunnel leading-edge vortex study on the F-106B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The vapor screen technique was successfully applied to an F-106B fighter aircraft during subsonic and transonic maneuvers. This system has allowed the viewing of multiple vortex systems on the wing upper surface at angles of attack less than 19 deg. In addition, similarities as well as differences were determined to exist between the vortex systems for a full scale semispan model and the flight vehicle at 20 deg incidence. Furthermore, variations in Reynolds number and Mach number were identified as to how they affect vortex system details at flight conditions.

  11. Electronic Regulator: Breadboard and Conceptual Space Flight Versions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seymour, N. F.

    1998-01-01

    The Electronic Regulator Project at TRW has constructed a breadboard system demonstrating pressure regulator operation over a wide range of flow conditions. The test hardware is composed of pneumatic-actuated, solenoid-controlled valves and associated tubing, gas volumes and transducers. System control, data recording and data reduction functions are controlled by a 486-class PC running Labview software. This breadboard system has demonstrated that a single system, using several control modes, is versatile enough to be used across the TRW spacecraft product line, from the very low Xenon flows associated with an electric propulsion system, to the high Helium flows required in a constant thrust situation such as in the AXAF spacecraft. A conceptual flight version, composed largely of off-the-shelf parts, has been designed and evaluated relative to requirements of various TRW spacecraft.

  12. 77 FR 69569 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... system which contains fly-by- wire control laws, including envelope protections. The applicable... takeoff. The primary flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron...

  13. A flight-test evaluation of a go-around control system for a twin engine powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.; Hardy, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    An automatic go-around control system was evaluated on the Augmentor Wing Jet Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) Research Airplane (AWJSRA) as part of a study of an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane. The results of the evaluation indicate that the go-around control system can successfully transition the airplane to a climb configuration from any initiation point during the glide-slope track or the flare maneuver prior to touchdown.

  14. An Evaluation of an Analytical Simulation of an Airplane with Tailplane Icing by Comparison to Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltner, Dale W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the assessment of an analytical tool developed as part of the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program. The analytical tool is a specialized simulation program called TAILSM4 which was developed to model the effects of tailplane icing on the flight dynamics Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. This report compares the responses of the TAILSIM program directly to flight test data. The comparisons should be useful to potential users of TAILSIM. The comparisons show that the TAILSIM program qualitatively duplicates the flight test aircraft response during maneuvers with ice on the tailplane. TAILSIM is shown to be quantitatively "in the ballpark" in predicting when Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall will occur during pushover and thrust transition maneuvers. As such, TAILSIM proved its usefulness to the flight test program by providing a general indication of the aircraft configuration and flight conditions of concern. The aircraft dynamics are shown to be modeled correctly by the equations of motion used in TAILSIM. However, the general accuracy of the TAILSIM responses is shown to be less than desired primarily due to inaccuracies in the aircraft database. The high sensitivity of the TAILSIM program responses to small changes in load factor command input is also shown to be a factor in the accuracy of the responses. A pilot model is shown to allow TAILSIM to produce more accurate responses and contribute significantly to the usefulness of the program. Suggestions to improve the accuracy of the TAILSIM responses are to further refine the database representation of the aircraft aerodynamics and tailplane flowfield and to explore a more realistic definition of the pilot model.

  15. Research in lightning swept-stroke attachment patterns and flight conditions with the NASA F-106B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Brown, P. W.; Plumer, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Data on 637 direct lightning strikes and 117 close flashes observed by the NASA instrumented F-106B aircraft as part of the Storm Hazards Program at NASA Langley during 1980-1984 are compiled and analyzed, updating the report of Fisher and Plumer (1983). The airborne and ground-based measurement and recording apparatus and the flight and data-reduction procedures are described, and the results are discussed in terms of lightning-strike-conducive flight conditions and lightning attachment patterns. A peak strike rate of 2.1/min is found at altitude 38,000-40,000 ft and temperature below -40 C, with very few strikes below 20,000 ft. Four categories of swept-flash attachment pattern are identified, but it is pointed out that all exterior surfaces of the F-106B are potential attachment sites.

  16. Flight-testing of the self-repairing flight control system using the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control flight research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, James F.; Shuck, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests conducted with the self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS) installed on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control aircraft are described. The development leading to the current SRFCS configuration is highlighted. Key objectives of the program are outlined: (1) to flight-evaluate a control reconfiguration strategy with three types of control surface failure; (2) to evaluate a cockpit display that will inform the pilot of the maneuvering capacity of the damage aircraft; and (3) to flight-evaluate the onboard expert system maintenance diagnostics process using representative faults set to occur only under maneuvering conditions. Preliminary flight results addressing the operation of the overall system, as well as the individual technologies, are included.

  17. Flight-testing of the self-repairing flight control system using the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control flight research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, James F.; Shuck, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests conducted with the self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS) installed on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control aircraft are described. The development leading to the current SRFCS configuration is highlighted. Key objectives of the program are outlined: (1) to flight-evaluate a control reconfiguration strategy with three types of control surface failure; (2) to evaluate a cockpit display that will inform the pilot of the maneuvering capacity of the damaged aircraft; and (3) to flight-evaluate the onboard expert system maintenance diagnostics process using representative faults set to occur only under maneuvering conditions. Preliminary flight results addressing the operation of the overall system, as well as the individual technologies, are included.

  18. Proposed STAR Time of Flight Readout Electronics and DAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, Joachim

    2006-04-01

    A novel Time-of-Flight (TOF) subsystem is under design for the STAR detector at RHIC. A total of 3840 Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) of 6 pads each are distributed over 120 trays. The total number of channels is 23040. Each TOF tray consists of 192 detector channels and three different types of electronic circuit cards, called "TINO", "TDIG", and "TCPU", listed in order of the data flow. Every 30 trays send their data to a "THUB" card that interfaces to the STAR trigger and transmits the data over a fiber to a fiber receiver which is part of STAR DAQ. The TINO contains the analog front end electronics based on a custom IC called NINO. The output of TINO is passed to the TDIG, where the data are digitized (using the CERN HPTDC ASIC). The TCPU formats and buffers the digital detector information. This formatted data is passed to THUB, which transmits it over an optical fiber to a data receiver in the STAR DAQ room. The architecture of this readout chain and DAQ will be described, and first results from prototypes of the component boards will be discussed.

  19. Flight Test Analysis of the Forces and Moments Imparted on a B737-100 Airplane During Wake Vortex Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Chistopher L.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft travel has become a major form of transportation. Several of our major airports are operating near their capacity limit, increasing congestion and delays for travelers. As a result, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been working in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline operators, and the airline industry to increase airport capacity without sacrificing public safety. One solution to the problem is to increase the number of airports and build new. runways; yet, this solution is becoming increasingly difficult due to limited space. A better solution is to increase the production per runway. This solution increases the possibility that one aircraft will encounter the trailing wake of another aircraft. Hazardous wake vortex encounters occur when an aircraft encounters the wake produced by a heavier aircraft. This heavy-load aircraft produces high-intensity wake turbulence that redistributes the aerodynamic loads of trailing smaller aircraft. This situation is particularly hazardous for smaller aircraft during takeoffs and landings. In order to gain a better understanding of the wake-vortex/aircraft encounter phenomena, NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of flight tests from 1995 through 1997. These tests were designed to gather data for the development a wake encounter and wake-measurement data set with the accompanying atmospheric state information. This data set is being compiled into a database that can be used by wake vortex researchers to compare with experimental and computational results. The purpose of this research is to derive and implement a procedure for calculating the wake-vortex/aircraft interaction portion of that database by using the data recorded during those flight tests. There were three objectives to this research. Initially, the wake-induced forces and moments from each flight were analyzed based on varying flap deflection angles. The flap setting alternated between 15

  20. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability....

  1. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  2. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  3. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  4. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  5. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  6. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  7. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  8. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  9. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  10. 78 FR 47527 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and...-17540; AD 2013-16-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY... FALCON 7X airplanes. This AD requires incorporation of a new procedure into the airplane flight...

  11. Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Andrew Gerhart; Rijssenbeek, Michael

    2014-11-03

    TITLE: Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement ABSTRACT: Time-of-flight (TOF) detectors have historically been used as part of the particle identification capability of multi-purpose particle physics detectors. An accurate time measurement, combined with a momentum measurement based on the curvature of the track in a magnetic field, is often sufficient to determine the particle's mass, and thus its identity. Such detectors typically have measured the particle flight time extremely precisely, with an uncertainty of one hundred trillionths of a second (also referred to as 100 picoseconds). To put this in perspective it would be like counting all the people on the Earth and getting it right within 1 person! Another use of TOFs is to measure the vertex of the event, which is the location along the beam line where the incoming particles (typically protons) collide. This vertex positon is a well measured quantity for events where the protons collide “head on” as the outgoing particles produced when you blast the proton apart can be used to trace back to a vertex point from which they originated. More frequently the protons just strike a glancing blow and remain intact—in this case they are nearly parallel to the beam and you cannot tell their vertex without this ability to precisely measure the time of flight of the protons. Occasionally both happen in the same event, that is, a central system and two protons are produced. But are they from the same collision, or just a boring background where more than one collision in the same bunch crossing conspire to fake the signal of interest? That’s where the timing of the protons comes into play. The main idea is to measure the time it takes for the two protons to reach TOF detectors positioned equidistant from the center of the main detector. If the vertex is displaced to one side than that detector will measure a shorter time while the other side detector will measure a correspondingly longer time

  12. Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-701) 2: Extrapolation of wind-tunnel data to full-scale conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Mann, M. J.; Sorrells, R. B., III; Sawyer, W. C.; Fuller, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of calculations necessary to extrapolate performance data on an XB-70-1 wind tunnel model to full scale at Mach numbers from 0.76 to 2.53 are presented. The extrapolation was part of a joint program to evaluate performance prediction techniques for large flexible supersonic airplanes similar to a supersonic transport. The extrapolation procedure included: interpolation of the wind tunnel data at the specific conditions of the flight test points; determination of the drag increments to be applied to the wind tunnel data, such as spillage drag, boundary layer trip drag, and skin friction increments; and estimates of the drag items not represented on the wind tunnel model, such as bypass doors, roughness, protuberances, and leakage drag. In addition, estimates of the effects of flexibility of the airplane were determined.

  13. Summary of the Aerodynamic Characteristics and Flying Qualities Obtained from Flights of Rocket-Propelled Models of an Airplane Configuration Incorporating a Sweptback Inversely Tapered Wing at Transonic and Low-Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcham, Grady L.; Blanchard, Willard S., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    Flight tests have been conducted on rocket-propelled models of an airplane configuration incorporating a sweptback wing with inverse taper to investigate the drag, stability, and control characteristics at transonic and supersonic speeds. The models were tested with a conventional tail arrangement in the Mach number range from 0.55 to 1.2. In addition to the various aerodynamic parameters obtained, the flying qualities were computed for a full-scale airplane with the center-of-gravity location at 18 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. Also, included in this investigation are drag measurements made on relatively simple fixed-control models tested with both conventional and V-tail arrangements.

  14. Highly integrated digital engine control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Haering, E. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine/airframe control systems. This system is being used on the F-15 airplane. An integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine stall margin mode are implemented into the system. The adaptive stall margin mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the engine stall margin are continuously computed; the excess stall margin is used to uptrim the engine for more thrust. The integrated flightpath management mode optimizes the flightpath and throttle setting to reach a desired flight condition. The increase in thrust and the improvement in airplane performance is discussed.

  15. Flight measured and calculated exhaust jet conditions for an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Francisco J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust jet conditions, in terms of temperature and Mach number, were determined for a nozzle-aft end acoustic study flown on an F-15 aircraft. Jet properties for the F100 EMD engines were calculated using the engine manufacturer's specification deck. The effects of atmospheric temperature on jet Mach number, M10, were calculated. Values of turbine discharge pressure, PT6M, jet Mach number, and jet temperature were calculated as a function of aircraft Mach number, altitude, and power lever angle for the test day conditions. At a typical test point with a Mach number of 0.9, intermediate power setting, and an altitude of 20,000 ft, M10 was equal to 1.63. Flight measured and calculated values of PT6M were compared for intermediate power at altitudes of 15500, 20500, and 31000 ft. It was found that at 31000 ft, there was excellent agreement between both, but for lower altitudes the specification deck overpredicted the flight data. The calculated jet Mach numbers were believed to be accurate to within 2 percent.

  16. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  17. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  18. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  19. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  20. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  1. 78 FR 68986 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... and connectivity capabilities of the airplane's onboard network computer systems, which may allow access to or by external computer systems and networks. This onboard network system will be composed of a... airplane's onboard network system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate...

  2. 78 FR 70848 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... the EFB architecture and existing airplane network systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations... interface to existing aircraft systems. The proposed network architecture is used for a diverse set of... architecture and network configuration in the Boeing Model 777- 200, -300, and -300ER series airplanes...

  3. 14 CFR 121.391 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... demonstration, he may not, thereafter, take off that airplane— (1) In its maximum seating capacity configuration... least the following flight attendants on each passenger-carrying airplane used: (1) For airplanes having... but less than 51 passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having a maximum payload...

  4. Comparison of the Drag of a Fin-Stabilized Body of Revolution and of a Complete Airplane Configuration as Obtained at Transonic Speeds in a Slotted Wind Tunnel and in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Robert R.; Braslow, Albert L.

    1955-01-01

    A comparison of the zero-lift drag coefficients at Mach numbers from 0.81 to 1.41 of a fin-stabilized parabolic body of revolution as measured in the Langley transonic blowdown tunnel has been made with measurements obtained in free-flight on a larger but geometrically similar model. The absolute values of drag coefficient obtained in the slotted wind tunnel were equivalent to the free-flight drag-coefficient values up to a Mach number of 1.4 when adjustments were made for the effect on viscous drag of differences in Reynolds number between the two test conditions. Excellent agreement was obtained between the two tests for the pressure-drag variation with Mach number, regardless of whether the scale effect on skin friction was considered. Favorable agreement was also obtained between the pressure-drag increments due t o the presence of the stabilizing fins as determined in the wine tunnel from fins-on and fins-off tests and as obtained by a different method in free flight. Tests of a specific airplane configuration to obtain an indication of the problems involved in the construction and tests of small-scale (approximately 7-inch span) complete airplane configuration with internal air flow indicated that reliable zero-lift drag-coefficient measurements at Mach numbers up to 1.4 can be attained with such models, provided the model is constructed with a high but not an unreasonable degree of accuracy.

  5. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered...

  6. Takeoff certification considerations for large subsonic and supersonic transport airplanes using the Ames flight simulator for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Fry, E. B.; Forrest, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Data for use in development of takeoff airworthiness standards for new aircraft designs such as the supersonic transport (SST) and the large wide-body subsonic jet transport are provided. An advanced motion simulator was used to compare the performance and handling characteristics of three representative large jet transports during specific flight certification tasks. Existing regulatory constraints and methods for determining rotation speed were reviewed, and the effects on takeoff performance of variations in rotation speed, pitch attitude, and pitch attitude rate during the rotation maneuver were analyzed. A limited quantity of refused takeoff information was obtained. The aerodynamics, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio of the subject SST resulted in takeoff speeds limited by climb (rather than lift-off) considerations. Take-off speeds based on U.S. subsonic transport requirements were found unacceptable because of the criticality of rotation-abuse effects on one-engine-inoperative climb performance. Adequate safety margin was provided by takeoff speeds based on proposed Anglo-French supersonic transport (TSS) criteria, with the limiting criterion being that takeoff safety speed be at least 1.15 times the one-engine-inoperative zero-rate-of-climb speed. Various observations related to SST certification are presented.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane from Tests of an Unballasted 1/5-Scale Model in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Johnson, Joseph L.

    1947-01-01

    At the request of the Air Material Command, Army Air Forces an investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 airplane is being conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The XP-85 airplane is a jet propelled, parasite fighter with a 34 deg sweepback at the wing quarter chord. It was designed to be carried in a bomb bay of the B-36 air plane. The first portion of the investigation consists of a preliminary evaluation of the stability and control characteristics of the airplane from force and fight tests of an unballasted 1/5-scale model. The second portion of the investigation consists of test of a properly balasted 1/10-scale model which will include a study of the stability of the Xp-85 when attached to the trapeze for retraction into the B-36 bomb bay. The results of the preliminary test with the 1/5-scale model are presented herein. This portion fo the investigation included tests of the model with various center fin arrangements. Both the design nose flap and a stall control vane were investigated.

  8. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that person complies with the takeoff weight limitations in the approved Airplane Flight Manual or equivalent for operations under this part, and, if the airplane is certificated under § 135.169(b) (4) or (5) with the landing weight limitations in the Approved Airplane Flight Manual or equivalent for...

  9. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations. 121.643 Section 121.643 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  10. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations. 121.643 Section 121.643 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  11. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations. 121.643 Section 121.643 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  12. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  13. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  14. Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel, TED No. NACA DE306

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, John W.; Hewes, Donald E.

    1948-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, a stability and control investigation of a 1/10-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane has been conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. Results of force end flight tests to determine the power-off stability and control characteristics of the model with slats retracted and extended are presented herein. The longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics were satisfactory for both the slats retracted and extended conditions over the lift range up to the stall. With the slats retracted, the stall was fairly gentle but the model rolled off out of control. With the slats extended, control could be maintained at the stall so that the wings could be kept level even as the model dropped.

  15. The Behavior of Conventional Airplanes in Situations Thought to Lead to Most Crashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1931-01-01

    Simple flight tests were made on ten conventional airplanes for the purpose of determining their action in the following two situations, which are generally thought to precede and lead to a large proportion of airplane crashes.

  16. Quantifying and scaling airplane performance in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Johnhenri R.

    This dissertation studies the effects of turbulent wind on airplane airspeed and normal load factor, determining how these effects scale with airplane size and developing envelopes to account for them. The results have applications in design and control of aircraft, especially small scale aircraft, for robustness with respect to turbulence. Using linearized airplane dynamics and the Dryden gust model, this dissertation presents analytical and numerical scaling laws for airplane performance in gusts, safety margins that guarantee, with specified probability, that steady flight can be maintained when stochastic wind gusts act upon an airplane, and envelopes to visualize these safety margins. Presented here for the first time are scaling laws for the phugoid natural frequency, phugoid damping ratio, airspeed variance in turbulence, and flight path angle variance in turbulence. The results show that small aircraft are more susceptible to high frequency gusts, that the phugoid damping ratio does not depend directly on airplane size, that the airspeed and flight path angle variances can be parameterized by the ratio of the phugoid natural frequency to a characteristic turbulence frequency, and that the coefficient of variation of the airspeed decreases with increasing airplane size. Accompanying numerical examples validate the results using eleven different airplanes models, focusing on NASA's hypothetical Boeing 757 analog the Generic Transport Model and its operational 5.5% scale model, the NASA T2. Also presented here for the first time are stationary flight, where the flight state is a stationary random process, and the stationary flight envelope, an adjusted steady flight envelope to visualize safety margins for stationary flight. The dissertation shows that driving the linearized airplane equations of motion with stationary, stochastic gusts results in stationary flight. It also shows how feedback control can enlarge the stationary flight envelope by alleviating

  17. Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-airplane lasercom experiment: Airplane considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, Ford

    1990-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of various airplanes for a Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-Airplane laser communications experiment. As supporting documentation, pertinent technical details are included about the potential use of airplanes located at Ames Research Center and Wallops Flight Facility. The effects and application of orbital mechanics considerations are also presented, including slant range, azimuth, elevation, and time. The pros and cons of an airplane equipped with a side port with a bubble window versus a top port with a dome are discussed.

  18. Flight Investigation of Effect of Various Vertical-Tail Modifications on the Directional Stability and Control Characteristics of the P-63A-1 Airplane (AAF No. 42-68889)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Harold I.

    1946-01-01

    Because the results of preliminary flight tests had indicated. the P-63A-1 airplane possessed insufficient directional stability, the NACA and the manufacturer (Bell Aircraft Corporation) suggested three vertical-tail modifications to remedy the deficiencies in the directional characteristics. These modifications included an enlarged vertical tail formed by adding a tip extension to the original vertical tail, a large sharp-edge ventral fin, and a small dorsal fin. The enlarged vertical tail involved only a slight increase in total vertical-tail area from 23.73 to 26.58 square feet but a relatively much larger increase in geometric aspect ratio from 1.24 to 1.73 based on height and area above the horizontal tail. At the request of the Air Material Command, Army Air Forces, flight tests were made to determine the effect of these modifications and of some combinations of these modifications on the directional stability and control characteristics of the airplane, In all, six different vertical-tail. configurations were investigated to determine the lateral and directional oscillation characteristics of the airplane, the sideslip characteristics, the yaw due to ailerons in rudder-fixed rolls from turns and pull-outs, the trim changes due to speed changes; and the trim changes due to power changes. Results of the tests showed that the enlarged vertical tail approximately doubled the directional stability of the airplane and that the pilots considered the directional stability provided by the enlarged vertical tail to be satisfactory. Calculations based on sideslip data obtained at an indicated airspeed of 300 miles per hour showed that the directional stability of the airplane with the original vertical tail corresponded to a value of 0(sub n beta) of -0.00056 whereas for the enlarged vertical tail the estimated va1ue of C(sub n beta) was -0.00130, The ventral fin was found to increase by a moderate amount the directional stability of the airplane with the original

  19. Recent flight test results using an electronic display format on the NASA B-737

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents results of a flight evaluation of two electronic display formats for the approach-to-landing under instrument conditions. The evaluation was conducted for a baseline electronic display format and for the same format with runway symbology and track information added; its evaluation was conducted during 3-deg manual straight-in approaches with and without initial localizer offsets. Flight-path tracking performance data and pilot subjective comments were examined with regard to pilot's ability to capture and maintain the localizer and glide slope using both display fomats. The results of the flight tests agree with earlier simulation results and show that the addition of a perspective runway symbol with an extended centerline and relative track information to a baseline electronic display format improved both lateral and vertical flight-path tracking. Pilot comments indicated that the mental workload required to assess the approach situation was reduced as a result of integrating the perspective runway with extended centerline along with relative track information into the vertical situation display. The limited flight-test results also show that the flight-path performance with the integrated situation display format meets Category II Flight-Director performance criteria.

  20. Flight Determination of the Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of a 0.133-Scale Rocket-Powered Model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 Airplane without Propellers at Mach Numbers from 0.73 to 1.19, TED No. NACA DE 369

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Earl E., Jr.; Mitcham, Grady L.

    1954-01-01

    A flight test has been conducted to determine the longitudinal stability and control,characteristics of a 0.133-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 airplane without propellers for the Mach number range between 0.73 and 1.19.

  1. Free-Flight Tests of 0.11-Scale North American F-100 Airplane Wings to Investigate the Possibility of Flutter in Transonic Speed Range at Varying Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Kelly, Burke R.

    1954-01-01

    Free-flight tests in the transonic speed range utilizing rocketpropelled models have been made on three pairs of 0.11-scale North American F-100 airplane wings having an aspect ratio of 3.47, a taper ratio of 0.308, 45 degree sweepback at the quarter-chord line, and thickness ratios of 31 and 5 percent to investigate the possibility of flutte r. Data from tests of two other rocket-propelled models which accidentally fluttered during a drag investigation of the North American F-100 airplane are also presented. The first set of wings (5 percent thick) was tested on a model which was disturbed in pitch by a moving tail and reached a maximum Mach number of 0.85. The wings encountered mild oscillations near the first - bending frequency at high lift coefficients. The second set of wings 9 percent thick was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 0.95 at (2) angles of attack provided by small rocket motors installed in the nose of the model. No oscillations resembling flutter were encountered during the coasting flight between separation from the booster and sustainer firing (Mach numbers from 0.86 to 0.82) or during the sustainer firing at accelerations of about 8g up to the maximum Mach number of the test (0.95). The third set of wings was similar to the first set and was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 1.24. A mild flutter at frequencies near the first-bending frequency of the wings was encountered between a Mach number of 1.15 and a Mach number of 1.06 during both accelerating and coasting flight. The two drag models, which were 0.ll-scale models of the North American F-100 airplane configuration, reached a maximum Mach number of 1.77. The wings of these models had bending and torsional frequencies which were 40 and 89 percent, respectively, of the calculated scaled frequencies of the full-scale 7-percent-thick wing. Both models experienced flutter of the same type as that experienced-by the third set of wings.

  2. 14 CFR 121.413 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). 121.413 Section 121.413... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). (a) No certificate holder may use... accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device....

  3. Novel time-of-flight spectrometer for the analysis of positron annihilation induced Auger electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Legl, Stefan

    2006-10-15

    Positron annihilation induced Auger-electron spectroscopy (PAES) has several advantages over conventional Auger-electron spectroscopy such as extremely high surface sensitivity and outstanding signal-to-noise ratio at the Auger-transition energy. In order to benefit from these prominent features a low-energy positron beam of high intensity is required for surface sensitive PAES studies. In addition, an electron energy analyzer is required, which efficiently detects the Auger electrons with acceptable energy resolution. For this reason a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed at the intense positron source NEPOMUC that allows PAES studies within short measurement time. This TOF-PAES setup combines a trochoidal filter and a flight tube in a Faraday cage in order to achieve an improved energy resolution of about 1 eV at high electron energies up to E{approx_equal}1000 eV. The electron flight time is the time between the annihilation radiation at the sample and when the electron hits a microchannel plate detector at the end of the flight tube.

  4. Investigation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Convair YF-102 Airplane in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Boisseau, Peter C.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/10-scale model of the Convair YF-102 airplane has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The model was flown over a lift-coefficient range from 0.5 to the stall in its basic configuration and with several modifications involving leading-edge slats and increases in vertical-tail size. Only relatively low-altitude conditions were simulated and no attempt was made to determine the effect of freeing the controls. The longitudinal stability characteristics of the model were considered satisfactory for all conditions investigated. The lateral stability characteristics were considered satisfactory for the basic configuration over the speed range investigated except near the stall, where large values of static directional instability caused the model to be directionally divergent. The addition of leading-edge slats or an 8-percent increase in vertical-tail area increased the angle of attack at which the model became directionally divergent. The use of leading-edge slats in combination with a 40-percent increase in vertical-tail size eliminated the directional divergence and produced satisfactory stability characteristics through the stall. The longitudinal and lateral control characteristics were generally satisfactory. Although the adverse sideslip characteristics for the model were considered satisfactory over the angle-of-attack range, analysis indicates that the adverse sideslip characteristics of the airplane may be objectionable at high angles of attack.

  5. Drag and Longitudinal Trim at Low Lift of the North American YF-100A Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.76 to 1.77 as Determined from the Flight Test of a 0.11-Scale Rocket Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Willard S.

    1953-01-01

    Drag and longitudinal trim at low lift of the North American YF-100A airplane at Mach numbers from 0.76 to 1.77 as determined from the flight test of a 0.11-scale rocket model are presented herein. Also included are some longitudinal stability and some qualitative pitch-damping data. The subsonic external-drag-coefficient level was about 0.012, and the supersonic level was about 0.043. The drag rise occurred at a Mach number of 0.95. The longitudinal trim change at low lift consisted basically of a mild nose-up tendency at a Mach number of 0.90. An indication of wing flutter was present at Mach numbers from 0.95 to 1.11. However, the full-scale airplane wing has approximately twice the scaled first-bending frequency as the model tested and, hence, will probably be free of this type of flutter. The aerodynamic-center location was 71 percent behind the leading edge of the mean aerodynamic chord at a Mach number of 1.03 and 62 percent at a Mach number of 1.74. Qualitative measurement of damping in pitch indicates that at low lift coefficients damping will be low at a Mach number of 1.03.

  6. Investigation in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model Simulating the Convair F-102A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boisseau, Peter C.

    1955-01-01

    An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/10-scale model simulating the Convair F-102A airplane has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The model in its basic configuration and with two modifications involving leading- edge slats and an increase in vertical-tail size was flown through a lift-coefficient range from 0.7 to the stall. Only relatively low-altitude conditions were simulated. The longitudinal stability characteristics of the model were considered satisfactory for all conditions investigated. The lateral stability characteristics were considered satisfactory for the basic configuration over the lift-coefficient range investigated, except near the stall, where large values of static directional instability caused the model to be directionally divergent. An 80-percent increase in vertical-tail area increased the angle of attack at which the model became directionally divergent. The longitudinal and lateral control characteristics were generally satisfactory. Although the adverse sideslip characteristics for the model were considered acceptable over the angle-of-attack range, analysis indicates that the adverse sideslip characteristics of the airplane may be objectionable at high angles of attack.

  7. 78 FR 68985 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... and data networks. This onboard network system will be composed of a network file server, a network... installation of an onboard network system, associated line replaceable units (LRUs) and additional software..., -300ER series airplanes will incorporate the following novel or unusual design features: An...

  8. Measurements in Flight of the Pressure Distribution on the Right Wing of a Pursuit-Type Airplane at Several Values of Mach Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clousing, Lawrence A; Turner, William N; Rolls, L Stewart

    1946-01-01

    Pressure-distribution measurements were made on the right wing of a pursuit-type airplane at values of Mach number up to 0.80. The results showed that a considerable portion of the lift was carried by components of the airplane other than the wings, and that the proportion of lift carried by the wings may vary considerably with Mach number, thus changing the bending moment at the wing root whether or not there is a shift in the lateral position of the center of pressure. It was also shown that the center of pressure does not necessarily move outward at high Mach numbers, even though the wing-thickness ratio decreases toward the wing tip. The wing pitching-moment coefficient increased sharply in a negative direction at a Mach lift-curve slope increased with Mach number up to values of above the critical value. Pressures inside the wing were small and negative.

  9. Flight Test of the Lateral Stability of a 0.133-Scale Model of the Convair XFY-1 Airplane with Windmilling Propellers at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.12 (TED No. NACA DE 369)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinger, James A.; Mitcham, Grady L.

    1955-01-01

    A flight test of a rocket-propelled model of the Convair XFY-1 airplane was conducted to determine the lateral stability and control characteristics, The 0.133-scale model had windmilling propellers for this test, which covered a Mach number range of O.70 to 1.12. The center of gravity was located at 13.9 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The methods of analysis included both a solution by vector diagrams and simple one- and two-degree-of-freedom methods. The model was both statically and dynamically stable throughout the speed range of the testa The roll damping was good, and the slope of the side-force curve varied little with speed. The rudder was effective throughout the test speed range, although it was reduced to about 43 percent of its subsonic value at supersonic speeds.

  10. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Model of the Lockheed YP-80A Airplane Including Correlation with Flight Tests and Tests of Dive-Recovery Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.; Gray, Lyle J.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.

  11. Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61c Airplanes within Thunderstorms. II - July 9, 1946 to July 11, 1946 at Orlando, Florida. II; July 9, 1946 to July 11, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolefson, Harold B.

    1946-01-01

    The results obtained from an evaluation for gust and draft velocities of acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA recording instruments installed in P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 6, 7, and 8 of July 9, 1946, July 10, 1946, and July 11, 1946, respectively, are presented herein. These data are summarized in tables I and II. In accordance with a recent discussion with a member of the U.S. Weather Bureau staff, the tabulated results for the present flight include in addition to data of the type presented in reference 1, the initial heading of the airplane for each traverse, the pressure altitude at the start of each traverse in increments of 500 feet, and the gust gradient distance when it could be evaluated. The cloud entry and exit times for the present data were taken from motion-picture records of the pilot's instrument panels whenever such records were available while the length fo the traverses in seconds and feet was taken from the airspeed-altitude records. In many cases, however, poor agreement is indicated between the duration of the cloud traverses as obtained from the motion-picture records and from the airspeed-altitude records. This result is believed to be due to camera stoppages, inaccurate spring mechanisms of the clocks, and loss of motion-picture record in exposure or development. With reference to the evaluation of gust data, the nominal threshold was about 2 feet per second. In making gust counts to this threshold, some gusts below that threshold have been included due to limitations of the procedure used. Thus, it will be noted that in some instances gust counts are given in table I although now corresponding gust velocities are listed.

  12. Flight-test evaluation of two electronic display formats for approach to landing under instrument conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.; Knox, C. E.; Steinmetz, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a flight evaluation of two electronic display formats for the approach to landing under instrument conditions are presented. The evaluation was conducted for a base-line electronic display format and for the same format with runway symbology and track information added. The evaluation was conducted during 3 deg, manual straight-in approaches with and without initial localizer offsets. Flight path tracking performance data and pilot subjective comments were examined with regard to the pilot's ability to capture and maintain localizer and glide slope by using both display formats.

  13. Operation Of The X-29A Digital Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacon, Vince; Mcbride, David

    1990-01-01

    Report reviews program of testing and evaluation of digital flight-control system for X-29A airplane, with emphasis on operation during tests. Topics include design of system, special electronic testing equipment designed to aid in daily operations, and aspects of testing, including detection of faults.

  14. Flight testing the Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) A unique management experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Kock, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    The concept for the DEEC had its origin in the early 1970s. At that time it was recognized that the F100 engine performance, operability, reliability, and cost could be substantially improved by replacing the original mechanical/supervisory electronic control system with a full-authority digital control system. By 1978, the engine manufacturer had designed and initiated the procurement of flight-qualified control system hardware. As a precursor to an integrated controls program, a flight evaluation of the DEEC system on the F-15 aircraft was proposed. Questions regarding the management of the DEEC flight evaluation program are discussed along with the program elements, the technical results of the F-15 evaluation, and the impact of the flight evaluation on after-burning turbofan controls technology and its use in and application to military aircraft. The lessons learned through the conduct of the program are discussed.

  15. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  16. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  17. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane indicate that the airplane has not been shown to comply with the noise limits under part 36 of this...

  18. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  19. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  20. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  1. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  2. 14 CFR 125.375 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes. 125.375 Section 125.375 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.375 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes....

  3. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). Link to an amendment... airman (airplane) is a person who is qualified, and permitted, to conduct flight checks or instruction...

  4. 14 CFR 125.375 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes. 125.375 Section 125.375 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.375 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes....

  5. 14 CFR 125.375 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes. 125.375 Section 125.375 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.375 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes....

  6. Pilot Transition Courses for Complex Single-Engine and Light Twin-Engine Airplanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication is intended for use by certificated airplane pilots and provides transitional knowledge and skills for more complex single-engine or light twin-engine airplanes. The training should be conducted by a competent flight instructor certified in the class of airplane and familiar with the make and model. A syllabus outline of ground…

  7. Measurement of the handling characteristics of two light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation of the handling characteristics of two single engine general aviation airplanes, one a high wing and the other a low wing, included a variety of measurements of different characteristics of the airplanes. The characteristics included those of the control systems, performance, longitudinal and lateral responses, and stall motions.

  8. Practical application of HgI2 detectors to a space-flight scanning electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J. G.; Conley, J. M.; Albee, A. L.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Dabrowski, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Mercuric iodide X-ray detectors have been undergoing tests in a prototype scanning electron microscope system being developed for unmanned space flight. The detector program addresses the issues of geometric configuration in the SEM, compact packaging that includes separate thermoelectric coolers for the detector and FET, X-ray transparent hermetic encapsulation and electrical contacts, and a clean vacuum environment.

  9. Summary of V-G and VGH Data Collected on Lockheed Electra Airplanes During Airplane Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Fetner, Mary W.

    1961-01-01

    Data obtained by NASA VGH and V-G recorders on several Lockheed Electra airplanes operated over three domestic routes have been analyzed to determine the in-flight accelerations, airspeed practices, and landing accelerations experienced by this particular airplane. The results indicate that the accelerations caused by gusts and maneuvers are comparable to corresponding results for piston-engine transport airplanes. Oscillatory accelerations (apparently caused by the autopilot or control system) appear to occur about one-tenth as frequently as accelerations due to gusts. Airspeed operating practices in rough air generally follow the trends shown by piston-engine transports in that there is no significant difference between the average airspeed in rough or smooth air. Placard speeds were exceeded more frequently by the Electra airplane than by piston-engine transport airplanes. Generally, the landing-impact accelerations were higher than those for piston-engine transports.

  10. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section, if an airplane is not used during the practical test for a type rating for a turbo... in a Level C or higher flight simulator and the applicant must— (1) Hold a type rating in a turbo... two different turbo-propeller airplanes of the same class of airplane for which the type rating...

  11. Clear Skies and Grey Areas: Flight Attendants' Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Policy 25 Years since Smoking was Banned on Airplanes.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Zheng, Laura Y; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to provide descriptive data on flight attendant secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the work environment, and to examine attitudes toward SHS exposure, personal health, and smoke-free policy in the workplace and public places. Flight attendants completed a web-based survey of self-reported SHS exposure and air quality in the work environment. We assessed the frequency and duration of SHS exposure in distinct areas of the workplace, attitudes toward SHS exposure and its health effects, and attitudes toward smoke-free policy in the workplace as well as general public places. A total of 723 flight attendants participated in the survey, and 591 responded to all survey questions. The mean level of exposure per flight attendant over the past month was 249 min. The majority of participants reported being exposed to SHS always/often in outdoor areas of an airport (57.7%). Participants who worked before the in-flight smoking ban (n=240) were more likely to support further smoking policies in airports compared to participants who were employed after the ban (n=346) (76.7% versus 60.4%, p-value<0.01). Flight attendants are still being exposed to SHS in the workplace, sometimes at concerning levels during the non-flight portions of their travel. Flight attendants favor smoke-free policies and want to see further restrictions in airports and public places. PMID:26053296

  12. Clear Skies and Grey Areas: Flight Attendants’ Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Policy 25 Years since Smoking was Banned on Airplanes

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Frances A.; Soong, Andrea; Zheng, Laura Y.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to provide descriptive data on flight attendant secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the work environment, and to examine attitudes toward SHS exposure, personal health, and smoke-free policy in the workplace and public places. Flight attendants completed a web-based survey of self-reported SHS exposure and air quality in the work environment. We assessed the frequency and duration of SHS exposure in distinct areas of the workplace, attitudes toward SHS exposure and its health effects, and attitudes toward smoke-free policy in the workplace as well as general public places. A total of 723 flight attendants participated in the survey, and 591 responded to all survey questions. The mean level of exposure per flight attendant over the past month was 249 min. The majority of participants reported being exposed to SHS always/often in outdoor areas of an airport (57.7%). Participants who worked before the in-flight smoking ban (n = 240) were more likely to support further smoking policies in airports compared to participants who were employed after the ban (n = 346) (76.7% versus 60.4%, p-value < 0.01). Flight attendants are still being exposed to SHS in the workplace, sometimes at concerning levels during the non-flight portions of their travel. Flight attendants favor smoke-free policies and want to see further restrictions in airports and public places. PMID:26053296

  13. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xuyong

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  14. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua; Wang, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  15. X-15: Extending the Frontiers of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    A history of the design and achievements of the high-speed, 1950s-era X-15 airplane is presented. The following chapters are included: A New Science; A Hypersonic Research Airplane; Conflict and Innovation; The Million-Horsepower Engine; High Range and Dry Lakes; Preparations; The Flight Program; and the Research Program. Selected biographies, flight logs and physical characteristics of the X-15 Airplane are included in the appendices.

  16. In-flight reconfigurable FPGA based electronics for INTEGRAL Imager prototype.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corba, M.; Quadrini, E. M.

    1995-08-01

    Describes the unprecedented implementation of "in-flight" reconfigurable on-board data handling electronics using reprogrammable FPGA (field programmable gate array) technology. The electronics design was realized for a prototype of the Imager for the INTEGRAL mission that is an ESA "Horizon 2000" long term plan, now in the second selection cycle (M2). The Imager prototype was developed by an international collaboration, and was flown successfully on a balloon from Fort-Sumner, New Mexico in October 1993. The purpose of this reconfigurable electronics was to demonstrate a new engineering approach that would reduce the cost of mass and power of the payload. The accomplishment of using a flexible structure in an instrument prototype combined with the demonstration of high performance during hostile environmental flight conditions is presented.

  17. Flight Test Results of a GPS-Based Pitot-Static Calibration Method Using Output-Error Optimization for a Light Twin-Engine Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Kiszely, Paul; Foster, John V.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), a novel pitot-static calibration method was developed to allow rapid in-flight calibration for subscale aircraft while flying within confined test areas. This approach uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology coupled with modern system identification methods that rapidly computes optimal pressure error models over a range of airspeed with defined confidence bounds. This method has been demonstrated in subscale flight tests and has shown small 2- error bounds with significant reduction in test time compared to other methods. The current research was motivated by the desire to further evaluate and develop this method for full-scale aircraft. A goal of this research was to develop an accurate calibration method that enables reductions in test equipment and flight time, thus reducing costs. The approach involved analysis of data acquisition requirements, development of efficient flight patterns, and analysis of pressure error models based on system identification methods. Flight tests were conducted at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) utilizing an instrumented Piper Navajo research aircraft. In addition, the UTSI engineering flight simulator was used to investigate test maneuver requirements and handling qualities issues associated with this technique. This paper provides a summary of piloted simulation and flight test results that illustrates the performance and capabilities of the NASA calibration method. Discussion of maneuver requirements and data analysis methods is included as well as recommendations for piloting technique.

  18. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  19. Precision controllability of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Matheny, N. W.

    1979-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on a preproduction F-15 airplane permitted an assessment to be made of its precision controllability in the high subsonic and low transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. Precision controllability, or gunsight tracking, studies were conducted in windup turn maneuvers with the gunsight in the caged pipper mode and depressed 70 mils. This evaluation showed the F-15 airplane to experience severe buffet and mild-to-moderate wing rock at the higher angles of attack. It showed the F-15 airplane radial tracking precision to vary from approximately 6 to 20 mils over the load factor range tested. Tracking in the presence of wing rock essentially doubled the radial tracking error generated at the lower angles of attack. The stability augmentation system affected the tracking precision of the F-15 airplane more than it did that of previous aircraft studied.

  20. Electron pair emission detected by time-of-flight spectrometers: Recent progress

    SciTech Connect

    Huth, Michael; Schumann, Frank O.; Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Trützschler, Andreas; Kirschner, Jürgen; Widdra, Wolf

    2014-02-10

    We present results for electron coincidence spectroscopy using two time-of-flight (ToF) spectrometers. Excited by electron impact, the energy and momentum distribution of electron pairs emitted from the Cu(111) surface are resolved and a spectral feature related to the Shockley surface state is identified. By combining the two ToF spectrometers with a high-order harmonic generation light source, we demonstrate double photoemission spectroscopy in the laboratory that required synchrotron radiation in the past. Utilizing this setup, we report results for (γ,2e) on NiO(001) on Ag(001) excited with light at 30 eV photon energy.

  1. 78 FR 75287 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... flight envelope limiting systems in mind. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of Title 14,...

  2. Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms July 22, 1946 to July 23, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolefson, H. B.

    1947-01-01

    The results obtained from measurements of gust and draft velocities within thunderstorms for the period July 22, 1946 to July 23, 1946 at Orlando, Florida, are presented herein. These data are summarized in tables I and II, respectively, and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Inspection of photo-observer records for the flights indicated that no data on ambient air temperature variations within thunderstorms were obtained.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Flight-Test Results for the Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.

  4. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The lightweight structure of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing can be seen clearly in this photo from beneath the vehicle. The photo was taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights conducted in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds

  5. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The long, narrow wing design and lightweight structure of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing is clearly visible in this photo, taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered flight tests with the aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the

  6. Centurion in Banked Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Centurion remotely piloted flying wing during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar-powered aircraft

  7. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Centurion remotely piloted flying wing during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar-powered aircraft

  8. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The long, curved wing of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing is clearly visible in this photo, taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight

  9. Spatial investigations of ion and electron time of flight in laser ablated ZnO plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshy, N. V.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    The time of flight (TOF) spectra of ions and electrons of laser ablated ZnO:Ga plasma plume were recorded. The laser fluence was varied from 2.55 Jcm-2 to 17.85 Jcm-2 and the ablation was carried out in vacuum and N2O ambient pressure ranging from 0.0001 mbar to 0.1 mbar. The TOF spectra were recorded at positions 10 mm to 50 mm from the target surface along the direction normal to the surface. Ion acceleration and corresponding electron deceleration were detected in the plasma due to the formation of electric double layer during plasma expansion. Twin peaks were recorded in the ion TOF spectra-corresponding to accelerated and thermal ions, while two categories of thermal electrons were detected in electron TOF spectra. The behaviour of these ions and electrons is studied as a function of laser fluence, ambient gas pressure and distance from the target surface.

  10. Flight flutter testing of multi-jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartley, J.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive flight flutter tests were conducted by BAC on B-52 and KC-135 prototype airplanes. The need for and importance of these flight flutter programs to Boeing airplane design are discussed. Basic concepts of flight flutter testing of multi-jet aircraft and analysis of the test data will be presented. Exciter equipment and instrumentation employed in these tests will be discussed.

  11. 14 CFR 91.529 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 91.529...-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.529 Flight engineer... flight engineer certificate: (1) An airplane for which a type certificate was issued before January...

  12. UAVSAR Flight-Planning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A system of software partly automates planning of a flight of the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) -- a polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar system aboard an unpiloted or minimally piloted airplane. The software constructs a flight plan that specifies not only the intended flight path but also the setup of the radar system at each point along the path.

  13. Design of the ARES Mars Airplane and Mission Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Wright, Henry S.; Croom, Mark A.; Levine, Joel S.; Spencer, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Significant technology advances have enabled planetary aircraft to be considered as viable science platforms. Such systems fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Recent efforts have produced mature mission and flight system concepts, ready for flight project implementation. This paper summarizes the development of a Mars airplane mission architecture that balances science, implementation risk and cost. Airplane mission performance, flight system design and technology maturation are described. The design, analysis and testing completed demonstrates the readiness of this science platform for use in a Mars flight project.

  14. Summary of the effects of engine throttle response on airplane formation-flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin R.

    1992-01-01

    A flight evaluation as conducted to determine the effect of engine throttle response characteristics on precision formation-flying qualities. A variable electronic throttle control system was developed and flight-tested on a TF-104G airplane with a J79-11B engine at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. Ten research flights were flown to evaluate the effects of throttle gain, time delay, and fuel control rate limiting on engine handling qualities during a demanding precision wing formation task. Handling quality effects of lag filters and lead compensation time delays were also evaluated. Data from pilot ratings and comments indicate that throttle control system time delays and rate limits cause significant degradations in handling qualities. Threshold values for satisfactory (level 1) and adequate (level 2) handling qualities of these key variables are presented.

  15. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes leased by a person not a U.S. citizen... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes leased by a person not a U.S. citizen. (a) General. The holder of a current foreign flight engineer...

  16. 78 FR 21227 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... specified products. That SNPRM was published in the Federal Register on September 7, 2012 (77 FR 55163... SNPRM (77 FR 55163, September 7, 2012) be changed from ``* * * first flight of the airplane,'' to... consistent with the intent that was proposed in the SNPRM (77 FR 55163, September 7, 2012) for correcting...

  17. Flight Checklists And Interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, C.; Goguen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Report examines relation between performances of flight checklists and interruptions. Based on study of simulated flights of Boeing 707 Airplane. During each flight series of overlapping problems introduced. Study investigated patterns of communication that in carrying out checklists, may contribute to accidents. Showed good crews had high continuity in following checklists and it is not number of interruptions but rather duration of interruptions associated with quality of performance. Suggests greater burden placed on memory by one long interruption than by several short ones.

  18. Time of flight spectrometer for background-free positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Shastry, K; Anto, C V; Joglekar, P V; Nadesalingam, M P; Xie, S; Jiang, N; Weiss, A H

    2016-03-01

    We describe a novel spectrometer designed for positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy employing a time-of-flight spectrometer. The spectrometer's new configuration enables us to implant monoenergetic positrons with kinetic energies as low as 1.5 eV on the sample while simultaneously allowing for the detection of electrons emitted from the sample surface at kinetic energies ranging from ∼500 eV to 0 eV. The spectrometer's unique characteristics made it possible to perform (a) first experiments demonstrating the direct transition of a positron from an unbound scattering state to a bound surface state and (b) the first experiments demonstrating that Auger electron spectra can be obtained down to 0 eV without the beam induced secondary electron background obscuring the low energy part of the spectra. Data are presented which show alternative means of estimating positron surface state binding energy and background-free Auger spectra. PMID:27036826

  19. Time of flight spectrometer for background-free positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Shastry, K.; Anto, C. V.; Joglekar, P. V.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Xie, S.; Jiang, N.; Weiss, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a novel spectrometer designed for positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy employing a time-of-flight spectrometer. The spectrometer's new configuration enables us to implant monoenergetic positrons with kinetic energies as low as 1.5 eV on the sample while simultaneously allowing for the detection of electrons emitted from the sample surface at kinetic energies ranging from ˜500 eV to 0 eV. The spectrometer's unique characteristics made it possible to perform (a) first experiments demonstrating the direct transition of a positron from an unbound scattering state to a bound surface state and (b) the first experiments demonstrating that Auger electron spectra can be obtained down to 0 eV without the beam induced secondary electron background obscuring the low energy part of the spectra. Data are presented which show alternative means of estimating positron surface state binding energy and background-free Auger spectra.

  20. Time-of-flight electron spectrometer for a broad range of kinetic energies.

    PubMed

    Kothe, Alexander; Metje, Jan; Wilke, Martin; Moguilevski, Alexandre; Engel, Nicholas; Al-Obaidi, Ruba; Richter, Clemens; Golnak, Ronny; Kiyan, Igor Yu; Aziz, Emad F

    2013-02-01

    A newly constructed time-of-flight electron spectrometer of the magnetic bottle type is characterized for electron detection in a broad range of kinetic energies. The instrument is designed to measure the energy spectra of electrons generated from liquids excited by strong laser fields and photons in the range of extreme ultra violet and soft X-rays. Argon inner shell electrons were recorded to calibrate the spectrometer and investigate its characteristics, such as energy resolution and collection efficiency. Its energy resolution ΔE/E of 1.6% allows resolving the Ar 2p spin orbit structure at kinetic energies higher than 100 eV. The collection efficiency is determined and compared to that of the spectrometer in its field-free configuration. PMID:23464194