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Sample records for airplane flight manual

  1. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual or... approved Airplane Flight Manual or the approved equivalent aboard each airplane it operates. A...

  2. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  3. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  4. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  5. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  6. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  7. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  8. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  9. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight...

  10. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. Link to an..., 2010. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane...

  11. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... presentation of performance data from the applicable flight manual if the revised operating procedures and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight...

  12. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... presentation of performance data from the applicable flight manual if the revised operating procedures and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight...

  13. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... presentation of performance data from the applicable flight manual if the revised operating procedures and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight...

  14. 14 CFR 36.105 - Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4 equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4... Airplanes and Jet Airplanes § 36.105 Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4 equivalency. For each airplane that meets the requirements for Stage 4 certification, the Airplane Flight Manual or operations...

  15. Flight testing and simulation of an F-15 airplane using throttles for flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel; Wolf, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Flight tests and simulation studies using the throttles of an F-15 airplane for emergency flight control have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The airplane and the simulation are capable of extended up-and-away flight, using only throttles for flight path control. Initial simulation results showed that runway landings using manual throttles-only control were difficult, but possible with practice. Manual approaches flown in the airplane were much more difficult, indicating a significant discrepancy between flight and simulation. Analysis of flight data and development of improved simulation models that resolve the discrepancy are discussed. An augmented throttle-only control system that controls bank angle and flight path with appropriate feedback parameters has also been developed, evaluated in simulations, and is planned for flight in the F-15.

  16. 14 CFR 36.105 - Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4 equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4... Airplanes and Jet Airplanes § 36.105 Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4 equivalency. For each airplane... by the FAA to be equivalent to the Chapter 4 noise level required by the International Civil...

  17. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). Link to... may any person serve as a flight instructor unless— (1) That person has satisfactorily...

  18. Flight testing a propulsion-controlled aircraft emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.

  19. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  20. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (2) A... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator) are those instructors who perform the functions described...

  1. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  2. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  3. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  4. Manual Manipulation of Engine Throttles for Emergency Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Maine, Trindel A.

    2004-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only engines thrust. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. Flight test and simulation results on many airplanes have shown that pilot manipulation of throttles is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but is most often not capable of providing safe landings. There are techniques that will improve control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only control (TOC), a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, manual TOC results for a wide range of airplanes from simulation and flight, and suggested techniques for flying with throttles only and making a survivable landing.

  5. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a person who is qualified to instruct in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training...

  6. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a person who is qualified to instruct in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training...

  7. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is...

  8. Development and Flight Evaluation of an Emergency Digital Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Webb, Lannie Dean

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system for emergency flight control of aircraft with no flight controls was developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane has been flown in a throttles-only manual mode and with an augmented system called PCA in which pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to drive the throttles. Results from a 36-flight evaluation showed that the PCA system can be used to safety land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure. The PCA system was used to recover from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Guest pilots have also evaluated the PCA system. This paper describes the principles of throttles-only flight control; a history of loss-of-control accidents; a description of the F-15 aircraft; the PCA system operation, simulation, and flight testing; and the pilot comments.

  9. 14 CFR 36.105 - Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4 equivalency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equivalency. 36.105 Section 36.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION Transport Category Large Airplanes and Jet Airplanes § 36.105 Flight Manual Statement of Chapter 4 equivalency. For each...

  10. Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

  11. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight...

  12. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  13. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  14. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. 121.503 Section 121.503 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  15. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. 121.503 Section 121.503 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  16. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. 121.503 Section 121.503 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  17. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. 121.503 Section 121.503 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  18. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. 121.503 Section 121.503 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  19. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised); Private Pilot Airplane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for a Private Pilot Certificate with Airplane Rating under part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: preflight operations, airport and traffic pattern operations,…

  20. Prolonging Microgravity on Parabolic Airplane Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Three techniques have been proposed to prolong the intervals of time available for microgravity experiments aboard airplanes flown along parabolic trajectories. Typically, a pilot strives to keep an airplane on such a trajectory during a nominal time interval as long as 25 seconds, and an experimental apparatus is released to float freely in the airplane cabin to take advantage of the microgravitational environment of the trajectory for as long as possible. It is usually not possible to maintain effective microgravity during the entire nominal time interval because random aerodynamic forces and fluctuations in pilot control inputs cause the airplane to deviate slightly from a perfect parabolic trajectory, such that the freely floating apparatus bumps into the ceiling, floor, or a wall of the airplane before the completion of the parabola.

  1. Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

  2. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) has been undergoing ground and flight tests by Ames Research Center since late 1979, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope established by the Sikorsky Aircraft Company. This paper reviews the preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wing, configuration and discusses the results of that test.

  3. Skylab Saturn 1B flight manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A Saturn 1B Flight Manual provides launch vehicle systems descriptions and predicted performance data for the Skylab missions. Vehicle SL-2 (SA-206) is the baseline for this manual; but, as a result of the great similarity, the material is representative of SL-3 and SL-4 launch vehicles, also. The Flight Manual is not a control document but is intended primarily as an aid to astronauts who are training for Skylab missions. In order to provide a comprehensive reference for that purpose, the manual also contains descriptions of the ground support interfaces, prelaunch operations, and emergency procedures. Mission variables and constraints are summarized, and mission control monitoring and data flow during launch preparation and flight are discussed.

  4. Measurements of Rudder Moments on an Airplane During Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Ing V

    1921-01-01

    Tests indicated that: 1) C airplanes with two struts are extremely susceptible to aileron maneuvers, slight alterations of the aileron sufficing to compensate great unequalized moments; 2) great unequalized moments can be produced or neutralized by the unequalized alternation of the angle of attack below the outer and inner struts. Adjustment below the outer strut is the more effective of the two. 3) When a load of bombs is suspended beyond the center of the airplane, below the wings, the bombs need not be dropped simultaneously. 4) The propeller wash of a wide open engine has considerable influence on the position and operation of the elevator. The elevator is more susceptible in flight with the engine running than in gliding flight. 5) Adjustable tail planes are not advisable for D airplanes, nor for the C type, but they are, on the other hand, to be recommended for large size and giant airplanes in which the center of gravity changes during flight. 6) The aileron values obtained by wind tunnel measurements are about 10 percent too low, though otherwise applicable. For the elevator, the results of such measurements should be taken as mean values between flight with the engine running and gliding flight.

  5. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  6. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  7. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  8. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  9. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  10. Integrated Flight-propulsion Control Concepts for Supersonic Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    Integration of propulsion and flight control systems will provide significant performance improvements for supersonic transport airplanes. Increased engine thrust and reduced fuel consumption can be obtained by controlling engine stall margin as a function of flight and engine operating conditions. Improved inlet pressure recovery and decreased inlet drag can result from inlet control system integration. Using propulsion system forces and moments to augment the flight control system and airplane stability can reduce the flight control surface and tail size, weight, and drag. Special control modes may also be desirable for minimizing community noise and for emergency procedures. The overall impact of integrated controls on the takeoff gross weight for a generic high speed civil transport is presented.

  11. Light airplane crash tests at three flight-path angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three similar twin engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at Langley impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec and at flight-path angles of -15 deg, -30 deg, and -45 deg. Other flight parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  12. Flight test results for several light, canard-configured airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Philip W.

    1987-01-01

    Brief flight evaluations of two different, light, composite constructed, canard and winglet configured airplanes were performed to assess their handling qualities; one airplane was a single engine, pusher design and the other a twin engine, push-pull configuration. An emphasis was placed on the slow speed/high angle of attack region for both airplanes and on the engine-out regime for the twin. Mission suitability assessment included cockpit and control layout, ground and airborne handling qualities, and turbulence response. Very limited performance data was taken. Stall/spin tests and the effects of laminar flow loss on performance and handling qualities were assessed on an extended range, single engine pusher design.

  13. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... INFORMATION CONTACT: Joe Jacobsen, FAA, Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111,...

  14. Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R. (Editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. E Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. E Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. E Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. E Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  19. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system. The... The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor... movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the “or” applies....

  1. 76 FR 8278 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Flight Vision System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special conditions..., Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Standards Staff, Transport Airplane... Design Features The enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) is a novel or unusual design feature because...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval... from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the “or” applies. For airplanes with...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to... movement (one from the other) for all modes of operation and flight regimes, the “or” applies....

  4. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B.... B Appendix B to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1 minimum accuracy (to recovered data) Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 read out Relative...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification F.... F Appendix F to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification The recorded values must meet the... rate of reversal. All data recorded must be correlated in time to within one second. Parameters...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... Appendix E to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the designated... reversal. All data recorded must be correlated in time to within one second. Parameters Range...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification F.... F Appendix F to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification The recorded values must meet the... rate of reversal. All data recorded must be correlated in time to within one second. Parameters...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... Appendix E to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the designated... reversal. All data recorded must be correlated in time to within one second. Parameters Range...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification F.... F Appendix F to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification The recorded values must meet the... rate of reversal. All data recorded must be correlated in time to within one second. Parameters...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B.... B Appendix B to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1 minimum accuracy (to recovered data) Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 read out Relative...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B.... B Appendix B to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1 minimum accuracy (to recovered data) Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 read out Relative...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B.... B Appendix B to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1 minimum accuracy (to recovered data) Sampling interval (per second) Resolution 4 read out Relative...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications B Appendix B to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... B Appendix B to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G...—Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating... following ratings: (a) Flight Instructor Instrument—Airplane. (b) Flight Instructor...

  19. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that person complies with the takeoff weight limitations in the approved Airplane Flight Manual or equivalent for operations under this part, and, if the airplane is certificated under § 135.169(b) (4) or (5) with the landing weight limitations in the Approved Airplane Flight Manual or equivalent for...

  20. Lateral aerodynamic parameters extracted from flight data for the F-8C airplane in maneuvering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Flight test data are used to extract the lateral aerodynamic parameters of the F-8C airplane at moderate to high angles of attack. The data were obtained during perturbations of the airplane from steady turns with trim normal accelerations from 1.5g to 3.0g. The angle-of-attack variation from trim was negligible. The aerodynamic coefficients extracted from flight data were compared with several other sets of coefficients, and the extracted coefficients resulted in characteristics for the Dutch roll mode (at the highest angles of attack) similar to those of a set of coefficients that have been the basis of several simulations of the F-8C.

  1. A preliminary analysis of flight data from the AFTI/F-16 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, J. G.; Klein, V.

    1984-01-01

    Flight test data from the AFTI/F-16 airplane are analyzed. Two flight control system modes (Independent Backup Unit and Standard Normal Mode) are considered. Estimated stability and control derivatives are compared with values from the wind tunnel and F-16A flight tests. Modeling difficulties are shown to arise due to the near-neutral static stability of the airplane and the number of coordinated control surface movements commanded in the Standard Normal Mode.

  2. Flight test of a propulsion controlled aircraft system on the NASA F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight tests of the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system on the NASA F-15 airplane evolved as a result of a long series of simulation and flight tests. Initially, the simulation results were very optimistic. Early flight tests showed that manual throttles-only control was much more difficult than the simulation, and a flight investigation was flown to acquire data to resolve this discrepancy. The PCA system designed and developed by MDA evolved as these discrepancies were found and resolved, requiring redesign of the PCA software and modification of the flight test plan. Small throttle step inputs were flown to provide data for analysis, simulation update, and control logic modification. The PCA flight tests quickly revealed less than desired performance, but the extensive flexibility built into the flight PCA software allowed rapid evaluation of alternate gains, filters, and control logic, and within 2 weeks, the PCA system was functioning well. The initial objective of achieving adequate control for up-and-away flying and approaches was satisfied, and the option to continue to actual landings was achieved. After the PCA landings were accomplished, other PCA features were added, and additional maneuvers beyond those originally planned were flown. The PCA system was used to recover from extreme upset conditions, descend, and make approaches to landing. A heading mode was added, and a single engine plus rudder PCA mode was also added and flown. The PCA flight envelope was expanded far beyond that originally designed for. Guest pilots from the USAF, USN, NASA, and the contractor also flew the PCA system and were favorably impressed.

  3. Solar-powered airplane design for long-endurance, high-altitude flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, J. W.; Talay, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the performance analysis and design of a solar-powered airplane for long-endurance, unmanned, high-altitude cruise flight utilizing electric propulsion and solar energy collection/storage devices. For a fixed calendar date and geocentric latitude, the daily energy balance, airplane sizing, and airplane aerodynamics relations combine to determine airplane size and geometry to meet mission requirements. Vehicle component weight loadings, aerodynamic parameters, and current and projected values of power train component characteristics form the basis of the solution. For a specified mission, a candidate airplane design is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of solar-powered long endurance flight. Parametric data are presented to illustrate the airplane's mission flexibility.

  4. Flight Tests of a Ministick Controller in an F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoliker, Patrick C.; Carter, John

    2003-01-01

    In March of 1999, five pilots performed flight tests to evaluate the handling qualities of an F/A-18 research airplane equipped with a small-displacement center stick (ministick) controller that had been developed for the JAS 39 Gripen airplane (a fighter/attack/ reconnaissance airplane used by the Swedish air force). For these tests, the ministick was installed in the aft cockpit (see figure) and production support flight control computers (PSFCCs) were used as interfaces between the controller hardware and the standard F/A-18 flight-control laws. The primary objective of the flight tests was to assess any changes in handling qualities of the F/A-18 airplane attributable to the mechanical characteristics of the ministick. The secondary objective was to demonstrate the capability of the PSFCCs to support flight-test experiments.

  5. Evaluating Flight Crew Operator Manual Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot s expectations for the behavior of the avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. Researchers have attributed these "automation surprises" to the complexity of the avionics mode logic, the absence of complete training, limitations in cockpit displays, and ad-hoc conceptual models of the avionics. Complete canonical rule-based descriptions of the behavior of the autopilot provide the basis for understanding the perceived complexity of the autopilots, the differences between the pilot s and autopilot s conceptual models, and the limitations in training materials and cockpit displays. This paper compares the behavior of the autopilot Vertical Speed/Flight Path Angle (VS-FPA) mode as described in the Flight Crew Operators Manual (FCOM) and the actual behavior of the VS-FPA mode defined in the autopilot software. This example demonstrates the use of the Operational Procedure Model (OPM) as a method for using the requirements specification for the design of the software logic as information requirements for training.

  6. Preliminary Flight Results of a Fly-by-throttle Emergency Flight Control System on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies were followed by flight tests. The principles of throttles only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including actual landings with throttles-only control are discussed.

  7. Preliminary flight test results of a fly-by-throttle emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. G.; Wells, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies have been followed by flight tests. This paper discusses the principles of throttles-only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including landing approaches with throttles-only control to within 10 ft of the ground.

  8. Information obtained from airplane flight tests in the year 1927-1928

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubner, W

    1929-01-01

    The information obtained from flight tests in 1927-1928 covers chiefly the effect of the structural features of an airplane on its stability, controllability, maneuverability and spinning characteristics.

  9. Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, G. Merritt; Blackman, Calvin C.

    1948-01-01

    A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted by the NACA to determine the effect of ice accretion on airplane performance. The maximum loss in propeller efficiency encountered due to ice formation on the propeller blades was 19 percent. During 87 percent of the propeller icing encounters, losses of 10 percent or less were observed. Ice formations on all of the components of the airplane except the propellers during one icing encounter resulted in an increase in parasite drag of the airplane of 81 percent. The control response of the airplane in this condition was marginal.

  10. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... with one or more approved flight recorders that use a digital method of recording and storing data...

  11. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... with one or more approved flight recorders that use a digital method of recording and storing data...

  12. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... with one or more approved flight recorders that use a digital method of recording and storing data...

  13. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... with one or more approved flight recorders that use a digital method of recording and storing data...

  14. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... with one or more approved flight recorders that use a digital method of recording and storing data...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to... (Vertical) −3g to +6g ±1% of max range excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1...

  3. Flight Data Reduction of Wake Velocity Measurements Using an Instrumented OV-10 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Stuever, Robert A.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    A series of flight tests to measure the wake of a Lockheed C- 130 airplane and the accompanying atmospheric state have been conducted. A specially instrumented North American Rockwell OV-10 airplane was used to measure the wake and atmospheric conditions. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake- measurement flight-data reduction process.

  4. Development and Flight Test of an Augmented Thrust-Only Flight Control System on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Pappas, Drew

    1996-01-01

    An emergency flight control system using only engine thrust, called Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA), has been developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. In this thrust-only control system, pilot flight path and track commands and aircraft feedback parameters are used to control the throttles. The PCA system was installed on the MD-11 airplane using software modifications to existing computers. Flight test results show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds and altitudes. The PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any non-nal flight controls have been demonstrated, including instrument landing system-coupled hands-off landings. The PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. In addition, PCA was tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control; describes the MD-11 airplane and systems; and discusses PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  5. Development and Flight Test of an Emergency Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John J.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    An emergency flight control system that uses only engine thrust, called the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, was developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. The PCA system is a thrust-only control system, which augments pilot flightpath and track commands with aircraft feedback parameters to control engine thrust. The PCA system was implemented on the MD-11 airplane using only software modifications to existing computers. Results of a 25-hr flight test show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds, altitudes, and configurations. PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any normal flight controls were demonstrated, including ILS-coupled hands-off landings. PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. The PCA system was also tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control, a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, the MD-11 airplane and its systems, PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  6. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots who made simulated instrument flight evaluations experienced improvements in airplane handling qualities in the presence of turbulence and a reduction in pilot workload. For ride quality, quantitative data show that the attitude command control system results in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  7. Flutter clearance flight tests of an OV-10A airplane modified for wake vortex flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Stewart, Eric C.

    1995-01-01

    The envelope expansion, flight flutter tests of a modified OV-10A aircraft are described. For the wake vortex research program, the airplane was modified to incorporate three forward-extending instrumentation booms, one extending forward from each wing tip and one from the right side of the fuselage. The booms were instrumented with sensors to measure the velocity and direction of local air flow. The flutter test results show that the modified OV-10A aircraft is free from flutter at speeds up to 330 KEAS at 5000 feet altitude.

  8. The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion concepts using the NASA F-15 research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion and propulsion control concepts was demonstrated on the NASA F-15 airplane in programs such as highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC), the F100 engine model derivative (EMD), and digital electronic engine control (DEEC). (In each case, the value of flight demonstration was conclusively demonstrated). This paper described these programs, and discusses the results that were not expected, based on ground test or analytical prediction. The role of flight demonstration in facilitating transfer of technology from the laboratory to operational airplanes is discussed.

  9. The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion concepts using the NASA F-15 research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The value of early flight evaluation of propulsion and propulsion control concepts was demonstrated on the NASA F-15 airplane in programs such as highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC), the F100 engine model derivative (EMD), and digital electronic engine control (DEEC). (In each case, the value of flight demonstration was conclusively demonstrated.) This paper describes these programs, and discusses the results that were not expected, based on ground test or analytical prediction. The role of flight demonstration in facilitating transfer of technology from the laboratory to operational airplanes is discussed.

  10. Transport airplane flight deck development survey and analysis: Report and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a survey and analysis of research and development work related to improving transport airplane flight deck equipment and aircrew performance is reported. Research and development related to flight deck advancement in general, as well as that concerned directly with terminal area operations, is described and discussed.

  11. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications M... Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the designated range, resolution and... experiencing change at the maximum rate attainable, including the maximum rate of reversal. All data...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications M... Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the designated range, resolution and... experiencing change at the maximum rate attainable, including the maximum rate of reversal. All data...

  13. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  14. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  15. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  16. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  17. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  18. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  19. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  20. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  1. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  2. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  3. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  4. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  5. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  6. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  7. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  8. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  9. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  10. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  11. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  12. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  13. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  14. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  15. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  16. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  17. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  18. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  19. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  20. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  1. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  2. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  3. 14 CFR 121.519 - Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Deadhead transportation: airplanes. 121.519 Section 121.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  4. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  5. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  6. 14 CFR 121.515 - Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: All airmen: airplanes. 121.515 Section 121.515 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  7. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 91 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App....

  9. Flutter clearance of the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment airplane, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.

    1987-01-01

    An F-14 airplane was modified to become the test bed aircraft for the variable sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE) program. The latter is a laminar flow program designed to measure the effects of wing sweep on boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The airplane was modified by adding an upper surface foam-fiberglass glove over a portion of the left wing. Ground vibration and flight flutter testing were accomplished to clear a sufficient flight envelope to conduct the laminar flow experiments. Flight test data indicated satisfactory damping levels and damping trends for the elastic structural modes of the airplane. The data presented include frequency and damping as functions of Mach number.

  10. Determination of aerodynamic parameters of a fighter airplane from flight data at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.; Abbasy, I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the estimation of airplane model structure and parameters is applied to data from a modern fighter airplane operating within an angle of attack range of 5 to 60 deg. The paper briefly describes the airplane, flight and wind tunnel data available, and the estimation method. The results presented contain basic longitudinal characteristics of the airplane and the estimates of aerodynamic parameters in the yawing-moment equations. These estimates are obtained from small and large amplitude maneuvers. Because the latter set of data was not suitable for airplane identification, some of the large amplitude maneuvers were joined together and then partitioned into subsets according to the values of angle of attack. Each subset was then analyzed as a separate data set. Most of the estimated parameters and functions are in good agreement with the wind tunnel measurements. The estimated lateral parameters in the model equations also demonstrate good prediction capabilities.

  11. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  12. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  13. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  14. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  15. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, and it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flowfield properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of 2 were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  16. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, an< it is also applicable for future propulsion systems research that may use the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. This report describes the flight test preparation and execution, and the local flow-field properties calculated from pressure measurements of the rake. Data from the two Rake Airflow Gage Experiment research flights demonstrate that the F-15B airplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  17. Flutter Clearance of the F-14A Variable-Sweep Transition Flight Experiment Airplane, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Kehoe, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    An F-14A aircraft was modified for use as the test-bed aircraft for the variable-sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE) program. The VSTFE program was a laminar flow research program designed to measure the effects of wing sweep on laminar flow. The airplane was modified by adding an upper surface foam and fiberglass glove to the right wing. An existing left wing glove had been added for the previous phase of the program. Ground vibration and flight flutter testing were accomplished to verify the absence of aeroelastic instabilities within a flight envelope of Mach 0.9 or 450 knots, calibrated airspeed, whichever was less. Flight test data indicated satisfactory damping levels and trends for the elastic structural modes of the airplane. Ground vibration test data are presented along with in-flight frequency and damping estimates, time histories and power spectral densities of in-flight sensors, and pressure distribution data.

  18. New Method of Determining the Polar Curve of an Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yegorov, B. N.

    1945-01-01

    A fundamental defect of existing methods for the determination of the polar of an airplane in flight is the impossibility of obtaining the thrust or the resistance of the propeller for any type airplane with any type engine. The new method is based on the premise that for zero propeller thrust the mean angle of attack of the blade is approximately the same for all propellers if this angle is reckoned from the aerodynamic chord of the profile section. This angle was determined from flight tests. Knowing the mean angle of the blade setting the angle of attack of the propeller blade at zero thrust can be found and the propeller speed in gliding obtained. The experimental check of the new method carried out on several airplanes gave positive results. The basic assumptions for the construction of the polars and the method of analyzing the flight data are given.

  19. [Pulmonary thromboembolism that developed during an airplane flight "economy-class syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Daimaru, O; Magaki, K; Morishita, M; Katoh, H; Kawajiri, T; Miyara, H; Sakurai, E; Tutui, S; Oguri, T

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of thromboembolic phenomena during long-duration airplane flights is called "economy-class syndrome". Recently it has become more popular for Japanese to go abroad by airplane, and an increase in the prevalence of pulmonary thromboembolism should be expected. However, there are few reports of the economy-class syndrome in Japan. A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of chest discomfort and dyspnea that developed during an airplane flight. We suspected pulmonary thromboembolism, on the basis of a chest X-ray film and on electrocardiogram. A ventilation-perfusion lung scan disclosed mismatching between ventilation and perfusion in the right upper lung field. Pulmonary thromboembolism was confirmed by pulmonary arteriography. The patient was treated with heparin and urokinase. A phlebogram of the legs showed no significant findings. There was no history of thromboembolic disease or of consumption of oral contraceptives. We conclude that the pulmonary thromboembolism might have been caused by stasis of blood in the lower limb veins during the airplane flight. We emphasize the importance of including pulmonary thromboembolism in the differential diagnosis of patients with chest discomfort and dyspnea that develop during airplane flights. No noninvasive test can lead to a definitive diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. Early pulmonary angiography should be recommended when pulmonary thromboembolism is suspected.

  20. Stability and Control Flight Tests of a Vertically Rising Airplane Model Similar to the Lockheed XFV-1 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Robert H.

    1954-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the dynamic stability and controllability of a model which approximately represents the Lockheed XFV-1 airplane to a 1/8 scale. The investigation consisted of hovering flights in still air at a considerable height above the ground, hovering flights very close to the ground, vertical take-offs and landings, flights through the transition range from hovering to normal forward flight, and sideways translational flights. The model could be flown smoothly and easily in hovering flight despite the fact that the uncontrolled pitching and yawing motions were unstable oscillations. There was a noticeable reduction in the controllability of the model when hovered very close to the ground but take-offs could be made easily and landings on a g,ven spot could be made accurately in spite of this adverse ground effect. Flights through the transition range from hovering to normal forward flight could be performed fairly easily. The model seemed to have stability of angle of attack and angle of roll over most of the transition range. The yawing motion was divergent in the very high angle-of-attack range but could be controlled easily. At the lower angles of attack, the model seemed to become stable in yaw. In sideways flight there was an increasingly strong tendency to diverge in roll as the speed was increased and finally, at a speed of about 25 knots (full scale), the model rolled off despite efforts of the pilot to control it.

  1. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots made simulated instrument flight evaluations in light-to-moderate turbulence. They were favorably impressed with the system, particularly with the elimination of control force transients that accompanied configuration changes. For ride quality, quantitative data showed that the attitude command control system resulted in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  2. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... meets § 135.387. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data... assumed to fail simultaneously to an airport that meets § 135.387, with a net flight path (considering the... the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Airplanes certificated after September...

  3. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... meets § 135.387. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data... assumed to fail simultaneously to an airport that meets § 135.387, with a net flight path (considering the... the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Airplanes certificated after September...

  4. Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Sumner, Ann Louise; Nishioka, Marcia G; Vallarino, Jose; Turner, Douglas J; Saltman, Hannah K; Spengler, John D

    2013-07-01

    To address the knowledge gaps regarding inhalation exposure of flight crew to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on airplanes, we measured PBDE concentrations in air samples collected in the cabin air at cruising altitudes and used Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA) to evaluate the likelihood of inhalation exposure to result in the average daily dose (ADD) of a member of the flight crew to exceed EPA Reference Doses (RfDs), accounting for all other aircraft and non-aircraft exposures. A total of 59 air samples were collected from different aircraft and analyzed for four PBDE congeners-BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 (a subset were also analyzed for BDE 183). For congeners with a published RfD, high estimates of ADD were calculated for all non-aircraft exposure pathways and non-inhalation exposure onboard aircraft; inhalation exposure limits were then derived based on the difference between the RfD and ADDs for all other exposure pathways. The 95th percentile measured concentrations of PBDEs in aircraft air were <1% of the derived inhalation exposure limits. Likelihood probabilities of 95th percentile exposure concentrations >1% of the defined exposure limit were zero for all congeners with published RfDs.

  5. Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Sumner, Ann Louise; Nishioka, Marcia G; Vallarino, Jose; Turner, Douglas J; Saltman, Hannah K; Spengler, John D

    2013-07-01

    To address the knowledge gaps regarding inhalation exposure of flight crew to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on airplanes, we measured PBDE concentrations in air samples collected in the cabin air at cruising altitudes and used Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA) to evaluate the likelihood of inhalation exposure to result in the average daily dose (ADD) of a member of the flight crew to exceed EPA Reference Doses (RfDs), accounting for all other aircraft and non-aircraft exposures. A total of 59 air samples were collected from different aircraft and analyzed for four PBDE congeners-BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 (a subset were also analyzed for BDE 183). For congeners with a published RfD, high estimates of ADD were calculated for all non-aircraft exposure pathways and non-inhalation exposure onboard aircraft; inhalation exposure limits were then derived based on the difference between the RfD and ADDs for all other exposure pathways. The 95th percentile measured concentrations of PBDEs in aircraft air were <1% of the derived inhalation exposure limits. Likelihood probabilities of 95th percentile exposure concentrations >1% of the defined exposure limit were zero for all congeners with published RfDs. PMID:22739680

  6. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  7. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  8. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  9. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  10. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  11. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Robert; Allen, Michael J.; Dibley, Ryan P.; Gera, Joseph; Hodgkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    Successful flight-testing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing airplane was completed in March 2005. This program, which started in 1996, was a joint activity sponsored by NASA, Air Force Research Laboratory, and industry contractors. The test program contained two flight test phases conducted in early 2003 and early 2005. During the first phase of flight test, aerodynamic models and load models of the wing control surfaces and wing structure were developed. Design teams built new research control laws for the Active Aeroelastic Wing airplane using these flight-validated models; and throughout the final phase of flight test, these new control laws were demonstrated. The control laws were designed to optimize strategies for moving the wing control surfaces to maximize roll rates in the transonic and supersonic flight regimes. Control surface hinge moments and wing loads were constrained to remain within hydraulic and load limits. This paper describes briefly the flight control system architecture as well as the design approach used by Active Aeroelastic Wing project engineers to develop flight control system gains. Additionally, this paper presents flight test techniques and comparison between flight test results and predictions.

  12. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators A Appendix A to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... References. (1) 14 CFR part 60. (2) 14 CFR part 61. (3) 14 CFR part 63. (4) 14 CFR part 119. (5) 14 CFR...

  13. Flight-test data on the static fore-and-aft stability of various German airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubner, Walter

    1933-01-01

    The static longitudinal stability of an airplane with locked elevator is usually determined by analysis and model tests. The present report proposes to supply the results of such measurements. The method consisted of recording the dynamic pressure versus elevator displacement at different center-of-gravity positions in unaccelerated flight.

  14. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval... excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1 0.5° Roll Attitude ±180° ±2° 1 0.5°...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval... excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1 0.5° Roll Attitude ±180° ±2° 1 0.5°...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval... excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1 0.5° Roll Attitude ±180° ±2° 1 0.5°...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to DFDR readout Sampling interval... excluding datum error of ±5% 8 0.01g. Pitch Attitude ±75° ±2° 1 0.5° Roll Attitude ±180° ±2° 1 0.5°...

  18. The variation in pressure in the cabin of an airplane in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Melvin N

    1931-01-01

    The pressure in the cabin of a Fairchild cabin monoplane wa surveyed in flight, and was found to decrease with increased air speed over the fuselage and to vary with the number and location of openings in the cabin. The maximum depression of 2.2 inches of water (equivalent pressure altitude at sea level of 152 feet) occurred at the high speed of the airplane in level flight with the cabin closed.

  19. Ground-to-Flight Handling Qualities Comparisons for a High Performance Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in conjunction with a ground-based piloted simulation study to enable a comparison of handling qualities ratings for a variety of maneuvers between flight and simulation of a modern high performance airplane. Specific objectives included an evaluation of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) tendencies and a determination of maneuver types which result in either good or poor ground-to-flight pilot handling qualities ratings. A General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was used for the flight evaluations, and the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator was employed for the ground based evaluations. Two NASA research pilots evaluated both the airplane and simulator characteristics using tasks developed in the simulator. Simulator and flight tests were all conducted within approximately a one month time frame. Maneuvers included numerous fine tracking evaluations at various angles of attack, load factors and speed ranges, gross acquisitions involving longitudinal and lateral maneuvering, roll angle captures, and an ILS task with a sidestep to landing. Overall results showed generally good correlation between ground and flight for PIO tendencies and general handling qualities comments. Differences in pilot technique used in simulator evaluations and effects of airplane accelerations and motions are illustrated.

  20. AIRCL: A programmed system for generating NC tapes for airplane models. User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgerman, N.; Billhardt, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program is presented which calculates the cutter location file needed to machine models of airplane wings or wing-fuselage combinations on numerically controlled machine tools. Input to the program is a data file consisting of coordinates on the fuselage and wing. From this data file, the program calculates tool offsets, determines the intersection between wing and fuselage tool paths, and generates additional information needed to machine the fuselage and/or wing. Output from the program can be post processed for use on a variety of milling machines. Information on program structure and methodology is given as well as the user's manual for implementation of the program.

  1. Flight duration, airspeed practices and altitude management of airplanes involved in the NASA VGH General Aviation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight duration, airspeed, and altitude information obtained from NASA velocity gravity height (VGH) recorders is presented for each of 95 general aviation airplanes flown in twin- and single-engine executive, personal, instructional, commercial survey, aerial application, aerobatic, commuter, and float operations. These data complement normal acceleration data obtained from the same airplanes and reported in NASA-TM-84660, and together they provide a data base for the design and analysis of general aviation airplane operations.

  2. Users manual for flight control design programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, J. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

  3. Preliminary flight-test results of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane /ATLIT/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Kohlman, D. L.; Crane, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present status and flight-test results are presented for the ATLIT airplane. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll-control spoilers, and full-span Fowler flaps. Flight-test results on stall and spoiler roll characteristics show good agreement with wind-tunnel data. Maximum power-off lift coefficients are greater than 3.0 with flaps deflected 37 deg. With flaps down, spoiler deflections can produce roll helix angles in excess of 0.11 rad. Flight testing is planned to document climb and cruise performance, and supercritical propeller performance and noise characteristics. The airplane is scheduled for testing in the NASA-Langley Research Center Full-Scale Tunnel.

  4. Parametric study of microwave-powered high-altitude airplane platforms designed for linear flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a class of remotely piloted, microwave powered, high altitude airplane platforms is studied. The first part of each cycle of the flight profile consists of climb while the vehicle is tracked and powered by a microwave beam; this is followed by gliding flight back to a minimum altitude above a microwave station and initiation of another cycle. Parametric variations were used to define the effects of changes in the characteristics of the airplane aerodynamics, the energy transmission systems, the propulsion system, and winds. Results show that wind effects limit the reduction of wing loading and the increase of lift coefficient, two effective ways to obtain longer range and endurance for each flight cycle. Calculated climb performance showed strong sensitivity to some power and propulsion parameters. A simplified method of computing gliding endurance was developed.

  5. An overview of integrated flight-propulsion controls flight research on the NASA F-15 research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.; Stewart, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting integrated flight-propulsion control flight research using the NASA F-15 airplane for the past 12 years. The research began with the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) project, followed by the F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD). HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) became the umbrella name for a series of experiments including: the Advanced Digital Engine Controls System (ADECS), a twin jet acoustics flight experiment, self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS), performance-seeking control (PSC), and propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA). The upcoming F-15 project is ACTIVE (Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles). This paper provides a brief summary of these activities and provides background for the PCA and PSC papers, and includes a bibliography of all papers and reports from the NASA F-15 project.

  6. Flight Research Using F100 Engine P680063 in the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Conners, Timothy R.; Maxwell, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The value of flight research in developing and evaluating gas turbine engines is high. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting flight research on propulsion systems for many years. The F100 engine has been tested in the NASA F-15 research airplane in the last three decades. One engine in particular, S/N P680063, has been used for the entire program and has been flown in many pioneering propulsion flight research activities. Included are detailed flight-to-ground facility tests; tests of the first production digital engine control system, the first active stall margin control system, the first performance-seeking control system; and the first use of computer-controlled engine thrust for emergency flight control. The flight research has been supplemented with altitude facility tests at key times. This paper presents a review of the tests of engine P680063, the F-15 airplanes in which it flew, and the role of the flight test in maturing propulsion technology.

  7. 14 CFR 133.47 - Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual... ROTORCRAFT EXTERNAL-LOAD OPERATIONS Airworthiness Requirements § 133.47 Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual. The applicant must prepare a Rotorcraft-Load Combination Flight Manual and submit it for...

  8. 14 CFR 133.47 - Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual... ROTORCRAFT EXTERNAL-LOAD OPERATIONS Airworthiness Requirements § 133.47 Rotorcraft-load combination flight manual. The applicant must prepare a Rotorcraft-Load Combination Flight Manual and submit it for...

  9. Some effects of rainfall on flight of airplanes and on instrument indications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard V

    1941-01-01

    Several possible effects of heavy rain on the aerodynamic performance of an airplane and of heavy rain and associated atmospheric phenomena on the indications of flight instruments are briefly considered. It is concluded that the effects of heavy rain on the performance of an airplane are not so great as to force the airplane down from moderate altitudes. Serious malfunctioning of the air-speed indicator may occur, however, as a result of flooding of the pitot-static head and subsequent accumulation of water in the air-speed pressure line. In strong convective situations, like thunderstorms, the rate-of-climb indicator may also be seriously in error owing to rapid variations of atmospheric pressure when entering and emerging from the convection currents.

  10. Flight experience with manually controlled unconventional aircraft motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfield, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    A modified YF-16 aircraft was used to flight demonstrate decoupled modes under the USAF Fighter Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) Program. The direct force capabilities were used to implement seven manually controlled unconventional modes on the aircraft, allowing flat turns, decoupled normal acceleration control, independent longitudinal and lateral translations, uncoupled elevation and azimuth aiming, and blended direct lift. This paper describes the design, development, and flight testing of these control modes. The need for task-tailored mode authorities, gain-scheduling and selected closed-loop design is discussed.

  11. Minimum time and fuel flight profiles for an F-15 airplane with a Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, E. A., Jr.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize minimum time and fuel consumption paths for an F-15 airplane powered by two F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD) engines. The benefits of using variable stall margin (uptrim) to increase performance were also determined. This study supports the NASA Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program. The basis for this comparison was minimum time and fuel used to reach Mach 2 at 13,716 m (45,000 ft) from the initial conditions of Mach 0.15 at 1524 m (5000 ft). Results were also compared to a pilot's estimated minimum time and fuel trajectory determined from the F-15 flight manual and previous experience. The minimum time trajectory took 15 percent less time than the pilot's estimate for the standard EMD engines, while the minimum fuel trajectory used 1 percent less fuel than the pilot's estimate for the minimum fuel trajectory. The F-15 airplane with EMD engines and uptrim, was 23 percent faster than the pilot's estimate. The minimum fuel used was 5 percent less than the estimate.

  12. 14 CFR 91.883 - Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane to an alternative airport in the 48 contiguous States on account of weather, mechanical, fuel, air... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special flight authorizations for jet... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.883 Special flight authorizations for jet...

  13. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal... a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller... nuisance alerting. These special conditions also address flight control system mode annunciation....

  14. Role of Meteorology in Flights of a Solar-Powered Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Casey

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, the Helios prototype solar-powered uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) [a lightweight, remotely piloted airplane] was deployed to the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), at Kauai, Hawaii, in an attempt to fly to altitudes above 100,000 ft (30.48 km). The goal of flying a UAV to such high altitudes has been designated a level-I milestone of the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. In support of this goal, meteorologists from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were sent to PMRF, as part of the flight crew, to provide current and forecast weather information to the pilots, mission directors, and planners. Information of this kind is needed to optimize flight conditions for peak aircraft performance and to enable avoidance of weather conditions that could adversely affect safety. In general, the primary weather data of concern for ground and flight operations are wind speeds (see Figure 1). Because of its long wing span [247 ft (.75 m)] and low weight [1,500 to 1,600 lb (about 680 to 726 kg)], the Helios airplane is sensitive to wind speeds exceeding 7 kn (3.6 m/s) at the surface. Also, clouds are of concern because they can block sunlight needed to energize an array of solar photovoltaic cells that provide power to the airplane. Vertical wind shear is very closely monitored in order to prevent damage or loss of control due to turbulence.

  15. Simulator study of flight characteristics of several large, dissimilar, cargo transport airplanes during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Deal, P. L.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom, ground based simulator study is conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of four dissimilar cargo transport airplanes. These characteristics are compared with those of a large, present-day (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The four very large transport concepts evaluated consist of single-fuselage, twin-fuselage, triple-fuselage, and span-loader configurations. The primary piloting task is the approach and landing operation. The results of his study indicate that all four concepts evaluated have unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral directional low speed flight characteristics and that considerable stability and control augmentation would be required to improve these characteristics (handling qualities) to a satisfactory level. Through the use of rate command/attitude hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn-coordination features, the handling qualities of all four large transports simulated are improved appreciably.

  16. Flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane (ATLIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Project organization and execution, airplane description and performance predictions, and the results of the flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin engine airplane (ATLIT) are presented. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34-200 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll control spoilers, and full span Fowler flaps. The conclusions for the ATLIT evaluation are based on complete stall and roll flight test results and partial performance test results. The Stalling and rolling characteristics met design expectations. Climb performance was penalized by extensive flow separation in the region of the wing body juncture. Cruise performance was found to be penalized by a large value of zero lift drag. Calculations showed that, with proper attention to construction details, the improvements in span efficiency and zero lift drag would permit the realization of the predicted increases in cruising and maximum rate of climb performance.

  17. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard airworthiness..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the...

  18. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard airworthiness..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the...

  19. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard airworthiness..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the...

  20. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard airworthiness..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the...

  1. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard airworthiness..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the...

  2. Flight investigation of the effect of control centering springs on the apparent spiral stability of a personal-owner airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Hunter, Paul A; Hewes, Donald E; Whitten, James B

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of a flight investigation conducted on a typical high-wing personal-owner airplane to determine the effect of control centering springs on apparent spiral stability. Apparent spiral stability is the term used to describe the spiraling tendencies of an airplane in uncontrolled flight as affected both by the true spiral stability of the perfectly trimmed airplane and by out-of-trim control settings. Centering springs were used in both the aileron and rudder control systems to provide both a positive centering action and a means of trimming the airplane. The springs were preloaded so that when they were moved through neutral they produced a nonlinear force gradient sufficient to overcome the friction in the control surface at the proper setting for trim. The ailerons and rudder control surfaces did not have trim tabs that could be adjusted in flight.

  3. Flight evaluation results for a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Walsh, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system on an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane was evaluated in flight. Thirty flights were flown in a four-phase program from June 1981 to February 1983. Significant improvements in the operability and performance of the F100 engine were developed as a result of the flight evaluation: the augmentor envelope was increased by 15,000 ft, the airstart envelope was improved by 75 knots, and the need to periodically trim the engine was eliminated. The hydromechanical backup control performance was evaluated and was found to be satisfactory. Two system failures were encountered in the test program; both were detected and accommodated successfully. No transfers to the backup control system were required, and no automatic transfers occurred. As a result of the successful DEEC flight evaluation, the DEEC system has entered the full-scale development phase.

  4. Flight-determined derivatives and dynamic characteristics of the CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Flight-determined longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives are presented for the CV-990 airplane for various combinations of Mach number, altitude, and flap setting throughout the flight envelope up to a Mach number of 0.87. Also presented are the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft calculated from the flight-obtained derivatives and the measured phugoid characteristics. The derivative characteristics were obtained from flight records of longitudinal and lateral-directional transient oscillation maneuvers by using a modified Newton-Raphson digital derivative determination technique. Generally the derivatives exhibited consistent variation with lift coefficient in the low-speed data and with Mach number and altitude in the high-speed data. Many also varied with flap deflection, notably spoiler effectiveness and directional stability.

  5. Flight evaluation of an extended engine life mode on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system designed to reduce the rate of engine deterioration was developed and evaluated in flight on the NASA Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The extended engine life mode increases engine pressure ratio while reducing engine airflow to lower the turbine temperature at constant thrust. The engine pressure ratio uptrim is modulated in real time based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. The extended engine life mode logic performed well, significantly reducing turbine operating temperature. Reductions in fan turbine inlet temperature of up to 80 F were obtained at intermediate power and up to 170 F at maximum augmented power with no appreciable loss in thrust. A secondary benefit was the considerable reduction in thrust-specific fuel consumption. The success of the extended engine life mode is one example of the advantages gained from integrating aircraft flight and propulsion control systems.

  6. Initial results from flight testing a large, remotely piloted airplane model. [flight tests of remotely controlled scale model of F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, E. C. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    The first four flights of a remotely piloted airplane model showed that a flight envelope can be expanded rapidly and that hazardous flight tests can be conducted safely with good results. The flights also showed that aerodynamic data can be obtained quickly and effectively over a wide range of flight conditions, clear and useful impressions of handling and controllability of configurations can be obtained, and present computer and electronic technology provide the capability to close flight control loops on the ground, thus providing a new method of design and flight test for advanced aircraft.

  7. Pressure Distribution Over the Fuselage of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard V; Lundquist, Eugene E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results obtained from pressure distribution tests on the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in a number of conditions of flight. The investigation was made to determine the contribution of the fuselage to the total lift in conditions considered critical for the wing structure, and also to determine whether the fuselage loads acting simultaneously with the maximum tail loads were of such a character as to be of concern with respect to the structural design of other parts of the airplane. The results show that the contribution of the fuselage toward the total lift is small on this airplane. Aerodynamic loads on the fuselage are, in general, unimportant from the structural viewpoint, and in most cases they are of such character that, if neglected, a conservative design results. In spins, aerodynamic forces on the fuselage produce diving moments of appreciable magnitude and yawing moments of small magnitude, but opposing the rotation of the airplane. A table of cowling pressures for various maneuvers is included in the report.

  8. Flight investigation of the VFR and IFR landing approach characteristics and terminal area airspace requirements for a light STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, H. L.; Yenni, K. R.; Fisher, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to determine the terminal area instrument flight capabilities of a light STOL airplane. Simulated (hooded) instrument landing approaches were made using steep single-segment and two-segment glide slopes. A brief investigation was also made of the visual flight terminal area capabilities of the aircraft. The results indicated that the airplane could be flown on a 7 deg glide-slope ILS-type approach in still air with an adequate 3 deg margin for downward correction.

  9. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned

  10. Flight Measurements of the Flying Qualities of a Lockheed P-80A Airplane (Army No. 44-85099) - Stalling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Seth B.; Cooper, George E.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the flight-test results of the stalling characteristics measured during the flying-qualities investigation of the Lockheed P-8OA airplane (Army No. 44-85099). The tests were conducted in straight and turning flight with and without wing-tip tanks. These tests showed satisfactory stalling characteristics and adequate stall warning for all configurations and conditions tested.

  11. Compressibility effects on the longitudinal stability and control of a pursuit-type airplane as measured in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, William N; Steffen, Paul J; Clousing, Lawrence A

    1946-01-01

    Measurements of the longitudinal stability and control of a pursuit-type airplane were made in flight up to a Mach number of 0.78. The data are presented in the form of curves showing the variation, with center-of-gravity position, dynamic pressure, and Mach number, of the stick-fixed and stick-free stability, control, and balance of the airplane.

  12. Pitch Controllability Based on Airplane Model without Short-Period Approximation—Flight Simulator Experiment—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Osamu; Kobayashi, Osamu

    Pitch controllability of an airplane is very important for longitudinal flying qualities, therefore, much research has been conducted. However, it has not been clarified why pitch handling qualities degrades in the low speed, e.g. take-off and landing flight phases. On this topic, this paper investigates the effect of several parameters of the short-period mode and phugoid mode using a flight simulator. The results show the following conclusions: The difference between the initial phase angles in two modal components in the pitch attitude response to elevator step input plays the most important role in the pitch handling qualities among modal parameters; and the difference of the two modal natural frequencies has small effect on the pitch controllability even when flight speed decreases.

  13. An analysis of life expectancy of airplane wings in normal cruising flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Abbott A

    1945-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for judging the relative importance of wing failure by fatigue and by single intense gusts, an analysis of wing life for normal cruising flight was made based on data on the frequency of atmospheric gusts. The independent variables considered in the analysis included stress-concentration factor, stress-load relation, wing loading, design and cruising speeds, design gust velocity, and airplane size. Several methods for estimating fatigue life from gust frequencies are discussed. The procedure selected for the analysis is believed to be simple and reasonably accurate, though slightly conservative.

  14. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  15. Determination of airplane model structure from flight data by using modified stepwise regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.; Batterson, J. G.; Murphy, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    The linear and stepwise regressions are briefly introduced, then the problem of determining airplane model structure is addressed. The MSR was constructed to force a linear model for the aerodynamic coefficient first, then add significant nonlinear terms and delete nonsignificant terms from the model. In addition to the statistical criteria in the stepwise regression, the prediction sum of squares (PRESS) criterion and the analysis of residuals were examined for the selection of an adequate model. The procedure is used in examples with simulated and real flight data. It is shown that the MSR performs better than the ordinary stepwise regression and that the technique can also be applied to the large amplitude maneuvers.

  16. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  17. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  18. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This presentation proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  19. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... grooved or porous friction course runways, if provided in the Airplane Flight Manual, may be used only for runways that are grooved or treated with a porous friction course (PFC) overlay, and that the...

  20. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grooved or porous friction course runways, if provided in the Airplane Flight Manual, may be used only for runways that are grooved or treated with a porous friction course (PFC) overlay, and that the...

  1. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grooved or porous friction course runways, if provided in the Airplane Flight Manual, may be used only for runways that are grooved or treated with a porous friction course (PFC) overlay, and that the...

  2. 14 CFR 129.23 - Transport category cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... probability of sudden fatigue failure is not noticeably increased; (3) The flutter, deformation, and vibration... performance operating limitations in part 121 or the equivalent. (f) The Airplane Flight Manual for...

  3. 14 CFR 129.23 - Transport category cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... probability of sudden fatigue failure is not noticeably increased; (3) The flutter, deformation, and vibration... performance operating limitations in part 121 or the equivalent. (f) The Airplane Flight Manual for...

  4. Analysis of sonic boom measurements near shock wave extremities for flight near Mach 1.0 and for airplane accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The analysis of the 14 low-altitude transonic flights showed that the prevailing meteorological consideration of the acoustic disturbances below the cutoff altitude during threshold Mach number flight has shown that a theoretical safe altitude appears to be valid over a wide range of meteorological conditions and provides a reasonable estimate of the airplane ground speed reduction to avoid sonic boom noise during threshold Mach number flight. Recent theoretical results for the acoustic pressure waves below the threshold Mach number caustic showed excellent agreement with observations near the caustic, but the predicted overpressure levels were significantly lower than those observed far from the caustic. The analysis of caustics produced by inadvertent low-magnitude accelerations during flight at Mach numbers slightly greater than the threshold Mach number showed that folds and associated caustics were produced by slight changes in the airplane ground speed. These caustic intensities ranged from 1 to 3 time the nominal steady, level flight intensity.

  5. Flight and analytical investigations of a structural mode excitation system on the YF-12A airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, E. A.; Murphy, R. C.; Beranek, J. A.; Davis, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A structural excitation system, using an oscillating canard vane to generate force, was mounted on the forebody of the YF-12A airplane. The canard vane was used to excite the airframe structural modes during flight in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. Structural modal responses generated by the canard vane forces were measured at the flight test conditions by airframe-mounted accelerometers. Correlations of analytical and experimental aeroelastic results were made. Doublet lattice, steady state double lattice with uniform lag, Mach box, and piston theory all produced acceptable analytical aerodynamic results within the restrictions that apply to each. In general, the aerodynamic theory methods, carefully applied, were found to predict the dynamic behavior of the YF-12A aircraft adequately.

  6. Subjective response to combined noise and vibration during flight of a large twin-jet airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A NASA twin-jet airplane was used to obtain controlled noise and vibration environments during flight while obtaining subjective responses from 13 passenger-subjects (6 females and 7 males). Subjective ratings of overall comfort, comfort when considering only vibration, and comfort when considering only noise were obtained during times of different vibration and noise environments. Passenger-subjects were able to distinguish and rate noise better than vibration. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in ratings of ride comfort due to both sex type and flight experience. Males rated flying discomfort much more severely than females when rating the overall ride and the ride when considering only the noise environment. Experienced passengers also rated the overall ride to be more uncomfortable than inexperienced passengers.

  7. The Direct Measurement of Engine Power on an Airplane in Flight with a Hub Type Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gove, W D; Green, M W

    1927-01-01

    This report describes tests made to obtain direct measurements of engine power in flight. Tests were made with a Bendemann hub dynamometer installed on a modified DH-4 Airplane, Liberty 12 Engine, to determine the suitability of this apparatus. This dynamometer unit, which was designed specially for use with a liberty 12 engine, is a special propeller hub in which is incorporated a system of pistons and cylinders interposed between the propeller and the engine crankshaft. The torque and thrust forces are balanced by fluid pressures, which are recorded by instruments in the cockpit. These tests have shown the suitability of this type of hub dynamometer for measurement of power in flight and for the determination of the torque and power coefficients of the propeller. (author)

  8. Flight test evaluation of drag effects on surface coatings on the NASA Boeing 737 TCV airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George-Falvy, D.; Sikavi, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in which the effects of various surface coatings on aerodynamic drag were investigated; results of this program are described in this report. The tests were conducted at NASA-Langley Research Center on the terminal configured vehicle (TCV) Boeing 737 research airplane. The Boeing Company, as contractor with NASA under the Energy Efficient Transport (EET) program, planned and evaluated the experiment. The NASA-TCV Program Office coordinated the experiment and performed the flight tests. The principal objective of the test was to evaluate the drag reduction potential of an elastomeric polyurethane surface coating, CAAPCO B-274, which also has been considered for application on transport airplanes to protect leading edges from erosion. The smooth surface achievable with this type of coating held some promise of reducing the skin friction drag as compared to conventional production type aircraft surfaces, which are usually anodized bare metal or coated with corrosion protective paint. Requirements for high precision measurements were the principal considerations in the experiment.

  9. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  10. Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes: Wallops Flight Facility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gregg G.; Senzig, David A.; McCurdy, David A.; Roof, Christopher J.; Rapoza, Amanda S.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC), the Environmental Measurement and Modeling Division of the United States Department of Transportation s John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), and several other organizations (see Appendix A for a complete list of participating organizations and individuals) conducted a noise measurement study at NASA s Wallops Flight Facility (Wallops) near Chincoteague, Virginia during September 2000. This test was intended to determine engine installation effects on four civil transport airplanes: a Boeing 767-400, a McDonnell-Douglas DC9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beechcraft King Air. Wallops was chosen for this study because of the relatively low ambient noise of the site and the degree of control over airplane operating procedures enabled by operating over a runway closed to other uses during the test period. Measurements were conducted using a twenty microphone U-shaped array oriented perpendicular to the flight path; microphones were mounted such that ground effects were minimized and low elevation angles were observed.

  11. Performance improvements of an F-15 airplane with an integrated engine-flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on the NASA Ames-Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The highly integrated digital control (HIDEC) system provides additional engine thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power. The amount of EPR uptrim is modulated based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. Engine thrust was increased as much as 10.5 percent at subsonic flight conditions by uptrimming EPR. The additional thrust significantly improved aircraft performance. Rate of climb was increased 14 percent at 40,000 ft and the time to climb from 10,000 to 40,000 ft was reduced 13 percent. A 14 and 24 percent increase in acceleration was obtained at intermediate and maximum power, respectively. The HIDEC logic performed fault free. No engine anomalies were encountered for EPR increases up to 12 percent and for angles of attack and sideslip of 32 and 11 degrees, respectively.

  12. 78 FR 11562 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 20, 2012 (77 FR...; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... inadvertently or intentionally exceeding a speed approximately equivalent to V FC or attaining V DF ....

  13. 77 FR 75066 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Flight Envelope Protection (Icing and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... normal operating conditions by prohibiting the airplane from stalling. The high incidence protection... stalling and therefore, the stall warning system is not needed during normal flight conditions....

  14. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  15. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  16. Launch, Low-Speed, and Landing Characteristics Determined from the First Flight of the North American X-15 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Thomas W.; Matranga, Gene J.

    1959-01-01

    The first flight of the North American X-15 research airplane was made on June 8, 1959. This was accomplished after completion of a series of captive flights with the X-15 attached to the B-52 carrier airplane to demonstrate the aerodynamic and systems compatibility of the X-15//B-52 combination and the X-15 subsystem operation. This flight was planned as a glide flight so that the pilot need not be concerned with the propulsion system. Discussions of the launch, low-speed maneuvering, and landing characteristics are presented, and the results are compared with predictions from preflight studies. The launch characteristics were generally satisfactory, and the X-15 vertical tail adequately cleared the B-52 wing cutout. The actual landing pattern and landing characteristics compared favorably with predictions, and the recommended landing technique of lowering the flaps and landing gear at a low altitude appears to be a satisfactory method of landing the X-15 airplane. There was a quantitative correlation between flight-measured and predicted lift-drag-ratio characteristics in the clean configuration and a qualitative correlation in the landing configuration. A longitudinal-controllability problem, which became severe in the landing configuration, was evident throughout the flight and, apparently, was aggravated by the sensitivity of the side-located control stick. In the low-to-moderate angle-of-attack range covered, the longitudinal and directional stability were indicated to be adequate.

  17. Flight measurements of buffet characteristics of the F-104 airplane for selected wing-flap deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, E. L.; Sefic, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A flight program was conducted on the F-104 airplane to investigate the effects of moderate deflections of wing leading- and trailing-edge flaps on the buffet characteristics at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers. Selected deflections of the wing leading and trailing-edge flaps, individually and in combination, were used to assess buffet onset, intensity, and frequency; lift curves; and wing-rock characteristics for each configuration. Increased deflection of the trailing-edge flap delayed the buffet onset and buffet intensity rise to a significantly higher airplane normal-force coefficient. Deflection of the leading-edge flap produced some delay in buffet onset and the resulting intensity rise at low subsonic speeds. Increased deflection of the trailing-edge flap provided appreciable lift increments in the angle-of-attack range covered, whereas the leading-edge flap provided lift increments only at high angles-of-attack. The pilots appreciated the increased maneuvering envelope provided by the flaps because of the improved turn capability.

  18. Flight determined lift and drag characteristics of an F-8 airplane modified with a supercritical wing with comparison to wind-tunnel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, J. S.; Steers, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Flight measurements obtained with a TF-8A airplane modified with a supercritical wing are presented for altitudes from 7.6 kilometers (25,000 feet) to 13.7 kilometers (45,000 feet), Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2, and Reynolds numbers from 0.8 x 10 to the 7th power to 2.3 x 10 to the 7th power. Flight results for the airplane with and without area-rule fuselage fairings are compared. The techniques used to determine the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane are discussed. Flight data are compared with wind-tunnel model results, where applicable.

  19. Flight Tests of an Airplane Showing Dependence of the Maximum Lift Coefficient on the Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, H A; Hootman, James A

    1937-01-01

    Data are presented to show the extent to which the maximum lift coefficient and consequently the minimum speed of an airplane, determined by flight tests, may vary with test conditions. The data show that cl-max may vary as much as 14 percent, depending on the altitude and wing loading at which the tests were made, the position or motion of the propeller, and the rate at which the angle of attack is changing when the maximum lift coefficient is obtained. The variation of the maximum lift coefficient with these factors, which are under the control of the test engineer, shows the need of standardizing the test procedure. A further variation is shown with wing conditions as affected by weathering and vibration, factors that cannot be completely controlled.

  20. Review of Flight Tests of NACA C and D Cowlings on the XP-42 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J Ford

    1943-01-01

    Results of flight tests of the performance and cooling characteristics of three NACA D cowlings and of a conventional NACA D cowling on the XP-42 airplane are summarized and compared. The D cowling is, in general, characterized by the use of an annular inlet and diffuser section for the engine-cooling air. The D cowlings tested were a long-nose high-inlet-velocity cowling, a short-nose high-inlet-velocity cowling, and a short-nose low inlet-velocity cowling. The use of wide-chord propeller cuffs or an axial-flow fan with the D cowlings increased the cooling pressure recoveries in the climb condition at the expense of some of the improvement in speed.

  1. Flight-determined stability and control coefficients of the F-111A airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.; Steers, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    A complete set of linear stability and control derivatives of the F-111A airplane was determined with a modified maximum likelihood estimator. The derivatives were determined at wing sweep angles of 26 deg, 35 deg, and 58 deg. The flight conditions included a Mach number range of 0.63 to 1.43 and an angle of attack range of 2 deg to 15 deg. Maneuvers were performed at normal accelerations from 0.9g to 3.8g during steady turns to assess the aeroelastic effects on the stability and control characteristics. The derivatives generally showed consistent trends and reasonable agreement with the wind tunnel estimates. Significant Mach effects were observed for Mach numbers as low as 0.82. No large effects attributable to aeroelasticity were noted.

  2. In-flight acoustic measurements on a light twin-engined turboprop airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Mcdaniel, C. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1985-01-01

    Four series of flight tests were conducted to measure sound pressure levels inside and outside the cabin of a twin-engined turboprop airplane. Particular emphasis was placed on harmonics of the propeller blade passage frequency. The cabin was unfurnished for the first three flights, when the main objective was to investigate the repeatability of the data. For the fourth flight, the cabin was treated with fiberglass batts. Typically, the exterior sound pressure levels were found to vary 3 to 5 dB for a given harmonic, but variations as high as 8 dB were observed. The variability of harmonic levels within the cabin was slightly higher but depended on control of the relative phase between the propellers; when phase was not controlled the average variability was about 10 dB. Noise reductions provided by the fuselage structure were in the range of 20 to 40 dB, when an exterior microphone in the plane of rotation of the propeller was used as reference.

  3. Flight and wind-tunnel comparisons of the inlet-airframe interaction of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, L. D.; Andriyich-Varda, D.; Whitmore, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    The design of inlets and nozzles and their interactions with the airplane which may account for a large percentage of the total drag of modern high performance aircraft is discussed. The inlet/airframe interactions program and the flight tests conducted is described. Inlet drag and lift data from a 7.5% wind-tunnel model are compared with data from an F-15 airplane with instrumentation to match the model. Pressure coefficient variations with variable cowl angles, capture ratios, examples of flow interactions and angles of attack are for Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 are presented.

  4. Comparative Flight and Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Measurements of the Maximum Lift of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S; Hootman, James A

    1938-01-01

    Determinations of the power-off maximum lift of a Fairchild 22 airplane were made in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel and in flight. The results from the two types of test were in satisfactory agreement. It was found that, when the airplane was rotated positively in pitch through the angle of stall at rates of the order of 0.1 degree per second, the maximum lift coefficient was considerably higher than that obtained in the standard tests, in which the forces are measured with the angles of attack fixed. Scale effect on the maximum lift coefficient was also investigated.

  5. Ground-based and in-flight simulator studies of flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Yenni, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulator studies were conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of a twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane and to compare these characteristics with those of a large, single-fuselage (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing task. The results of this study indicated that the twin-fuselage transport concept had acceptable but unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral-directional low-speed flight characteristics, and that stability and control augmentation would be required in order to improve the handling qualities. Through the use of rate-command/attitude-hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn coordination features, the handling qualities of the simulated transport were improved appreciably. The in-flight test results showed excellent agreement with those of the six-degree-of-freedom ground-based simulator handling qualities tests. As a result of the in-flight simulation study, a roll-control-induced normal-acceleration criterion was developed. The handling qualities of the augmented twin-fuselage passenger transport airplane exhibited an improvement over the handling characteristics of the reference (single-fuselage) transport.

  6. Stall Characteristics Obtained from Flight 10 of Northrop X-4 No. 2 Airplane (USAF No. 46-677)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoff, Melvin; Sisk, Thomas R

    1950-01-01

    NACA instrumentation has been installed ii the X-J4 airplanes to obtain stability and control data during the acceptance tests conducted by the Northrop Aircraft Corporation. This report presents data obtained on the stalling characteristics of the airplane in the clean and gear- down configurations. The center of gravity was located at approximately 18 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord during the tests. The results indicated that the airplane was not completely stalled when stall was gradually approached during nominally U accelerated flight but that it was completely stalled during a more abruptly approached stall in accelerated flight. The stall in accelerated flight was relatively mild, and this was attributed to the nature of the variation of lift with angle of attack for the 001-614 airfoil section, the plan form of the wing, and to the fact that the initial sideslip at the stall produced (as shown by wind-tunnel tests of a model of the airplane) a more symmetrical stall pattern.

  7. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and V So is expressed in knots) at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... procedure, operate a reciprocating engine powered airplane, at an all-engines-operating altitude that allows... the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and altitude) used in calculating the...

  8. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Vso is expressed in knots) at an altitude of least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... an all-engines-operating altitude that allows the airplane to continue, after an engine failure, to...) The rate of climb (as prescribed in the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and...

  9. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Vso is expressed in knots) at an altitude of least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... an all-engines-operating altitude that allows the airplane to continue, after an engine failure, to...) The rate of climb (as prescribed in the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and...

  10. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Vso is expressed in knots) at an altitude of least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... an all-engines-operating altitude that allows the airplane to continue, after an engine failure, to...) The rate of climb (as prescribed in the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and...

  11. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a NASA F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this paper provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  12. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this report provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  13. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a NASA F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. This presentation provides highlights of a technical paper that outlines this ultimate goal, including plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  14. Procedures used in flight tests of an integrated propulsion control system on an F-111E airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, J. L.; Holzman, J. K.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A digital integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) was tested on an F-111E airplane. The IPCS provided full authority control of the left inlet and the TF30 afterburning engine. Supersonic test conditions were of primary interest. The operational procedures and maneuvers developed for IPCS evaluation, displays for test monitoring and data acquisition, flight safety, and problems encountered are discussed. The software refinements that made modifications to standard flight test procedures necessary are described. The flexibility of digital control and the ways software was used to overcome hardware deficiencies are discussed. Application of these procedures to a typical IPCS flight is described.

  15. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 121.197. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data in... path (considering the ambient temperature anticipated along the track) having a positive slope at an... for in the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Aircraft certificated...

  16. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... listed in the Airplane Flight Manual that allows a net takeoff flight path that clears all obstacles... paths under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, correction must be made for the runway to be... is not banked before reaching a height of 50 feet as shown by the net takeoff flight path data in...

  17. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 121.197. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data in... path (considering the ambient temperature anticipated along the track) having a positive slope at an... for in the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Aircraft certificated...

  18. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... listed in the Airplane Flight Manual that allows a net takeoff flight path that clears all obstacles... paths under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, correction must be made for the runway to be... is not banked before reaching a height of 50 feet as shown by the net takeoff flight path data in...

  19. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... listed in the Airplane Flight Manual that allows a net takeoff flight path that clears all obstacles... paths under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, correction must be made for the runway to be... is not banked before reaching a height of 50 feet as shown by the net takeoff flight path data in...

  20. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  1. Wind-tunnel investigation of the flight characteristics of a canard general-aviation airplane configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satran, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    A 0.36-scale model of a canard general-aviation airplane with a single pusher propeller and winglets was tested in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the static and dynamic stability and control and free-flight behavior of the configuration. Model variables made testing of the model possible with the canard in high and low positions, with increased winglet area, with outboard wing leading-edge droop, with fuselage-mounted vertical fin and rudder, with enlarged rudders, with dual deflecting rudders, and with ailerons mounted closer to the wing tips. The basic model exhibited generally good longitudinal and lateral stability and control characteristics. The removal of an outboard leading-edge droop degraded roll damping and produced lightly damped roll (wing rock) oscillations. In general, the model exhibited very stable dihedral effect but weak directional stability. Rudder and aileron control power were sufficiently adequate for control of most flight conditions, but appeared to be relatively weak for maneuvering compared with those of more conventionally configured models.

  2. Presentation of flight control design and handling quality commonality by separate surface stability augmentation for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Douglas; Creighton, Thomas; Haddad, Raphael; Hendrich, Louis; Morgan, Louise; Russell, Mark; Swift, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The methodology and results for a flight control design and implementation for common handling qualities by Separate Surface Stability Augmentation (SSSA) for the family of commuter airplanes are contained. The open and closed loop dynamics and the design results of augmenting for common handling qualities are presented. The physical and technology requirements are presented for implementing the SSSA system. The conclusion of this report and recommendations for changes or improvement are discussed.

  3. Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a 0.15-scale model of the F-106B airplane with vortex flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, Long P.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effects of vortex flaps on the flight dynamic characteristics of the F-106B in the area of low-speed, high-angle-of-attack flight was undertaken on a 0.15-scale model of the airplane in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. Static force tests, dynamic forced-oscillation tests, as well as free-flight tests were conducted to obtain a data base on the flight characteristics of the F-106B airplane with vortex flaps. Vortex flap configurations tested included a full-span gothic flap, a full-span constant-chord flap, and a part-span gothic flap.

  4. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.

  5. Flight Tests of N.A.C.A. Nose-slot Cowlings on the BFC-1 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W

    1939-01-01

    The results of flight tests of four nose-slot cowling designs with several variations in each design are presented. The tests were made in the process of developing the nose-slot cowling. The results demonstrate that a nose-slot cowling may be successfully applied to an airplane and that it utilizes the increased slipstream velocity of low-speed operation to produce increased cooling pressure across the engine. A sample design calculation using results from wind-tunnel, flight, and ground tests is given in an appendix to illustrate the design procedure.

  6. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Modeling of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flaps on a GIII Airplane and Comparisons to Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark S.; Bui, Trong T.; Garcia, Christian A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    A pair of compliant trailing edge flaps was flown on a modified GIII airplane. Prior to flight test, multiple analysis tools of various levels of complexity were used to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flaps. Vortex lattice, full potential flow, and full Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis software programs were used for prediction, in addition to another program that used empirical data. After the flight-test series, lift and pitching moment coefficient increments due to the flaps were estimated from flight data and compared to the results of the predictive tools. The predicted lift increments matched flight data well for all predictive tools for small flap deflections. All tools over-predicted lift increments for large flap deflections. The potential flow and Navier-Stokes programs predicted pitching moment coefficient increments better than the other tools.

  7. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Research dealt with the general area of optimal flight control synthesis for manned flight vehicles. The work was generic; no specific vehicle was the focus of study. However, the class of vehicles generally considered were those for which high authority, multivariable control systems might be considered, for the purpose of stabilization and the achievement of optimal handling characteristics. Within this scope, the topics of study included several optimal control synthesis techniques, control-theoretic modeling of the human operator in flight control tasks, and the development of possible handling qualities metrics and/or measures of merit. Basic contributions were made in all these topics, including human operator (pilot) models for multi-loop tasks, optimal output feedback flight control synthesis techniques; experimental validations of the methods developed, and fundamental modeling studies of the air-to-air tracking and flared landing tasks.

  8. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unified control synthesis methodology for complex and/or non-conventional flight vehicles are developed. Prediction techniques for the handling characteristics of such vehicles and pilot parameter identification from experimental data are addressed.

  9. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1936-01-01

    Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.

  10. The Effect of Mass Distribution on the Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics of an Airplane as Determined by Tests of a Model in the Free-flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Seacord, Charles L , Jr

    1943-01-01

    The effects of mass distribution on lateral stability and control characteristics of an airplane have been determined by flight tests of a model in the NACA free-flight tunnel. In the investigation, the rolling and yawing moments of inertia were increased from normal values to values up to five times normal. For each moment-of-inertia condition, combinations of dihedral and vertical-tail area representing a variety of airplane configurations were tested. The results of the flight tests of the model were correlated with calculated stability and control characteristics and, in general, good agreement was obtained.

  11. Pressure Distribution over a Wing and Tail Rib of a VE-7 and of a TS Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made to determine the pressure distribution over a rib of the wing and over a rib of the horizontal tail surface of an airplane in flight and to obtain information as to the time correlation of the loads occurring on these ribs. Two airplanes, VE-7 and TS, were selected in order to obtain the information for a thin and a thick wing section. In each case the pressure distribution was recorded for the full range of angle of attack in level flight and throughout violent maneuvers. The results show: (a) that the present rib load specifications in use by the Army Air Corps and the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, are in fair agreement with the loads actually occurring in flight, but could be slightly improved; (b) that there appears to be no definite sequence in which wing and tail surface ribs reach their respective maximum loads in different maneuvers; (c) that in accelerated flight, at air speeds less than or equal to 60 per cent of the maximum speed, the accelerations measured agree very closely with the theoretically possible maximum accelerations. In maneuvers at higher air speeds the observed accelerations were smaller than those theoretically possible. (author)

  12. 14 CFR 91.611 - Authorization for ferry flight with one engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... been test flown and found satisfactory for safe flight in accordance with paragraph (b) or (c) of this... the takeoff or destination airport are less than those required for VFR flight. (5) Persons other than... limitations and performance information in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Flight tests:...

  13. Motion of the two-control airplane in rectilinear flight after initial disturbances with introduction of controls following an exponential law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemin, Alexander

    1937-01-01

    An airplane in steady rectilinear flight was assumed to experience an initial disturbance in rolling or yawing velocity. The equations of motion were solved to see if it was possible to hasten recovery of a stable airplane or to secure recovery of an unstable airplane by the application of a single lateral control following an exponential law. The sample computations indicate that, for initial disturbances complex in character, it would be difficult to secure correlation with any type of exponential control. The possibility is visualized that the two-control operation may seriously impair the ability to hasten recovery or counteract instability.

  14. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a unified control synthesis methodology for complex and/or non-conventional flight vehicles, and prediction techniques for the handling characteristics of such vehicles are reported. Identification of pilot dynamics and objectives, using time domain and frequency domain methods is proposed.

  15. Wind-tunnel Tests of a 2-engine Airplane Model as a Preliminary Study of Flight Conditions Arising on the Failure of the Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 15-foot-span model of a two-engine low wing transport airplane were made as a preliminary study of the emergency arising from the failure of one engine in flight. Two methods of reducing the initial yawing moment resulting from the failure of one engine were investigated and the equilibrium conditions were explored for two basic modes on one engine, one with zero angle of sideslip and the other with several degrees of sideslip. The added drag resulting from the unsymmetrical attitudes required for flight on one engine was determined for the model airplane. The effects of the application of power upon the stability, controllability, lift, and drag of the model airplane were measured. A dynamic pressure survey of the propeller slipstream was made in the neighborhood of the tail surfaces at three angles of attack. The added parasite drag of the model airplane resulting from the unfavorable conditions of flight on one engine was estimated. From 35 to 50 percent of this added drag was due to the drag of the dead engine propeller and the other 50 to 65 percent was due to the unsymmetrical attitude of the airplane. The mode of flight on one engine in which the angle of sideslip was zero was found to require less power than the mode in which the angle of sideslip was several degrees.

  16. Flight Measurements to Determine Effect of a Spring-Loaded Tab on Longitudinal Stability of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul A.; Reeder, John P.

    1946-01-01

    In conjunction with a program of research on the general problem of stability of airplanes in the climbing condition, tests have been made of a spring-loaded tb which. is referred to as a ?springy tab,? installed on the elevator of a low-wing scout bomber. The tab was arranged to deflect upward with decrease in speed which caused an increase in the pull force required to trim at low speeds and thereby increased the stick-free static longitudinal stability of the airplane. It was found that the springy tab would increase the stick-free stability in all flight conditions, would reduce the danger of inadvertent stalling because of the definite pull force required to stall the airplane with power on, would reduce the effect of center-of-gravity position on stick-free static stability, and would have little effect on the elevator stick forces in accelerated f11ght. Another advantage of the springy tab is that it might be used to provide almost any desired variation of elevator stick force with speed by adjusting the tab hinge-moment characteristics and the variation of spring moment with tab deflection. Unlike the bungee and the bobweight, the springy tab would provide stick-free static stability without requiring a pull force to hold the stick back while taxying. A device similar to the springy tab may be used on the rudder or ailerons to eliminate undesirable trim-force variations with speed.

  17. Stability and Controls Analysis and Flight Test Results of a 24-Foot Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moua, Cheng M.; Cox, Timothy H.; McWherter, Shaun C.

    2008-01-01

    The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) F-15B flight research program investigated supersonic shock reduction using a 24-ft telescoping nose boom on an F-15B airplane. The program goal was to collect flight data for model validation up to 1.8 Mach. In the area of stability and controls, the primary concerns were to assess the potential destabilizing effect of the oversized nose boom on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the airplane and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire research flight envelope. This paper reports on the stability and control analytical methods, flight envelope clearance approach, and flight test results of the F-15B telescoping nose boom configuration. Also discussed are brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks and refueling tasks.

  18. Flight test operations using an F-106B research airplane modified with a wing leading-edge vortex flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Brown, Philip W.; Hallissy, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Flight tests of an F-106B aircraft equipped with a leading-edge vortex flap, which represented the culmination of a research effort to examine the effectiveness of the flap, were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the flight tests was to establish a data base on the use of a wing leading-edge vortex flap as a means to validate the design and analysis methods associated with the development of such a vortical flow-control concept. The overall experiment included: refinements of the design codes for vortex flaps; numerous wind tunnel entries to aid in verifying design codes and determining basic aerodynamic characteristics; design and fabrication of the flaps, structural modifications to the wing tip and leading edges of the test aircraft; development and installation of an aircraft research instrumentation system, including wing and flap surface pressure measurements and selected structural loads measurements; ground-based simulation to assess flying qualities; and finally, flight testing. This paper reviews the operational aspects associated with the flight experiment, which includes a description of modifications to the research airplane, the overall flight test procedures, and problems encountered. Selected research results are also presented to illustrate the accomplishments of the research effort.

  19. The NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center drop tube user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathz, Thomas J.; Robinson, Michael B.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the structural and instrumentation hardware and the experimental capabilities of the 105-meter Marshall Space Flight Center Drop Tube Facility is given. This document is to serve as a guide to the investigator who wishes to perform materials processing experiments in the Drop Tube. Particular attention is given to the Tube's hardware to which an investigator must interface to perform experiments. This hardware consists of the permanent structural hardware (with such items as vacuum flanges), and the experimental hardware (with the furnaces and the sample insertion devices). Two furnaces, an electron-beam and an electromagnetic levitator, are currently used to melt metallic samples in a process environment that can range from 10(exp -6) Torr to 1 atmosphere. Details of these furnaces, the processing environment gases/vacuum, the electrical power, and data acquisition capabilities are specified to allow an investigator to design his/her experiment to maximize successful results and to reduce experimental setup time on the Tube. Various devices used to catch samples while inflicting minimum damage and to enhance turnaround time between experiments are described. Enough information is provided to allow an investigator who wishes to build his/her own furnace or sample catch devices to easily interface it to the Tube. The experimental instrumentation and data acquisition systems used to perform pre-drop and in-flight measurements of the melting and solidification process are also detailed. Typical experimental results are presented as an indicator of the type of data that is provided by the Drop Tube Facility. A summary bibliography of past Drop Tube experiments is provided, and an appendix explaining the noncontact temperature determination of free-falling drops is provided. This document is to be revised occasionally as improvements to the Facility are made and as the summary bibliography grows.

  20. Preparing Flight Attendants for In-Flight Psychiatric Emergencies: A Training Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gras, Rebecca E.

    2011-01-01

    While in-flight psychiatric emergencies occur at a lower rate than other medical emergencies (Matsumoto & Goebert, 2001), they tend to cause a higher degree of disruption for passengers (Gordan, Kingham, & Goodwin, 2004). However, flight attendants often receive training that is too basic, minimal, and insufficient to effectively manage…

  1. Preliminary design-lift/cruise fan research and technology airplane flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotlieb, P.; Lewis, G. E.; Little, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a stability augmentation system for a NASA V/STOL research and technology airplane. This stability augmentation system is postulated as the simplest system that meets handling qualities levels for research and technology missions flown by NASA test pilots. The airplane studied in this report is a T-39 fitted with tilting lift/cruise fan nacelles and a nose fan. The propulsion system features a shaft interconnecting the three variable pitch fans and three power plants. The mathematical modeling is based on pre-wind tunnel test estimated data. The selected stability augmentation system uses variable gains scheduled with airspeed. Failure analysis of the system illustrates the benign effect of engine failure. Airplane rate sensor failure must be solved with redundancy.

  2. Investigation of the Forces Acting on Gliders in Automobile-pulley-winch and Airplane Towed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemperer, W B

    1942-01-01

    The magnitude, the direction, and the fluctuation of towing forces exerted upon gliders by towing them aloft behind an automobile, by means of a winch, and by airplane were measured under a variety of conditions covering a range from gentle to severe types of operation. For these tests the towing forces did not exceed 92 percent of the gross weight of the glider. The results indicate that in pulley and winch towing the towing forces are of about the same magnitude as in automobile towing. Speed increases in the accelerated phases of the towing jerks encountered in airplane towing can readily become critical as speeds in excess of placard speeds can be attained. Passage through the slipstream of the towing airplane can be equivalent to a severe gust that, at high speed, may impose high wing loads and require large control moments.

  3. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  4. An Apparatus for Varying Effective Dihedral in Flight with Application to a Study of Tolerable Dihedral on a Conventional Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, William M; Liddell, Charles J , Jr; Smith, Allan; Van Dyke, Rudolph D , Jr

    1949-01-01

    An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight by means of servo actuation of the ailerons in response to sideslip angle is described. The results of brief flight tests of the apparatus on a conventional fighter airplane are presented and discussed. The apparatus is shown to have satisfactory simulated a wide range of effective dihedral under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of a small amount of servo lag are shown to be measurable when the apparatus is simulating small negative values of dihedral. However, these effects were not considered by the pilots to give the airplane an artificial feel. The results of an investigation employing the apparatus to determine the tolerable (safe for normal fighter operation) range of effective dihedral on the test airplane are presented.

  5. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  6. Wind-tunnel static and free-flight investigation of high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a model of the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Hahne, David E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel and the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to identify factors contributing to a directional divergence at high angles of attack for the EA-6B airplane. The study consisted of static wind-tunnel tests, smoke and tuft flow-visualization tests, and free-flight tests of a 1/8.5-scale model of the airplane. The results of the investigation indicate that the directional divergence of the airplane is brought about by a loss of directional stability and effective dihedral at high angles of attack. Several modifications were tested that significantly alleviate the stability problem. The results of the free-flight study show that the modified configuration exhibits good dynamic stability characteristics and could be flown at angles of attack significantly higher than those of the unmodified configuration.

  7. Flight and Static Exhaust Flow Properties of an F110-GE-129 Engine in an F-16XL Airplane During Acoustic Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Jon K.; Webb, Lannie D.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The exhaust flow properties (mass flow, pressure, temperature, velocity, and Mach number) of the F110-GE-129 engine in an F-16XL airplane were determined from a series of flight tests flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. These tests were performed in conjunction with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LARC) as part of a study to investigate the acoustic characteristics of jet engines operating at high nozzle pressure conditions. The range of interest for both objectives was from Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.9. NASA Dryden flew the airplane and acquired and analyzed the engine data to determine the exhaust characteristics. NASA Langley collected the flyover acoustic measurements and correlated these results with their current predictive codes. This paper describes the airplane, tests, and methods used to determine the exhaust flow properties and presents the exhaust flow properties. No acoustics results are presented.

  8. Summary of flight tests to determine the spin and controllability characteristics of a remotely piloted, large-scale (3/8) fighter airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    An unpowered, large, dynamically scaled airplane model was test flown by remote pilot to investigate the stability and controllability of the configuration at high angles of attack. The configuration proved to be departure/spin resistant; however, spins were obtained by using techniques developed on a flight support simulator. Spin modes at high and medium high angles of attack were identified, and recovery techniques were investigated. A flight support simulation of the airplane model mechanized with low speed wind tunnel data over an angle of attack range of + or - 90 deg. and an angle of sideslip range of + or - 40 deg. provided insight into the effects of altitude, stability, aerodynamic damping, and the operation of the augmented flight control system on spins. Aerodynamic derivatives determined from flight maneuvers were used to correlate model controllability with two proposed departure/spin design criteria.

  9. A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

  10. 75 FR 70854 - Harmonization of Various Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes-Flight Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... Conditions. In the preamble to that rulemaking (72 FR 44665), the FAA stated that we needed more time and... preamble to Amendment 25- 72, Special Review: Transport Category Airplane Airworthiness Standards (55...

  11. 78 FR 6195 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 9, 2012, (77 FR... Protection: Performance Credit for Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) During Go-Around AGENCY... design feature associated with the use of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) during...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (or equivalent for propeller airplane) Stowed, In Transit, and reverse (Discrete) 1 (per engine Turbo... system selection Discrete “on” or “off” 4. 73. Computed center of gravity Full Range ±5% (1 per 64 sec... “fail” or “normal” 4. 80. Heads-up display (when an information source is installed) Discrete(s) “on”...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Thrust reverser Position (or equivalent for propeller airplane) Stowed, In Transit, and reverse (Discrete... system selection Discrete “on” or “off” 4. 73. Computed center of gravity Full Range ±5% (1 per 64 sec... “fail” or “normal” 4. 80. Heads-up display (when an information source is installed) Discrete(s) “on”...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Reverser Position (or equivalent for propeller airplane) Stowed, In Transit, and Reverse (Discrete) 1 (per... 73. Computed center of gravity Full Range ±5% (1 per 64 sec.) 1% of full range 74. AC electrical bus... information source is installed) Discrete(s) “on” or “off” 4 81. Para-visual display (when an...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seconds. 22. Each Thrust Reverser Position (or equivalent for propeller airplane) Stowed, In Transit, and... 73. Computed center of gravity Full Range ±5% (1 per 64 sec.) 1% of full range 74. AC electrical bus... information source is installed) Discrete(s) “on” or “off” 4 81. Para-visual display (when an...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... model and the aerodynamic coefficient data used to modify the basic model. (e) The engine model(s) and... (§ 60.20). 16. Interim Qualification of FFSs for New Airplane Types or Models (§ 60.21). 17...; fax, 404-761-8906. The general e-mail address for the NSP office is: 9-aso-avr-sim-team@faa.gov....

  17. 14 CFR 91.611 - Authorization for ferry flight with one engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with performance data contained in the applicable Airplane Flight Manual under paragraph (a)(2) of... contains the following performance data and the flight is conducted in accordance with that data: (i... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization for ferry flight with...

  18. 77 FR 69573 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Model EMB-550 airplane. The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet airplanes... regulations and special conditions, the Model EMB-550 airplane must comply with the fuel vent and...

  19. 78 FR 11560 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...-550 airplane. The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet airplanes designed for... regulations and special conditions, the Model EMB-550 airplane must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust...-135 (76 FR 74654, December 1, 2011), effective January 30, 2012. (This amendment is not in the...

  20. Flight Investigation of a Mechanical Feel Device in an Irreversible Elevator Control System of a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B Porter; Chilton, Robert G; Whitten, James B

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of measurements of the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a large airplane using a mechanical feel device in combination with a booster incorporated in the elevator-control system. Tests were made to investigate the feasibility of eliminating the aerodynamic control forces through use of a booster and of providing control-feel forces mechanically. The feel device consisted of a centering spring which restrained the control stick through a linkage which was changed as a function of the dynamic pressure. Provisions were made for trimming and for manual adjustment of the force gradient. The system was designed to approximate the control-force characteristics that would result with a conventional elevator control with linear hinge-moment characteristics.

  1. Flight-test of the glide-slope track and flare-control laws for an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.; Hardy, G. H.; Warner, D. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An automatic landing system was developed for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane to establish the feasibility and examine the operating characteristics of a powered-lift STOL transport flying a steep, microwave landing system (MLS) glide slope to automatically land on a STOL port. The flight test results address the longitudinal aspects of automatic powered lift STOL airplane operation including glide slope tracking on the backside of the power curve, flare, and touchdown. Three different autoland control laws were evaluated to demonstrate the tradeoff between control complexity and the resulting performance. The flight test and simulation methodology used in developing conventional jet transport systems was applied to the powered-lift STOL airplane. The results obtained suggest that an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane operating into an MLS-equipped STOL port is feasible. However, the airplane must be provided with a means of rapidly regulation lift to satisfactorily provide the glide slope tracking and control of touchdown sink rate needed for automatic landings.

  2. Flight Tests of a 0.13-Scale Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane with the Lower Vertical Tail Removed, TED No.DE 368

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Powell M., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics in hovering and transition flight of a 0.13-scale flying model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane with the lower vertical tail removed. The purpose of the tests was to obtain a general indication of the behavior of a vertically rising airplane of the same general type as the XFY-1 but without a lower vertical tail in order to simplify power-off belly landings in an emergency. The model was flown satisfactorily in hovering flight and in the transition from hovering to normal unstalled forward flight (angle of attack approximately 30deg). From an angle of attack of about 30 down to the lowest angle of attack covered in the flight tests (approximately 15deg) the model became progressively more difficult to control. These control difficulties were attributed partly to a lightly damped Dutch roll oscillation and partly to the fact that the control deflections required for hovering and transition flight were too great for smooth flight at high speeds. In the low-angle-of-attack range not covered in the flight tests, force tests have indicated very low static directional stability which would probably result in poor flight characteristics. It appears, therefore, that the attainment of satisfactory directional stability, at angles of attack less than 10deg, rather than in the hovering and transition ranges of flight is the critical factor in the design of the vertical tail for such a configuration.

  3. State estimation applications in aircraft flight-data analysis: A user's manual for SMACK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution in the use of state estimation is traced for the analysis of aircraft flight data. A unifying mathematical framework for state estimation is reviewed, and several examples are presented that illustrate a general approach for checking instrument accuracy and data consistency, and for estimating variables that are difficult to measure. Recent applications associated with research aircraft flight tests and airline turbulence upsets are described. A computer program for aircraft state estimation is discussed in some detail. This document is intended to serve as a user's manual for the program called SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics). The diversity of the applications described emphasizes the potential advantages in using SMACK for flight-data analysis.

  4. Free-Flight-Tunnel Investigation of the Dynamic Stability and Control Characteristics of a Chance Vought F7U-3 Airplane in Towed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, David C.; Shanks, Robert E.

    1952-01-01

    As part of a program to determine the feasibility of using a fighter airplane as a parasite in combination with a Consolidated Vultee RB-36 for long-range reconnaissance missions (project FICON), an experimental investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/17.5-scale model of a Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane in several tow configurations. The investigation consisted of flight tests in which the model was towed from a strut in the tunnel by a towline and by a direct coupling which provided complete angular freedom. The tests with the direct coupling also included a study of the effect of spring restraint in roll in order to simulate approximately the proposed full-scale arrangement in which the only freedom is that permitted by the flexibility of the launching and retrieving trapeze carried by the-bomber. For the tow configurations in which a towline was used (15 and 38 feet full scale), the model had a very unstable lateral oscillation which could not be controlled. The stability was also unsatisfactory for the tow configuration in Which the model was coupled directly to the strut with complete angular freedom. When spring restraint in roll was added, however, the stability was satisfactory. The use of the yaw damper which increased the damping in yaw to about six times the normal value of the model appeared to have no appreciable effect on the lateral oscillations in the towline configurations, but produced a slight improvement in the case of the direct coupling configurations. The longitudinal stability was satisfactory for those cases in which the lateral stability was good enough to permit study of longitudinal motions.

  5. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  6. Flight Tests of a 1/6-Scale Model of the Hawker P 1127 Jet VTOL Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/6-scale flying model of the Hawker P lIP7 jet vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) airplane in hovering and transition flight. The model was powered by a counter-rotating ducted fan driven by compressed-air jets at the tips of the fan blades. In hovering flight the model was controlled by jet-reaction controls which consisted of yaw and pitch jets at the extremities of the fuselage and a roll jet on each wing tip. In forward flight the model was controlled by conventional ailerons and rudder and an all-movable horizontal tail. In hovering flight the model could be flown smoothly and easily, but the roll control was considered too weak for rapid maneuvering or hovering in gusty air. Transitions from hovering to normal forward flight and back to hovering could be made smoothly and consistently and with only moderate changes in longitudinal trim. The model had a static longitudinal instability or pitch-up tendency throughout the transition range, but the rate of divergence in the pitch-up was moderate and the model could be controlled easily provided the angle of attack was not allowed to become too high. In both the transition and normal forward flight conditions the lateral motions of the model were difficult to control at high angles of attack, apparently because of low directional stability at small angles of sideslip. The longitudinal stability of the model in normal forward flight was generally satisfactory, but there was a decided pitch-up tendency for the flap-down condition at high angles of attack. In the VTOL landing approach condition, with the jets directed straight down or slightly forward, the nose-down pitch trim required was greater than in the transitions from hovering to forward flight, but the longitudinal instability was about the same. Take-offs and landings in still air could be made smoothly although there was a slight unfavorable

  7. Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes Within Thunderstorms August 14, 1946 to August 15, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolefson, H. B.

    1947-01-01

    Tables I and II of the present paper summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm-flights 21 and 22 of August 14, 1946 and August 15, 1946, respectively. These data were evaluated from records of NACA airspeed-altitude and acceleration recorders installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient-air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from photo-observer records and include all cases in which variations of the instrument indications were noted for the present flights.

  8. Force Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane with Conventional Tail Assembly in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Johnson, Joseph L.

    1947-01-01

    At the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces an investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 airplane is being conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The XP-85 airplane is a parasite fighter carried in a bomb bay of the B-36 airplane. As a part of the investigation a few force tests were made of a 1/5 scale model of the XP-85 with a conventional tail assembly installed in place of the original design five-unit tail assembly. The total area of the conventional assembly was approximately 80 percent of the area of the five-unit assembly. The results of this investigation showed that the conventional tail assembly gave about the same longitudinal stability characteristics as the original configuration and improved the directional and lateral stability.

  9. Flight investigation of the effect of tail configuration on stall, spin, and recovery characteristics of a low-wing general aviation research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Patton, James M., Jr.; Sliwa, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the stall, spin, and recovery characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, light airplane with four interchangeable tail configurations. The four tail configurations were evaluated for effects of varying mass distribution, center-of-gravity position, and control inputs. The airplane tended to roll-off at the stall. Variations in tail configuration produced spins ranging from 40 deg to 60 deg angle of attack and turn rates of about 145 to 208 deg/sec. Some unrecoverable flat spins were encountered which required use of the airplane spin chute for recovery. For recoverable spins, antispin rudder followed by forward wheel with ailerons centered provided the quickest spin recovery. The moderate spin modes agreed very well with those predicted from spin-tunnel model tests, however, the flat spin was at a lower angle of attack and a slower rotation rate than indicated by the model tests.

  10. Space Flight and Manual Control: Implications for Sensorimotor Function on Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Parker, Donald E.; Leigh, R. John; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Control of vehicles, and other complex mechanical motion systems, is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS) that requires good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial (and, in some cases, geographic) orientation perception, and cognitive function. Existing evidence from space flight research (Paloski et.al., 2008, Clement and Reschke 2008, Reschke et al., 2007) demonstrates that the function of each of these systems is altered by removing (and subsequently by reintroducing) a gravitational field that can be sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, navigation, and coordination of movements. Furthermore, much of the operational performance data collected as a function of space flight has not been available for independent analysis, and those data that have been reviewed are equivocal owing to uncontrolled environmental and/or engineering factors. Thus, our current understanding, when it comes to manual control, is limited primarily to a review of those situations where manual control has been a factor. One of the simplest approaches to the manual control problem is to review shuttle landing data. See the Figure below for those landing for which we have Shuttle velocities over the runway threshold.

  11. A revolutionary approach to composite construction and flight management systems for small, general aviation airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Wenninger, ED

    1992-01-01

    The design studies for two composite general aviation airplanes are presented. The main consideration for both of the designs was to avoid the typical 'metal replacement' philosophy that has hindered the widespread use of composites in general aviation aircraft. The first design is for a low wing aircraft based on the Smith Aircraft Corporation GT-3 Global Trainer. The second aircraft is a composite version of the Cessna 152. The project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in aeronautics. The results obtained from the Fall semester of 1991 and the Spring semester of 1992 are presented.

  12. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Register on February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9265). One supportive comment was received and these special...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations...

  13. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77569). Only one comment was received. Clarification of Conditions That Should Be...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate...

  14. 78 FR 32078 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model G280 Airplane, Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478..., Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) With Head-Up Display (HUD) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Aerospace Corporation, will have an advanced, enhanced-flight-vision system (EFVS). The EFVS is a novel...

  15. Flight experience with a digital integrated propulsion control system on an F-111E airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Batterton, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    A digital integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) installed in the left side of an F-111 E aircraft was tested in flight. The F-111 aircraft was selected for the IPCS program because it incorporated a variable geometry inlet and an afterburning turbofan engine and had two engines, one of which could remain in the normal configuration to ensure flight safety. Flight data were compared with results of tests run in an altitude test chamber. The digital system was found to be capable of duplicating the standard engine and inlet control systems. Instabilities such as inlet buzz and afterburner rumble were detected and controlled. The usefulness of an altitude chamber for developing a software and testing hardware was proven. The flexibility of IPCS was demonstrated when an autothrottle, an in-flight thrust calculation, and a coannular noise study capability were added at the end of the flight tests.

  16. Flight tests of a radio-controlled airplane mode with a free-wing, free-canard configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Flight characteristics, controllability, and potential operating problems were investigated in a radio-controlled airplane model in which the wing is so attached to the fuselage that it is free to pivot about a spanwise axis forward of its aerodynamic center and is subject only to aerodynamic pitching moments imposed by lift and drag forces and a control surface. A simple technique of flying the test vehicle in formation with a pickup truck was used to obtain trim data. The test vehicle was flown through a series of maneuvers designed to permit evaluation of certain characteristics by observation. The free-wing free-canard concept was determined to be workable. Stall/spin characteristics were considered to be excellent, and no effect on longitudinal stability was observed when center of gravity changes were made. Several problems were encountered during the early stages of flight testing, such as aerodynamic lockup of the free canard and excessive control sensitivity. Lack of onboard instrumentation precluded any conclusions about gust alleviation or ride qualities.

  17. The Formation of Ice upon Exposed Parts of an Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Thomas; Mcavoy, Wm H

    1928-01-01

    In order to experimentally study the conditions leading to ice formation on aircraft surfaces, an aircraft was equipped with small auxiliary surfaces and aerodynamic shapes similar to struts, wires, Pitot heads, etc. This airplane was flown at an altitude where a temperature of 32 F was encountered, at such times as cloud formations could be found at the coincident altitude. Here it was discovered that ice formed rapidly in regard to quantity,character, shape, and rapidity of formation. An examination of this data, which confirms observations of pilots, indicates that the weight of ice collected can very possibly be sufficient to force the airplane to rapidly lose altitude on account of the increased loads. However, it is more evident that the malformation of the aerodynamic shapes may so increase the drag and reduce the lift so as to produce a loss of altitude even greater in consequence, the combination of the two working in the same direction having a double effect. Other adverse consequences are noted. The recommendation for the guidance of those who must encounter these conditions appears to lie entirely along the lines of avoidance.

  18. Flight Calibration of four airspeed systems on a swept-wing airplane at Mach numbers up to 1.04 by the NACA radar-phototheodolite method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jim Rogers; Bray, Richard S; COOPER GEORGE E

    1950-01-01

    The calibrations of four airspeed systems installed in a North American F-86A airplane have been determined in flight at Mach numbers up to 1.04 by the NACA radar-phototheodolite method. The variation of the static-pressure error per unit indicated impact pressure is presented for three systems typical of those currently in use in flight research, a nose boom and two different wing-tip booms, and for the standard service system installed in the airplane. A limited amount of information on the effect of airplane normal-force coefficient on the static-pressure error is included. The results are compared with available theory and with results from wind-tunnel tests of the airspeed heads alone. Of the systems investigated, a nose-boom installation was found to be most suitable for research use at transonic and low supersonic speeds because it provided the greatest sensitivity of the indicated Mach number to a unit change in true Mach number at very high subsonic speeds, and because it was least sensitive to changes in airplane normal-force coefficient. The static-pressure error of the nose-boom system was small and constant above a Mach number of 1.03 after passage of the fuselage bow shock wave over the airspeed head.

  19. Flight investigation of the effects of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification on stall/spin characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, T-tail light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Patton, James M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the change in stall/spin characteristics due to the addition of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification to a four-place, low-wing, single-engine, T-tail, general aviation research airplane. Stalls and attempted spins were performed for various weights, center of gravity positions, power settings, flap deflections, and landing-gear positions. Both stall behavior and wind resistance were improved compared with the baseline airplane. The latter would readily spin for all combinations of power settings, flap deflections, and aileron inputs, but the modified airplane did not spin at idle power or with flaps extended. With maximum power and flaps retracted, the modified airplane did enter spins with abused loadings or for certain combinations of maneuver and control input. The modified airplane tended to spin at a higher angle of attack than the baseline airplane.

  20. In-flight investigation of the effects of pilot location and control system design on airplane flying qualities for approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.; Chalk, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The handling qualities of large airplanes in the approach and landing flight phase were studied. The primary variables were relative pilot position with respect to center of rotation, command path time delays and phase shifts, augmentation schemes and levels of augmentation. It is indicated that the approach and landing task with large airplanes is a low bandwidth task. Low equivalent short period frequencies and relatively long time delays are tolerated only when the pilot is located at considerable distance forward of the center of rotation. The control problem experienced by the pilots, when seated behind the center of rotation, tended to occur at low altitude when they were using visual cues of rate of sink and altitude. A direct lift controller improved final flight path control of the shuttle like configurations.

  1. Determination of Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics from Free-Flight Model Tests with Results at Transonic Speeds for Three Airplane Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, Clarence L; Mitchell, Jesse L

    1957-01-01

    A test technique and data analysis method has been developed for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics from free-flight tests of rocket-propelled models. The technique makes use of accelerometers and an angle-of-attack indicator to permit instantaneous measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moments. The data, obtained during transient oscillations resulting from control-surface disturbances, are analyzed by essentially nonlinear direct methods (such as cross plots of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack) and by linear indirect methods by using the equations of motion for a transient oscillation. The analysis procedure has been set forth in some detail and the feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by data measured through the transonic speed range on several airplane configurations. It was shown that the flight conditions and dynamic similitude factors for the tests described were reasonably close to typical full-scale airplane conditions.

  2. 14 CFR 121.344 - Digital flight data recorders for transport category airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Safety Board under 49 CFR 830 of its regulations and that results in termination of the flight, the... bus status; (75) DC electrical bus status; (76) APU bleed valve position (when an information...

  3. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  4. A comparison of flight and simulation data for three automatic landing system control laws for the Augmentor wing jet STOL research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinreich, B.; Gevaert, G.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic flare and decrab control laws for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft were adapted to the unique requirements of the powered lift short takeoff and landing airplane. Three longitudinal autoland control laws were developed. Direct lift and direct drag control were used in the longitudinal axis. A fast time simulation was used for the control law synthesis, with emphasis on stochastic performance prediction and evaluation. Good correlation with flight test results was obtained.

  5. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; Vanzwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of twenty five constant pitch-rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control.

  6. Flight-determined engine exhaust characteristics of an F404 engine in an F-18 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Webb, Lannie D.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA-Langley) and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) recently completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Several types of aircraft with high nozzle pressure ratio engines were flown to satisfy a twofold objective. First, assessments were made of subsonic climb-to-cruise noise from flights conducted at varying altitudes in a Mach 0.30 to 0.90 range. Second, using data from flights conducted at constant altitude in a Mach 0.30 to 0.95 range, engineers obtained a high quality noise database. This database was desired to validate the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program and other system noise prediction codes. NASA-Dryden personnel analyzed the engine data from several aircraft that were flown in the test program to determine the exhaust characteristics. The analysis of the exhaust characteristics from the F-18 aircraft are reported. An overview of the flight test planning, instrumentation, test procedures, data analysis, engine modeling codes, and results are presented.

  7. Flight test report of the NASA icing research airplane: Performance, stability, and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. L.; Platz, S. J.; Schinstock, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Flight test results are presented documenting the effect of airframe icing on performance and stability and control of a NASA DHC-6 icing research aircraft. Kohlman System Research, Inc., provided the data acquisition system and data analysis under contract to NASA. Performance modeling methods and MMLE techniques were used to determine the effects of natural ice on the aircraft. Results showed that ice had a significant effect on the drag coefficient of the aircraft and a modest effect on the MMLE derived longitudinal stability coefficients (code version MMLE). Data is also presented on asymmetric power sign slip maneuvers showing rudder floating characteristics with and without ice on the vertical stabilizer.

  8. Determination of stability and control parameters of a light airplane from flight data using two estimation methods. [equation error and maximum likelihood methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two identification methods, the equation error method and the output error method, are used to estimate stability and control parameter values from flight data for a low-wing, single-engine, general aviation airplane. The estimated parameters from both methods are in very good agreement primarily because of sufficient accuracy of measured data. The estimated static parameters also agree with the results from steady flights. The effect of power different input forms are demonstrated. Examination of all results available gives the best values of estimated parameters and specifies their accuracies.

  9. Flight evaluation of modifications to a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Zeller, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The third phase of a flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 has recently been completed. It was found that digital electronic engine control software logic changes and augmentor hardware improvements resulted in significant improvements in engine operation. For intermediate to maximum power throttle transients, an increase in altitude capability of up to 8000 ft was found, and for idle to maximum transients, an increase of up to 4000 ft was found. A nozzle instability noted in earlier flight testing was investigated on a test engine at NASA Lewis Research Center, a digital electronic engine control software logic change was developed and evaluated, and no instability occurred in the Phase 3 flight evaluation. The backup control airstart modification was evaluated, and gave an improvement of airstart capability by reducing the minimum airspeed for successful airstarts by 50 to 75 knots.

  10. Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-70-1). 3: A comparison between characteristics predicted from wind-tunnel measurements and those measured in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaiz, H. H.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Daugherty, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken by NASA to evaluate the accuracy of a method for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of large supersonic cruise airplanes. This program compared predicted and flight-measured lift, drag, angle of attack, and control surface deflection for the XB-70-1 airplane for 14 flight conditions with a Mach number range from 0.76 to 2.56. The predictions were derived from the wind-tunnel test data of a 0.03-scale model of the XB-70-1 airplane fabricated to represent the aeroelastically deformed shape at a 2.5 Mach number cruise condition. Corrections for shape variations at the other Mach numbers were included in the prediction. For most cases, differences between predicted and measured values were within the accuracy of the comparison. However, there were significant differences at transonic Mach numbers. At a Mach number of 1.06 differences were as large as 27 percent in the drag coefficients and 20 deg in the elevator deflections. A brief analysis indicated that a significant part of the difference between drag coefficients was due to the incorrect prediction of the control surface deflection required to trim the airplane.

  11. Flight testing the digital electronic engine control in the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine which was flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The DEEC hardware and software throughout the F-15 flight envelope was evaluated. Real-time data reduction and data display systems were implemented. New test techniques and stronger coordination between the propulsion test engineer and pilot were developed which produced efficient use of test time, reduced pilot work load, and greatly improved quality data. The engine pressure ratio (EPR) control mode is demonstrated. It is found that the nonaugmented throttle transients and engine performance are satisfactory.

  12. Flight Investigation of Wing-gun Fairings on a Fighter Type Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M D

    1941-01-01

    Description is given of flight tests conducted on gun fairings, designed to correct the detrimental effects of the projecting and submerged wing guns on an F4F-3 fighter. It was found that the installation of unfaired guns on a clean wing resulted in a premature stall that increased the stalling speed in the carrier-approach and landing conditions of flight by suitably fairing the guns, it was possible to reduce the stalling speeds to values approaching very nearly the clean-wing values.

  13. The Effect of Mass Distribution on the Lateral Stability and Control Characteristics of an Airplane as Determined by Tests of a Model in the Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seacord, Charles L; Campbell, John P.

    1943-01-01

    The effects of mass distribution on lateral stability and control characteristics of an airplane have been determined by flight tests of a model in the NACA free-flight tunnel. In the investigation, the rolling and yawing movements of inertia were increased from normal values to values up to five times normal. For each moment-of-inertia condition, combinations of dihedral and vertical-tail area representing a variety of airplane configurations were tested. The results of the flight tests of the model were correlated with calculated stability and control characteristics and, in general, good agreement was obtained. The tests showed the following effects of increased rolling and yawing moments of inertia: no appreciable change in spiral stability; reductions in oscillatory stability that were serious at high values of dihedral; a reduction in the sensitivity of the model to gust disturbances; and a reduction in rolling acceleration provided by the ailerons, which caused a marked increase in time to reach a given angle of bank. The general flight behavior of the model became worse with increasing moments of inertia but, with combinations of small effective dihedral and large vertical-tail area, satisfactory flight characteristics were obtained at all moment-of-inertia conditions.

  14. X-43A: The First Flight of a Scramjet Powered Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Griff

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the X-43A Scramjet engine is shown. The topics include: 1) Scramjets; 2) Overview of X-43A; 3) What Happened the 1st Time; 4) Return to Flight; and 5) What Happened the 2nd Time.

  15. Features of airplane vortex wake decay in cruise flight and in land proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosnyakov, I. S.; Sudakov, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    The cases of the vortex wake decay after the large aircraft are considered for the case of cruise flight and near the ground. It is shown that the scenarios of destruction process are principally different from each other. The physical features of the phenomenon are described and the two models for description of such phenomenon are compared.

  16. Preliminary flight evaluation of F100 engine model derivative airstart capability in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, T. K.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A series of airstarts was conducted in an F-15 airplane with two prototype F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine control (DEEC) systems. The airstart envelope and time required for airstarts were defined. The success of an airstart is most heavily dependent on airspeed. Spooldown airstarts at 200 knots and higher were all successful. Spooldown airstart times ranged from 53 sec at 250 knots to 170 sec at 175 knots. Jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted airstarts were conducted at 175 knots at two altitudes, and airstart times were 50 and 60 sec, significantly faster than unassisted airstart. The effect of altitude on airstarts was small. In addition, the airstart characteristics of the two test engines were found to closely resemble each other. The F100 EMD airstart characteristics were very similar to the DEEC equipped F100 engine tested previously. Finally, the time required to spool down from intermediate power compressor rotor speed to a given compressor rotor speed was found to be a strong function of altitude and a weaker function of airspeed.

  17. An Experimental Evaluation of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Aeroelastic Stability Augmentation in Airplane Mode of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Piatak, David J.; Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a joint NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter Textron wind-tunnel test to assess the potential of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in the airplane mode of flight are presented. GPC is an adaptive time-domain predictive control method that uses a linear difference equation to describe the input-output relationship of the system and to design the controller. The test was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using an unpowered 1/5-scale semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 that was modified to incorporate a GPC-based multi-input multi-output control algorithm to individually control each of the three swashplate actuators. Wing responses were used for feedback. The GPC-based control system was highly effective in increasing the stability of the critical wing mode for all of the conditions tested, without measurable degradation of the damping in the other modes. The algorithm was also robust with respect to its performance in adjusting to rapid changes in both the rotor speed and the tunnel airspeed.

  18. Techniques to improve maneuver stability characteristics of a nonlinear wide-body transport airplane in cruise flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    The maneuver control stability characteristics of an aircraft are a flying qualities parameter of critical importance, to ensure structural protection as well as adequate predictability to the pilot. Currently, however, maneuver stability characteristics are not uniquely addressed in the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 25, for transport aircraft. In past transport category certification programs, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has used a combination of requirements (longitudinal control, vibration and buffeting, high-speed characteristics, and out-of-trim characteristics) to ensure safe and controllable maneuver stability characteristics over a range of flight conditions and airplane configurations. Controversies exist regarding each of these regulations, however, and considerable expenditures in terms of design studies and testing time have resulted from the requirements. It is also recognized that additional engineering guidance is needed for identifying acceptable nonlinear maneuver stability characteristics, particularly as they relate to relaxed stability, highly augmented transport configurations. The current trend in large aircraft design is toward relaxed, or even negative, static margins for improved fuel efficiency. The advanced flight control systems developed for these aircraft, in many instances, have rendered current aforementioned maneuver stability criteria either too stringent or of little practical use. Current design requirements do not account for these advanced designs. The objective was to evaluate a broad spectrum of linear and nonlinear longitudinal stability characteristics to generate data for defining satisfactory and unacceptable maneuver characteristics, as defined by pilot opinion. Primary emphasis was placed on two techniques of varying column force per normal acceleration. This study was a joint venture with four pilots participating; one from NASA, one from the FAA, and two from industry.

  19. Exploring Venus by Solar Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    A solar-powered airplane is proposed to explore the atmospheric environment of Venus. Venus has several advantages for a solar airplane. At the top of the cloud level, the solar intensity is comparable to or greater than terrestrial solar intensities. The Earthlike atmospheric pressure means that the power required for flight is lower for Venus than that of Mars, and the slow rotation of Venus allows an airplane to be designed for continuous sunlight, with no energy storage needed for night-time flight. These factors mean that Venus is perhaps the easiest planet in the solar system for flight of a long-duration solar airplane.

  20. Flight Measurements of Flying Qualities of a P-47D-30 Airplane (AAF No. 43-3441) to Determine Longitudinal Stability and Control and Stalling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Christopher C., Jr.; Goranson, R. Fabien; Reeder, John P.

    1948-01-01

    Flight tests have been made to determine the longitudinal stability and control and stalling characteristics of the P-47.E-30 airplane. The teat results show the airplane to be unstable stick free in any power-on condition even at the most forward center-of-gravity position tested. At the rearward center-of-gravity position tested the airplane also had neutral to negative stick-fixed stability with power on. The characteristics in accelerated flight were acceptable at the forward center-of-gravity position at low and high altitudes except at high speed where the control-force variations with acceleration were high. At the rearward center-of-gravity position, elevator-force reversals were experienced in turns at low speeds, and the force per g was low at all the other speeds. Ample stall warning was afforded in all the conditions tested and the stalling characteristics were very satisfactory except in the approach and wave-off conditions.

  1. Results of Measurements of Maximum Lift and Buffeting Intensities Obtained During Flight Investigation of the Northrop X-4 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Thomas F

    1953-01-01

    The variation of the intensity of buffeting experienced throughout the operational region of the semitailless Northrop X-4 airplane and the values of maximum and peak normal-force coefficients in the Mach number range from 0.42 to 0.92 have been determined. The results are compared with data obtained with the swept-wing Douglas D-558-II airplane.

  2. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Test of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Zap Flap and Zap Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1937-01-01

    A wing equipped with a Zap flap and Zap ailerons was tested on a Fairchild 22 airplane in the full-scale wind tunnel and in flight to determine the effect of the flaps and ailerons on the performance and the control characteristics of the airplane. The flaps were 0.30 of the wing chord and 0.83 of the wing span. Two sets of ailerons having equal areas but different proportions were tested, one set being 0.56 of the semispan and 0.18 of the chord and the other set being 0.46 of the semispan and 0.22 of the chord. The wind-tunnel tests showed that, when the ailerons and horizontal tail surfaces were removed, the flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient from 1.48 to 2.39. In flight, the fully deflected flaps decreased the minimum speed from 48.2 to 38.8 miles per hour. The take-off and landing distances were both reduced by the flaps. The wind-tunnel tests showed the ailerons to increase the drag coefficient, at a lift coefficient and Reynolds Number corresponding to the high speed of the airplane, from 0.0432 to 0.0498 and 0.0514, the 0.46 semispan ailerons giving the highest drag. In the flight tests both sets of ailerons were found to give satisfactory rolling action in the normal-flight range. They required relatively large stick forces for their operation, however, and the variation of the forces with aileron deflection was not linear.

  3. Matrix methods for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives of an airplane from transient flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J

    1954-01-01

    Three matrice methods are developed and presented for determining the longitudinal-stability derivatives from transient flight data. In these methods the expressions for some of the stability derivatives are in the form generally used in stability calculations. The first method requires the combination of four measurements in time-history form, two of which must be incremental elevator deflection and incremental tail load and the other two measurements can be chosen from a possible three, namely incremental load factor, pitching velocity, and angle of attack. The method demonstrates the use of the tail load to separate the pitching-moment derivatives and to determine the downwash derivative. (author)

  4. Investigation of Boundary Layers on an Airplane Wing in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuper, J

    1934-01-01

    This report describes the equipment and method developed for recording the boundary layers on the surface of an airfoil in free flight. The results are in close agreement with the wind-tunnel tests of other experimenters. The intensity of the turbulent boundary layer, even at the much higher Reynolds Numbers reached, is determinable with Gruschwitz's formulas, although it was impossible to definitely establish a direct relationship between the turbulent boundary layer and the Reynolds Number within the limits of the obtained accuracy. The observations on the transition from laminar to turbulent flow check with previous wind-tunnel tests and calculations.

  5. In-flight measurement of propeller noise on the fuselage of an airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Ranaudo, Richard; Woodward, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    In-flight measurements of propeller noise on the fuselage of an OV-10A aircraft were obtained using a horizontal and a vertical microphone array. A wide range of flight conditions were tested including changes in angle of attack, sideslip angle, power coefficient, helical tip Mach number and advance ratio, and propeller direction of rotation. Results show a dependence of the level and directivity of the tones on the angle of attack and on the sideslip angle with the propeller direction of rotation, which is similar to results obtained in wind tunnel tests with advanced propeller designs. The level of the tones at each microphone increases with increasing angle of attack for inboard-down propeller rotation and decreases for inboard-up rotation. The level also increases with increasing slideslip angle for both propeller directions of rotation. Increasing the power coefficient results in a slight increase in the level of the tones. A strong shock wave is generated by the propeller blades even at relatively low helical tip Mach numbers resulting in high harmonic levels. As the helical tip Mach number and the advance ratio are increased, the level of the higher harmonics increases much faster than the level of the blade passage frequency.

  6. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a performance seeking control algorithm on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1992-01-01

    The subsonic flight test evaluation phase of the NASA F-15 (powered by F 100 engines) performance seeking control program was completed for single-engine operation at part- and military-power settings. The subsonic performance seeking control algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the propulsion system for three modes of operation. The minimum fuel flow mode minimizes fuel consumption. The minimum thrust mode maximizes thrust at military power. Decreases in thrust-specific fuel consumption of 1 to 2 percent were measured in the minimum fuel flow mode; these fuel savings are significant, especially for supersonic cruise aircraft. Decreases of up to approximately 100 degree R in fan turbine inlet temperature were measured in the minimum temperature mode. Temperature reductions of this magnitude would more than double turbine life if inlet temperature was the only life factor. Measured thrust increases of up to approximately 15 percent in the maximum thrust mode cause substantial increases in aircraft acceleration. The system dynamics of the closed-loop algorithm operation were good. The subsonic flight phase has validated the performance seeking control technology, which can significantly benefit the next generation of fighter and transport aircraft.

  7. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a performance seeking control algorithm on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1992-01-01

    The subsonic flight test evaluation phase of the NASA4 F-15 (powered by F100 engines) performance-seeking control program was completed for single-engine operation at part- and military-power settings. The subsonic performance-seeking control algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the propulsion system for three modes of operation: the minimum-fuel-flow mode, the minimum-temperature mode, and the maximum-thrust mode. Decreases in thrust-specific fuel consumption of 1 to 2 percent were measured in the minimum-fuel-flow mode; these fuel savings are significant especially for supersonic cruise aircraft. Decreases of up to approximately 100 R in fan turbine inlet temperature were measured in the minimum-temperature mode. Temperature reductions of this magnitude would more than double turbine life if inlet temperature was the only life factor. Measured thrust increases of up to approximately 15 percent in the maximum-thrust mode cause substantial increases in aircraft acceleration. The subsonic flight phase has validated the performance-seeking control technology which can significantly benefit the next generation of fighter and transport aircraft.

  8. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). Link to an amendment... an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (2... only in a flight simulator or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (3)...

  9. Flight-measured afterbody pressure coefficients from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet engines for Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.

    1979-01-01

    Afterbody pressure distribution data were obtained in flight from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet exhausts. The data were obtained in level flight at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.60 and at elevated load factors for Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20. The test altitude varied from 2300 meters (7500 feet) to 15,200 meters (50,000 feet) over a speed range that provided a matrix of constant Mach number and constant unit Reynolds number test conditions. The results of the full-scale flight afterbody pressure distribution program are presented in the form of plotted pressure distributions and tabulated pressure coefficients with Mach number, angle of attack, engine nozzle pressure ratio, and unit Reynolds number as controlled parameters.

  10. Pressure-Distribution Measurements on O-2H Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H A

    1937-01-01

    Results are given of pressure-distribution measurements made over two different horizontal tail surfaces and the right wing cellule, including the slipstream area, of an observation-type biplane. Measurements were also taken of air speed, control-surface positions, control-stick forces, angular velocities, and accelerations during various abrupt maneuvers. These maneuvers consisted of push-downs and pull-ups from level flight, dive pull-outs, and aileron rolls with various thrust conditions. The results from the pressure-distribution measurements over the wing cellule are given on charts showing the variation of individual rib coefficients with wing coefficients; the data from the tail-surface pressure-distribution measurements are given mainly as total loads and moments. These data are supplemented by time histories of the measured quantities and isometric views of the rib pressure distributions occurring in abrupt maneuvers.

  11. Comparison of flying qualities derived from in-flight and ground-based simulators for a jet-transport airplane for the approach and landing pilot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective was to provide information to the flight controls/flying qualities engineer that will assist him in determining the incremental flying qualities and/or pilot-performance differences that may be expected between results obtained via ground-based simulation (and, in particular, the six-degree-of-freedom Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS)) and flight tests. Pilot opinion and performance parameters derived from a ground-based simulator and an in-flight simulator are compared for a jet-transport airplane having 32 different longitudinal dynamic response characteristics. The primary pilot tasks were the approach and landing tasks with emphasis on the landing-flare task. The results indicate that, in general, flying qualities results obtained from the ground-based simulator may be considered conservative-especially when the pilot task requires tight pilot control as during the landing flare. The one exception to this, according to the present study, was that the pilots were more tolerant of large time delays in the airplane response on the ground-based simulator. The results also indicated that the ground-based simulator (particularly the Langley VMS) is not adequate for assessing pilot/vehicle performance capabilities (i.e., the sink rate performance for the landing-flare task when the pilot has little depth/height perception from the outside scene presentation).

  12. Low speed wind tunnel investigation of flight spoilers as trailing-vortex-alleviation devices on an extended-range wide body tri-jet airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.; Vogler, R. D.; Thelander, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine, by the trailing wing sensor technique, the effectiveness of various segments of the existing flight spoilers on an extended-range wide-body tri-jet transport airplane model when they were deflected as trailing-vortex-alleviation devices. On the transport model with the approach flap configuration, the four combinations of flight-spoiler segments investigated were effective in reducing the induced rolling moment on the trailing wing model by as much as 25 to 45 percent at downstream distances behind the transport model of 9.2 and 18.4 transport wing spans. On the transport airplane model with the landing flap configuration, the four combinations of flight-spoiler segments investigated were effective in reducing the induced rolling moment on the trailing wing model by as much as 35 to 60 percent at distances behind the transport model of from 3.7 to 18.4 transport wing spans, 18.4 spans being the downstream limit of distances used.

  13. Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boshar, John

    1947-01-01

    Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

  14. Results obtained during accelerated transonic tests of the Bell XS-1 airplane in flights to a Mach number of 0.92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Hubert M; Mclaughlin, Milton D; Goodman, Harold R

    1948-01-01

    Results are presented of tests up to a Mach number of 0.92 at altitudes around 30,000 feet. The data obtained show that the airplane can be flown to this Mach number above 30,000 feet. Longitudinal trim changes have been experienced but the forces involved have been small. The elevator effectiveness decreased about one-half with increase of Mach number from 0.70 to 0.87. Buffeting has been experienced in level flight but it has been mild and the associated tail loads have been small. No aileron buzz or other flutter phenomena have been noted.

  15. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control:In-Flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for the Space Launch System (SLS) has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of the launch vehicle's baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a potential manual steering mode were also investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority, which is the subject of this paper. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of 25 constant pitch rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control, evaluating six different nominal and off-nominal test case scenarios. Pilot comments and PIO ratings were given following each trajectory and correlated with aircraft state data and internal controller signals post-flight.

  16. Flight Test of a Propulsion-Based Emergency Control System on the MD-11 Airplane with Emphasis on the Lateral Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Feather, John; Goldthorpe, Steven; Kahler, Jeffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    A large, civilian, multi-engine transport MD-11 airplane control system was recently modified to perform as an emergency backup controller using engine thrust only. The emergency backup system, referred to as the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, would be used if a major primary flight control system fails. To allow for longitudinal and lateral-directional control, the PCA system requires at least two engines and is implemented through software modifications. A flight-test program was conducted to evaluate the PCA system high-altitude flying characteristics and to demonstrate its capacity to perform safe landings. The cruise flight conditions, several low approaches and one landing without any aerodynamic flight control surface movement, were demonstrated. This paper presents results that show satisfactory performance of the PCA system in the longitudinal axis. Test results indicate that the lateral-directional axis of the system performed well at high attitude but was sluggish and prone to thermal upsets during landing approaches. Flight-test experiences and test techniques are also discussed with emphasis on the lateral-directional axis because of the difficulties encountered in flight test.

  17. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of flight spoilers as trailing-vortex-alleviation devices on a medium range wide-body tri-jet airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.; Vogler, R. D.; Williams, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made in the V/STOL tunnel to determine, by the trailing wing sensor technique, the effectiveness of various segments of the existing flight spoilers on a medium range wide body tri-jet transport airplane model when they were deflected as trailing vortex alleviation devices. The four combinations of flight spoiler segments investigated were effective in reducing the induced rolling moment on the trailing wing model by as much as 15 to 60 percent at distances behind the transport model of from 3.9 to 19.6 transport wing spans, 19.6 spans being the downstream limit of distances used. Essentially all of the reduction in induced rolling moment on the trailing wing model was realized at a spoiler deflection of about 45 deg.

  18. A flight investigation of the stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vomaske, R. F.; Innis, R. C.; Swan, B. E.; Grossmith, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The stability, control, and handling qualities of an augmented jet flap STOL airplane are presented. The airplane is an extensively modified de Havilland Buffalo military transport. The modified airplane has two fan-jet engines which provide vectorable thrust and compressed air for the augmentor jet flap and Boundary-Layer Control (BLC). The augmentor and BLC air is cross ducted to minimize asymmetric moments produced when one engine is inoperative. The modifications incorporated in the airplane include a Stability Augmentation System (SAS), a powered elevator, and a powered lateral control system. The test gross weight of the airplane was between 165,000 and 209,000 N (37,000 and 47,000 lb). Stability, control, and handling qualities are presented for the airspeed range of 40 to 180 knots. The lateral-directional handling qualities are considered satisfactory for the normal operating range of 65 to 160 knots airspeed when the SAS is functioning. With the SAS inoperative, poor turn coordination and spiral instability are primary deficiencies contributing to marginal handling qualities in the landing approach. The powered elevator control system enhanced the controllability in pitch, particularly in the landing flare and stall recovery.

  19. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  20. 76 FR 8316 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... stability of the airplane. These systems include the GVI's flight control systems, autopilots, stability... special condition for airplanes equipped with flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation... before flight. Certain elements of the control system, such as mechanical and hydraulic components,...

  1. 76 FR 8319 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Roll Maneuver Requirement for Electronic Flight Controls AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system that provides roll control of the airplane through pilot inputs to the flight ] computers. These proposed special conditions...

  2. Safety in airplane flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunat, H

    1927-01-01

    This report presents methods to reduce the incidence of aviation accidents. Some of the methods discussed include enlistment and training of aviators, improvement of controls and control surfaces, and upgrading of power plants.

  3. Peak-Seeking Control For Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results For The Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed FA-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. This presentation also focuses on the design of the flight experiment and the practical challenges of conducting the experiment.

  4. Flight Tests of a Model of a High-wing Transport Vertical-take-off Airplane with Tilting Wing and Propellers and with Jet Controls at the Rear of the Fuselage for Pitch and Yaw Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Powell M , Jr; Parlett, Lysle P

    1957-01-01

    An investigation of the stability and control of a high-wing transport vertical-take-off airplane with four engines during constant-altitude transitions from hovering to normal forward flight was conducted with a remotely controlled free-flight model. The model had four propellers distributed along the wing with the thrust axes in the wing chord plane. The wing could be rotated to 90 degrees incidence so that the propeller thrust axes were vertical for hovering flight. An air jet at the rear of the fuselage provided pitch and yaw control for hovering and low-speed flight.

  5. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355 Airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section...

  6. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  7. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  8. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  9. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  10. 76 FR 64229 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Certificated Weight.'' (See 69 FR 5239, February 3, 2004.) In that notice, we announced our intention to.... (See 75 FR 50853, August 18, 2010.) This final rule will eliminate the need for issuing special...-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less.'' (See 75 FR 18134, April 9, 2010.) In that NPRM,...

  11. Simulator study of vortex encounters by a twin-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A simulator study of vortex encounters was conducted for a twin-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane encountering the vortex flow field of a heavy, four-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane in the final-approach configuration. The encounters were conducted with fixed controls and with a pilot using a state-of-the-art, manual-control system. Piloted encounters with the base-line vortex flow field out of ground effect (unattenuated) resulted in initial bank-angle excursions greater than 40 deg, coupled with initial sideslip-angle excursions greater than 10 deg. The severity of these initial upsets was significantly reduced when the vortex center was moved laterally or vertically away from the flight path of the encountering airplane. Smaller reductions occurred when the flow field was attenuated by the flight spoilers on the generating airplane. The largest reduction in the severity of the initial upsets, however, was from aging in ground effect. The severity of the initial upsets of the following airplane was relatively unaffected by the approach speed. Increasing the lift coefficient of the generating airplane resulted in an increase in the severity of the initial upsets.

  12. Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control During Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, less than 20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolith-ocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of post-flight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved

  13. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for the climb (or, for multiengine airplanes with negative one-engine-inoperative rates of climb, the descent) stage of flight. The airplane must be flown...

  14. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  15. 76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... the Federal Register on May 10, 2011 (76 FR 26949). No comments were received and the special...; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...

  16. 77 FR 57039 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller to the control surface... alerting. This special condition also addresses flight control system mode annunciation. It......

  17. 78 FR 14005 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... with pitch and roll limiting functions, specifically an electronic flight control system which contains... electronic flight control system that will provide speed stability for high and low pitch angles. These... following novel or unusual design feature: An electronic flight control system which contains...

  18. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... installation of an overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not... Electric GEnx-2B67 engines. The Model 747-8 will have two flight crew and the capacity to carry...

  19. 78 FR 31838 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 24, 2013 (78 FR 5148). No comments were received, and the...; Flight Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight...

  20. Flight investigation of stall, spin and recovery characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, T-tail light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. P., III; Dicarlo, D. J.; Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the stall, spin, and recovery characteristics of a four-place, low-wing, single-engine, T-tail, general aviation research airplane at an aft center-of-gravity position. Most stalls resulted in roll-offs. Spins were oscillatory in roll and pitch at 43 deg angle of attack; the magnitude of the oscillations was determined by aileron position. Power, flap deflection, and landing gear position did not affect the angle of attack to the spin. Antispin rudder followed by forward wheel with ailerons neutral produced the fastest and most consistent recoveries but the initial application of recovery controls did not always stop a spin.

  1. Structural response to discrete and continuous gusts of an airplane having wing bending flexibility and a correlation of calculated and flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, John C; Kordes, Eldon E

    1954-01-01

    An analysis is made of the structural response to gusts of an airplane having the degrees of freedom of vertical motion and wing bending flexibility and basic parameters are established. A convenient and accurate numerical solution of the response equations is developed for the case of discrete-gust encounter, an exact solution is made for the simpler case of continuous-sinusoidal-gust encounter, and the procedure is outlined for treating the more realistic condition of continuous random atmospheric turbulence, based on the methods of generalized harmonic analysis. Correlation studies between flight and calculated results are then given to evaluate the influence of wing bending flexibility on the structural response to gusts of two twin-engine transports and one four-engine bomber. It is shown that calculated results obtained by means of a discrete-gust approach reveal the general nature of the flexibility effects and lead to qualitative correlation with flight results. In contrast, calculations by means of the continuous-turbulence approach show good quantitative correlation with flight results and indicate a much greater degree of resolution of the flexibility effects.

  2. Life-critical digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwha, James

    1990-01-01

    Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.

  3. Design and evaluation of an integrated flight-control system concept for manual IFR VTOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated flight controller, display, and power management system design, suitable for all-weather VTOL flight operations onto small ships, is described. The flight controller uncouples the aircraft's translational and attitude motions, which are then commanded by the pilot, through separate controls. A head-up display provides situation and flight director information sufficient to permit zero-zero landings. The system was applied to a VTOL transport model and simulated on moving base simulators at Ames Research Center. Presented herein are results concerning the aircraft's general handling qualities and, in particular, its handling qualities during IFR landings onto a moving ship.

  4. Plot-flight user`s manual, version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Tenney, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    DOE contracted with Sandia to install a radar acquisition system (RAMS) to gather aircraft flight data near the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. To support this effort, data reduction tools were needed to help analyze the radar data. Plot-flight is one of several data reduction tools that comprise the Sandia Airspace Recording System (SARS). The radar data is needed to support the Pantex Environmental Impact Study. Plot-flight is a DOS-based plot program that allows analysts to replay pre-recorded air traffic over Albuquerque and Amarillo. The program is flexible enough to permit replay of daily flights either sequentially, by range, or by Beacon ID. In addition to replay, the program is setup for data entry. Analysts can correlate electronic aircraft flight data to the green strip flights logs obtained from the local air traffic control center. The green strips are used by air traffic controllers to record each scheduled flight. The green strips have information not available electronically such as aircraft type and aircraft ID. This type of information is necessary to accommodate the current models used in aircraft crash analysis. Plot-flight correlates the hand-written information from the green strips to the recorded aircraft flight.

  5. A flight test investigation of the rolling moments induced on a T-37B airplane in the wake of a B-747 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A flight test investigation of the B-747 vortex wake characteristics was conducted using a T-37B as a probe aircraft. The primary purpose of the program was the validation of the results of B-747 model tests which predicted significant alleviation of the vortex strength when only the inboard flaps were deflected. Measurements of the vortex-induced rolling moments of the probe aircraft showed that the predicted alleviation did occur. The effects of landing gear extension, increased lift coefficient, idle thrust, and sideslip were investigated, and all had an adverse effect on the alleviated condition as evidenced by increased induced rolling moments of the T-37B probe aircraft. Idle thrust also increased the strength of the B-747 wake vortexes with both inboard and outboard flaps extended.

  6. Development of automatic and manual flight director landing systems for the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in helicopter mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Hoh, R. H.; Jewell, W. F.; Teper, G. L.; Patel, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine IFR approach path and touchdown dispersions for manual and automatic XV-15 tilt rotor landings, and to develop missed approach criteria. Only helicopter mode XV-15 operation is considered. The analysis and design sections develop the automatic and flight director guidance equations for decelerating curved and straight-in approaches into a typical VTOL landing site equipped with an MLS navigation aid. These system designs satisfy all known pilot-centered, guidance and control requirements for this flying task. Performance data, obtained from nonstationary covariance propagation dispersion analysis for the system, are used to develop the approach monitoring criteria. The autoland and flight director guidance equations are programmed for the VSTOLAND 1819B digital computer. The system design dispersion data developed through analysis and the 1819B digital computer program are verified and refined using the fixed-base, man-in-the-loop XV-15 VSTOLAND simulation.

  7. Flight dynamics analysis and simulation of heavy lift airships. Volume 5: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Emmen, R. D.; Ashkenas, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Programmer's Manual contains explanations of the logic embodied in the various program modules, a dictionary of program variables, a subroutine listing, subroutine/common block/cross reference listing, and a calling/called subroutine cross reference listing.

  8. Flight dynamics analysis and simulation of heavy lift airships. Volume 3: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmen, R. D.; Tischler, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    The User's Manual provides the basic information necessary to run the programs. This includes descriptions of the various data files necessary for the program, the various outputs from the program and the options available to the user when executing the program. Additional data file information is contained in the three appendices to the manual. These appendices list all input variables and their permissible values, an example listing of these variables, and all output variables available to the user.

  9. 14 CFR 121.413 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flight simulator, or in a flight training device. This paragraph applies after March 19, 1997. (b) The... to the airplane to which the check airman is in transaction. (e) The initial and transition flight training for pilot check airmen (airplane), flight engineer check airmen (airplane), and flight...

  10. 78 FR 76980 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... stability of the airplane. Such systems include flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation... these special conditions for airplanes equipped with flight control systems, autopilots, stability... before flight. Certain elements of the control system, such as mechanical and hydraulic components,...

  11. 78 FR 68775 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo...; Composite Fuselage In-Flight Fire/Flammability Resistance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... associated with the in-flight fire and flammability resistance of the composite fuselage. Experience...

  12. 77 FR 69569 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... the normal modes of the electronic flight control system that will provide speed stability for high... feature associated with pitch and roll limiting functions, specifically an electronic flight control system which contains fly-by- wire control laws, including envelope protections. The...

  13. 78 FR 76249 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http...; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal Load Factor (g) Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... feature(s) associated with a flight control system that prevents the pilot from inadvertently...

  14. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background...; Flight Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...(s), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which...

  15. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  16. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  17. TRENDS: A flight test relational database user's guide and reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondi, M. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Cross, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is designed to be a user's guide and reference manual for users intending to access rotocraft test data via TRENDS, the relational database system which was developed as a tool for the aeronautical engineer with no programming background. This report has been written to assist novice and experienced TRENDS users. TRENDS is a complete system for retrieving, searching, and analyzing both numerical and narrative data, and for displaying time history and statistical data in graphical and numerical formats. This manual provides a 'guided tour' and a 'user's guide' for the new and intermediate-skilled users. Examples for the use of each menu item within TRENDS is provided in the Menu Reference section of the manual, including full coverage for TIMEHIST, one of the key tools. This manual is written around the XV-15 Tilt Rotor database, but does include an appendix on the UH-60 Blackhawk database. This user's guide and reference manual establishes a referrable source for the research community and augments NASA TM-101025, TRENDS: The Aeronautical Post-Test, Database Management System, Jan. 1990, written by the same authors.

  18. LANDSAT-D flight segment operations manual. Appendix B: OBC software operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talipsky, R.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT 4 satellite contains two NASA standard spacecraft computers and 65,536 words of memory. Onboard computer software is divided into flight executive and applications processors. Both applications processors and the flight executive use one or more of 67 system tables to obtain variables, constants, and software flags. Output from the software for monitoring operation is via 49 OBC telemetry reports subcommutated in the spacecraft telemetry. Information is provided about the flight software as it is used to control the various spacecraft operations and interpret operational OBC telemetry. Processor function descriptions, processor operation, software constraints, processor system tables, processor telemetry, and processor flow charts are presented.

  19. A Flight Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability Characteristics Associated with the Pitch-up of a Swept-Wing Airplane in Maneuvering Flight at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Seth B; Bray, Richard S

    1955-01-01

    This report presents the results of flight measurements of longitudinal stability and control characteristics made on a swept-wing jet aircraft to determine the origin of the pitch-up encountered in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds. For this purpose measurements were made of elevator angle, tail angle of attack, and wing-fuselage pitching moments (obtained from measurements of the balancing tail loads).

  20. Flight dynamics analysis and simulation of heavy lift airships. Volume 2: Technical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Emmen, R. D.; Ashkenas, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical models embodied in the simulation are described in considerable detail and with supporting evidence for the model forms chosen. In addition the trimming and linearization algorithms used in the simulation are described. Appendices to the manual identify reference material for estimating the needed coefficients for the input data and provide example simulation results.

  1. Emergency Flight Control of a Twin-Jet Commercial Aircraft using Manual Throttle Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Cogan, Bruce R.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Burken, John J.; Venti, Michael W.; Burcham, Frank W.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) created the PCAR (Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Recovery) project in 2005 to mitigate the ManPADS (man-portable air defense systems) threat to the commercial aircraft fleet with near-term, low-cost proven technology. Such an attack could potentially cause a major FCS (flight control system) malfunction or other critical system failure onboard the aircraft, despite the extreme reliability of current systems. For the situations in which nominal flight controls are lost or degraded, engine thrust may be the only remaining means for emergency flight control [ref 1]. A computer-controlled thrust system, known as propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA), was developed in the mid 1990s with NASA, McDonnell Douglas and Honeywell. PCA's major accomplishment was a demonstration of an automatic landing capability using only engine thrust [ref 11. Despite these promising results, no production aircraft have been equipped with a PCA system, due primarily to the modifications required for implementation. A minimally invasive option is TOC (throttles-only control), which uses the same control principles as PCA, but requires absolutely no hardware, software or other aircraft modifications. TOC is pure piloting technique, and has historically been utilized several times by flight crews, both military and civilian, in emergency situations stemming from a loss of conventional control. Since the 1990s, engineers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) have studied TOC, in both simulation and flight, for emergency flight control with test pilots in numerous configurations. In general, it was shown that TOC was effective on certain aircraft for making a survivable landing. DHS sponsored both NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, CA) and United Airlines (Denver, Colorado) to conduct a flight and simulation study of the TOC characteristics of a twin-jet commercial transport, and assess the ability of a crew to control an aircraft down to

  2. Wind-tunnel and Flight Investigations of the Use of Leading-Edge Area Suction for the Purpose of Increasing the Maximum Lift Coefficient of a 35 Degree Swept-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzhauser, Curt A; Bray, Richard S

    1956-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the increase in maximum lift coefficient that could be obtained by applying area suction near the leading edge of a wing. This investigation was performed first with a 35 degree swept-wing model in the wind tunnel, and then with an operational 35 degree swept-wing airplane which was modified in accord with the wind-tunnel results. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that the maximum lift coefficient was increased more than 50 percent by the use of area suction. Good agreement was obtained in the comparison of the wind-tunnel results with those measured in flight.

  3. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of..., to conduct flight checks or instruction in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (2) A check airman (simulator) is a person who is...

  4. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of..., to conduct flight checks or instruction in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (2) A check airman (simulator) is a person who is...

  5. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of..., to conduct flight checks or instruction in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type airplane. (2) A check airman (simulator) is a person who is...

  6. Flight evaluation of a simplified gross thrust calculation technique using an F100 turbofan engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtenbach, F. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust calculation technique was evaluated in flight tests on an F-15 aircraft using prototype F100-PW-100 engines. The technique relies on afterburner duct pressure measurements and empirical corrections to an ideal one-dimensional analysis to determine thrust. In-flight gross thrust calculated by the simplified method is compared to gross thrust calculated by the engine manufacturer's gas generator model. The evaluation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.5 and at altitudes from 6000 meters to 13,700 meters. The flight evaluation shows that the simplified gross thrust method and the gas generator method agreed within plus or minus 3 percent. The discrepancies between the data generally fell within an uncertainty band derived from instrumentation errors and recording system resolution.

  7. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... taking off or landing a helicopter certificated under part 29 of this chapter at a heliport constructed... range of the limiting height-speed envelope established for the helicopter if that flight through the prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter...

  8. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... taking off or landing a helicopter certificated under part 29 of this chapter at a heliport constructed... range of the limiting height-speed envelope established for the helicopter if that flight through the prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter...

  9. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... taking off or landing a helicopter certificated under part 29 of this chapter at a heliport constructed... range of the limiting height-speed envelope established for the helicopter if that flight through the prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter...

  10. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... taking off or landing a helicopter certificated under part 29 of this chapter at a heliport constructed... range of the limiting height-speed envelope established for the helicopter if that flight through the prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter...

  11. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... taking off or landing a helicopter certificated under part 29 of this chapter at a heliport constructed... range of the limiting height-speed envelope established for the helicopter if that flight through the prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter...

  12. In-flight and wind tunnel leading-edge vortex study on the F-106B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The vapor screen technique was successfully applied to an F-106B fighter aircraft during subsonic and transonic maneuvers. This system has allowed the viewing of multiple vortex systems on the wing upper surface at angles of attack less than 19 deg. In addition, similarities as well as differences were determined to exist between the vortex systems for a full scale semispan model and the flight vehicle at 20 deg incidence. Furthermore, variations in Reynolds number and Mach number were identified as to how they affect vortex system details at flight conditions.

  13. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  14. 77 FR 69572 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http...; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... inadvertently or intentionally exceeding a speed approximately equivalent to V FC or attaining V DF ....

  15. An Evaluation of an Analytical Simulation of an Airplane with Tailplane Icing by Comparison to Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltner, Dale W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the assessment of an analytical tool developed as part of the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program. The analytical tool is a specialized simulation program called TAILSM4 which was developed to model the effects of tailplane icing on the flight dynamics Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. This report compares the responses of the TAILSIM program directly to flight test data. The comparisons should be useful to potential users of TAILSIM. The comparisons show that the TAILSIM program qualitatively duplicates the flight test aircraft response during maneuvers with ice on the tailplane. TAILSIM is shown to be quantitatively "in the ballpark" in predicting when Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall will occur during pushover and thrust transition maneuvers. As such, TAILSIM proved its usefulness to the flight test program by providing a general indication of the aircraft configuration and flight conditions of concern. The aircraft dynamics are shown to be modeled correctly by the equations of motion used in TAILSIM. However, the general accuracy of the TAILSIM responses is shown to be less than desired primarily due to inaccuracies in the aircraft database. The high sensitivity of the TAILSIM program responses to small changes in load factor command input is also shown to be a factor in the accuracy of the responses. A pilot model is shown to allow TAILSIM to produce more accurate responses and contribute significantly to the usefulness of the program. Suggestions to improve the accuracy of the TAILSIM responses are to further refine the database representation of the aircraft aerodynamics and tailplane flowfield and to explore a more realistic definition of the pilot model.

  16. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Unified Stability System (USS). Description and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.; Behbehani, Roxanna

    1990-01-01

    NASA initiated the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) to establish a boundary layer transition database for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper surface gloves were fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The development of an improved laminar boundary layer stability analysis system called the Unified Stability System (USS) is documented and results of its use on the VSTFE flight data are shown. The USS consists of eight computer codes. The theoretical background of the system is described, as is the input, output, and usage hints. The USS is capable of analyzing boundary layer stability over a wide range of disturbance frequencies and orientations, making it possible to use different philosophies in calculating the growth of disturbances on sweptwings.

  17. Using Engine Thrust for Emergency Flight Control: MD-11 and B-747 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Bull, John

    1998-01-01

    With modern digital control systems, using engine thrust for emergency flight control to supplement or replace failed aircraft normal flight controls has become a practical consideration. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control. An F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight control surfaces. Preliminary studies have also been conducted that show that engines on only one wing can provide some flight control capability if the lateral center of gravity can be shifted toward the side of the airplane that has the operating engine(s). Simulator tests of several airplanes with no flight control surfaces operating and all engines out on the left wing have all shown positive control capability within the available range of lateral center-of-gravity offset. Propulsion-controlled aircraft systems that can operate without modifications to engine control systems, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at low cost, are also desirable. Further studies have examined simplified 'PCA Lite' and 'PCA Ultralite' concepts in which thrust control is provided by existing systems such as auto-throttles or a combination of existing systems and manual pilot control.

  18. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accomplished either inflight, in an airplane simulator, or in a training device. (2) A flight check that... an airplane simulator, or in a training device. Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot... utilizing an airplane simulator or other training device under § 121.409(c), each flight engineer...

  19. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accomplished either inflight, in an airplane simulator, or in a training device. (2) A flight check that... an airplane simulator, or in a training device. Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot... utilizing an airplane simulator or other training device under § 121.409(c), each flight engineer...

  20. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accomplished either inflight, in an airplane simulator, or in a training device. (2) A flight check that... an airplane simulator, or in a training device. Flight engineers possessing a commercial pilot... utilizing an airplane simulator or other training device under § 121.409(c), each flight engineer...

  1. Research in lightning swept-stroke attachment patterns and flight conditions with the NASA F-106B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Brown, P. W.; Plumer, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Data on 637 direct lightning strikes and 117 close flashes observed by the NASA instrumented F-106B aircraft as part of the Storm Hazards Program at NASA Langley during 1980-1984 are compiled and analyzed, updating the report of Fisher and Plumer (1983). The airborne and ground-based measurement and recording apparatus and the flight and data-reduction procedures are described, and the results are discussed in terms of lightning-strike-conducive flight conditions and lightning attachment patterns. A peak strike rate of 2.1/min is found at altitude 38,000-40,000 ft and temperature below -40 C, with very few strikes below 20,000 ft. Four categories of swept-flash attachment pattern are identified, but it is pointed out that all exterior surfaces of the F-106B are potential attachment sites.

  2. Reference manual for the Langley Research Center flight simulation computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, J. I., II; Crawford, D. J.; Rowell, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    The researchers at the Langley Research Center Flight Simulation Computing System are provided with an advanced real-time digital simulation capability. This capability is controlled at the user interface level by the Real Time Simulation Supervisor. The Supervisor is a group of subprograms loaded with a simulation application program. The Supervisor provides the interface between the application program and the operating system, and coordinates input and output to and from the simulation hardware. The Supervisor also performs various utility functions as required by a simulation application program.

  3. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  4. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane can be safely controlled in flight after an engine becomes inoperative) or 115 percent of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance...

  5. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  6. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  7. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  8. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  9. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  10. Flight Test Analysis of the Forces and Moments Imparted on a B737-100 Airplane During Wake Vortex Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Chistopher L.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft travel has become a major form of transportation. Several of our major airports are operating near their capacity limit, increasing congestion and delays for travelers. As a result, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been working in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airline operators, and the airline industry to increase airport capacity without sacrificing public safety. One solution to the problem is to increase the number of airports and build new. runways; yet, this solution is becoming increasingly difficult due to limited space. A better solution is to increase the production per runway. This solution increases the possibility that one aircraft will encounter the trailing wake of another aircraft. Hazardous wake vortex encounters occur when an aircraft encounters the wake produced by a heavier aircraft. This heavy-load aircraft produces high-intensity wake turbulence that redistributes the aerodynamic loads of trailing smaller aircraft. This situation is particularly hazardous for smaller aircraft during takeoffs and landings. In order to gain a better understanding of the wake-vortex/aircraft encounter phenomena, NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of flight tests from 1995 through 1997. These tests were designed to gather data for the development a wake encounter and wake-measurement data set with the accompanying atmospheric state information. This data set is being compiled into a database that can be used by wake vortex researchers to compare with experimental and computational results. The purpose of this research is to derive and implement a procedure for calculating the wake-vortex/aircraft interaction portion of that database by using the data recorded during those flight tests. There were three objectives to this research. Initially, the wake-induced forces and moments from each flight were analyzed based on varying flap deflection angles. The flap setting alternated between 15

  11. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  12. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  13. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  14. Flight measured and calculated exhaust jet conditions for an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Francisco J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust jet conditions, in terms of temperature and Mach number, were determined for a nozzle-aft end acoustic study flown on an F-15 aircraft. Jet properties for the F100 EMD engines were calculated using the engine manufacturer's specification deck. The effects of atmospheric temperature on jet Mach number, M10, were calculated. Values of turbine discharge pressure, PT6M, jet Mach number, and jet temperature were calculated as a function of aircraft Mach number, altitude, and power lever angle for the test day conditions. At a typical test point with a Mach number of 0.9, intermediate power setting, and an altitude of 20,000 ft, M10 was equal to 1.63. Flight measured and calculated values of PT6M were compared for intermediate power at altitudes of 15500, 20500, and 31000 ft. It was found that at 31000 ft, there was excellent agreement between both, but for lower altitudes the specification deck overpredicted the flight data. The calculated jet Mach numbers were believed to be accurate to within 2 percent.

  15. Flight-measured buffet characteristics of a supercritical wing and a conventional wing on a variable-sweep airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Windup-turn maneuvers were performed to assess the buffet characteristics of the F-111A aircraft and the same aircraft with a supercritical wing, which is referred to as the F-111 transonic aircraft technology (TACT) aircraft. Data were gathered at wing sweep angles of 26, 35, and 58 deg for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.95. Wingtip accelerometer data were the primary source of buffet information. The analysis was supported by wing strain-gage and pressure data taken in flight, and by oil-flow photographs taken during tests of a wind tunnel model. In the transonic speed range, the overall buffet characteristics of the aircraft having a supercritical wing are significantly improved over those of the aircraft having a conventional wing.

  16. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered...

  17. Comparison of the Drag of a Fin-Stabilized Body of Revolution and of a Complete Airplane Configuration as Obtained at Transonic Speeds in a Slotted Wind Tunnel and in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Robert R.; Braslow, Albert L.

    1955-01-01

    A comparison of the zero-lift drag coefficients at Mach numbers from 0.81 to 1.41 of a fin-stabilized parabolic body of revolution as measured in the Langley transonic blowdown tunnel has been made with measurements obtained in free-flight on a larger but geometrically similar model. The absolute values of drag coefficient obtained in the slotted wind tunnel were equivalent to the free-flight drag-coefficient values up to a Mach number of 1.4 when adjustments were made for the effect on viscous drag of differences in Reynolds number between the two test conditions. Excellent agreement was obtained between the two tests for the pressure-drag variation with Mach number, regardless of whether the scale effect on skin friction was considered. Favorable agreement was also obtained between the pressure-drag increments due t o the presence of the stabilizing fins as determined in the wine tunnel from fins-on and fins-off tests and as obtained by a different method in free flight. Tests of a specific airplane configuration to obtain an indication of the problems involved in the construction and tests of small-scale (approximately 7-inch span) complete airplane configuration with internal air flow indicated that reliable zero-lift drag-coefficient measurements at Mach numbers up to 1.4 can be attained with such models, provided the model is constructed with a high but not an unreasonable degree of accuracy.

  18. Takeoff certification considerations for large subsonic and supersonic transport airplanes using the Ames flight simulator for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Fry, E. B.; Forrest, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Data for use in development of takeoff airworthiness standards for new aircraft designs such as the supersonic transport (SST) and the large wide-body subsonic jet transport are provided. An advanced motion simulator was used to compare the performance and handling characteristics of three representative large jet transports during specific flight certification tasks. Existing regulatory constraints and methods for determining rotation speed were reviewed, and the effects on takeoff performance of variations in rotation speed, pitch attitude, and pitch attitude rate during the rotation maneuver were analyzed. A limited quantity of refused takeoff information was obtained. The aerodynamics, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio of the subject SST resulted in takeoff speeds limited by climb (rather than lift-off) considerations. Take-off speeds based on U.S. subsonic transport requirements were found unacceptable because of the criticality of rotation-abuse effects on one-engine-inoperative climb performance. Adequate safety margin was provided by takeoff speeds based on proposed Anglo-French supersonic transport (TSS) criteria, with the limiting criterion being that takeoff safety speed be at least 1.15 times the one-engine-inoperative zero-rate-of-climb speed. Various observations related to SST certification are presented.

  19. 78 FR 75287 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... primary cockpit displays. The dimension of the airplanes encompass a wingspan of 115 feet; a height of...

  20. 78 FR 75285 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background... includes five landscape primary cockpit displays. The dimension of the airplanes encompass a wingspan...

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane from Tests of an Unballasted 1/5-Scale Model in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Johnson, Joseph L.

    1947-01-01

    At the request of the Air Material Command, Army Air Forces an investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 airplane is being conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The XP-85 airplane is a jet propelled, parasite fighter with a 34 deg sweepback at the wing quarter chord. It was designed to be carried in a bomb bay of the B-36 air plane. The first portion of the investigation consists of a preliminary evaluation of the stability and control characteristics of the airplane from force and fight tests of an unballasted 1/5-scale model. The second portion of the investigation consists of test of a properly balasted 1/10-scale model which will include a study of the stability of the Xp-85 when attached to the trapeze for retraction into the B-36 bomb bay. The results of the preliminary test with the 1/5-scale model are presented herein. This portion fo the investigation included tests of the model with various center fin arrangements. Both the design nose flap and a stall control vane were investigated.

  2. 78 FR 14469 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... in depressurization of the airplane in flight. Actions Since Existing AD (75 FR 61337, October 5... inspections to find cracking of the web, strap, inner chords, inner chord angle of the forward edge frame of... the adjacent body structure and could result in depressurization of the airplane in flight. DATES:...

  3. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  4. The Behavior of Conventional Airplanes in Situations Thought to Lead to Most Crashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1931-01-01

    Simple flight tests were made on ten conventional airplanes for the purpose of determining their action in the following two situations, which are generally thought to precede and lead to a large proportion of airplane crashes.

  5. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) When operating at flight altitudes above flight level 250, one pilot at the controls of the airplane... station at the controls of the airplane when operating at flight altitudes above flight level 250, the... in the event of cabin pressurization failure. (b) Crewmembers. When operating at flight...

  6. Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel, TED No. NACA DE306

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, John W.; Hewes, Donald E.

    1948-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, a stability and control investigation of a 1/10-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane has been conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. Results of force end flight tests to determine the power-off stability and control characteristics of the model with slats retracted and extended are presented herein. The longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics were satisfactory for both the slats retracted and extended conditions over the lift range up to the stall. With the slats retracted, the stall was fairly gentle but the model rolled off out of control. With the slats extended, control could be maintained at the stall so that the wings could be kept level even as the model dropped.

  7. Quantifying and scaling airplane performance in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Johnhenri R.

    This dissertation studies the effects of turbulent wind on airplane airspeed and normal load factor, determining how these effects scale with airplane size and developing envelopes to account for them. The results have applications in design and control of aircraft, especially small scale aircraft, for robustness with respect to turbulence. Using linearized airplane dynamics and the Dryden gust model, this dissertation presents analytical and numerical scaling laws for airplane performance in gusts, safety margins that guarantee, with specified probability, that steady flight can be maintained when stochastic wind gusts act upon an airplane, and envelopes to visualize these safety margins. Presented here for the first time are scaling laws for the phugoid natural frequency, phugoid damping ratio, airspeed variance in turbulence, and flight path angle variance in turbulence. The results show that small aircraft are more susceptible to high frequency gusts, that the phugoid damping ratio does not depend directly on airplane size, that the airspeed and flight path angle variances can be parameterized by the ratio of the phugoid natural frequency to a characteristic turbulence frequency, and that the coefficient of variation of the airspeed decreases with increasing airplane size. Accompanying numerical examples validate the results using eleven different airplanes models, focusing on NASA's hypothetical Boeing 757 analog the Generic Transport Model and its operational 5.5% scale model, the NASA T2. Also presented here for the first time are stationary flight, where the flight state is a stationary random process, and the stationary flight envelope, an adjusted steady flight envelope to visualize safety margins for stationary flight. The dissertation shows that driving the linearized airplane equations of motion with stationary, stochastic gusts results in stationary flight. It also shows how feedback control can enlarge the stationary flight envelope by alleviating

  8. Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-airplane lasercom experiment: Airplane considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, Ford

    1990-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of various airplanes for a Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-Airplane laser communications experiment. As supporting documentation, pertinent technical details are included about the potential use of airplanes located at Ames Research Center and Wallops Flight Facility. The effects and application of orbital mechanics considerations are also presented, including slant range, azimuth, elevation, and time. The pros and cons of an airplane equipped with a side port with a bubble window versus a top port with a dome are discussed.

  9. 14 CFR 121.391 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight attendants. 121.391 Section 121.391..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.391 Flight attendants. Link... least the following flight attendants on each passenger-carrying airplane used: (1) For airplanes...

  10. Flight Determination of the Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of a 0.133-Scale Rocket-Powered Model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 Airplane without Propellers at Mach Numbers from 0.73 to 1.19, TED No. NACA DE 369

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Earl E., Jr.; Mitcham, Grady L.

    1954-01-01

    A flight test has been conducted to determine the longitudinal stability and control,characteristics of a 0.133-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XFY-1 airplane without propellers for the Mach number range between 0.73 and 1.19.

  11. 78 FR 68352 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., before further flight, replace all four forward engine mount bolts and associated nuts, on the engine... inspection interval for certain pylon bolts must be reduced. This AD requires a torque check of forward... broken bolts, which could lead to engine detachment in-flight, and damage to the airplane. DATES: This...

  12. 78 FR 44871 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...., Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), of Section 03-06, Emergency Procedures--Automatic Flight Control... (Regional Jet Series 700, 701, & 702) airplanes: Procedure 1., Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), of Section 03-06, Emergency Procedures-- Automatic Flight Control System, of Chapter 3, Emergency......

  13. 78 FR 6254 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... feed manifold air pressure leak check procedure specified in airplane maintenance manual (AMM) 28- 22... 737-400 airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of... Federal Register on June 6, 2008 (73 FR 32258). That NPRM proposed to require repetitive operational...

  14. ZAG-Otolith: Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control during Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, <20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolithocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of postflight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual

  15. 14 CFR 121.413 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). 121.413 Section 121.413... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). (a) No certificate holder may use... accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device....

  16. 14 CFR 121.413 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). 121.413 Section 121.413... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). (a) No certificate holder may use... accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device....

  17. 14 CFR 121.413 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). 121.413 Section 121.413... checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen (simulator). (a) No certificate holder may use... accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device....

  18. 76 FR 30043 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 757 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... adjustment test of the re-located control wheel position sensor, and an operational test of the flight data recorder and the digital flight data acquisition unit. AD 2006-23-15 also requires installing vortex... in loss of lateral control of the airplane, and consequent airplane damage or injury to flight...

  19. Drag and Longitudinal Trim at Low Lift of the North American YF-100A Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.76 to 1.77 as Determined from the Flight Test of a 0.11-Scale Rocket Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Willard S.

    1953-01-01

    Drag and longitudinal trim at low lift of the North American YF-100A airplane at Mach numbers from 0.76 to 1.77 as determined from the flight test of a 0.11-scale rocket model are presented herein. Also included are some longitudinal stability and some qualitative pitch-damping data. The subsonic external-drag-coefficient level was about 0.012, and the supersonic level was about 0.043. The drag rise occurred at a Mach number of 0.95. The longitudinal trim change at low lift consisted basically of a mild nose-up tendency at a Mach number of 0.90. An indication of wing flutter was present at Mach numbers from 0.95 to 1.11. However, the full-scale airplane wing has approximately twice the scaled first-bending frequency as the model tested and, hence, will probably be free of this type of flutter. The aerodynamic-center location was 71 percent behind the leading edge of the mean aerodynamic chord at a Mach number of 1.03 and 62 percent at a Mach number of 1.74. Qualitative measurement of damping in pitch indicates that at low lift coefficients damping will be low at a Mach number of 1.03.

  20. Measurements in Flight of the Pressure Distribution on the Right Wing of a Pursuit-Type Airplane at Several Values of Mach Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clousing, Lawrence A; Turner, William N; Rolls, L Stewart

    1946-01-01

    Pressure-distribution measurements were made on the right wing of a pursuit-type airplane at values of Mach number up to 0.80. The results showed that a considerable portion of the lift was carried by components of the airplane other than the wings, and that the proportion of lift carried by the wings may vary considerably with Mach number, thus changing the bending moment at the wing root whether or not there is a shift in the lateral position of the center of pressure. It was also shown that the center of pressure does not necessarily move outward at high Mach numbers, even though the wing-thickness ratio decreases toward the wing tip. The wing pitching-moment coefficient increased sharply in a negative direction at a Mach lift-curve slope increased with Mach number up to values of above the critical value. Pressures inside the wing were small and negative.

  1. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Model of the Lockheed YP-80A Airplane Including Correlation with Flight Tests and Tests of Dive-Recovery Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.; Gray, Lyle J.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.

  2. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  3. Simulator evaluation of display concepts for pilot monitoring and control of space shuttle approach and landing. Phase 2: Manual flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartner, W. B.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the display requirements for final approach management of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle is presented. An experimental display concept, providing a more direct, pictorial representation of the vehicle's movement relative to the selected approach path and aiming points, was developed and assessed as an aid to manual flight path control. Both head-up, windshield projections and head-down, panel mounted presentations of the experimental display were evaluated in a series of simulated orbiter approach sequence. Data obtained indicate that the experimental display would enable orbiter pilots to exercise greater flexibility in implementing alternative final approach control strategies. Touchdown position and airspeed dispersion criteria were satisfied on 91 percent of the approach sequences, representing various profile and wind effect conditions. Flight path control and airspeed management satisfied operationally-relevant criteria for the two-segment, power-off orbiter approach and were consistently more accurate and less variable when the full set of experimental display elements was available to the pilot. Approach control tended to be more precise when the head-up display was used; however, the data also indicate that the head-down display would provide adequate support for the manual control task.

  4. Pilot Transition Courses for Complex Single-Engine and Light Twin-Engine Airplanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication is intended for use by certificated airplane pilots and provides transitional knowledge and skills for more complex single-engine or light twin-engine airplanes. The training should be conducted by a competent flight instructor certified in the class of airplane and familiar with the make and model. A syllabus outline of ground…

  5. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered... negative one-engine-inoperative rates of climb, the descent) stage of flight. The airplane must be flown...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered... negative one-engine-inoperative rates of climb, the descent) stage of flight. The airplane must be flown...

  7. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 67836, Nov. 12, 2013. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device... training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator or other training device may be approved...

  8. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  9. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  10. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  11. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  12. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  13. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  14. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  15. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  16. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... take off that airplane at a weight greater than the weight that would allow the airplane to be brought... reaching 105 percent of minimum control speed (the minimum speed at which an airplane can be safely controlled in flight after an engine becomes inoperative) or 115 percent of the power off stalling speed...

  17. 14 CFR 125.375 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes. 125.375 Section 125.375 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.375 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes....

  18. 14 CFR 125.375 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes. 125.375 Section 125.375 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.375 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes....

  19. Summary of V-G and VGH Data Collected on Lockheed Electra Airplanes During Airplane Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Fetner, Mary W.

    1961-01-01

    Data obtained by NASA VGH and V-G recorders on several Lockheed Electra airplanes operated over three domestic routes have been analyzed to determine the in-flight accelerations, airspeed practices, and landing accelerations experienced by this particular airplane. The results indicate that the accelerations caused by gusts and maneuvers are comparable to corresponding results for piston-engine transport airplanes. Oscillatory accelerations (apparently caused by the autopilot or control system) appear to occur about one-tenth as frequently as accelerations due to gusts. Airspeed operating practices in rough air generally follow the trends shown by piston-engine transports in that there is no significant difference between the average airspeed in rough or smooth air. Placard speeds were exceeded more frequently by the Electra airplane than by piston-engine transport airplanes. Generally, the landing-impact accelerations were higher than those for piston-engine transports.

  20. Clear Skies and Grey Areas: Flight Attendants’ Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Policy 25 Years since Smoking was Banned on Airplanes

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Frances A.; Soong, Andrea; Zheng, Laura Y.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to provide descriptive data on flight attendant secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the work environment, and to examine attitudes toward SHS exposure, personal health, and smoke-free policy in the workplace and public places. Flight attendants completed a web-based survey of self-reported SHS exposure and air quality in the work environment. We assessed the frequency and duration of SHS exposure in distinct areas of the workplace, attitudes toward SHS exposure and its health effects, and attitudes toward smoke-free policy in the workplace as well as general public places. A total of 723 flight attendants participated in the survey, and 591 responded to all survey questions. The mean level of exposure per flight attendant over the past month was 249 min. The majority of participants reported being exposed to SHS always/often in outdoor areas of an airport (57.7%). Participants who worked before the in-flight smoking ban (n = 240) were more likely to support further smoking policies in airports compared to participants who were employed after the ban (n = 346) (76.7% versus 60.4%, p-value < 0.01). Flight attendants are still being exposed to SHS in the workplace, sometimes at concerning levels during the non-flight portions of their travel. Flight attendants favor smoke-free policies and want to see further restrictions in airports and public places. PMID:26053296

  1. Clear Skies and Grey Areas: Flight Attendants' Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Policy 25 Years since Smoking was Banned on Airplanes.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Zheng, Laura Y; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to provide descriptive data on flight attendant secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the work environment, and to examine attitudes toward SHS exposure, personal health, and smoke-free policy in the workplace and public places. Flight attendants completed a web-based survey of self-reported SHS exposure and air quality in the work environment. We assessed the frequency and duration of SHS exposure in distinct areas of the workplace, attitudes toward SHS exposure and its health effects, and attitudes toward smoke-free policy in the workplace as well as general public places. A total of 723 flight attendants participated in the survey, and 591 responded to all survey questions. The mean level of exposure per flight attendant over the past month was 249 min. The majority of participants reported being exposed to SHS always/often in outdoor areas of an airport (57.7%). Participants who worked before the in-flight smoking ban (n=240) were more likely to support further smoking policies in airports compared to participants who were employed after the ban (n=346) (76.7% versus 60.4%, p-value<0.01). Flight attendants are still being exposed to SHS in the workplace, sometimes at concerning levels during the non-flight portions of their travel. Flight attendants favor smoke-free policies and want to see further restrictions in airports and public places. PMID:26053296

  2. Clear Skies and Grey Areas: Flight Attendants' Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Policy 25 Years since Smoking was Banned on Airplanes.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Zheng, Laura Y; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-06-04

    Our objective was to provide descriptive data on flight attendant secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the work environment, and to examine attitudes toward SHS exposure, personal health, and smoke-free policy in the workplace and public places. Flight attendants completed a web-based survey of self-reported SHS exposure and air quality in the work environment. We assessed the frequency and duration of SHS exposure in distinct areas of the workplace, attitudes toward SHS exposure and its health effects, and attitudes toward smoke-free policy in the workplace as well as general public places. A total of 723 flight attendants participated in the survey, and 591 responded to all survey questions. The mean level of exposure per flight attendant over the past month was 249 min. The majority of participants reported being exposed to SHS always/often in outdoor areas of an airport (57.7%). Participants who worked before the in-flight smoking ban (n=240) were more likely to support further smoking policies in airports compared to participants who were employed after the ban (n=346) (76.7% versus 60.4%, p-value<0.01). Flight attendants are still being exposed to SHS in the workplace, sometimes at concerning levels during the non-flight portions of their travel. Flight attendants favor smoke-free policies and want to see further restrictions in airports and public places.

  3. X-15: Extending the Frontiers of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    A history of the design and achievements of the high-speed, 1950s-era X-15 airplane is presented. The following chapters are included: A New Science; A Hypersonic Research Airplane; Conflict and Innovation; The Million-Horsepower Engine; High Range and Dry Lakes; Preparations; The Flight Program; and the Research Program. Selected biographies, flight logs and physical characteristics of the X-15 Airplane are included in the appendices.

  4. A study of airplane ranges and useful loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, J G

    1920-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the maximum flight radii of typical large airplanes and a discussion of the way in which the possible length of flight is affected by the change of weight by consumption of fuel during the flight.

  5. 77 FR 24643 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... terminal blocks of the flight deck windshields. AD 2010-15-01, Amendment 39-16367 (75 FR 39804, July 13... necessary. The most forward flight deck windows are referred to as windshields and named left and right... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of in-flight fracture of the right windshield (window...

  6. 77 FR 50407 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...-06, Amendment 39-11660 (65 FR 19302, April 11, 2000), are specified in flight cycles on the airplane... specified in door flight cycles, which are flight cycles accumulated on the forward cargo doors. These doors...-11660 (65 FR 19302, April 11, 2000), with revised service information. Within 4 years or 12,000...

  7. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) For an airplane category rating with a single-engine class rating: (i) Fundamentals of instructing... operations; and (xiv) Postflight procedures. (2) For an airplane category rating with a multiengine class... flight simulator or flight training device representative of the category and class of aircraft for...

  8. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) For an airplane category rating with a single-engine class rating: (i) Fundamentals of instructing... operations; and (xiv) Postflight procedures. (2) For an airplane category rating with a multiengine class... flight simulator or flight training device representative of the category and class of aircraft for...

  9. Flight Test Results of a GPS-Based Pitot-Static Calibration Method Using Output-Error Optimization for a Light Twin-Engine Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Kiszely, Paul; Foster, John V.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), a novel pitot-static calibration method was developed to allow rapid in-flight calibration for subscale aircraft while flying within confined test areas. This approach uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology coupled with modern system identification methods that rapidly computes optimal pressure error models over a range of airspeed with defined confidence bounds. This method has been demonstrated in subscale flight tests and has shown small 2- error bounds with significant reduction in test time compared to other methods. The current research was motivated by the desire to further evaluate and develop this method for full-scale aircraft. A goal of this research was to develop an accurate calibration method that enables reductions in test equipment and flight time, thus reducing costs. The approach involved analysis of data acquisition requirements, development of efficient flight patterns, and analysis of pressure error models based on system identification methods. Flight tests were conducted at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) utilizing an instrumented Piper Navajo research aircraft. In addition, the UTSI engineering flight simulator was used to investigate test maneuver requirements and handling qualities issues associated with this technique. This paper provides a summary of piloted simulation and flight test results that illustrates the performance and capabilities of the NASA calibration method. Discussion of maneuver requirements and data analysis methods is included as well as recommendations for piloting technique.

  10. Precision controllability of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Matheny, N. W.

    1979-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on a preproduction F-15 airplane permitted an assessment to be made of its precision controllability in the high subsonic and low transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. Precision controllability, or gunsight tracking, studies were conducted in windup turn maneuvers with the gunsight in the caged pipper mode and depressed 70 mils. This evaluation showed the F-15 airplane to experience severe buffet and mild-to-moderate wing rock at the higher angles of attack. It showed the F-15 airplane radial tracking precision to vary from approximately 6 to 20 mils over the load factor range tested. Tracking in the presence of wing rock essentially doubled the radial tracking error generated at the lower angles of attack. The stability augmentation system affected the tracking precision of the F-15 airplane more than it did that of previous aircraft studied.

  11. 76 FR 36865 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... also affect the aeroelastic stability of the airplane. These systems include the GVI's flight control... flight control systems, autopilots, stability augmentation systems, load alleviation systems, fuel... nonlinearity (rate of displacement of control surface, thresholds or any other system nonlinearities) must...

  12. Real-time in-flight thrust calculation on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    Computer algorithms which calculate in-flight engine and aircraft performance real-time are discussed. The first step was completed with the implementation of a real-time thrust calculation program on a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equiped F100 engine in an F-15 aircraft. The in-flight thrust modifications that allow calculations to be performed in real-time, to compare results to predictions, are presented.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Flight-Test Results for the Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.

  14. 14 CFR 121.424 - Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures may be performed in an airplane simulator, an appropriate training device, or a static airplane as... course of training utilizing an airplane simulator under § 121.409 (c) and (d) of this part, each pilot... initial flight training that are capable of being performed in an airplane simulator without a...

  15. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  16. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  17. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  18. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  19. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  20. Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program (update to automatic flight trajectory design, performance prediction, and vehicle sizing for support of Shuttle and Shuttle derived vehicles) engineering manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program and its predecessors, the ROBOT and the RAGMOP programs, have had a long history of supporting MSFC in the simulation of space boosters for the purpose of performance evaluation. The ROBOT program was used in the simulation of the Saturn 1B and Saturn 5 vehicles in the 1960's and provided the first utilization of the minimum Hamiltonian (or min-H) methodology and the steepest ascent technique to solve the optimum trajectory problem. The advent of the Space Shuttle in the 1970's and its complex airplane design required a redesign of the trajectory simulation code since aerodynamic flight and controllability were required for proper simulation. The RAGMOP program was the first attempt to incorporate the complex equations of the Space Shuttle into an optimization tool by using an optimization method based on steepest ascent techniques (but without the min-H methodology). Development of the complex partial derivatives associated with the Space Shuttle configuration and using techniques from the RAGMOP program, the ROBOT program was redesigned to incorporate these additional complexities. This redesign created the MASTRE program, which was referred to as the Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Shuttle TRajectory Evaluation program at that time. Unique to this program were first-stage (or booster) nonlinear aerodynamics, upper-stage linear aerodynamics, engine control via moment balance, liquid and solid thrust forces, variable liquid throttling to maintain constant acceleration limits, and a total upgrade of the equations used in the forward and backward integration segments of the program. This modification of the MASTRE code has been used to simulate the new space vehicles associated with the National Launch Systems (NLS). Although not as complicated as the Space Shuttle, the simulation and analysis of the NLS vehicles required additional modifications to the MASTRE program in the areas of providing