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Sample records for airplanes equipment lights

  1. The Light Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggs, Ivan H.

    1925-01-01

    This report begins with a review and analysis of the work being done to develop light airplanes in the U.S. and abroad. A technical discussion of the construction and innovations in light airplanes is then presented.

  2. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  3. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  4. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  5. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  6. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  7. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  8. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  9. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  10. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  11. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  12. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  13. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  14. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  15. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  16. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Equipment Requirements § 125.205 Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR. No person may operate...

  17. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be expressed in knots. (d) Except as provided in §§ 121.627(b) and 121.628, no person may take off... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and...

  18. Sensor equipment of the German earth scientific airplane program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seige, P.

    1975-01-01

    The German airplane program for earth scientific research supports the work of a vast staff of earth scientists from universities and federal agencies. Due to their fields of interest, which are in oceanography, hydrology, geology, ecology, and forestry, five test areas were selected which are spread all over Germany. The sensor package, which was designed in accordance with the requirements of this group of scientists, will be installed in a DO 28 D2 type airplane. The sensor equipment consists of a series of 70-mm cameras having different film/filter combinations, a photogrammetric camera, an infrared radiometer, an 11-channel multispectral line scanner, a LANDSAT-compatible radiometer, and a complex avionic system. Along with the airplane, a truck will be equipped with a set of radiometers and other sensor devices for extensive ground-truth measurement; this also includes a cherry picker.

  19. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equipment necessary for safe emergency operation of the airplane; and (g) Two independent sources of energy... source does not interfere with the energy supply to the remaining instruments or the other energy source. For the purposes of this paragraph, each engine-driven source of energy must be on a different...

  20. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equipment necessary for safe emergency operation of the airplane; and (g) Two independent sources of energy... source does not interfere with the energy supply to the remaining instruments or the other energy source. For the purposes of this paragraph, each engine-driven source of energy must be on a different...

  1. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipment necessary for safe emergency operation of the airplane; and (g) Two independent sources of energy... source does not interfere with the energy supply to the remaining instruments or the other energy source. For the purposes of this paragraph, each engine-driven source of energy must be on a different...

  2. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipment necessary for safe emergency operation of the airplane; and (g) Two independent sources of energy... source does not interfere with the energy supply to the remaining instruments or the other energy source. For the purposes of this paragraph, each engine-driven source of energy must be on a different...

  3. The calculated performance of airplanes equipped with supercharging engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemble, E C

    1921-01-01

    In part one of this report are presented the theoretical performance curves of an airplane engine equipped with a supercharging compressor. In predicting the gross power of a supercharging engine, the writer uses temperature and pressure correction factors based on experiments made at the Bureau of Standards (NACA report nos. 45 and 46). Means for estimating the temperature rise in the compressor are outlined. Part two of this report presents an estimation of the performance curves of an airplane fitted with a supercharging engine. A supercharging installation suitable for commercial use is described, and it is shown that with the use of the compressor a great saving in fuel and a considerable increase in carrying capacity can be effected simultaneously. In an appendix the writer derives a theoretical formula for the correction of the thrust coefficient of an airscrew to offset the added resistance of the airplane due to the slip-stream effect.

  4. 78 FR 14007 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features, specifically distributed electrical and electronic equipment bays in pressurized areas of the airplane. Older transport category airplane electrical/electronic equipment bay installations are located in the lower lobe where the flight crew could determine......

  5. An evaluation of aerodynamics modeling of spinning light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, B. N.; Taylor, L. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper extends the application of the modified strip theory for wing body combination of a spinning light airplane reported earlier. In addition, to account for the contribution of the tail plane, the shielding effect on vertical tail under steady state spin condition is modeled from basic aerodynamic considerations. The results of this combined analysis, presented for some light airplane configurations, are shown to be in good agreement with spin tunnel rotary balance test data.

  6. Development of light and small airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachmann, G

    1926-01-01

    The author has endeavored to select only the most important lines of development and has limited the description of individual airplanes to a few typical examples. Comparisons are presented between German and foreign accomplishments.

  7. 76 FR 12556 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Transport Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen Generators Installed in a Lavatory AGENCY: Federal... affected airplanes identified above. This AD requires modifying the chemical oxygen generators in...

  8. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 125.333 Section 125.333...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS... food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff,...

  9. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 121.577 Section 121.577... service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. (a) No certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware...

  10. An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Equipped with Several Different Sets of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Green, M W

    1929-01-01

    This investigation was conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, Va., at the request of the Army Air Corps, for the purpose of comparing the full scale lift and drag characteristics of an airplane equipped with several sets of wings of commonly used airfoil sections. A Sperry Messenger Airplane with wings of R.A.F.-15, U.S.A.-5, U.S.A.-27, and Gottingen 387 airfoil sections was flown and the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane with each set of wings were determined by means of glide tests. The results are presented in tabular and curve form. (author)

  11. Flight test results for several light, canard-configured airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Philip W.

    1987-01-01

    Brief flight evaluations of two different, light, composite constructed, canard and winglet configured airplanes were performed to assess their handling qualities; one airplane was a single engine, pusher design and the other a twin engine, push-pull configuration. An emphasis was placed on the slow speed/high angle of attack region for both airplanes and on the engine-out regime for the twin. Mission suitability assessment included cockpit and control layout, ground and airborne handling qualities, and turbulence response. Very limited performance data was taken. Stall/spin tests and the effects of laminar flow loss on performance and handling qualities were assessed on an extended range, single engine pusher design.

  12. The light airplane : modern theoretical aerodynamics as applied to light airplane design with a series of charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggs, Ivan H

    1925-01-01

    T.M. 311 gave a short outline of modern theoretical aerodynamics as applied to light airplane design. This discussion may have been somewhat obscure to the nontechnical reader. A series of charts or curves should serve to clear up such obscurity as well as to more definitely emphasize those quantities most important for each flight characteristic.

  13. 76 FR 63159 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-243F Airplanes Equipped With Rolls Royce Trent 700...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-243F Airplanes Equipped With Rolls Royce Trent 700 Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... AD applies to Airbus Model A330-243F airplanes; certificated in any category; equipped with Rolls... 39-12221 (66 FR 23838, May 10, 2001] * * * is issued to extend the applicability to the...

  14. 75 FR 46868 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747 Airplanes and Model 767 Airplanes Equipped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... airplanes. That original NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 7, 2008 (73 FR 18721). That... Relevant Rulemaking Related NPRM, Docket FAA-2008-0403, Directorate Identifier 2007-NM- 166-AD (73 FR 18719... Global Supply Systems (Global) requests that we revise AD 2007-12- 07, Amendment 39-15085 (72 FR...

  15. Pilot Transition Courses for Complex Single-Engine and Light Twin-Engine Airplanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication is intended for use by certificated airplane pilots and provides transitional knowledge and skills for more complex single-engine or light twin-engine airplanes. The training should be conducted by a competent flight instructor certified in the class of airplane and familiar with the make and model. A syllabus outline of ground…

  16. Experiments to Determine Neighborhood Reactions to Light Airplanes With and Without External Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elwell, Fred S

    1953-01-01

    The work reported was part of a program of experimentation with external noise reduction on light airplanes. This particular study was in effect a byproduct survey conceived to utilize already available equipment and personnel to further the findings of the original research and to determine reactions in populated neighborhoods to light aircraft with and without noise-reduction equipment. The findings indicate that at the 10 sites within and about metropolitan Boston the degree of noise reduction previously found to be aerodynamically and structurally feasible did eliminate substantially all neighborhood objections to noise per se. The evidence clearly suggests that, when the noise nuisance is minimized to the extent found feasible, the number and severity of other objections also diminish -- evidently because the flight operations are noticed less when heard less.

  17. Modern Manufacturing Equipment of the Ernst Heinkel Airplane Works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, A; Jockisch, H

    1938-01-01

    This report contains a description of new methods of fabrication, new equipment, and special tools, with a view to supplying data for design from economical points of view, as well as to stimulate the interest of other factories in improved shop methods.

  18. Study of small turbofan engines applicable to single-engine light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The design, efficiency and cost factors are investigated for application of turbofan propulsion engines to single engine, general aviation light airplanes. A companion study of a hypothetical engine family of a thrust range suitable to such aircraft and having a high degree of commonality of design features and parts is presented. Future turbofan powered light airplanes can have a lower fuel consumption, lower weight, reduced airframe maintenance requirements and improved engine overhaul periods as compared to current piston engined powered airplanes. Achievement of compliance with noise and chemical emission regulations is expected without impairing performance, operating cost or safety.

  19. Measurement of the handling characteristics of two light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation of the handling characteristics of two single engine general aviation airplanes, one a high wing and the other a low wing, included a variety of measurements of different characteristics of the airplanes. The characteristics included those of the control systems, performance, longitudinal and lateral responses, and stall motions.

  20. An analytical study and wind tunnel tests of an aeromechanical gust-alleviation system for a light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of a system using stability derivatives determined in static wind tunnel tests of a 1/6 scale model of a popular, high wing, light airplane equipped with the gust alleviation system are reported. The longitudinal short period mode dynamics of the system are analyzed, and include the following: (1) root loci, (2) airplane frequency responses to vertical gusts, (3) power spectra of the airplane responses in a gust spectrum, (4) time history responses to vertical gusts, and (5) handling characteristics. The system reduces the airplane's normal acceleration response to vertical gusts while simultaneously increasing the pitching response and reducing the damping of the longitudinal short period mode. The normal acceleration response can be minimized by using the proper amount of static alleviation and a fast response system with a moderate amount of damping. The addition of a flap elevator interconnect or a pitch damper system further increases the alleviation while moderating the simultaneous increase in pitching response. The system provides direct lift control and may reduce the stick fixed longitudinal static stability.

  1. Lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of light, twin-engine, propeller driven airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical procedures and design data for predicting the lateral-directional static and dynamic stability and control characteristics of light, twin engine, propeller driven airplanes for propeller-off and power-on conditions are reported. Although the consideration of power effects is limited to twin engine airplanes, the propeller-off considerations are applicable to single engine airplanes as well. The procedures are applied to a twin engine, propeller driven, semi-low-wing airplane in the clean configuration through the linear lift range. The calculated derivative characteristics are compared with wind tunnel and flight data. Included in the calculated characteristics are the spiral mode, roll mode, and Dutch roll mode over the speed range of the airplane.

  2. Semiempirical method for prediction of aerodynamic forces and moments on a steadily spinning light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A semi-empirical method is presented for the estimation of aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a steadily spinning (rotating) light airplane. The airplane is divided into wing, body, and tail surfaces. The effect of power is ignored. The strip theory is employed for each component of the spinning airplane to determine its contribution to the total aerodynamic coefficients. Then, increments to some of the coefficients which account for centrifugal effect are estimated. The results are compared to spin tunnel rotary balance test data.

  3. On the prediction of auto-rotational characteristics of light airplane fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, B. N.; Taylor, L. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A semi-empirical theory is presented for the estimation of aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a steadily rotating (spinning) airplane fuselage, with a particular emphasis on the prediction of its auto-rotational behavior. This approach is based on an extension of the available analytical methods for high angle of attack and side-slip and then coupling this procedure with strip theory for application to a rotating airplane fuselage. The analysis is applied to the fuselage of a light general aviation airplane and the results are shown to be in fair agreement with experimental data.

  4. 75 FR 6865 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-700 (IGW) Series Airplanes Equipped With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ... Review, Flammability Reduction and Maintenance and Inspection Requirements'' (66 FR 23086, May 7, 2001... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Model 737-700 (IGW) Series Airplanes Equipped With Auxiliary Fuel Tanks Installed in Accordance...

  5. Gust alleviation system to improve ride comfort of light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Phillips, W. H.; Hewes, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    System consists of movable auxiliary aerodynamic sensors mounted on fuselage and connected to trailing-edge flaps by rigid mechanical linkages. System achieves alleviation by reducing lift-curve slope of airplane to such a small value that gust-induced angles of attack will result in small changes in lift.

  6. 47 CFR 17.56 - Maintenance of lighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance of lighting equipment. 17.56... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.56 Maintenance of lighting equipment. (a) Replacing or repairing of lights, automatic...

  7. 47 CFR 17.56 - Maintenance of lighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintenance of lighting equipment. 17.56... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.56 Maintenance of lighting equipment. (a) Replacing or repairing of lights, automatic...

  8. 47 CFR 17.56 - Maintenance of lighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of lighting equipment. 17.56... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.56 Maintenance of lighting equipment. (a) Replacing or repairing of lights, automatic...

  9. 47 CFR 17.56 - Maintenance of lighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maintenance of lighting equipment. 17.56... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.56 Maintenance of lighting equipment. (a) Replacing or repairing of lights, automatic...

  10. Light airplane crash tests at three pitch angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin-engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at an impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec, a flight path angle of -15 deg, and pitch angles of -15 deg, 0 deg, and 15 deg. Other crash parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  11. Light airplane crash tests at three flight-path angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three similar twin engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at Langley impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec and at flight-path angles of -15 deg, -30 deg, and -45 deg. Other flight parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  12. Light airplane crash tests at three roll angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin engine general aviation airplanes were crash tested at the Langley impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec and at nominal roll angles of 0 deg, -15 deg, and -30 deg. Other flight parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  13. 47 CFR 17.56 - Maintenance of lighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maintenance of lighting equipment. 17.56... LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.56 Maintenance of lighting equipment. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 56987, Sept....

  14. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of light, twin-engine, propeller-driven airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Representative state-of-the-art analytical procedures and design data for predicting the longitudinal static and dynamic stability and control characteristics of light, propeller-driven airplanes are presented. Procedures for predicting drag characteristics are also included. The procedures are applied to a twin-engine, propeller-driven airplane in the clean configuration from zero lift to stall conditions. The calculated characteristics are compared with wind-tunnel and flight data. Included in the comparisons are level-flight trim characteristics, period and damping of the short-period oscillatory mode, and windup-turn characteristics. All calculations are documented.

  15. A spin-recovery parachute system for light general-aviation airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, C.

    1980-01-01

    A tail mounted spin recovery parachute system was designed and developed for use on light general aviation airplanes. The system was designed for use on typical airplane configurations, including low wing, high wing, single engine and twin engine designs. A mechanically triggered pyrotechnic slug gun is used to forcibly deploy a pilot parachute which extracts a bag that deploys a ring slot spin recovery parachute. The total system weighs 8.2 kg. System design factors included airplane wake effects on parachute deployment, prevention of premature parachute deployment, positive parachute jettison, compact size, low weight, system reliability, and pilot and ground crew safety. Extensive ground tests were conducted to qualify the system. The recovery parachute was used successfully in flight 17 times.

  16. Light airplanes which participated in contest at Lympne, England, October, 1923

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1924-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to present in a concise form a description, with drawings, of the most practical light airplanes participating in the meet at Lympne, England, in October, 1923. Features, which are particularly suitable for this type of aircraft, are described and a special reference is made to achievements which indicate progress and possibilities both from a commercial and a military point of view.

  17. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1936-01-01

    Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.

  18. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  19. Flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane (ATLIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Project organization and execution, airplane description and performance predictions, and the results of the flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin engine airplane (ATLIT) are presented. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34-200 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll control spoilers, and full span Fowler flaps. The conclusions for the ATLIT evaluation are based on complete stall and roll flight test results and partial performance test results. The Stalling and rolling characteristics met design expectations. Climb performance was penalized by extensive flow separation in the region of the wing body juncture. Cruise performance was found to be penalized by a large value of zero lift drag. Calculations showed that, with proper attention to construction details, the improvements in span efficiency and zero lift drag would permit the realization of the predicted increases in cruising and maximum rate of climb performance.

  20. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures §...

  1. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures §...

  2. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures §...

  3. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures §...

  4. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures §...

  5. Impact evaluation of lighting retrofit projects at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group under The Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Oens, M.A.; Spanner, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    This impact evaluation of two lighting retrofit projects that were recently installed at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (Boeing) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The first project was a light-fixture and lighting control retrofit, consisting of five individual measures installed in Building 40-05. The second project was a retrofit of all parking lot lighting on the site. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Boeing as a result of the E$P projects and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Boeing`s proposals and completion reports).

  6. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with External-airfoil Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Warren D; Clay, William C

    1937-01-01

    Wind-tunnel and flight tests have been made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a wing having external-airfoil flaps that also perform the function of ailerons. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of the airplane with several flap settings, and the rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients with the flaps deflected as ailerons were measured in the full-scale tunnel with the horizontal tail surfaces and propeller removed. The effect of the flaps on the low speed and on the take-off and landing characteristics, the effectiveness of flaps when used as ailerons, and the forces required to operate them as ailerons were determined in flight. The wind-tunnel tests showed that the flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airplane from 1.51 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap deflected 30 degrees. In the flight tests the minimum speed decreased from 46.8 miles per hour with the flaps up to 41.3 miles per hour with the flaps deflected. The required take-off run to attain a height of 50 feet was reduced from 820 to 750 feet and the landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced from 930 to 480 feet. The flaps for this installation gave lateral control that was not entirely satisfactory. Their rolling action was good but the adverse yaw resulting from their use was greater than is considerable, and the stick forces required to operate them increased too rapidly with speed.

  7. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  8. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished... airplane on the surface, take off, or land unless each food and beverage tray and seat back tray table is... certificate holder may permit an airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each movie...

  9. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing. (a) No certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food... certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land unless each food and beverage tray... airplane to move on the surface, take off, or land unless each passenger serving cart is secured in...

  10. 77 FR 75071 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... Model EMB-550 airplane. The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet airplanes... mounted on aft fuselage pylons. Each engine produces approximately 6,540 pounds of thrust for...

  11. Accelerations and Passenger Harness Loads Measured in Full-Scale Light-Airplane Crashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiband, A. Martin; Simpkinson, Scott H.; Black, Dugald O.

    1953-01-01

    Full-scale light-airplane crashes simulating stall-spin accidents were conducted to determine the decelerations to which occupants are exposed and the resulting harness forces encountered in this type of accident. Crashes at impact speeds from 42 to 60 miles per hour were studied. The airplanes used were of the familiar steel-tube, fabric-covered, tandem, two-seat type. In crashes up to an impact speed of 60 miles per hour, crumpling of the forward fuselage structure prevented the maximum deceleration at the rear-seat location from exceeding 26 to 33g. This maximum g value appeared independent of the impact speed. Restraining forces in the seatbelt - shoulder-harness combination reached 5800 pounds. The rear-seat occupant can survive crashes of the type studied at impact speeds up to 60 miles per hour, if body movement is restrained by an adequate seatbelt-shoulder-harness combination so as to prevent injurious contact with obstacles normally present in the cabin. Inwardly collapsing cabin structure, however, is a potential hazard in the higher-speed crashes.

  12. 14 CFR 25.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 25.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1401 Anticollision light system. (a) General. The airplane must have an anticollision light system that— (1) Consists of one or more...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 23.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1401 Anticollision light system. (a) General. The airplane must have an anticollision light system that: (1)...

  14. Evaluation of the ride quality of a light twin engine airplane using a ride quality meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1989-01-01

    A ride quality meter was used to establish the baseline ride quality of a light twin-engine airplane planned for use as a test bed for an experimental gust alleviation system. The ride quality meter provides estimates of passenger ride discomfort as a function of cabin noise and vibration (acceleration) in five axes (yaw axis omitted). According to the ride quality meter, in smooth air the cabin noise was the dominant source of passenger discomfort, but the total discomfort was approximately the same as that for the smooth-air condition. The researcher's subjective opinion, however, is that the total ride discomfort was much worse in the moderate turbulence than it was in the smooth air. The discrepancy is explained by the lack of measurement of the low-frequency accelerations by the ride quality meter.

  15. Effects of control inputs on the estimation of stability and control parameters of a light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannaday, R. L.; Suit, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique was used to determine the values of stability and control derivatives from flight test data for a low-wing, single-engine, light airplane. Several input forms were used during the tests to investigate the consistency of parameter estimates as it relates to inputs. These consistencies were compared by using the ensemble variance and estimated Cramer-Rao lower bound. In addition, the relationship between inputs and parameter correlations was investigated. Results from the stabilator inputs are inconclusive but the sequence of rudder input followed by aileron input or aileron followed by rudder gave more consistent estimates than did rudder or ailerons individually. Also, square-wave inputs appeared to provide slightly improved consistency in the parameter estimates when compared to sine-wave inputs.

  16. Blue Light and Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure from Infant Phototherapy Equipment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Bogi, Andrea; Picciolo, Francesco; Stacchini, Nicola; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Bellieni, Carlo V

    2015-01-01

    Phototherapy is the use of light for reducing the concentration of bilirubin in the body of infants. Although it has become a mainstay since its introduction in 1958, a better understanding of the efficacy and safety of phototherapy applications seems to be necessary for improved clinical practices and outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to Optical Radiation from different types of phototherapy devices in clinical use in Italy. During infant phototherapy the staff monitors babies periodically for around 10 min every hour, and fixation of the phototherapy beam light frequently occurs: almost all operators work within 30 cm of the phototherapy source during monitoring procedures, with most of them commonly working at ≤25 cm from the direct or reflected radiation beam. The results of this study suggest that there is a great variability in the spectral emission of equipments investigated, depending on the types of lamps used and some phototherapy equipment exposes operators to blue light photochemical retinal hazard. Some of the equipment investigated presents relevant spectral emission also in the UVA region. Taking into account that the exposure to UV in childhood has been established as an important contributing factor for melanoma risk in adults and considering the high susceptibility to UV-induced skin damage of the newborn, related to his pigmentary traits, the UV exposure of the infant during phototherapy should be "as low as reasonably achievable," considering that it is unnecessary to the therapy. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees: in particular, protective eyewear can be necessary during newborn assistance activities carried out in proximity of some sources. The engineering design of phototherapy equipment can be optimized. Specific requirements for photobiological safety of lamps used in the phototherapy equipment should be defined in the safety product standard for such

  17. Tank Investigation of the Grumman JRF-5 Airplane Equipped with Twin Hydro-Skis TED No. NACA DE 357

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsen, John A.; Gray, George R.

    1951-01-01

    A tank investigation has been conducted on a 1/8-size powered dynamic model of the Grumman JRF-5 airplane equipped with twin hydro-skis. The results of tests using two types of skis are presented: one had vertical sides joining the top surface to the chine; the other had the top surface faired to the chine to eliminate the vertical sides. Both configurations had satisfactory longitudinal stability although the model had a slightly greater stable elevator range available when the skis without the vertical sides were attached. Free model tests indicated no instability present when one ski emerged before the other. Considerable excess thrust was available at all speeds with either type of skis. A hump gross load-resistance ratio of 3.37 was obtained with the skis with the vertical sides and 3.53 with the other skis. Landing behavior in smooth water with yaw up to 15deg and roll up to 15deg in opposite directions was satisfactory with either type of skis.

  18. 76 FR 3561 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200 and -300 Series Airplanes Equipped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic... structural damage to the airplane, damage to other airplanes, or possible injury to people on the ground... thrust operation. If a thrust reverser inner wall overheats, separated components could cause...

  19. Descent strategy comparisons for TNAV-equipped aircraft under airplane-preferred operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    Three 4-D descent strategies were evaluated which were employed by TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering air traffic control environment. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to assess performance using three criteria when traffic enters the simulation under preferred cruise operating conditions (altitude and speed): throughput, fuel usage, and conflict probability. In comparison to an evaluation previously performed under NASA contract, the current analysis indicates that the optimal descent strategy is preferred over the clean-idle and constant descent angle (CFPA) strategies when all three criteria are considered.

  20. 14 CFR 25.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 25.1401 Section 25.1401 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1401 Anticollision light system. (a) General. The airplane must have...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 25.1401 Section 25.1401 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1401 Anticollision light system. (a) General. The airplane must have...

  2. Wind-tunnel investigation of a full-scale general aviation airplane equipped with an advanced natural laminar flow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel to evaluate the performance, stability, and control characteristics of a full-scale general aviation airplane equipped with an advanced laminar flow wing. The study focused on the effects of natural laminar flow and advanced boundary layer transition on performance, stability, and control, and also on the effects of several wing leading edge modifications on the stall/departure resistance of the configuration. Data were measured over an angle-of-attack range from -6 to 40 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -6 to 20 deg. The Reynolds number was varied from 1.4 to 2.4 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord. Additional measurements were made using hot-film and sublimating chemical techniques to determine the condition of the wing boundary layer, and wool tufts were used to study the wing stall characteristics. The investigation showed that large regions of natural laminar flow existed on the wing which would significantly enhance cruise performance. Also, because of the characteristics of the airfoil section, artificially tripping the wing boundary layer to a turbulent condition did not significantly effect the lift, stability, and control characteristics. The addition of a leading-edge droop arrangement was found to increase the stall angle of attack at the wingtips and, therefore, was considered to be effective in improving the stall/departure resistance of the configuration. Also the addition of the droop arrangement resulted in only minor increases in drag.

  3. Dynamic Response of Control Servo System Installed in NAES-Equipped SB2C-5 Airplane (BuAer No. 83135)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaus, Louis H.; Stewart, Elwood C.

    1950-01-01

    Dynamic--response measurements for various conditions of displacement and rate signal input, sensitivity setting, and simulated hinge moment were made of the three control-surface servo systems of an NAES-equipped remote-controlled airplane while on the ground. The basic components of the servo systems are those of the General Electric Company type G-1 autopilot using electrical signal. sources, solenoid-operated valves, and hydraulic pistons. The test procedures and difficulties are discussed, Both frequency and transient-response data, are presented and comparisons are made. The constants describing the servo system, the undamped natural frequency, and the damping ratio, are determined by several methods. The response of the system with the addition of airframe rate signal is calculated. The transfer function of the elevator surface, linkage, and cable system is obtained. The agreement between various methods of measurement and calculation is considered very good. The data are complete enough and in such form that they may be used directly with the frequency-response data of an airplane to predict the stability of the autopilot-airplane combination.

  4. 75 FR 47203 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes Equipped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 7, 2008 (73 FR 18719). That NPRM.... FAA-2008-0402, Directorate Identifier 2007-NM-165- AD (73 FR 18721, April 7, 2008), proposes to... (Directorate Identifier 2007-NM-165-AD, Docket FAA- 2008-0402 (73 FR 18721, April 7, 2008)), which...

  5. Description of an experimental (hydrogen peroxide) rocket system and its use in measuring aileron and rudder effectiveness of a light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obryan, T. C.; Goode, M. W.; Gregory, F. D.; Mayo, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen peroxide fueled rocket system, which is to be used as a research tool in flight studies of stall and spin maneuvers, was installed on a light, four place general aviation airplane. The pilot controlled rocket system produces moments about either the roll or the yaw body axis to augment or oppose the aerodynamic forces and inertial moments acting on the airplane during various flight maneuvers, including the spin. These controlled moments of a known magnitude can be used in various ways to help analyze and interpret the importance of the various factors which influence airplane maneuvers. The rocket system and its installation in the airplane are described, and the results of flight rests used to measure rudder and aileron effectiveness at airspeeds above the stall are presented. These tests also serve to demonstrate the operational readiness of the rocket system for future research operations.

  6. Light airplane crash tests at impact velocities of 13 and 27 m/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Vaughan, V. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two similar general aviation airplanes were crash tested at the Langley impact dynamics research facility at velocities of 13 and 27 m/sec. Other flight parameters were held constant. The facility, instrumentation, tests specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data are discussed.

  7. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  8. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light...

  18. Experimental Verification of the Rudder-Free Stability Theory for an Airplane Model Equipped with Rudders Having Negative Floating Tendency and Negligible Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, Marion O.; Maggin, Bernard

    1944-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to obtain an experimental verification of the theoretical rudder-free stability characteristics of an airplane model equipped with conventional rudders having negative floating tendencies and negligible friction. The model used in the tests was equipped with a conventional single vertical tail having rudder area 40 percent of the vertical tail area. The model was tested both in free flight and mounted on a strut that allowed freedom only in yaw. Tests were made with three different amounts of rudder aerodynamic balance and with various values of mass, moment of inertia, and center-of-gravity location of the rudder. Most of the stability derivatives required for the theoretical calculations were determined from forced and free-oscillation tests of the particular model tested. The theoretical analysis showed that the rudder-free motions of an airplane consist largely of two oscillatory modes - a long-period oscillation somewhat similar to the normal rudder-fixed oscillation and a short-period oscillation introduced only when the rudder is set free. It was found possible in the tests to create lateral instability of the rudder-free short-period mode by large values of rudder mass parameters even though the rudder-fixed condition was highly stable. The results of the tests and calculation indicated that for most present-day airplanes having rudders of negative floating tendency, the rudder-free stability characteristics may be examined by simply considering the dynamic lateral stability using the value of the directional-stability parameter Cn(sub p) for the rudder-free condition in the conventional controls-fixed lateral-stability equations. For very large airplanes having relatively high values of the rudder mass parameters with respect to the rudder aerodynamic parameters, however, analysis of the rudder-free stability should be made with the complete equations of motion. Good agreement between

  19. Full-scale wind tunnel-investigation of the Advanced Technology Light Twin-Engine airplane (ATLIT). [Langley full scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassell, J. L., Jr.; Newsom, W. A., Jr.; Yip, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance, stability, and control characteristics of the Advanced Technology Light Twin Engine airplane (ATLIT). Data were measured over an angle of attack range from -4 deg to 20 deg for various angles of sideslip between -5 deg and 15 deg at Reynolds numbers of 0.0000023 and 0.0000035 for various settings of power and flap deflection. Measurements were also made by means of special thrust torque balances to determine the installed propeller characteristics. Part of the investigation was devoted to drag cleanup of the basic airplane and to the evaluation of the effect of winglets on drag and stability.

  20. 77 FR 50644 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... 1134104-5 air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor; and (2) are certificated in any category. (d) Subject... certain Cessna Airplane Company Model 525 airplanes equipped with certain part number (P/N) air conditioning (A/C) compressor motors. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of smoke and/or fire in...

  1. 76 FR 77934 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... series airplanes. Since we issued AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005), The... certain ACT equipped airplanes, produced after AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14...-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005). Applicability (c) This AD applies to Airbus airplanes listed...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a) Make each instrument and control easily readable and...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights must— (1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights must— (1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a) Make each instrument and control easily readable and...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a) Make each instrument and control easily readable and...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights must— (1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a) Make each instrument and control easily readable and...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights must— (1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 25.1381 Section 25.1381... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1381 Instrument lights. (a) The instrument lights must— (1) Provide sufficient illumination to make each instrument, switch and other...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1381 - Instrument lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instrument lights. 23.1381 Section 23.1381... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1381 Instrument lights. The instrument lights must— (a) Make each instrument and control easily readable and...

  17. Gordon Bennett Airplane Cup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margoulis, W

    1921-01-01

    The characteristics of the airplanes built for the Gordon Bennet Airplane Cup race that took place on September 28, 1920 are described. The airplanes are discussed from a aerodynamical point of view, with a number of new details concerning the French machines. Also discussed is the regulation of future races. The author argues that there should be no limitations on the power of the aircraft engines. He reasons that in the present state of things, liberty with regard to engine power does not lead to a search for the most powerful engine, but for one which is reliable and light, thus leading to progress.

  18. 76 FR 77585 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must meet the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 50101, Buy American Preferences. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of certain airport lighting and navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice requests information from manufacturers of......

  19. In-flight acoustic measurements on a light twin-engined turboprop airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Mcdaniel, C. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1985-01-01

    Four series of flight tests were conducted to measure sound pressure levels inside and outside the cabin of a twin-engined turboprop airplane. Particular emphasis was placed on harmonics of the propeller blade passage frequency. The cabin was unfurnished for the first three flights, when the main objective was to investigate the repeatability of the data. For the fourth flight, the cabin was treated with fiberglass batts. Typically, the exterior sound pressure levels were found to vary 3 to 5 dB for a given harmonic, but variations as high as 8 dB were observed. The variability of harmonic levels within the cabin was slightly higher but depended on control of the relative phase between the propellers; when phase was not controlled the average variability was about 10 dB. Noise reductions provided by the fuselage structure were in the range of 20 to 40 dB, when an exterior microphone in the plane of rotation of the propeller was used as reference.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  5. The Effect of Various Wing-Gun Installations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Model Equipped with an NACA Low-Drag Wing, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muse, Thomas C.

    1941-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of various win-gun installation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model with an NACA low-drag wing. Measurements were made of lift and drag over an angle-of-attack range and for several values of dynamic pressure on a four-tenths scale model of a high-speed airplane equipped with the low-drag wing and with various wing-gun installations. Two installations were tested: one in which the blast tube and part of the gun barrel protrude ahead of the wing and another in which the guns is mounted wholly within the wing. Two types of openings for the latter installation were tested. For each installation three simulated guns were mounted in each wing. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The installations tested appear to have little effect on the maximum-lift coefficient of the model. However, the drag coefficient shows a definite change. The least adverse effect was obtained with the completely internal mounting and small nose entrance. The results indicate that a properly designed wing-gun installation will have very little adverse effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the low-drag wing.

  6. Effect of Slot-Entry Skirt Extensions on Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing Section of the XB-36 Airplane Equipped with a Double Slotted Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Jones F.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel on a wing section for the XB-36 airplane equipped with a double slotted flap to determine the effect on lift and drag of various slot-entry skirt extension. A skirt extension of 0.787 deg. was found to provide the best combination of high maximum lift with flap deflected and law drag with flap retracted. The data showed that the maximum lift at intermediate (20 deg. to 45 deg.) flap deflections was lowered considerably by the slot-entry extension; but at high flap deflections the effect was small. An increase in Reynolds number from 2.4 million to 6.0 million increased the maximum.lift coefficient at a flap deflection of 55 deg. from 3.12 to 3.30 and from 1.18 to 1.40 for the flap retracted condition, but did not greatly affect the maximum lift coefficient for intermediate flap deflections. The flap and fore flap load data indicated that the maximum lift coefficients at high flap deflections are limited by a breakdown in the flow over the .flaps.

  7. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the system, that is, the number of light sources, beam width, speed of rotation, and other... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 25.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1401 Anticollision light system....

  12. 14 CFR 25.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the system, that is, the number of light sources, beam width, speed of rotation, and other... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 25.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1401 Anticollision light system....

  13. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation. 25.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  15. Developing neuro-fuzzy hybrid networks to aid predicting abnormal behaviours of passengers and equipments inside an airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex

    2009-05-01

    The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.

  16. 14 CFR 25.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 25.1415 Section 25.1415... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Ditching equipment used in airplanes to be certificated for ditching under § 25.801, and required by...

  17. Comparison of ELCAP data with lighting and equipment load levels and profiles assumed in regional models

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Z.T.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    The analysis in this report was driven by two primary objectives: to determine whether and to what extent the lighting and miscellaneous equipment electricity consumption measured by metering in real buildings differs from the levels assumed in the various prototypes used in power forecasting; and to determine the reasons for those differences if, in fact, differences were found. 13 refs., 47 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Effect of Reynolds number and engine nacelles on the stalling characteristics of a model of a twin-engine light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    The investigation was made on a 1/18-scale model of a twin-engine light airplane. Static longitudinal, lateral, and directional characteristics were obtained at 0 deg and plus or minus 5 deg sideslip at a Mach number of about 0.2. The angle of attack varied from about 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 0.39 times one million to 13 deg at a Reynolds number of 3.7 times one million, based on the reference chord. The effect of fixed transition, vertical and horizontal tails, and nacelle fillets was studied.

  19. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Position light system installation. 25.1385 Section 25.1385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Position light system installation. 23.1385 Section 23.1385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1385 Position light...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Position light system installation. 25.1385 Section 25.1385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Position light system installation. 23.1385 Section 23.1385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1385 Position light...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 23.1401 Section 23.1401 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1401 Anticollision light system....

  6. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  7. Measurements in Flight of the Lateral-Control Characteristics of an Airplane Equipped with Full-Span Zap Flaps and Simple Circular-Arc-Type Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christophersen, Don R.; Spahr, J. Richard

    1944-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted on the OS2U-2 seaplane with simple circular-arc-type ailerons directly connected to the actuating torque tube. Two aileron test installations were made, differing only in the inclination of the projecting surface with the wing's upper surface. The lateral-control characteristics of the airplane were determined from data obtained in stalls and rudder-fixed aileron rolls. The revised ailerons were deficient in maximum rolling effectiveness, but were capable of controlling the rolling tendencies of the airplane near the stall.

  8. Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał

    This chapter describes the most important features of capillary electrophoretic equipment. A presentation of the important developments in high voltage power supplies for chip CE is followed by preparation of fused silica capillaries for use in CE. Detection systems that are used in capillary electrophoresis are widely described. Here, UV-Vis absorbance measurements are discussed including different types of detection cells—also those less popular (u-shaped, Z-shaped, mirror-coated). Fluorescence detection and laser-induced fluorescence detection are the most sensitive detection systems. Several LIF setups, such as collinear, orthogonal, confocal, and sheath-flow cuvette, are presented from the point of view of the sensitivity they can provide. Several electrochemical detectors for CE, such as conductivity, amperometric, and potentiometric, are also shown and their constructions discussed. CE-MS and much less known CE (CEC)-NMR systems are also described. The examples of automation and robotized CE systems together with their potential fields of application are also presented.

  9. 14 CFR 23.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 23.1307 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 23.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. The equipment necessary for an airplane to operate at the maximum operating...

  10. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 121.329 Section 121.329 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane, each certificate holder shall equip...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  12. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  13. Annoyance caused by propeller airplane flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide information on quantifying the annoyance response of people to propeller airplane noise. The items of interest were current noise metrics, tone corrections, duration corrections, critical band corrections, and the effects of engine type, operation type, maximum takeoff weight, blade passage frequency, and blade tip speed. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of propeller and jet airplane operations presented at d-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB in a testing room which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. The first experiment examined 11 propeller airplanes with maximum takeoff weights greater than or equal to 5700 kg. The second experiment examined 14 propeller airplanes weighting 5700 kg or less. Five jet airplanes were included in each experiment. For both the heavy and light propeller airplanes, perceived noise level and perceived level (Stevens Mark VII procedure) predicted annoyance better than other current noise metrics.

  14. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. 23.1395 Section 23.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. 23.1395 Section 23.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights....

  16. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. 23.1395 Section 23.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights....

  17. 14 CFR 23.1395 - Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights. 23.1395 Section 23.1395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights....

  18. Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-airplane lasercom experiment: Airplane considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, Ford

    1990-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of various airplanes for a Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-Airplane laser communications experiment. As supporting documentation, pertinent technical details are included about the potential use of airplanes located at Ames Research Center and Wallops Flight Facility. The effects and application of orbital mechanics considerations are also presented, including slant range, azimuth, elevation, and time. The pros and cons of an airplane equipped with a side port with a bubble window versus a top port with a dome are discussed.

  19. 46 CFR 31.35-1 - Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-1 Section 31.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... and power equipment, batteries, etc.—TB/ALL. All tank vessels are subject to the regulations...

  20. 46 CFR 31.35-1 - Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-1 Section 31.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... and power equipment, batteries, etc.—TB/ALL. All tank vessels are subject to the regulations...

  1. 46 CFR 31.35-1 - Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-1 Section 31.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... and power equipment, batteries, etc.—TB/ALL. All tank vessels are subject to the regulations...

  2. 46 CFR 31.35-1 - Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-1 Section 31.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... and power equipment, batteries, etc.—TB/ALL. All tank vessels are subject to the regulations...

  3. 46 CFR 31.35-1 - Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical installations, lighting and power equipment, batteries, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-1 Section 31.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK... and power equipment, batteries, etc.—TB/ALL. All tank vessels are subject to the regulations...

  4. 14 CFR 121.628 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 121.628 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an airplane with inoperable... List exists for that airplane. (2) The certificate-holding district office has issued the certificate... airplane with certain instruments and equipment in an inoperable condition. (4) Records identifying...

  5. 14 CFR 121.628 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 121.628 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an airplane with inoperable... List exists for that airplane. (2) The certificate-holding district office has issued the certificate... airplane with certain instruments and equipment in an inoperable condition. (4) Records identifying...

  6. Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated as to driving cycle, presence of traps, engine condition, trap condition and fuel aromatic content. In addition to the currently regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter), a number of unregulated emissions were measured, including aldehydes, benzene, PAHs, metals and trace elements, and 1,3-butadiene. Particulate samples were also analyzed for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. In general, the vehicles produced lower hydrocarbon emissions, higher carbon monoxide emissions, and lower fuel economy when the traps were installed in the vehicles.

  7. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights §...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights. 23.1391 Section 23.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1391 Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of...

  10. 77 FR 38375 - Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5345-53D, Airport Lighting Equipment Certification Program; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...The FAA proposes to replace AC150/5345-53C with AC150/5345-53D to clarify the criteria under the Airport Lighting Equipment Certification Program (ALECP) for acceptance of an organization as a third party certification body (third party certifier) and how manufacturers may get equipment qualified under the program. The Secretary of Transportation is providing notice in the Federal Register of,......

  11. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... powered airplanes. 121.327 Section 121.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General... airplane unless supplemental oxygen is furnished and used as set forth in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  12. Teaching about photosynthesis with simple equipment: analysis of light-induced changes in fluorescence and reflectance of plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Björn, Lars Olof; Li, Shaoshan

    2013-10-01

    Solar energy absorbed by plants results in either reflection or absorption. The latter results in photosynthesis, fluorescence, or heat. Measurements of fluorescence changes have been used for monitoring processes associated with photosynthesis. A simple method to follow changes in leaf fluorescence and leaf reflectance associated with nonphotochemical quenching and light acclimation of leaves is described. The main equipment needed consists of a green-light emitting laser pointer, a digital camera, and a personal computer equipped with the camera acquisition software and the programs ImageJ and Excel. Otherwise, only commonly available cheap materials are required. PMID:23728512

  13. Airplane Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguet, L

    1921-01-01

    The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.

  14. 77 FR 49396 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...-20, Amendment 39-15583 (73 FR 37786, July 2, 2008), for certain Model 757 airplanes equipped with... of AD 2008-13-20, Amendment 39-15583 (73 FR 37786, July 2, 2008). For certain airplanes, this... Since we issued AD 2008-13-20, Amendment 39-15583 (73 FR 37786, July 2, 2008), we have received...

  15. On the take-off of heavily loaded airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breguet, Louis

    1928-01-01

    This report examines the take-off conditions of airplanes equipped with tractive propellers, and particularly the more difficult take-off of airplanes heavily loaded per unit of wing area (wing loading) or per unit of engine power (power loading).

  16. 77 FR 54793 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... features proposed by the NPRM (76 FR 70377, November 14, 2011). American indicated that additional time is... features--for 50 work-hours x $85 per $35,000 $39,250 $10,322,750 airplanes with center wing and hour = $4...-87 (MD-87), MD-88, and MD-90-30 airplanes; equipped with center wing fuel tank and Boeing...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1322 - Warning, caution, and advisory lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Warning, caution, and advisory lights. 23.1322 Section 23.1322 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation §...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1391 - Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights. 25.1391 Section 25.1391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1391...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1415 - Ditching equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ditching equipment. 23.1415 Section 23.1415... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 23.1415 Ditching equipment. (a) Emergency flotation and signaling equipment required by any operating rule in...

  20. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  1. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  2. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  3. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  4. 14 CFR 121.345 - Radio equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radio equipment. 121.345 Section 121.345..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.345 Radio equipment. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with radio equipment required for the kind...

  5. 14 CFR 91.509 - Survival equipment for overwater operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.509 Survival equipment for overwater operations. (a) No person may take off an airplane for a flight over water more than... section, no person may take off an airplane for flight over water more than 30 minutes flying time or...

  6. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  7. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  8. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  9. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  10. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  11. 14 CFR 125.201 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equipment Requirements § 125.201 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an airplane with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions are met: (1) An... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM...

  12. 14 CFR 125.201 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment Requirements § 125.201 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an airplane with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions are met: (1) An... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM...

  13. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment...) Emergency operation of fuel, hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical systems. (2) Emergency operation...

  14. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment...) Emergency operation of fuel, hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical systems. (2) Emergency operation...

  15. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment...) Emergency operation of fuel, hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical systems. (2) Emergency operation...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1115 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... take off an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and that are essential for...

  17. 14 CFR 91.1115 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... take off an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless the following conditions... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and that are essential for...

  18. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs

  19. General problem of the airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Maurice; Richard, Paul

    1922-01-01

    A series of equations relating to airplanes are given and examples listed. Some of the equations listed include: the speed, altitude and carrying capacity of various airplanes; weight of an airplane; weight of various parts of an airplane; the polars of the wings; speeds of airplanes; radius of action.

  20. Laser equipment for investigation of light distribution in dental tissues and restorative materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisimov, Vladimir N.; Smirmov, Alexander V.; Stafeev, Sergey C.

    1997-04-01

    The description of experimental set-up for investigation of light scattering in dental tissue and dental restorative material is presented. The set-up includes the light source (He-Ne laser), beam shaping light polarization control unit and registration device. The latter represents the computer interfaced CCD-camera. The experimental results of side light scattering in enamel/dentin and in double-layer porcelain are represented. The results of this research may be useful for aesthetic dental restorations.

  1. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane, each certificate holder shall equip...

  2. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane, each certificate holder shall equip...

  3. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane, each certificate holder shall equip...

  4. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane, each certificate holder shall equip...

  5. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1307 - Miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous equipment. 25.1307 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. The following is required miscellaneous equipment: (a) (b) Two or more independent sources of electrical...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 25.1431 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1431 - Electronic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic equipment. 25.1431 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1431 Electronic equipment. (a) In showing compliance with § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to radio and...

  9. It's time to reinvent the general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Current designs for general aviation airplanes have become obsolete, and avenues for major redesign must be considered. New designs should incorporate recent advances in electronics, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and propulsion. Future airplanes should be optimized to operate satisfactorily in a positive air traffic control environment, to afford safety and comfort for point-to-point transportation, and to take advantage of automated manufacturing techniques and high production rates. These requirements have broad implications for airplane design and flying qualities, leading to a concept for the Modern Equipment General Aviation (MEGA) airplane. Synergistic improvements in design, production, and operation can provide a much needed fresh start for the general aviation industry and the traveling public. In this investigation a small four place airplane is taken as the reference, although the proposed philosophy applies across the entire spectrum of general aviation.

  10. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  11. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  12. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  13. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  14. 14 CFR 121.335 - Equipment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Equipment standards. (a) Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rates of oxygen flow, and the supply of oxygen necessary to comply with § 121.327 must meet the standards...) Turbine engine powered airplanes. The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply...

  15. 14 CFR 91.213 - Inoperative instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraph (d) of this section, no person may take off an aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment... airplane, glider, lighter-than-air aircraft, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft, for which... small airplane, glider, or lighter-than-air aircraft for which a Master Minimum Equipment List has...

  16. 77 FR 54848 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 737-300, -400, -500, -600, -700, - 700C, -800, -900, and -900ER series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a review of the tail strobe light installation, which revealed that the tail strobe light is not electrically bonded to primary structure of the airplane. This proposed AD would require......

  17. 78 FR 3363 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...-13269 (68 FR 51439, August 27, 2003), for Model 747-400 series airplanes equipped with GE Model CF6-80C2...-04, Amendment 39-11833 (65 FR 47252, August 2, 2000), for Model 747-200 and -300 series airplanes..., we issued AD 2000-09-04, Amendment 39-11712 (65 FR 25833, May 4, 2000), for Model 767...

  18. The Airplane Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

  19. Metal Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    It has long been thought that metal construction of airplanes would involve an increase in weight as compared with wood construction. Recent experience has shown that such is not the case. This report describes the materials used, treatment of, and characteristics of metal airplane construction.

  20. 14 CFR 135.179 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.179 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and which are essential for...

  1. 14 CFR 135.179 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.179 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an... airworthiness requirements under which the airplane is type certificated and which are essential for...

  2. Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, J. G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Fuller, D. O.; Kwon, H.

    2013-03-01

    Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE), and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about

  3. Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, J.G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J.D.; Fuller, D.O.; Kwon, H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE), and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about

  4. Exploratory study of the effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on the stall/spin behavior of a light general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Configurations with full-span and segmented leading-edge flaps and full-span and segmented leading-edge droop were tested. Studies were conducted with wind-tunnel models, with an outdoor radio-controlled model, and with a full-scale airplane. Results show that wing-leading-edge modifications can produce large effects on stall/spin characteristics, particularly on spin resistance. One outboard wing-leading-edge modification tested significantly improved lateral stability at stall, spin resistance, and developed spin characteristics.

  5. Simulator study of the stall departure characteristics of a light general aviation airplane with and without a wing-leading-edge modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation was developed for a two-place, single-engine, low-wing general aviation airplane for the stall and initial departure regions of flight. Two configurations, one with and one without an outboard wing-leading-edge modification, were modeled. The math models developed are presented simulation predictions and flight-test data for validation purposes and simulation results for the two configurations for various maneuvers and power settings are compared to show the beneficial influence of adding the wing-leading-edge modification.

  6. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive lighting equipment and accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Couch, B.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  7. Lighting and marking policies are associated with reduced farm equipment-related crash rates: a policy analysis of nine Midwestern US states

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Marizen; Bedford, Ronald; Wu, Hongqian; Harland, Karisa; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of roadway policies for lighting and marking of farm equipment in reducing crashes in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Methods In this ecological study, state policies on lighting and marking of farm equipment were scored for compliance with standards of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). Using generalized estimating equations negative binomial models, we estimated the relationships between lighting and marking scores, and farm equipment crash rates, per 100 000 farm operations. Results A total of 7083 crashes involving farm equipment was reported from 2005 to 2010 in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. As the state lighting and marking score increased by 5 units, crash rates reduced by 17% (rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.88). Lighting-only (rate ratio=0.48; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.51) and marking-only policies (rate ratio=0.89; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) were each associated with reduced crash rates. Conclusions Aligning lighting and marking policies with ASABE standards may effectively reduce crash rates involving farm equipment. PMID:27405602

  8. 14 CFR 121.309 - Emergency equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 121.309, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency equipment. 121.309 Section 121... Emergency equipment. (a) General: No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with the...

  9. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  10. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  11. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  12. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  13. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  14. 14 CFR 23.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1393 - Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum intensities in any vertical plane... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights... above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l 0° 1.00 0° to 5° 0.90 5° to 10° 0.80 10° to 15° 0.70...

  16. General airplane performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockfeller, W C

    1939-01-01

    Equations have been developed for the analysis of the performance of the ideal airplane, leading to an approximate physical interpretation of the performance problem. The basic sea-level airplane parameters have been generalized to altitude parameters and a new parameter has been introduced and physically interpreted. The performance analysis for actual airplanes has been obtained in terms of the equivalent ideal airplane in order that the charts developed for use in practical calculations will for the most part apply to any type of engine-propeller combination and system of control, the only additional material required consisting of the actual engine and propeller curves for propulsion unit. Finally, a more exact method for the calculation of the climb characteristics for the constant-speed controllable propeller is presented in the appendix.

  17. English airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwencke, D

    1930-01-01

    English airplane construction is presented with a particular emphasis on metal construction techniques. Steel rib and fuselage construction are discussed as well as the use of duralumin in construction.

  18. The Bristol "Badminton" Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.

  19. Airplane Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F; Crook, L H

    1918-01-01

    Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.

  20. 75 FR 39804 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 757 Airplanes, Model 767 Airplanes, and Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Model 757 Airplanes, Model 767 Airplanes, and Model 777-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... directive (AD) for certain Model 757 airplanes, Model 767 airplanes, and Model 777-200 and -300 series...) that would apply to certain Model 757 airplanes, Model 767 airplanes, and Model 777-200 and -300...

  1. Simulation studies of STOL airplane operations in metropolitan downtown and airport air traffic control environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. H.; Mclaughlin, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The operating problems and equipment requirements for STOL airplanes in terminal area operations in simulated air traffic control (ATC) environments were studied. These studies consisted of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) arrivals and departures in the New York area to and from a downtown STOL port, STOL runways at John F. Kennedy International Airport, or STOL runways at a hypothetical international airport. The studies were accomplished in real time by using a STOL airplane flight simulator. An experimental powered lift STOL airplane and two in-service airplanes having high aerodynamic lift (i.e., STOL) capability were used in the simulations.

  2. Stall-proof Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachmann, G

    1927-01-01

    My lecture has to do with the following questions. Is the danger of stalling necessarily inherent in the airplane in its present form and structure, or can it be diminished or eliminated by suitable means? Do we possess such means or devices and how must they operate? In this connection I will devote special attention to the exhibition of stall-proof airplanes by Fokker under the auspices of the English Air Ministry, which took place in Croyden last April.

  3. Flight investigation of the effects of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification on stall/spin characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, T-tail light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Patton, James M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the change in stall/spin characteristics due to the addition of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification to a four-place, low-wing, single-engine, T-tail, general aviation research airplane. Stalls and attempted spins were performed for various weights, center of gravity positions, power settings, flap deflections, and landing-gear positions. Both stall behavior and wind resistance were improved compared with the baseline airplane. The latter would readily spin for all combinations of power settings, flap deflections, and aileron inputs, but the modified airplane did not spin at idle power or with flaps extended. With maximum power and flaps retracted, the modified airplane did enter spins with abused loadings or for certain combinations of maneuver and control input. The modified airplane tended to spin at a higher angle of attack than the baseline airplane.

  4. 14 CFR 125.203 - Communication and navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment. 125... Equipment Requirements § 125.203 Communication and navigation equipment. (a) Communication equipment—general...) Navigation equipment for operations over the top. No person may operate an airplane over the top unless...

  5. 14 CFR 125.203 - Communication and navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment. 125... Equipment Requirements § 125.203 Communication and navigation equipment. (a) Communication equipment—general...) Navigation equipment for operations over the top. No person may operate an airplane over the top unless...

  6. 14 CFR 125.203 - Communication and navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment. 125... Equipment Requirements § 125.203 Communication and navigation equipment. (a) Communication equipment—general...) Navigation equipment for operations over the top. No person may operate an airplane over the top unless...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, or the airplane is approved for operations at or above altitudes where oxygen...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, or the airplane is approved for operations at or above altitudes where oxygen...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, or the airplane is approved for operations at or above altitudes where oxygen...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, or the airplane is approved for operations at or above altitudes where oxygen...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, or the airplane is approved for operations at or above altitudes where oxygen...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1353 - Electrical equipment and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical equipment and installations. 25.1353 Section 25.1353 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1353 Electrical equipment...

  13. 76 FR 67346 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... operators of these airplanes. This AD requires replacing certain lithium-ion batteries installed as the main... equipped with a lithium-ion battery as the main aircraft battery. We are issuing this AD to correct...

  14. 78 FR 42723 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-12/47E airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... states: During a design review of the electrical supply of navigation equipment installed on certain...

  15. 78 FR 22215 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...-13666 (69 FR 33561, June 16, 2004)]. Concurrent modification [new 142 work-hours x $85 0 $12,070 $362...-07, Amendment 39-13666 (69 FR 33561, June 16, 2004), for certain Model 757 series airplanes equipped with Rolls-Royce RB211 engines. (AD 2004-12-07 superseded AD 99-24-07, Amendment 39-11431 (64 FR...

  16. 77 FR 11418 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Transport Category Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...-16630 (76 FR 12556, March 8, 2011). (2) Airplanes equipped with any chemical oxygen generator installed...-09, Amendment 39-16630 (76 FR 12556, March 8, 2011): Oxygen Generator Deactivation Within 21 days... proposed AD. Discussion On March 2, 2011, we issued AD 2011-04-09, Amendment 39-16630 (76 FR 12556, March...

  17. Reconstruction of the 1994 Pittsburgh Airplane Accident Using a Computer Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Edwin K.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Shin, Jae Ho

    1998-01-01

    On September 8, 1994, a Boeing 737-300 passenger airplane was on a downwind approach to the Pittsburgh International Airport at an altitude of 5000 feet above ground level (6000 feet MSL). While in a shallow left turn onto a downwind approach heading, the airplane crossed into the vortex trail of a Boeing 727 flying in the same approach pattern about 4 miles ahead. The B-737 airplane rolled and turned sharply to the left, exited the vortex wake and plunged into the ground. Weather was not a factor in the accident. The airplane was equipped with a 11+ channel digital Flight Data Recorder (FDR) and a multiple channel Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR). Both recorders were recovered from the crash site and provided excellent data for the development of an accident scenario. Radar tracking of the two airplanes as well as the indicated air speed (IAS) perturbations clearly visible on the B-737 FDR recordings indicate that the upset was apparently initiated by the airplane's crossing into the wake of the B-727 flying ahead in the same traffic pattern. A 6 degree-of-freedom simulation program for the B-737 airplane using MATLAB and SIMULINK was constructed. The simulation was initialized at the stabilized flight conditions of the airplane about 13 seconds prior to its entry into the vortex trail of the B-727 airplane. By assuming a certain combination of control inputs, it was possible to produce a simulated motion that closely matched that recorded on the FDR.

  18. The evolution of airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Charles, J. D.; Lorente, S.

    2014-07-01

    The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.

  19. 75 FR 64963 - Airworthiness Directives; Fokker Services B.V. Model F.28 Mark 0070 and 0100 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic.... Model F.28 Mark 0070 and 0100 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Fokker Services B.V. Model F.28 Mark 0070 and 0100 airplanes, certificated in any category, equipped...

  20. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development

  1. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Edwards, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  2. Automated airplane surface generation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Cordero, Y.; Jones, W.

    1996-12-31

    An efficient methodology and software axe presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. A small set of engineering design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tall, horizontal tail, and canard components. Wing, canard, and tail surface grids axe manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage is described by an algebraic function with four design parameters. The computed surface grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations. Both batch and interactive software are discussed for applying the methodology.

  3. Testing airplane fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proll, A

    1924-01-01

    The following considerations determine the strength of airplane fabrics: 1. maximum air forces acting on the surfaces (including local stresses); 2. tensions produced in the fabrics, in the directions of both warp and filling; 3. factor of safety required. The question of the permissible depression of the fabric as affecting the aerodynamic requirements in regard to the maintenance of shape of the section, the tenacity and extensibility of the layer of dope, its strength and its permeability to water is almost as important.

  4. 14 CFR 23.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment, systems, and installations. 23.1309 Section 23.1309 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 23.1309 Equipment, systems,...

  5. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flying equipment and operating information... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment... flying equipment and aeronautical charts and data, in current and appropriate form, are accessible...

  6. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flying equipment and operating information... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment... flying equipment and aeronautical charts and data, in current and appropriate form, are accessible...

  7. 14 CFR 121.803 - Emergency medical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency medical equipment. 121.803... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Emergency Medical Equipment and Training § 121.803 Emergency medical equipment. (a) No person may operate a passenger-carrying airplane under this part...

  8. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  9. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  10. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  11. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  12. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  13. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  14. 14 CFR 121.803 - Emergency medical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency medical equipment. 121.803... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Emergency Medical Equipment and Training § 121.803 Emergency medical equipment. (a) No person may operate a passenger-carrying airplane under this part...

  15. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  16. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  17. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  18. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  19. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  20. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1982-03-23

    A long-lifetime light source is discussed with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nightime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  1. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1983-10-11

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision is disclosed. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode. 1 fig.

  2. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  3. The effects of configuration changes on the aerodynamic characteristics of a full-scale mockup of a light twin engine airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. P.; Shivers, J. P.; Greer, H. D.; Megrail, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a full-scale model of a light twin engine aircraft were conducted. The angle of attack was varied from minus 4 degrees to plus 20 degrees. The sideslip range was plus or minus 8 degrees. Thrust coefficients were 0, 0.20, and 0.44. Tests were made with various nacelle configurations, modes of propeller rotation, orientation of the thrust axis, and airfoil section at Reynolds numbers of 2.96 times one million amd 2.05 times one million.

  4. Nieuport-Delage Pursuit Airplane 48 C. 1. : "jockey" type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    This is a light single-seat pursuit airplane with a tractor propeller actuated by a 12 cylinder V-type Hispano-Suiza engine giving 400 HP at 2000 R.P.M. This is a single winged aircraft capable of 273 km/h.

  5. 76 FR 81360 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Operation Without Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... 27, 2011 (76 FR 66660). No comments were received, and the special conditions are adopted as proposed... generation and distribution architecture is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) and is not equipped... power, which is generated by the airplane's engine generators or APU is not extremely improbable....

  6. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  7. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  8. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories... airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a maximum...

  9. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  10. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  11. Flight Test Results of a GPS-Based Pitot-Static Calibration Method Using Output-Error Optimization for a Light Twin-Engine Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Kiszely, Paul; Foster, John V.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), a novel pitot-static calibration method was developed to allow rapid in-flight calibration for subscale aircraft while flying within confined test areas. This approach uses Global Positioning System (GPS) technology coupled with modern system identification methods that rapidly computes optimal pressure error models over a range of airspeed with defined confidence bounds. This method has been demonstrated in subscale flight tests and has shown small 2- error bounds with significant reduction in test time compared to other methods. The current research was motivated by the desire to further evaluate and develop this method for full-scale aircraft. A goal of this research was to develop an accurate calibration method that enables reductions in test equipment and flight time, thus reducing costs. The approach involved analysis of data acquisition requirements, development of efficient flight patterns, and analysis of pressure error models based on system identification methods. Flight tests were conducted at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) utilizing an instrumented Piper Navajo research aircraft. In addition, the UTSI engineering flight simulator was used to investigate test maneuver requirements and handling qualities issues associated with this technique. This paper provides a summary of piloted simulation and flight test results that illustrates the performance and capabilities of the NASA calibration method. Discussion of maneuver requirements and data analysis methods is included as well as recommendations for piloting technique.

  12. 77 FR 15291 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... B4-622R airplanes; Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model A300 F4-600R series airplanes... B4-603, B4-605R, and B4- 622R airplanes; Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes; and Model A300...

  13. 78 FR 21571 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 747-400, -400D, and -400F series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of water leakage into the main deck cargo wire integration unit (WIU). The water flowed from the drip shield through disbonded floor seams into the aft main equipment center (MEC) drip shield gutter, then onto the WIU.......

  14. 14 CFR 91.513 - Emergency equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency equipment. 91.513 Section 91.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional...

  15. 30 CFR 72.502 - Requirements for nonpermissible light-duty diesel-powered equipment other than generators and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... listed in Table 72.502-1, as follows: Table 72.502-1 EPA requirement EPA category PM limit 40 CFR 86.094-8(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty vehicle 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-9(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty truck 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-11(a)(1)(iv)(B) heavy duty highway engine 0.1 g/bhp-hr. 40 CFR 89.112(a)...

  16. 30 CFR 72.502 - Requirements for nonpermissible light-duty diesel-powered equipment other than generators and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... listed in Table 72.502-1, as follows: Table 72.502-1 EPA requirement EPA category PM limit 40 CFR 86.094-8(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty vehicle 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-9(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty truck 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-11(a)(1)(iv)(B) heavy duty highway engine 0.1 g/bhp-hr. 40 CFR 89.112(a)...

  17. 30 CFR 72.502 - Requirements for nonpermissible light-duty diesel-powered equipment other than generators and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... listed in Table 72.502-1, as follows: Table 72.502-1 EPA requirement EPA category PM limit 40 CFR 86.094-8(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty vehicle 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-9(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty truck 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-11(a)(1)(iv)(B) heavy duty highway engine 0.1 g/bhp-hr. 40 CFR 89.112(a)...

  18. 30 CFR 72.502 - Requirements for nonpermissible light-duty diesel-powered equipment other than generators and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... listed in Table 72.502-1, as follows: Table 72.502-1 EPA requirement EPA category PM limit 40 CFR 86.094-8(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty vehicle 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-9(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty truck 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-11(a)(1)(iv)(B) heavy duty highway engine 0.1 g/bhp-hr. 40 CFR 89.112(a)...

  19. 30 CFR 72.502 - Requirements for nonpermissible light-duty diesel-powered equipment other than generators and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... listed in Table 72.502-1, as follows: Table 72.502-1 EPA requirement EPA category PM limit 40 CFR 86.094-8(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty vehicle 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-9(a)(1)(I)(A)(2) light duty truck 0.1 g/mile. 40 CFR 86.094-11(a)(1)(iv)(B) heavy duty highway engine 0.1 g/bhp-hr. 40 CFR 89.112(a)...

  20. An Analysis of the Tracking Performances of Two Straight-wing and Two Swept-wing Fighter Airplanes with Fixed Sights in a Standardized Test Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziff, Howard L; Rathert, George A; Gadeberg, Burnett L

    1953-01-01

    Standard air-to-air-gunnery tracking runs were conducted with F-51H, F8F-1, F-86A, and F-86E airplanes equipped with fixed gunsights. The tracking performances were documented over the normal operating range of altitude, Mach number, and normal acceleration factor for each airplane. The sources of error were studied by statistical analyses of the aim wander.

  1. Reviews Book: Enjoyable Physics Equipment: SEP Colorimeter Box Book: Pursuing Power and Light Equipment: SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher Equipment: Sciencescope GLE Datalogger Equipment: EDU Logger Book: Physics of Sailing Book: The Lightness of Being Software: Logotron Insight iLog Studio iPhone Apps Lecture: 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Enjoyable Physics Mechanics book makes learning more fun SEP Colorimeter Box A useful and inexpensive colorimeter for the classroom Pursuing Power and Light Account of the development of science in the 19th centuary SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher An excellent resource for teaching about projectiles GLE Datalogger GPS software is combined with a datalogger EDU Logger Remote datalogger has greater sensing abilities Logotron Insight iLog Studio Software enables datlogging, data analysis and modelling iPhone Apps Mobile phone games aid study of gravity WORTH A LOOK Physics of Sailing Book journeys through the importance of physics in sailing The Lightness of Being Study of what the world is made from LECTURE The 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture presents the physics of fusion WEB WATCH Planet Scicast pushes boundaries of pupil creativity

  2. Simulation Analyses in Support of DOE’s Fossil Fuel Rule for Single Component Equipment and Lighting Replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Wang, Weimin

    2013-10-16

    At the request of DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a series of building energy simulations using a large office model to investigate the potential savings that could be accrued from a typical chiller, boiler, or lighting replacement in a Federal office building.

  3. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  4. Satellite-based estimates of light-use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, J. G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Fuller, D. O.; Kwon, H.

    2012-11-01

    Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based carbon dioxide eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 yr of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger-scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE) and we present the first-ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from night-time CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increases in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information

  5. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J. )

    1990-03-20

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes.

  6. The structure of airplane fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walen, E Dean

    1920-01-01

    This report prepared by the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics supplies the necessary information regarding the apparatus and methods of testing and inspecting airplane fabrics.

  7. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements relating to ice protection, or unless an airplane is a non-transport category airplane type certificated after December 31, 1964, that has the ice protection provisions that meet section 34 of appendix A... equipped with means for the prevention or removal of ice on windshields, wings, empennage, propellers,...

  8. 14 CFR 121.341 - Equipment for operations in icing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements relating to ice protection, or unless an airplane is a non-transport category airplane type certificated after December 31, 1964, that has the ice protection provisions that meet section 34 of appendix A... equipped with means for the prevention or removal of ice on windshields, wings, empennage, propellers,...

  9. An analytical technique for the analysis of airplane spin entry and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion for a spinning airplane are simplified to facilitate the analysis of spin entry and recovery maneuvers. Solutions of a nonlinear, first order equation for spin rate enable calculation of spin entry and recovery times and control required for recovery. The analysis is applied to a light airplane for which both aerodynamic data, rotory balance wind tunnel tests, and spin flight test data have been obtained. A comparison of predicted and actual transient spin responses is made which supports the validity of the analytical approach taken but which also illustrates the difficulty in obtaining accurate aerodynamic data for spinning airplanes. Certain normalized parameters of the reduced state spin equation suggest criteria for assessing the transient spin characteristics of light airplanes.

  10. Flight Tests of a Ministick Controller in an F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoliker, Patrick C.; Carter, John

    2003-01-01

    In March of 1999, five pilots performed flight tests to evaluate the handling qualities of an F/A-18 research airplane equipped with a small-displacement center stick (ministick) controller that had been developed for the JAS 39 Gripen airplane (a fighter/attack/ reconnaissance airplane used by the Swedish air force). For these tests, the ministick was installed in the aft cockpit (see figure) and production support flight control computers (PSFCCs) were used as interfaces between the controller hardware and the standard F/A-18 flight-control laws. The primary objective of the flight tests was to assess any changes in handling qualities of the F/A-18 airplane attributable to the mechanical characteristics of the ministick. The secondary objective was to demonstrate the capability of the PSFCCs to support flight-test experiments.

  11. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  12. Airplane design for gusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    There are two basic approaches used for the structural design of aircraft due to dust encounter. One is a discrete gust approach, the other is based on power spectral techniques. Both of these approaches are explained in this report. Tacit to the above approaches is the assumption that loading on the airplane arises primarily from vertical gusts. A study of atmospheric turbulence was made not only on the vertical component, but on the longitudinal and transverse gust components as well. An analysis was made to establish the loads that develop when explicit consideration is given to both the vertical and head-wind components. The results are reported. Also included in this report are brief comments on gust effects during approach and landing.

  13. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acoustical change: Transport category large... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

  14. Aeroacoustic wind-tunnel tests of a light twin-boom general-aviation airplane with free or shrouded-pusher propellers. [in the Langley full-scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclemore, H. C.; Pegg, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics of four different pusher-propeller configurations on a twin boom, general aviation airplane. The propellers included a 2-blade free propeller, two 3-blade shrouded propellers, and a 5-blade shrouded propeller. The tests were conducted for a range of airplane angles of attack from about 0 deg to 16 deg for test speeds from 0 to about 36 m/sec and for a range of propeller blade angles and rotation speeds. The free propeller provided the best aerodynamic propulsive performance. For forward flight conditions, the free propeller noise levels were lower than those of the shrouded propellers. In the static conditions the free propeller noise levels were as low as those for the shrouded propellers, except for the propeller in-plane noise where the shrouded propeller noise levels were lower.

  15. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E.; Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.

    2015-12-01

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  16. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E. Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.

    2015-12-15

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  17. 78 FR 78705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...We are superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2010-24-07 for all Airbus Model A318 series airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. AD 2010- 24-07 required repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower lateral fittings for damage, repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower central support for cracking, and corrective action if......

  18. 77 FR 12989 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 series airplanes; Model A330-300 series airplanes; Model A340-200 series airplanes; and Model A340-300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report that three failures of the retraction bracket occurred during fatigue testing before the calculated life limit of the main landing gear (MLG). This AD......

  19. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  20. If we designed airplanes like we design drugs....

    PubMed

    Woltosz, Walter S

    2012-01-01

    In the early days, airplanes were put together with parts designed for other purposes (bicycles, farm equipment, textiles, automotive equipment, etc.). They were then flown by their brave designers to see if the design would work--often with disastrous results. Today, airplanes, helicopters, missiles, and rockets are designed in computers in a process that involves iterating through enormous numbers of designs before anything is made. Until very recently, novel drug-like molecules were nearly always made first like early airplanes, then tested to see if they were any good (although usually not on the brave scientists who created them!). The resulting extremely high failure rate is legendary. This article describes some of the evolution of computer-based design in the aerospace industry and compares it with the progress made to date in computer-aided drug design. Software development for pharmaceutical research has been largely entrepreneurial, with only relatively limited support from government and industry end-user organizations. The pharmaceutical industry is still about 30 years behind aerospace and other industries in fully recognizing the value of simulation and modeling and funding the development of the tools needed to catch up. PMID:22139474

  1. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  2. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  3. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  4. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  5. 78 FR 68347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). Airbus also stated that for Model A340-541 and A340-642 airplanes.... Airbus stated that this requirement for Model A330 MRTT airplanes is equivalent to one in the NPRM (78 FR... (f) of AD 2009-04-07, Amendment 39-15813 (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). For all airplanes...

  6. 78 FR 28152 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010), exempted airplanes on which Airbus Modification 34804..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for Model A318-121 and -122 airplanes, and except...) of AD 2010-24-07, Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for airplanes on...

  7. 77 FR 51717 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... visual inspection of the forward fitting at frame (FR) 40 on both sides of the airplane for cracks, and..., Amendment 39-16229 (75 FR cycles. 11435, March 11, 2010)), whichever occurs later; except, for airplanes... inspection for cracks of the forward fitting at FR 40 without nut removal on both sides of the airplane,...

  8. 76 FR 79560 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes; Model A330-223F and -243F airplanes; and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series...

  9. 77 FR 75833 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... fitting at frame (FR) 40 on both sides of the airplane for cracks, and repair if necessary. This new AD...-time detailed visual inspection of the forward fitting at FR 40 on both sides of the airplane, in..., Amendment 39- 16229 (75 FR 11435, March 11, 2010)), whichever occurs later; except, for airplanes that,...

  10. 77 FR 66772 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... date of AD 96-13-11, Amendment 39-9679 (61 FR 35122, July 5, 1996)). (2) For airplanes that have..., Amendment 39-16698 (76 FR 27875, May 13, 2011). (1) For airplanes identified in paragraph (c)(1) of this AD... FR 27875, May 13, 2011). For airplanes identified in paragraph (c)(3) of this AD: Within 3...

  11. 78 FR 70003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... series airplanes; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300...

  12. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  13. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  14. Comparison of theoretical predicted longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics with full-scale wind tunnel data on the ATLIT airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P. G.; Griswold, M.; Roskam, J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for predicting the lift coefficient, the pitching moment coefficient, and the drag coefficient of light, twin-engine, propeller-driven airplanes. The method was applied to the Advanced Technology Light Twin-Engine airplane. The calculated characteristics were then correlated against full scale wind tunnel data. The analytical method was found to predict the drag and pitching moment fairly well. However, the lift prediction was extremely poor.

  15. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  16. The airplane: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauteuil, Mark; Geniesse, Pete; Hunniford, Michael; Lawler, Kathleen; Quirk, Elena; Tognarelli, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The 'Airplane' is a moderate-range, 70 passenger aircraft. It is designed to serve demands for flights up to 10,000 feet and it cruises at 32 ft/s. The major drivers for the design of the Airplane are economic competitiveness, takeoff performance, and weight minimization. The Airplane is propelled by a single Astro 15 electric motor and a Zinger 12-8 propeller. The wing section is a Spica airfoil which, because of its flat bottom, provides simplicity in manufacturing and thus helps to cut costs. The wing is constructed of a single load bearing mainspar and shape-holding ribs coated with Monokote skin, lending to a light weight structural makeup. The fuselage houses the motor, flight deck and passenger compartments as well as the fuel and control actuating systems. The wing will be attached to the top of the fuselage as will the fuel and control actuator systems for easy disassembly and maintenance. The aircraft is maneuvered about its pitch axis by means of an aft elevator on the flat plate horizontal tail. The twin vertical tail surfaces are also flat plates and each features a rudder for both directional and roll control. Along with wing dihedral, the rudders will be used to roll the aircraft. The Airplane is less costly to operate at its own maximum range and capacity as well as at its maximum range and the HB-40's maximum capacity than the HB-40.

  17. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  18. Flight comparison of the transonic agility of the F-111A airplane and the F-111 supercritical wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, E. L.; Sakamoto, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to investigate the improvements in maneuverability of an F-111A airplane equipped with a supercritical wing. In this configuration the aircraft is known as the F-111 TACT (transonic aircraft technology) airplane. The variable-wing-sweep feature permitted an evaluation of the supercritical wing in many configurations. The primary emphasis was placed on the transonic Mach number region, which is considered to be the principal air combat arena for fighter aircraft. An agility study was undertaken to assess the maneuverability of the F-111A aircraft with a supercritical wing at both design and off-design conditions. The evaluation included an assessment of aerodynamic and maneuver performance in conjunction with an evaluation of precision controllability during tailchase gunsight tracking tasks.

  19. Electromagnetic compatibility and the all-electric airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christman, Al

    1995-01-01

    NASA is studying the feasibility of installing 'all-electric' controls in future commercial aircraft, replacing the current hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Planes utilizing such equipment should weigh less and be cheaper to maintain, but might also be susceptible to interference from undesired external electromagnetic fields. Possible sources of these extraneous signals include radio and television broadcasters, two-way communications stations, and radar installations of all kinds. One way to reduce the hazard would be to use fiber-optic cables to carry signals from the cockpit to the various points of use, a concept known as 'fly-by-light' or FBL. However, electrical circuits (PBW, or 'power-by-wire') would still be required at both ends of the cables to perform control functions, so the possibility of harmful interference would remain. Computer models for two different antennas were created in order to find the magnitude of the electric fields which would be generated in the airspace around them while in the transmit mode. The first antenna was a horizontal 'rhombic' used by the Voice of America (VOA) for long-distance short-wave broadcasting. The second antenna was a multi-element 'log-periodic dipole array' (LPDA) of a type often used for two-way radio communications. For each case, a specified amount of power was applied in the computer model, and the resulting electric field intensity was predicted at a variety of locations surrounding the antenna. This information will then be used to calculate the levels of interference which could occur inside an airplane flying in the vicinity of these radiation emitters.

  20. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-learning process; (ii) Teaching methods and procedures; and (iii) The instructor-student relationship. (d...; (iii) Data and motion limitations of simulation; and (iv) The minimum airplane simulator equipment... environmental and fault panels; (iii) Data and motion limitations of simulation; and (iv) The minimum...

  1. Transport airplane flight deck development survey and analysis: Report and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a survey and analysis of research and development work related to improving transport airplane flight deck equipment and aircrew performance is reported. Research and development related to flight deck advancement in general, as well as that concerned directly with terminal area operations, is described and discussed.

  2. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  3. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  4. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  5. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  6. 14 CFR 121.323 - Instruments and equipment for operations at night.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required by §§ 121.305 through 121.321 and 121.803: (a) Position lights. (b) An anti-collision light. (c) Two landing lights, except that only one landing light is required for nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964. (d) Instrument lights providing enough light to make...

  7. 14 CFR 121.323 - Instruments and equipment for operations at night.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required by §§ 121.305 through 121.321 and 121.803: (a) Position lights. (b) An anti-collision light. (c) Two landing lights, except that only one landing light is required for nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964. (d) Instrument lights providing enough light to make...

  8. 14 CFR 121.323 - Instruments and equipment for operations at night.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required by §§ 121.305 through 121.321 and 121.803: (a) Position lights. (b) An anti-collision light. (c) Two landing lights, except that only one landing light is required for nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964. (d) Instrument lights providing enough light to make...

  9. 14 CFR 121.323 - Instruments and equipment for operations at night.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required by §§ 121.305 through 121.321 and 121.803: (a) Position lights. (b) An anti-collision light. (c) Two landing lights, except that only one landing light is required for nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964. (d) Instrument lights providing enough light to make...

  10. 14 CFR 121.323 - Instruments and equipment for operations at night.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required by §§ 121.305 through 121.321 and 121.803: (a) Position lights. (b) An anti-collision light. (c) Two landing lights, except that only one landing light is required for nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964. (d) Instrument lights providing enough light to make...

  11. 23 CFR 140.910 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Railroad Work § 140.910 Equipment. (a) Company owned equipment. Cost of company-owned equipment may be reimbursed for the average or actual cost of operation, light and running repairs, and depreciation, or...

  12. 23 CFR 140.910 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Railroad Work § 140.910 Equipment. (a) Company owned equipment. Cost of company-owned equipment may be reimbursed for the average or actual cost of operation, light and running repairs, and depreciation, or...

  13. Propeller tests on airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senouque, A

    1922-01-01

    In order to determine the efficiency of a propeller as accurately as possible, its revolution speed, thrust and power absorbed must be measured during flight. Unfortunately, these measurements can only be made with very complicated equipment. To surmount this problem the testers contented themselves with approximate results obtainable in two or three hours of flight.

  14. The Testing of Airplane Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schraivogel, Karl

    1932-01-01

    This report considers the determining factors in the choice of airplane fabrics, describes the customary methods of testing and reports some of the experimental results. To sum up briefly the results obtained with the different fabrics, it may be said that increasing the strength of covering fabrics by using coarser yarns ordinarily offers no difficulty, because the weight increment from doping is relatively smaller.

  15. Paper Airplanes: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Richard A.

    1976-01-01

    A learning experience is described for upper elementary or junior high students involving the manufacture, transportation, and marketing of a product for consumers. Steps are given and roles are assigned for students to convert raw material (paper) to a finished product (paper airplanes) and to sell it. (AV)

  16. Testing a Windmill Airplane ("autogiro")

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiferth, R

    1927-01-01

    In order to clear up the matter ( In the Spanish report it was stated that the reference surface for the calculation of the coefficients c(sub a) and c(sub w) was the area of all four wings, instead of a single wing), the model of a windwill airplane was tested in the Gottingen wind tunnel.

  17. Glues Used in Airplane Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, S W; Truax, T R

    1920-01-01

    This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and presents the results of investigations conducted by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service on the manufacture, preparation, application, testing and physical properties of the different types of glues used in wood airplane parts.

  18. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  19. 78 FR 15112 - Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and... guidance material for airplane performance and handling characteristics in new transport category airplanes...: Joe Jacobsen, Airplane & Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Airplane...

  20. Welding in airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rechtlich, A; Schrenk, M

    1928-01-01

    The present article attempts to explain the principles for the production of a perfect weld and to throw light on the unexplained problems. Moreover, it is intended to elucidate the possibilities of testing the strength and reliability of welded parts.

  1. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  2. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  3. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  4. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  5. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  6. 76 FR 44458 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747 Airplanes and Model 767 Airplanes Equipped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 46868). The original NPRM (73 FR 18721, April 7, 2008) proposed to require revising the... AFM revision. Other Relevant Rulemaking Related AD 2010-16-03, Amendment 39-16379 (75 FR 47203, August... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in...

  7. A possible method for preventing the autorotation of airplane wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrenk, Oskar

    1930-01-01

    At the suggestion of Professor Betz, the following device was tested with the object of reducing the autorotational speed of airplane wings. The model of a normal wing with the Gottigen profile 420, 1 meter span and 0.2 meter chord was provided with a pair of symmetrical slots on the suction side, connected with each other inside the wing. The arrangement of the testing equipment and models are given and the effect of the slots can be seen in the experimental curves that are included.

  8. Methane-Powered Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Beech Aircraft's Corporation's Boulder Division developed expertise in producing superinsulated virtually leak-proof cryogenic equipment for storing liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels in NASA's Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle programs. Boulder Division used this experience in designing a fuel storage tank for liquid methane, a "cryogenic" fuel that must be supercooled to keep it liquid. Beech Aircraft is producing a four-place lightplane powered by liquid methane (LM) which is stored in two of these specially designed cryogenic storage tanks holding 18 gallons each.

  9. Analysis of Stresses in German Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1923-01-01

    This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.

  10. 78 FR 29666 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes; Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes; and Model A340-541 and -642 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of wing tip brakes (WTBs) losing their braking function in service due to heavy wear on the brake discs. WTBs are designed to stop and hold the mechanical......

  11. 77 FR 65812 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 freighter series airplanes; Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of ram air turbine (RAT) pump failure. This AD requires inspecting the RAT pump anti-stall valve for correct setting, re-identifying the RAT pump, performing a......

  12. 77 FR 40830 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 freighter series airplanes; Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of ram air turbine (RAT) pump failure. This proposed AD would require inspecting the RAT pump anti- stall valve for correct setting, re-identifying the......

  13. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  14. Supersonic airplane study and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic airplane creates shocks which coalesce and form a classical N-wave on the ground, forming a double bang noise termed sonic boom. A recent supersonic commercial transport (the Concorde) has a loud sonic boom (over 100 PLdB) and low aerodynamic performance (cruise lift-drag ratio 7). To enhance the U.S. market share in supersonic transport, an airframer's market risk for a low-boom airplane has to be reduced. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to design airplanes to meet the dual constraints of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. During the past year, a research effort was focused on three main topics. The first was to use the existing design tools, developed in past years, to design one of the low-boom wind-tunnel configurations (Ames Model 3) for testing at Ames Research Center in April 1993. The second was to use a Navier-Stokes code (Overflow) to support the Oblique-All-Wing (OAW) study at Ames. The third was to study an optimization technique applied on a Haack-Adams body to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  15. 14 CFR 125.203 - Communication and navigation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation equipment. 125.203 Section 125.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (3) The resulting effects on the airplane and occupants, considering the stage of flight and... electrical system and equipment design and installation, critical environmental conditions must be considered... shown by environmental tests, design analysis, or reference to previous comparable service experience...

  17. 14 CFR 91.509 - Survival equipment for overwater operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survival equipment for overwater operations. 91.509 Section 91.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... dependent upon the airplane power supply. (5) A lifeline stored in accordance with § 25.1411(g) of...

  18. Research on the control of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, B Melvill

    1928-01-01

    Our task is to endeavor to obtain precise experimental records of the motion of stalled airplanes, both when left to themselves and when the pilot is trying to control them. The apparatus which we use consists of a box containing tree gyroscopes which are slightly deflected against a spring control when the airplane is turning.

  19. 77 FR 73343 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... 39-16634 (76 FR 15805, March 22, 2011)] had been accomplished on this seat, but due to seizure, the... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called Model...

  20. 78 FR 40057 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of certain sliding windows that...

  1. 78 FR 37498 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Freighter, and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that a certain wire...

  2. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ..., A319, A320, and A321 airplanes. Since we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April..., Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April 14, 2008), With Revised Affected Airplanes Referenced Conditions (j... proposed AD. Discussion On March 31, 2008, we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975,...

  3. 78 FR 72834 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; SOCATA Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for SOCATA Model TBM 700 airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory...

  4. 77 FR 69391 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... A310-204, -222, -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the manufacturer...

  5. 77 FR 60331 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of an uncommanded nose landing...

  6. 77 FR 51729 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that revealed...

  7. 77 FR 66760 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...-200, A330-300, A340-200, A340- 300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD...

  8. 77 FR 66762 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a design review of the fuel...

  9. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  10. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  11. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  12. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  13. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  14. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  15. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  16. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  17. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  18. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  19. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  20. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  1. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  2. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  3. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  4. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight...

  5. Prolonging Microgravity on Parabolic Airplane Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Three techniques have been proposed to prolong the intervals of time available for microgravity experiments aboard airplanes flown along parabolic trajectories. Typically, a pilot strives to keep an airplane on such a trajectory during a nominal time interval as long as 25 seconds, and an experimental apparatus is released to float freely in the airplane cabin to take advantage of the microgravitational environment of the trajectory for as long as possible. It is usually not possible to maintain effective microgravity during the entire nominal time interval because random aerodynamic forces and fluctuations in pilot control inputs cause the airplane to deviate slightly from a perfect parabolic trajectory, such that the freely floating apparatus bumps into the ceiling, floor, or a wall of the airplane before the completion of the parabola.

  6. Power Product Equipment Technician: Lawn and Garden Equipment. Teacher Edition. Student Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions for lawn and garden equipment repair and maintenance, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains four units: (1) introduction to lawn and garden equipment; (2) light-duty lawn and garden equipment; (3) heavy-duty lawn and garden equipment; and (4)…

  7. The Pressure Distribution over the Wings and Tail Surfaces of a PW-9 Pursuit Airplane in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Richard

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine (1) the magnitude and distribution of aerodynamic loads over the wings and tail surfaces of a pursuit-type airplane in the maneuvers likely to impose critical loads on the various subassemblies of the airplane structure. (2) To study the phenomenon of center of pressure movement and normal force coefficient variation in accelerated flight, and (3) to measure the normal accelerations at the center of gravity, wing-tip, and tail, in order to determine the nature of the inertia forces acting simultaneously with the critical aerodynamic loads. The results obtained throw light on a number of important questions involving structural design. Some of the more interesting results are discussed in some detail, but in general the report is for the purpose of making this collection of airplane-load data obtained in flight available to those interested in airplane structures.

  8. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots made simulated instrument flight evaluations in light-to-moderate turbulence. They were favorably impressed with the system, particularly with the elimination of control force transients that accompanied configuration changes. For ride quality, quantitative data showed that the attitude command control system resulted in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  9. An Analytical Performance Assessment of a Fuel Cell-powered, Small Electric Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly emerging fuel cell power technologies may be used to launch a new revolution of electric propulsion systems for light aircraft. Future small electric airplanes using fuel cell technologies hold the promise of high reliability, low maintenance, low noise, and with exception of water vapor zero emissions. This paper describes an analytical feasibility and performance assessment conducted by NASA's Glenn Research Center of a fuel cell-powered, propeller-driven, small electric airplane based on a model of the MCR 01 two-place kitplane.

  10. 14 CFR 91.507 - Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. 91.507 Section 91.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. No person may operate an airplane...

  11. 14 CFR 91.507 - Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. 91.507 Section 91.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. No person may operate an airplane...

  12. 14 CFR 91.507 - Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. 91.507 Section 91.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. No person may operate an airplane...

  13. 14 CFR 91.507 - Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. 91.507 Section 91.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. No person may operate an airplane...

  14. 14 CFR 91.507 - Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. 91.507 Section 91.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. No person may operate an airplane...

  15. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  16. Landing and Braking of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breguet, Louis

    1929-01-01

    In the numerical examples, we have considered an airplane landing in calm air in a fixed direction after crossing the border (with its obstacles) at a height of 30 m. Its stopping point is at a distance D from the obstacle, comprising: a distance D(sub 1) in regular gliding flight; a distance D(sub 2) in levelling off; a distance D(sub 3) in taxying on the ground. The calculations enable us to make out the following table, which gives an idea of the improvements to be expected in the use of various possible methods of braking in the air and on the ground.

  17. Flight evaluation of advanced control systems and displays on a general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loschke, P. C.; Barber, M. R.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Mcmurtry, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    A flight-test program was conducted to determine the effect of advanced flight control systems and displays on the handling qualities of a light twin-engined airplane. A flight-director display and an attitude-command control system, used separately and in combination, transformed a vehicle with poor handling qualities during ILS approaches in turbulent air into a vehicle with good handling qualities. The attitude-command control system also improved the ride qualities of the airplane. A rate-command control system made only small improvements to the airplane's ILS handling qualities in turbulence. Both the rate- and the attitude-command control systems reduced stall warning in the test airplane, increasing the likelihood of inadvertent stalls. The final approach to the point of flare was improved by both the rate- and the attitude-command control systems. However, the small control wheel deflections necessary to flare were unnatural and tended to cause overcontrolling during flare. Airplane handling qualities are summarized for each control-system and display configuration.

  18. Airplane structure health monitoring by the optical frequency modulation Brillouin distributed measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yari, Takashi; Ishioka, Masato; Nagai, Kanehiro; Sakurai, Tateo

    2005-05-01

    The necessity for Airplane structural health-monitoring technology has been increasing because of improvement of reliability and cost saving. Optical fiber sensor system is an attractive method for structural health monitoring, because of its lightweight, non-electromagnetic interference, and to be embeddable to composite structures. Especially the distributed optical fiber sensor fits the health monitoring for large-sized structures. However, the distributed optical fiber measurement system using the pulse light represented by BOTDR has low spatial resolution and long measurement interval. These performances have been the obstacle of application to airplane structure health monitoring system. Then, the authors have proposed the Brillouin optical frequency modulation method for improvement of the spatial resolution and shortening of measurement intervals. In this work, we conducted basic approach in order to develop Brillouin Optical Frequency Domain Analysis (BOFDA) measurement system, such as pump power property and frequency modulation property for Brillouin stimulated light. We confirmed ability to measure stimulated Brillouin Scattering light in 50mm section. Moreover, We considered the optical fiber sensor installation issue on the airplane structure. The issue is optical fiber sensor birefringence under asymmetric load and durability of installation method. We conducted two confirmatory tests for the issues. The proposed installation method has adequate performance. From these results, it was confirmed that BOFDA system has potential to be applied to an airplane structure health monitoring system.

  19. Automated visual inspection of an airplane exterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovančević, Igor; Orteu, Jean-José; Sentenac, Thierry; Gilblas, Rémi

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the inspection of an airplane using a Pan-Tilt-Zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot moving around the airplane. We present image processing methods for detection and inspection of four different types of items on the airplane exterior. Our detection approach is focused on the regular shapes such as rounded corner rectangles and ellipses, while inspection relies on clues such as uniformity of isolated image regions, convexity of segmented shapes and periodicity of the image intensity signal. The initial results are promising and demonstrate the feasibility of the envisioned robotic system.

  20. SILEX Beacon equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

    1990-07-01

    The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

  1. Comparison of theoretically predicted lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics with full-scale wind tunnel data on the ATLIT airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, M.; Roskam, J.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for predicting lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of light twin engine propeller-driven airplanes. This method is applied to the Advanced Technology Light Twin Engine airplane. The calculated characteristics are correlated against full-scale wind tunnel data. The method predicts the sideslip derivatives fairly well, although angle of attack variations are not well predicted. Spoiler performance was predicted somewhat high but was still reasonable. The rudder derivatives were not well predicted, in particular the effect of angle of attack. The predicted dynamic derivatives could not be correlated due to lack of experimental data.

  2. Lithography equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    1996-07-01

    Until recently, lithography capability evolved consistently with Moore's law. It appears that semiconductor manufacturers are now deviating from Moore's law, which has implications for lithography equipment. DUV lithography is moving into production in a mix-and-match environment. Step- and-scan technology is the wave of the near-future, as a way to contend with the difficulty of manufacturing wide-field lenses. Resist processing equipment will undergo few fundamental changes, but will often be integrated with steppers, particularly for DUV applications. Metrology is being stretched beyond its limits for technologies below 250 nm. The move is on to 300 m diameter wafers, and 193 nm lithography is under consideration.

  3. New Albatross commercial airplane "L 58"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G

    1923-01-01

    The "L 58" is a monoplane with cantilever wings joined directly to the fuselage. It accordingly belongs to the new school of airplane construction, as founded and developed in Germany. A list of performance characteristics is included.

  4. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    Various methods for preventing fires in airplanes are presented with most efforts centering around prevention of backfires, new engine and carburetor designs, as well as investigations on different types of fuels.

  5. Precision controllability of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Matheny, N. W.

    1979-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on a preproduction F-15 airplane permitted an assessment to be made of its precision controllability in the high subsonic and low transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. Precision controllability, or gunsight tracking, studies were conducted in windup turn maneuvers with the gunsight in the caged pipper mode and depressed 70 mils. This evaluation showed the F-15 airplane to experience severe buffet and mild-to-moderate wing rock at the higher angles of attack. It showed the F-15 airplane radial tracking precision to vary from approximately 6 to 20 mils over the load factor range tested. Tracking in the presence of wing rock essentially doubled the radial tracking error generated at the lower angles of attack. The stability augmentation system affected the tracking precision of the F-15 airplane more than it did that of previous aircraft studied.

  6. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  7. Notes on New French Commercial Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    This document discusses the types of commercial planes ordered by Air France. Characteristics of the Wibault 670, the Dewoitine D.620, Bloch 300, and the Potez 620 airplanes are included. Pictures and diagrams of these aircraft are also included.

  8. Structural integrity of future aging airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Jack F.; Goranson, Ulf G.

    1992-01-01

    A multitude of design considerations is involved in ensuring the structural integrity of Boeing jet transports that have common design concepts validated by extensive analyses, tests, and three decades of service. As airplanes approach their design service objectives, the incidences of fatigue and corrosion may become widespread. Continuing airworthiness of the aging jet fleet requires diligent performance from the manufacturer, the airlines, and airworthiness authorities. Aging fleet support includes timely development of supplemental structural inspection documents applicable to selected older airplanes, teardown inspections of high-time airframes retired from service, fatigue testing of older airframes, and structural surveys of more than 130 airplanes operated throughout the world. Lessons learned from these activities are incorporated in service bulletin recommendations, production line modifications, and design manual updates. An overview of traditional Boeing fleet support activities and the anticipated benefits for future generations of commercial airplanes based on the continuous design improvement process are presented.

  9. Structural integrity of future aging airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Jack F.; Goranson, Ulf G.

    1992-07-01

    A multitude of design considerations is involved in ensuring the structural integrity of Boeing jet transports that have common design concepts validated by extensive analyses, tests, and three decades of service. As airplanes approach their design service objectives, the incidences of fatigue and corrosion may become widespread. Continuing airworthiness of the aging jet fleet requires diligent performance from the manufacturer, the airlines, and airworthiness authorities. Aging fleet support includes timely development of supplemental structural inspection documents applicable to selected older airplanes, teardown inspections of high-time airframes retired from service, fatigue testing of older airframes, and structural surveys of more than 130 airplanes operated throughout the world. Lessons learned from these activities are incorporated in service bulletin recommendations, production line modifications, and design manual updates. An overview of traditional Boeing fleet support activities and the anticipated benefits for future generations of commercial airplanes based on the continuous design improvement process are presented.

  10. Fittings and Other Structural Parts of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eydam, P

    1923-01-01

    The strength and reliability of airplanes depend greatly on the careful design and manufacture of fittings, couplings, and other highly stressed parts. The more important parts of the airplane must be occasionally tested for increased loads and in order to avoid the possibility of defects creeping in during subsequent production. Strength tests are discussed for fittings for wing spar joints, fittings for strut connections, internal bracing, control gear, and landing gear.

  11. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  12. 78 FR 78294 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, A330-200 Freighter, and A330-300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200, A340-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the failure of the generator control unit-constant speed motor/generator (GCU-CSM/G) during a final assembly operational test. This proposed AD would......

  13. 78 FR 64156 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... ADs for Model A340 airplanes. AD 2003-14-11, Amendment 39-13230 (68 FR 41521, July 14, 2003). AD 2004-11-08, Amendment 39-13654 (69 FR 31874, June 8, 2004). AD 2004-13-25, Amendment 39-13707 (69 FR 41394...) through (i)(7) of this AD for Model A340 airplanes only. (1) AD 2003-14-11, Amendment 39-13230 (68...

  14. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  15. Factors of airplane engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Victor R

    1921-01-01

    This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.

  16. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Stage 1 airplane prior to the change in type design, in addition to the provisions of paragraph (b) of... the change in type design, may not exceed either (A) each Stage 3 noise limit by more than 3 EPNdB, or... bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane may not be a Stage 1...

  17. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Stage 1 airplane prior to the change in type design, in addition to the provisions of paragraph (b) of... the change in type design, may not exceed either (A) each Stage 3 noise limit by more than 3 EPNdB, or... bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane may not be a Stage 1...

  18. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Stage 1 airplane prior to the change in type design, in addition to the provisions of paragraph (b) of... the change in type design, may not exceed either (A) each Stage 3 noise limit by more than 3 EPNdB, or... bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane may not be a Stage 1...

  19. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Stage 1 airplane prior to the change in type design, in addition to the provisions of paragraph (b) of... the change in type design, may not exceed either (A) each Stage 3 noise limit by more than 3 EPNdB, or... bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane may not be a Stage 1...

  20. Light Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes a career and technical education program on photonics, the study, research, and development of equipment and concepts used in the transmission of information through light, including fiber optics and experimental laser technologies. (JOW)

  1. Summary of V-G and VGH Data Collected on Lockheed Electra Airplanes During Airplane Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Fetner, Mary W.

    1961-01-01

    Data obtained by NASA VGH and V-G recorders on several Lockheed Electra airplanes operated over three domestic routes have been analyzed to determine the in-flight accelerations, airspeed practices, and landing accelerations experienced by this particular airplane. The results indicate that the accelerations caused by gusts and maneuvers are comparable to corresponding results for piston-engine transport airplanes. Oscillatory accelerations (apparently caused by the autopilot or control system) appear to occur about one-tenth as frequently as accelerations due to gusts. Airspeed operating practices in rough air generally follow the trends shown by piston-engine transports in that there is no significant difference between the average airspeed in rough or smooth air. Placard speeds were exceeded more frequently by the Electra airplane than by piston-engine transport airplanes. Generally, the landing-impact accelerations were higher than those for piston-engine transports.

  2. The First Tests of a Large-Area Light Detector Equipped with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Scintillating Bolometers for the LUMINEU Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Hassel, C.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Loidl, M.; Navick, X. F.; Rodrigues, M.

    2016-02-01

    Future rare-event searches using scintillating crystals need very low background levels for high sensitivity; however, unresolved pile-up can limit this. We present the design and fabrication of large-area photon detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), optimized for fast rise times to resolve close pile-up. The first prototypes have been characterized using Fe-55 X-rays and ZnMoO4 crystal scintillation light. A fast intrinsic rise time of 25-30 \\upmu s has been measured and has been compared to the 250 \\upmu s scintillation light pulse rise time constant. The difference indicates that the scintillation process limits the light pulse rise time. The fast rise time allows for a reduction of background due to close pile-up events as well as the study of the inherent crystal scintillation process. MMC-based photon detectors are shown to be a promising tool for scintillating crystal based rare event searches.

  3. The First Tests of a Large-Area Light Detector Equipped with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Scintillating Bolometers for the LUMINEU Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Hassel, C.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Loidl, M.; Navick, X. F.; Rodrigues, M.

    2016-08-01

    Future rare-event searches using scintillating crystals need very low background levels for high sensitivity; however, unresolved pile-up can limit this. We present the design and fabrication of large-area photon detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), optimized for fast rise times to resolve close pile-up. The first prototypes have been characterized using Fe-55 X-rays and ZnMoO4 crystal scintillation light. A fast intrinsic rise time of 25-30 \\upmu s has been measured and has been compared to the 250 \\upmu s scintillation light pulse rise time constant. The difference indicates that the scintillation process limits the light pulse rise time. The fast rise time allows for a reduction of background due to close pile-up events as well as the study of the inherent crystal scintillation process. MMC-based photon detectors are shown to be a promising tool for scintillating crystal based rare event searches.

  4. 14 CFR 121.325 - Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under IFR or over-the-top. 121.325 Section 121.325 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.325 Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top. No person may operate an airplane under IFR or over-the-top conditions under this part unless it is...

  5. 14 CFR 121.325 - Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under IFR or over-the-top. 121.325 Section 121.325 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.325 Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top. No person may operate an airplane under IFR or over-the-top conditions under this part unless it is...

  6. 14 CFR 121.325 - Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under IFR or over-the-top. 121.325 Section 121.325 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.325 Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top. No person may operate an airplane under IFR or over-the-top conditions under this part unless it is...

  7. 14 CFR 121.325 - Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under IFR or over-the-top. 121.325 Section 121.325 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.325 Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top. No person may operate an airplane under IFR or over-the-top conditions under this part unless it is...

  8. 14 CFR 121.325 - Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... under IFR or over-the-top. 121.325 Section 121.325 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.325 Instruments and equipment for operations under IFR or over-the-top. No person may operate an airplane under IFR or over-the-top conditions under this part unless it is...

  9. 75 FR 50941 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace Protective Breathing Equipment Part Number 119003-11...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for various transport airplanes equipped with certain B/E Aerospace protective breathing equipment (PBE) units. This proposed AD would require removing affected PBE units. This proposed AD results from reports of potentially defective potassium superoxide canisters used in PBE units, which could result in an exothermic reaction and......

  10. 77 FR 52201 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... installing Aero-Engine database (AEDB) software in the airplane information management system (AIMS) hardware... installing AEDB software in the airplane AIMS hardware. Comments We gave the public the opportunity to... large pieces of the T/R or adjacent components departing the airplane. A separated T/R piece...

  11. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nontransport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than the weight that would allow... power off stalling speed in the takeoff configuration, whichever is greater. (b) For the purposes of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes:...

  12. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability....

  13. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  14. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  15. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  16. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  17. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  18. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  19. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  20. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  1. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  2. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  3. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  4. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  5. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  6. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  7. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  8. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  9. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  10. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  11. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  12. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  13. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  14. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  15. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  16. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  17. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  18. A study of the factors affecting the range of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David

    1937-01-01

    A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.

  19. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a...

  20. 78 FR 27310 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... airplanes: AD 2007-16-12, Amendment 39-15151 (72 FR 44740, August 9, 2007), requires changes to existing... 767-200, -300, and -400ER series airplanes: AD 2008-23-15, Amendment 39-15736 (73 FR 70267, November..., -600, - 700, -700C, -800, and -900 series airplanes: AD 2009-12-06, Amendment 39-15929 (74 FR...

  1. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Manual Requirements § 125.75 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  2. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  3. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane for eight hours or less during any...

  4. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  5. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  6. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  7. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  8. 78 FR 47527 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and...-17540; AD 2013-16-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes AGENCY... FALCON 7X airplanes. This AD requires incorporation of a new procedure into the airplane flight...

  9. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  10. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  11. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  12. Quantifying and scaling airplane performance in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Johnhenri R.

    This dissertation studies the effects of turbulent wind on airplane airspeed and normal load factor, determining how these effects scale with airplane size and developing envelopes to account for them. The results have applications in design and control of aircraft, especially small scale aircraft, for robustness with respect to turbulence. Using linearized airplane dynamics and the Dryden gust model, this dissertation presents analytical and numerical scaling laws for airplane performance in gusts, safety margins that guarantee, with specified probability, that steady flight can be maintained when stochastic wind gusts act upon an airplane, and envelopes to visualize these safety margins. Presented here for the first time are scaling laws for the phugoid natural frequency, phugoid damping ratio, airspeed variance in turbulence, and flight path angle variance in turbulence. The results show that small aircraft are more susceptible to high frequency gusts, that the phugoid damping ratio does not depend directly on airplane size, that the airspeed and flight path angle variances can be parameterized by the ratio of the phugoid natural frequency to a characteristic turbulence frequency, and that the coefficient of variation of the airspeed decreases with increasing airplane size. Accompanying numerical examples validate the results using eleven different airplanes models, focusing on NASA's hypothetical Boeing 757 analog the Generic Transport Model and its operational 5.5% scale model, the NASA T2. Also presented here for the first time are stationary flight, where the flight state is a stationary random process, and the stationary flight envelope, an adjusted steady flight envelope to visualize safety margins for stationary flight. The dissertation shows that driving the linearized airplane equations of motion with stationary, stochastic gusts results in stationary flight. It also shows how feedback control can enlarge the stationary flight envelope by alleviating

  13. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  14. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  15. Precision controllability of the YF-17 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Mataeny, N. W.

    1980-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on the YF-17 airplane permitted assessment of its precision controllability in the transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. The precision controllability (tailchase tracking) study was conducted in constant-g and windup turn tracking maneuvers with the command augmentation system (CAS) on, automatic maneuver flaps, and the caged pipper gunsight depressed 70 mils. This study showed that the YF-17 airplane tracks essentially as well at 7 g's to 8 g's as earlier fighters did at 4 g's to 5 g's before they encountered wing rock. The pilots considered the YF-17 airplane one of the best tracking airplanes they had flown. Wing rock at the higher angles of attack degraded tracking precision, and lack of control harmony made precision controllability more difficult. The revised automatic maneuver flap schedule incorporated in the airplane at the time of the tests did not appear to be optimum. The largest tracking errors and greatest pilot workload occurred at high normal load factors at low angles of attack. The pilots reported that the high-g maneuvers caused some tunnel vision and that they found it difficult to think clearly after repeated maneuvers.

  16. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  17. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  18. 76 FR 61645 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes; Model A340-200 Series Airplanes; and Model A340... November 21, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal...

  19. 76 FR 4219 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...-279-AD; Amendment 39-16583; AD 2011-02-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes; Model A340-200 Series Airplanes; and Model A340... comments on this AD by March 11, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following...

  20. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine... aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the inspection and...