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Sample records for airplanes reciprocating engine

  1. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  2. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  3. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  4. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. 121.181 Section 121.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered:...

  5. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  6. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  7. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  8. 14 CFR 121.175 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.175 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a reciprocating engine powered airplane from an airport located at...

  9. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.371 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  10. 14 CFR 135.375 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.375 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight...

  11. 14 CFR 135.375 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.375 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight...

  12. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating. 121.179 Section 121.179 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  13. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane from an airport located at an elevation...

  14. 14 CFR 121.175 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.175 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations....

  15. 14 CFR 121.185 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.185 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing...

  16. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.177 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations....

  17. 14 CFR 121.185 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.185 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing...

  18. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.187 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing...

  19. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.187 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing...

  20. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.177 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations....

  1. 14 CFR 121.185 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.185 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing...

  2. 14 CFR 121.175 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.175 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations....

  3. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.187 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing...

  4. 14 CFR 121.175 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.175 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations....

  5. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for the climb (or, for multiengine airplanes...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for the climb (or, for multiengine airplanes...

  7. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and V So is expressed in knots) at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... procedure, operate a reciprocating engine powered airplane, at an all-engines-operating altitude that allows... the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and altitude) used in calculating the...

  8. 14 CFR 135.369 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All engines operating. 135.369 Section 135.369 Aeronautics... Limitations § 135.369 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route...

  9. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. 135.371 Section 135.371 Aeronautics... Limitations § 135.371 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered... negative one-engine-inoperative rates of climb, the descent) stage of flight. The airplane must be flown...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engine powered airplanes. 23.1047 Section 23.1047 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1047 Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered... negative one-engine-inoperative rates of climb, the descent) stage of flight. The airplane must be flown...

  12. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  13. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  15. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  16. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  18. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  19. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  20. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  1. 14 CFR 121.327 - Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine... Equipment Requirements § 121.327 Supplemental oxygen: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) General. Except where supplemental oxygen is provided in accordance with § 121.331, no person may operate...

  2. 14 CFR 135.373 - Part 25 transport category airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Part 25 transport category airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative. 135... engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative. (a) No person...

  3. 14 CFR 121.183 - Part 25 airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Part 25 airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative. 121.183 Section 121.183 Aeronautics... more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 135.377 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.377 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category...

  5. 14 CFR 135.369 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.369 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category...

  6. 14 CFR 135.377 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.377 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1047 - Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes. Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for the climb (or, for multiengine airplanes with negative one-engine-inoperative rates of climb, the descent) stage of flight. The airplane must be flown...

  8. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Vso is expressed in knots) at an altitude of least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... an all-engines-operating altitude that allows the airplane to continue, after an engine failure, to...) The rate of climb (as prescribed in the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and...

  9. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Vso is expressed in knots) at an altitude of least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... an all-engines-operating altitude that allows the airplane to continue, after an engine failure, to...) The rate of climb (as prescribed in the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and...

  10. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Vso is expressed in knots) at an altitude of least 1,000 feet above the highest ground or... an all-engines-operating altitude that allows the airplane to continue, after an engine failure, to...) The rate of climb (as prescribed in the Airplane Flight Manual for the appropriate weight and...

  11. 14 CFR 121.187 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Alternate airport. 121.187 Section 121.187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Alternate airport. (a) No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release unless the airplane (at the weight anticipated at the time of arrival at the airport), based on...

  12. 14 CFR 121.183 - Part 25 airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) at an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest ground or obstruction within 10 miles on each side of the intended track, or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of...) Where the engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude,...

  13. 14 CFR 121.183 - Part 25 airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) at an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest ground or obstruction within 10 miles on each side of the intended track, or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of...) Where the engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.183 - Part 25 airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) at an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest ground or obstruction within 10 miles on each side of the intended track, or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of...) Where the engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude,...

  15. 14 CFR 135.373 - Part 25 transport category airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of feet per minute obtained by multiplying the number of knots squared by 0.013) at an altitude of 1..., or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a)(2) of... engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude, compliance with...

  16. 14 CFR 135.373 - Part 25 transport category airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of feet per minute obtained by multiplying the number of knots squared by 0.013) at an altitude of 1..., or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a)(2) of... engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude, compliance with...

  17. 14 CFR 135.373 - Part 25 transport category airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of feet per minute obtained by multiplying the number of knots squared by 0.013) at an altitude of 1..., or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a)(2) of... engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude, compliance with...

  18. 14 CFR 121.183 - Part 25 airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) at an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest ground or obstruction within 10 miles on each side of the intended track, or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of...) Where the engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude,...

  19. 14 CFR 135.373 - Part 25 transport category airplanes with four or more engines: Reciprocating engine powered: En...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of feet per minute obtained by multiplying the number of knots squared by 0.013) at an altitude of 1..., or at an altitude of 5,000 feet, whichever is higher. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a)(2) of... engines are assumed to fail at an altitude above the prescribed minimum altitude, compliance with...

  20. Reciprocating piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eickmann, K.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a reciprocating combustion engine consisting of a cylinder, a piston reciprocating in the cylinder, a top for closing one end of the cylinder, inlets and outlets extending to and from the cylinder for the intake of combustible gas and the expelling of burned exhaust gases. The engine also consists of a device for ignition of the combustible gas, a means of cooling the cylinder and top, a turbine of a turbocharger connected to the outlet, and a compressor of the turbocharger connected to the inlet.

  1. Reciprocating wind engine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mechelen, B.

    1980-12-09

    A reciprocating wind engine is described which utilizes plural, movably mounted sets of panels to form pistons. Cooperating first and second pistons may be spaced from each other on either side of a central crankshaft. As the wind strikes the surface of a first set of panels, the first piston is moved toward the crankshaft and the second piston is pulled toward the crankshaft from the opposite side. When both pistons are adjacent the crankshaft, the panels on the first or windward piston open to allow the wind to pass therethrough into contact with the panels of the second piston which are closed to present a uniform surface to the wind. The pistons are forced away from the crankshaft to complete one cycle of operation. The output from the crankshaft may be utilized to generate electricity, or for any other suitable purpose. Plural engine segments may be cooperatively joined together to form a bank of such units.

  2. Factors of airplane engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Victor R

    1921-01-01

    This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.

  3. Piston reciprocating compressed air engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cestero, L.G.

    1987-03-24

    A compressed air engine is described comprising: (a). a reservoir of compressed air, (b). two power cylinders each containing a reciprocating piston connected to a crankshaft and flywheel, (c). a transfer cylinder which communicates with each power cylinder and the reservoir, and contains a reciprocating piston connected to the crankshaft, (d). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying compressed air from the reservoir to each power cylinder and for exhausting compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder, (e). valve means controlled by rotation of the crankshaft for supplying from the transfer cylinder to the reservoir compressed air supplied to the transfer cylinder on the exhaust strokes of the pistons of the power cylinders, and (f). an externally powered fan for assisting the exhaust of compressed air from each power cylinder to the transfer cylinder and from there to the compressed air reservoir.

  4. Reciprocating piston internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.

    1986-04-15

    A reciprocating piston internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a piston movably disposed within an engine cylinder, the piston having a top surface and a piston ring, the engine cylinder and the top surface of the piston defining a combustion chamber, the piston having first and second sections which are divided by a vertical plane containing an axis of a piston pin, the first section being formed with a major thrust surface and the second section being formed with a minor thrust surface; and means for thrusting the piston against a major thrust side wall of the cylinder before the piston reaches top dead center in the cylinder, the thrusting means comprising: means defining a space in the piston, the space communicating with the combustion chamber and being located in the piston second section; a movable member disposed within the space, the movable member being capable of being thrust in the direction of a minor thrust side wall of the cylinder by gas pressure within the combustion chamber and being arranged to thrust the piston ring against the minor thrust side wall when thrust by the gas pressure; and means for producing gas pressure within the combustion chamber such that the gas pressure enters the space at the compression stroke of the engine so that the movable member receives the gas pressure and is thrust toward the minor thrust side wall of the cylinder such that the piston is thrust against a major thrust side wall of the cylinder.

  5. Noise exposure levels from model airplane engines.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, R C; Miller, M

    1985-01-01

    Previous research indicates that noise levels from unmuffled model airplane engines produce sufficient noise to cause TTS. The present study explored SPLs of smaller engines under 3.25 cc (.19 cu. in.) and the effectiveness of engine mufflers. Results showed that model airplanes can exceed a widely used damage risk criterion (DRC) but that engine mufflers can reduce levels below DRC. Handling model gasoline engines should be added to the list of recreational activities such as snow-mobile and motorcycle riding, shooting, etc. in which the participant's hearing may be in jeopardy. Suggestions are presented to the model engine enthusiast for avoiding damage to hearing.

  6. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  7. Reciprocal engine with floating liner

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1989-06-27

    An internal combustion engine with a heat recovery system is described comprising: a cylinder with a cylinder wall; a piston with a piston head, the piston being reciprocally displaceable in the cylinder; a fuel injection means with fuel connected to the cylinder; and, an air intake passage and an exhaust passage connected to the cylinder, such that air is delivered to the cylinder, compressed by the piston, and fuel from the fuel injection means is delivered to the cylinder and combusted in a working chamber; wherein the heat recovery system includes an air-porous, heat-resistant tubular liner suspended in the cylinder and displaced from the wall of the cylinder, the piston having a deep groove with inner and outer walls in the head of the piston into which the liner is received when the piston is displaced compressing the air, the liner being spaced from the inner and outer walls of the groove such that three insulating zones are provided between combustion gases in the cylinder and the cylinder wall during displacement of the piston.

  8. Two-stroke-cycle engines for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalbert, J

    1926-01-01

    Now that the two-stroke-cycle engine has begun to make its appearance in automobiles, it is important to know what services we have a right to expect of it in aeronautics, what conditions must be met by engines of this type for use on airplanes and what has been accomplished.

  9. A study of airplane engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Victor R

    1920-01-01

    This report is a study of the results obtained from a large number of test of an Hispano-Suiza airplane engine in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. It was originally undertaken to determine the heat distribution in such an engine, but many other factors are also considered as bearing on this matter.

  10. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  11. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  12. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...-14-07, Amendment 39-15602 (73 FR 39574), for certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured... Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured...

  13. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  14. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  15. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  16. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  17. Hydrazine monopropellant reciprocating engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A hydrazine fueled piston engine for providing 11.2 kW was developed to satisfy the need for an efficient power supply in the range from 3.7 to 74.6 kW where existing nonair-breathing power supplies such as fuel cells or turbines are inappropriate. The engine was developed for an aircraft to fly to 21.3 km and above and cruise for extended periods. A remotely piloted aircraft and the associated flight control techniques for this application were designed. The engine is geared down internally (2:1) to accommodate a 1.8 m diameter propeller. An alternator is included to provide electrical power. The pusher-type engine is mounted onto the aft closure of the fuel tank, which also provides mounting for all other propulsion equipment. About 20 hrs of run time demonstrated good efficiency and adequate life. One flight test to 6.1 km was made using the engine with a small fixed-pitch four-bladed propeller. The test was successful in demonstrating operational characteristics and future potential.

  18. Fluid flow within reciprocating-engine cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awn, A. G.; Spalding, D. B.

    The present investigation has the objective to demonstrate a method of predicting the flow within reciprocating-engine cylinders. The application of this approach can help the engine designer to increase the combustion efficiency and to reduce pollution. The considered method employs finite-difference equations similar to those used by Watkins (1973) and Chong et. al. (1976). The equations are, however, solved by a somewhat different method, and, in addition, an interface-tracking procedure is employed. The numerical procedure is further extended to investigate the scavenging flows in two-stroke engines. One problem studied in the investigation is concerned with the prediction of the velocity field in an engine cylinder during the harmonic motion of a flat-topped piston. A second problem involves the study of the flow behavior during the scavenging cycle in two-stroke engine cyclinders.

  19. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles... with the engine inoperative, its propeller in the minimum drag position, and landing gear and...

  20. 14 CFR 121.191 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.191 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that...

  1. 14 CFR 121.191 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.191 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that...

  2. 14 CFR 121.191 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.191 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that...

  3. 14 CFR 121.191 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.191 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that...

  4. Compression ratio control in reciprocating piston engines

    SciTech Connect

    Doundoulakis, G.J.

    1989-08-29

    The patent describes compression ratio control for reciprocating piston engines. It comprises: a reciprocating engine crankcase; a plurality of compression/expansion cylinders rigidly attached to the crankcase; each of the cylinders including a curved surface and a cylinder head; a fuel mixture in-taken in the cylinders; a piston reciprocating along each cylinder's curved surface for providing compression/expansion to the fuel mixture; a crank mechanism including a crankshaft rotating about an axial line that is substantially equidistant from the heads, crankcheek lobes radially extending from the crankshaft, crankpins inside and in contact with crankpin bearings, axially extending between the crankcheek lobes, and crankshaft journal bearings for providing low frictional support to the crankshaft; a connecting rod for each of the cylinders connecting the piston with the crankpin; crankshaft positioning; a first transmission gear, a crankshaft gear for meshing with the transmission gear, and a slot cut on the crankcase; wherein the constraint in the displacement of the crankshaft in the horizontal sense is provided by the vertical edges of the slot, and wherein the vertical edges of the slot are preferably being curved with a radius of curvature substantially equal to the average pitch diameter of the crankshaft gear and thee first transmission gear for accurate meshing of the gears.

  5. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  6. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.193 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered airplane along an intended route unless he...

  7. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.193 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered airplane along an intended route unless he...

  8. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71 Section 23.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  9. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71 Section 23.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  10. Pilot Transition Courses for Complex Single-Engine and Light Twin-Engine Airplanes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication is intended for use by certificated airplane pilots and provides transitional knowledge and skills for more complex single-engine or light twin-engine airplanes. The training should be conducted by a competent flight instructor certified in the class of airplane and familiar with the make and model. A syllabus outline of ground…

  11. Balancing mechanism for reciprocating piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, N.; Ogino, T.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a balancing mechanism for a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine which includes a cylinder, a piston reciprocatable in the cylinder, a crankcase, a crankshaft mounted in the crankshaft, a crankpin connected to the piston, and a pair of crank arms bridging the crankshaft and crankpin. The crank arms and crankpin rotate with the crankshaft during operation and form a rotating mass. The balancing mechanism comprises at least one rotating counterweight attached to and rotating with the crankshaft, and eccentric journal means on the crankshaft adjacent the crank arms, rotating with the crankshaft. The journal means has an axis spaced to the side of the crankshaft axis which is opposite from the crankpin. The rotating counterweight and the eccentric journal means counterbalancing the rotating mass.

  12. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  13. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  14. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  15. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  16. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  17. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  18. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  19. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  20. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  1. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  2. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  3. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  5. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  6. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  7. 18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING EAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  8. 17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING WEST. - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  9. 76 FR 42609 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Model TIO 540-A Series Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... inspection of external fuel injector lines on Lycoming Engines model TIO 540-A series reciprocating engines... inspections of external fuel lines, on all affected Lycoming Engines reciprocating engines. We incorporated by reference Lycoming Engines Mandatory SB No. 342E, dated May 18, 2004, in AD 2008-14-07 (73 FR 39574, July...

  10. Measured Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senzig, David A.; Fleming, Gregg G.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2001-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Integrated Noise Model (INM) is one of the primary tools for land use planning around airports. The INM currently calculates airplane noise lateral attenuation using the methods contained in the Society of Automotive Engineer's Aerospace Information Report No. 1751 (SAE AIR 1751). Researchers have noted that improved lateral attenuation algorithms may improve airplane noise prediction. The authors of SAE AIR 1751 based existing methods on empirical data collected from flight tests using 1960s-technology airplanes with tail-mounted engines. To determine whether the SAE AIR 1751 methods are applicable for predicting the engine installation component of lateral attenuation for airplanes with wing-mounted engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a series of flight tests during September 2000 at their Wallops Flight Facility. Four airplanes, a Boeing 767-400, a Douglas DC-9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beech KingAir, were flown through a 20 microphone array. The airplanes were flown through the array at various power settings, flap settings, and altitudes to simulate take-off and arrival configurations. This paper presents the preliminary findings of this study.

  11. The impact of the All Electric Airplane on production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The emergence of an All Electric Airplane in the role of an energy efficient transport is described in relation to the increasing fuel problems, which are impacting on the economic viability of the aerospace industry. The paper reviews the All Electric Airplane (which performs electrically all those functions normally powered by hydraulics, pneumatics and engine bleed air) for its impact upon the design/implementation of the aircraft systems, the advanced technology engines, the aircraft's ground-logistic support, and the producibility aspects of these advanced transport aircraft. The simplification of engine design and the prospective improvements in its specific-fuel-consumption are highlighted along with the overall simplification of the aircraft production aspects of the All Electric Airplane.

  12. Study of small turbofan engines applicable to single-engine light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The design, efficiency and cost factors are investigated for application of turbofan propulsion engines to single engine, general aviation light airplanes. A companion study of a hypothetical engine family of a thrust range suitable to such aircraft and having a high degree of commonality of design features and parts is presented. Future turbofan powered light airplanes can have a lower fuel consumption, lower weight, reduced airframe maintenance requirements and improved engine overhaul periods as compared to current piston engined powered airplanes. Achievement of compliance with noise and chemical emission regulations is expected without impairing performance, operating cost or safety.

  13. 76 FR 56637 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Model IO-720-A1B Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Model IO-720-A1B Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... model IO-720-A1B Lycoming Engines reciprocating engines. This AD requires a crankshaft inspection...

  14. The Effect of Supercharger Capacity on Engine and Airplane Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, O W; Gove, W D

    1930-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of different supercharger capacities on the performance of an airplane and its engine . The tests were conducted on a DH4-M2 airplane powered with a Liberty 12 engine. In this investigation four supercharger capacities, obtained by driving a roots type supercharger at 1.615, 1.957, 2.4, and 3 time engine speed, were used to maintain sea-level pressure at the carburetor to altitudes of 7,000, 11,500, 17,000, and 22,000 feet, respectively. The performance of the airplane in climb and in level flight was determined for each of the four supercharger drive ratios and for the unsupercharged condition. The engine power was measured during these tests by means of a calibrated propeller. It was found that very little sacrifice in sea-level performance was experienced with the larger supercharger drive ratios as compared with performance obtained when using the smaller drive ratios. The results indicate that further increase in supercharger capacity over that obtained when using 3:1 drive ratio would give a slight increase in ceiling and in high-altitude performance but would considerably impair the performance for an appreciable distance below the critical altitude. As the supercharger capacity was increased, the height at which sea-level high speeds could be equaled or improved became a larger percentage of the maximum height of operation of the airplane.

  15. 75 FR 20518 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Full Authority Digital Engine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Airplane; Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... classified as catastrophic, but that the digital engine control must provide an equivalent reliability...

  16. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  17. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  18. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  19. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  20. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  1. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  2. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  3. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  4. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  5. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  6. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  7. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  8. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  9. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  10. 75 FR 27857 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issue Area-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Airworthiness Issues for Transport Airplanes'' (70 FR 40166, July 12, 2005). The ARAC working group should... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine... develop recommendations on additional requirements for low speed alerting in new transport...

  11. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an...

  12. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an...

  13. Italian High-speed Airplane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bona, C F

    1940-01-01

    This paper presents an account of Italian high-speed engine designs. The tests were performed on the Fiat AS6 engine, and all components of that engine are discussed from cylinders to superchargers as well as the test set-up. The results of the bench tests are given along with the performance of the engines in various races.

  14. Variable-cycle reciprocating internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.P.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a variable cycle internal combustion engine. It comprises: a block the block having at least one cylinder chamber disposed therein; a pair of opposed pistons mounted in the cylinder chamber; a first rotating crankshaft and a second rotating crankshaft, each crankshaft connected to a different one of the pistons; means for synchronizing the speed and relative phase relationship of the crankshaft, the synchronizing means connected to at least one of the crankshafts; a harmonic gear drive assembly for selectively adjusting the rotation phase relationship between the crankshaft during operation of the engine. The harmonic gear drive assembly being connected to the synchronizing means.

  15. Organic rankine cycle system for use with a reciprocating engine

    DOEpatents

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; McCormick, Duane; Brasz, Joost J.

    2006-01-17

    In a waste heat recovery system wherein an organic rankine cycle system uses waste heat from the fluids of a reciprocating engine, provision is made to continue operation of the engine even during periods when the organic rankine cycle system is inoperative, by providing an auxiliary pump and a bypass for the refrigerant flow around the turbine. Provision is also made to divert the engine exhaust gases from the evaporator during such periods of operation. In one embodiment, the auxiliary pump is made to operate simultaneously with the primary pump during normal operations, thereby allowing the primary pump to operate at lower speeds with less likelihood of cavitation.

  16. Functioning of reduction gears on airplane engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteucci, Raffaelli

    1926-01-01

    In undertaking to analyze the functioning conditions of a reduction gear on an aviation engine, we will consider an ordinary twelve-cylinder V-engine. The reduction gear employed consists either of a pair of spur gears, one of which is integral with the engine shaft and the other with the propeller shaft, or of a planetary system of gears.

  17. 78 FR 1728 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    .... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE... the following new AD: 2012-26-12 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-17307; Docket No. FAA... Thielert Aircraft Engines (TAE) TAE 125- 02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. (d) Reason This...

  18. 76 FR 68636 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125- 02-99 reciprocating engines. That AD... Register approved the incorporation by reference of Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Service Bulletin (SB) No..., 2010), and adding the following new AD: 2011-23-01 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment...

  19. Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

  20. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  1. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  2. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  3. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  4. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  5. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  6. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  7. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  8. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports. 135.387 Section 135.387 Aeronautics and Space....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  9. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  10. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  11. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  12. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  13. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  14. Design and analysis of a fuel-efficient single-engine, turboprop-powered, business airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Everest, D. E., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Walkley, K. B.; Washburn, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The speed, range, payload, and fuel efficiency of a general aviation airplane powered by one turboprop engine was determined and compared to a twin engine turboprop aircraft. An airplane configuration was developed which can carry six people for a noreserve range of 2,408 km at a cruise speed above 154 m/s, and a cruise altitude of about 9,144 m. The cruise speed is comparable to that of the fastest of the current twin turboprop powered airplanes. It is found that the airplane has a cruise specific range greater than all twin turboprop engine airplanes flying in its speed range and most twin piston engine airplanes flying at considerably slower cruise airspeeds.

  15. 76 FR 44245 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... transient dynamic loads resulting from: (a) The loss of any fan, compressor, or turbine blade; and (b... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for... load imposed by sudden engine stoppage. These special conditions pertain to their effects on...

  16. Caterpillar`s advanced reciprocating engine for distributed generation markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, G.; Brandes, D.; Reinhart, M.; Nagel, G.; Wong, E.

    1999-11-01

    Competition in energy markets and federal and state policy advocating clean, advanced technologies as means to achieve environmental and global climate change goals are clear drivers to original equipment manufacturers of prime movers. Underpinning competition are the principle of consumer choice to facilitate retail competition, and the desire to improve system and grid reliability. Caterpillar`s Gas Engine Division is responding to the market`s demand for a more efficient, lower lifecycle cost engine with reduced emissions. Cat`s first generation TARGET engine will be positioned to effectively serve distributed generation and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. TARGET (The Advanced Reciprocating Gas Engine Technology) will embody Cat`s product attributes: durability, reliability, and competitively priced life cycle cost products. Further, Caterpillar`s nationwide, fully established dealer sales and service ensure continued product support subsequent to the sale and installation of the product.

  17. Investigation of the Muffling Problem for Airplane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, G B; Gage, V R

    1920-01-01

    The experimentation presented in this report falls in two divisions: first, the determination of the relation between back pressure in the exhaust line and consequent power loss, for various combinations of speed and throttle positions of the engine; second, the construction and trial of muffler designs covering both type and size. Report deals with experiments in the development of a muffler designed on the principle which will give the maximum muffling effect with a minimum loss of power. The main body of the work has been done on a Curtiss OX eight-cylinder airplane engine, 4 by 5 inches, rated 70 horsepower at 1,200 revolutions per minute. For estimation of the muffling ability and suppression of "bark" of individual exhausts, the "Ingeco" stationary, single cylinder, 5 1/2 by 10 inch, throttling governed gasoline engine, and occasionally other engines were used.

  18. The Way to Increased Airplane Engine Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vohrer, Eugen

    1939-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an outline of the present state of development and point out the possibilities available for the further increase in the power/displacement ratio, the economy, and the reliability of the engine. Some of the aspects discussed are methods of increasing take-off power, the various methods of preparation of the fuel mixture and their effect on power, economy, and safety.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  8. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  9. Study of small civil turbofan engines applicable to military trainer airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Merrill, G. L.; Burnett, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Small turbofan engine design concepts were applied to military trainer airplanes to establish the potential for commonality between civil and military engines. Several trainer configurations were defined and studied. A ""best'' engine was defined for the trainer mission, and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the effects on airplane size and efficiency of wing loading, power loading, configuration, aerodynamic quality, and engine quality. It is concluded that a small civil aircraft is applicable to military trainer airplanes. Aircraft designed with these engines are smaller, less costly, and more efficient than existing trainer aircraft.

  10. 77 FR 72203 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines and Continental Motors, Inc. Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... and Continental Motors, Inc. Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Lycoming Engines TSIO-540-AK1A, and Continental Motors, Inc. TSIO-360- MB, TSIO-360-SB, and...

  11. 77 FR 30881 - Airworthiness Directives; Continental Motors, Inc. (CMI) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., Inc. (CMI) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... reciprocating engines with new or rebuilt CMI starter adapters installed between January 1, 2011 and November 20... engines. This AD was prompted by two additional reports received of fractures in starter adapter...

  12. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 121.197. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data in... path (considering the ambient temperature anticipated along the track) having a positive slope at an... for in the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Aircraft certificated...

  13. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 121.197. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data in... path (considering the ambient temperature anticipated along the track) having a positive slope at an... for in the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Aircraft certificated...

  14. Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

    1950-01-01

    Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

  15. 77 FR 58003 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... as of November 3, 2006 (71 FR 57407, September 29, 2006). ADDRESSES: For service information... at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 781-238-7125. Examining the AD Docket...

  16. 77 FR 20743 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50152). That NPRM supersedure proposed to retain all of the requirements of AD 2006-20-09 (71 FR 57407, September 29, 2006), and would expand the... engine overhaul time. Actions Since Previous NPRM Was Issued Since we issued the previous NPRM (76...

  17. 14 CFR 121.201 - Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. 121.201 Section 121.201 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.201 Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One...

  18. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a... airplane with sustaining oxygen and dispensing equipment for use as set forth in this section: (1)...

  19. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a... airplane with sustaining oxygen and dispensing equipment for use as set forth in this section: (1)...

  20. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a... airplane with sustaining oxygen and dispensing equipment for use as set forth in this section: (1)...

  1. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a... airplane with sustaining oxygen and dispensing equipment for use as set forth in this section: (1)...

  2. 14 CFR 121.329 - Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine... Equipment Requirements § 121.329 Supplemental oxygen for sustenance: Turbine engine powered airplanes. (a... airplane with sustaining oxygen and dispensing equipment for use as set forth in this section: (1)...

  3. LES on unstructured deforming meshes: Towards reciprocating IC engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, D. C.; Jansen, K.

    1996-01-01

    A variable explicit/implicit characteristics-based advection scheme that is second-order accurate in space and time has been developed recently for unstructured deforming meshes (O'Rourke & Sahota 1996a). To explore the suitability of this methodology for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES), three subgrid-scale turbulence models have been implemented in the CHAD CFD code (O'Rourke & Sahota 1996b): a constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model, a dynamic Smagorinsky model for flows having one or more directions of statistical homogeneity, and a Lagrangian dynamic Smagorinsky model for flows having no spatial or temporal homogeneity (Meneveau et al. 1996). Computations have been made for three canonical flows, progressing towards the intended application of in-cylinder flow in a reciprocating engine. Grid sizes were selected to be comparable to the coarsest meshes used in earlier spectral LES studies. Quantitative results are reported for decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, and for a planar channel flow. Computations are compared to experimental measurements, to Direct-Numerical Simulation (DNS) data, and to Rapid-Distortion Theory (RDT) where appropriate. Generally satisfactory evolution of first and second moments is found on these coarse meshes; deviations are attributed to insufficient mesh resolution. Issues include mesh resolution and computational requirements for a specified level of accuracy, analytic characterization of the filtering implied by the numerical method, wall treatment, and inflow boundary conditions. To resolve these issues, finer-mesh simulations and computations of a simplified axisymmetric reciprocating piston-cylinder assembly are in progress.

  4. An Investigation of a Thermal Ice-Prevention System for a Twin-Engine Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R

    1946-01-01

    Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. Several previously published reports on a comprehensive investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a typical twin-engine transport airplane are correlated with some unpublished data to present the entire investigation in one publication. The thermal system investigated was based upon the transfer of heat from the engine exhaust gas to air, which is then caused to flow along the inner surface of any portion of the airplane for which protection is desired.

  5. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... meets § 135.387. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data... assumed to fail simultaneously to an airport that meets § 135.387, with a net flight path (considering the... the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Airplanes certificated after September...

  6. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... meets § 135.387. (2) Its weight, according to the two-engine-inoperative, en route, net flight path data... assumed to fail simultaneously to an airport that meets § 135.387, with a net flight path (considering the... the net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual. (b) Airplanes certificated after September...

  7. Aerodynamic design optimization of a fuel efficient high-performance, single-engine, business airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A design study has been conducted to optimize a single-engine airplane for a high-performance cruise mission. The mission analyzed included a cruise speed of about 300 knots, a cruise range of about 1300 nautical miles, and a six-passenger payload (5340 N (1200 lb)). The purpose of the study is to investigate the combinations of wing design, engine, and operating altitude required for the mission. The results show that these mission performance characteristics can be achieved with fuel efficiencies competitive with present-day high-performance, single- and twin-engine, business airplanes. It is noted that relaxation of the present Federal Aviation Regulation, Part 23, stall-speed requirement for single-engine airplanes facilitates the optimization of the airplane for fuel efficiency.

  8. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and terrain. (c) A program manager or other person flying a turbine engine powered large transport... characteristics of that airplane, and considering other conditions such as landing aids and terrain. (3)...

  9. 77 FR 40699 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Teleconference on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Teleconference on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public teleconference of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking...

  10. 77 FR 24759 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  11. 76 FR 14115 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  12. 75 FR 10551 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  13. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  14. 76 FR 77382 - Airworthiness Directives; Continental Motors, Inc. (CMI) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ..., Inc. (CMI) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... engines. This emergency AD was sent previously to all known U.S. owners and operators of these engines... adapter gear shaft, leading to an inoperable oil scavenge pump and engine in-flight shutdown. DATES:...

  15. Phase 2 program on ground test of refanned JT8D turbofan engines and nacelles for the 727 airplane. Volume 4: Airplane evaluation and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The retrofit of JT8D-109 (refan) engines are evaluated on a 727-200 airplane in terms of airworthiness, performance, and noise. Design of certifiable hardware, manufacture, and ground testing of the essential nacelle components is included along with analysis of the certifiable airplane design to ensure airworthiness compliance and to predict the in-flight performance and noise characteristics of the modified airplane. The analyses confirm that the 727 refan airplane is certifiable. The refan airplane range would be 15% less that of the baseline airplane and block fuel would be increased by 1.5% to 3%. However, with this particular 727-200 model, with a brake release gross weight of 172,500 lb (78,245 kg), it is possible to operate the airplane (with minor structural modifications) at higher gross weights and increase the range up to 15% over the 727-200 (baseline) airplane. The refan airplane FAR Part 36 noise levels would be 6 to 8 EPNdB (effective perceived noise in decibels) below the baseline. Noise footprint studies showed that approach noise contour areas are small compared to takeoff areas. The 727 refan realizes a 68% to 83% reduction in annoyance-weighted area when compared to the 727-200 over a range of gross weights and operational procedures.

  16. Highly integrated digital engine control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Haering, E. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. This system is being used on the F-15 airplane at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. An integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine stall margin mode are being implemented into the system. The adaptive stall margin mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the engine stall margin are continuously computed; the excess stall margin is used to uptrim the engine for more thrust. The integrated flightpath management mode optimizes the flightpath and throttle setting to reach a desired flight condition. The increase in thrust and the improvement in airplane performance is discussed in this paper.

  17. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2004-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology

  18. Simulator study of vortex encounters by a twin-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A simulator study of vortex encounters was conducted for a twin-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane encountering the vortex flow field of a heavy, four-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane in the final-approach configuration. The encounters were conducted with fixed controls and with a pilot using a state-of-the-art, manual-control system. Piloted encounters with the base-line vortex flow field out of ground effect (unattenuated) resulted in initial bank-angle excursions greater than 40 deg, coupled with initial sideslip-angle excursions greater than 10 deg. The severity of these initial upsets was significantly reduced when the vortex center was moved laterally or vertically away from the flight path of the encountering airplane. Smaller reductions occurred when the flow field was attenuated by the flight spoilers on the generating airplane. The largest reduction in the severity of the initial upsets, however, was from aging in ground effect. The severity of the initial upsets of the following airplane was relatively unaffected by the approach speed. Increasing the lift coefficient of the generating airplane resulted in an increase in the severity of the initial upsets.

  19. Prediction of airplane cabin noise due to engine shock cell excitation using statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Steven E.

    As part of the effort in the 1980's to design fuel efficient propulsion systems (unducted fan engines) for large commercial airplanes, procedures were developed for predicting interior noise using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Due to stable fuel process and deregulation in the airline industry, the emphasis for propulsion systems on commercial airplanes shifted to higher thrust and lower operating costs. In order to preserve and enhance the knowledge acquired using SEA to predict cabin noise for propeller airplanes, potential noise control applications for more conventional airplane configurations were investigated. The present paper records an effort to extend the experience acquired using statistical energy analysis for unducted fan engines to noise generated by turbofan engine exhaust. The technique is applied to the generic case of a large commercial airplane with twin, wing-mounted engines. Results are presented from an evaluation of the noise source based on an uncommon set of flight test data. Model construction is decribed and prediction results compared to the flight test data. It is then demonstrated how SEA is used to prioritize the transmission paths and judge the merit of the common noise suppression techniques.

  20. A controls engineering approach for analyzing airplane input-output characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An engineering approach for analyzing airplane control and output characteristics is presented. State-space matrix equations describing the linear perturbation dynamics are transformed from physical coordinates into scaled coordinates. The scaling is accomplished by applying various transformations to the system to employ prior engineering knowledge of the airplane physics. Two different analysis techniques are then explained. Modal analysis techniques calculate the influence of each system input on each fundamental mode of motion and the distribution of each mode among the system outputs. The optimal steady state response technique computes the blending of steady state control inputs that optimize the steady state response of selected system outputs. Analysis of an example airplane model is presented to demonstrate the described engineering approach.

  1. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  2. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  3. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  4. Reciprocating seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and practical analyses of reciprocating seal wear and lubrication. Topics include behavior, friction coefficient, cylinder wear, lubrication film thickness, friction forces, design innovations, lubricating oil viscosity, and wear modeling relative to reciprocating seal frictional wear and lifetime optimization. Applications in piston ring lubrication, internal combustion engines, and vehicle suspension systems are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Crash tests of four identical high-wing single-engine airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Four identical four place, high wing, single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility under controlled free flight conditions. These tests were conducted with nominal velocities of 25 m/sec along the flight path angles, ground contact pitch angles, and roll angles. Three of the airplane specimens were crashed on a concrete surface; one was crashed on soil. Crash tests revealed that on a hard landing, the main landing gear absorbed about twice the energy for which the gear was designed but sprang back, tending to tip the airplane up to its nose. On concrete surfaces, the airplane impacted and remained in the impact attitude. On soil, the airplane flipped over on its back. The crash impact on the nose of the airplane, whether on soil or concrete, caused massive structural crushing of the forward fuselage. The liveable volume was maintained in both the hard landing and the nose down specimens but was not maintained in the roll impact and nose down on soil specimens.

  6. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  7. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  8. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  9. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  10. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  11. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. 121.511 Section 121.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations:...

  12. 75 FR 12121 - Extended Operations (ETOPS) of Multi-Engine Airplanes; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., applied to air carrier (part 121), commuter, and on-demand (part 135) turbine powered multi-engine airplanes used in passenger- carrying, extended range operations (January 16, 2007; 72 FR 1808). All-cargo... rule. That final rule applied to air carrier, commuter, and on-demand turbine powered...

  13. 77 FR 60005 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    .... Eastern Daylight Time. Arrangements for oral presentations must be made by October 10, 2012. ADDRESSES... Airplane and Engine Issues'' (77 FR 59243), in FR Doc. 2012-23709, that published on September 26, 2012... be responsible for paying long-distance charges. The public must make arrangements by October...

  14. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of light, twin-engine, propeller-driven airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Representative state-of-the-art analytical procedures and design data for predicting the longitudinal static and dynamic stability and control characteristics of light, propeller-driven airplanes are presented. Procedures for predicting drag characteristics are also included. The procedures are applied to a twin-engine, propeller-driven airplane in the clean configuration from zero lift to stall conditions. The calculated characteristics are compared with wind-tunnel and flight data. Included in the comparisons are level-flight trim characteristics, period and damping of the short-period oscillatory mode, and windup-turn characteristics. All calculations are documented.

  15. 78 FR 67323 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Transient Engine Failure Loads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... following novel or unusual design features: Engines with large, bypass fans capable of producing much higher... series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with the new... this design feature. These proposed special conditions contain the additional safety standards that...

  16. 76 FR 10213 - Special Conditions: Embraer Model EMB-135BJ (Legacy 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation... engine size and the potential torque load imposed by sudden engine-stoppage conditions. The applicable... incorporate novel or unusual design features involving engine size and the potential torque load imposed...

  17. Predicted performance benefits of an adaptive digital engine control system of an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Ray, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrating engine-airframe control systems. Currently this is accomplished on the NASA Ames Research Center's F-15 airplane. The two control modes used to implement the systems are an integrated flightpath management mode and in integrated adaptive engine control system (ADECS) mode. The ADECS mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the available engine stall margin are continually computed. The excess stall margin is traded for thrust. The predicted increase in engine performance due to the ADECS mode is presented in this report.

  18. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  19. Recent tests on the Carter small reciprocating steam engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiceniuk, T.; Wingenbach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The Jay Carter Enterprises (JCE) Paratransit Vehicle steam engine was tested over a range of conditions which might be experienced by the power converter subsystem of the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment. Some difficulties were encountered getting the engine ready for testing. These difficulties were related to the five year dormancy of the entire system and to incomplete development work that had been going on at the time of cessation of steam engine work at JCE. Other difficulties were related to the fact that the particular expander being tested never ran before and possessed some manufacturing defects. Nevertheless, the engine was operated successfully and results of testing do verify results of computer simulations of the engine in regard to the effect of temperature and power level variations. Engine efficiency was good but generally lower than expected and performance dropped as testing continued. The effect of change in expansion ratio was not demonstrated because of deterioration in engine performance. Post-test inspection revealed numerous correctable defects.

  20. Recent tests on the Carter small reciprocating steam engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiceniuk, T.; Wingenbach, W.

    1982-07-01

    The Jay Carter Enterprises (JCE) Paratransit Vehicle steam engine was tested over a range of conditions which might be experienced by the power converter subsystem of the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment. Some difficulties were encountered getting the engine ready for testing. These difficulties were related to the five year dormancy of the entire system and to incomplete development work that had been going on at the time of cessation of steam engine work at JCE. Other difficulties were related to the fact that the particular expander being tested never ran before and possessed some manufacturing defects. Nevertheless, the engine was operated successfully and results of testing do verify results of computer simulations of the engine in regard to the effect of temperature and power level variations. Engine efficiency was good but generally lower than expected and performance dropped as testing continued. The effect of change in expansion ratio was not demonstrated because of deterioration in engine performance. Post-test inspection revealed numerous correctable defects.

  1. Technology of a freon and steam reciprocating engine for low temperature solar thermal powered water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.P.

    1983-12-01

    This paper comprises a comparative study between a Freon-11 and steam reciprocating engine for low temperature solar thermal powered water pump. Theoretical aspects like thermal efficiency, cycle work and feed pump work have been compared using Freon-11 and steam as working fluid assuming a generator temperature of 80/sup 0/C at two different condenser temperatures (30/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/C). The ratio of the required sizes of the reciprocating engine and feed pumps for the same power generation, using Freon and water as working fluids are also compared. It is found that in the case of engines, this ratio is 2.4 and 2.1 at a condenser temperature of 30/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C respectively, while in the case of the feed pump, this ratio is 10.7 and 0.1 at a condenser temperature of 30/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/C, respectively. Various technical problems which are encountered in these engines, such as sealing and maintaining vacuum are also covered. The various types of dynamic seals and their possible uses for steam and freon reciprocating engines are elaborated. Alternate possible solutions for sealing problems of a Freon-11 reciprocating engine have also been covered. Design and development of a sealing system for a specific freon engine is mentioned. This engine is directly coupled to a water pump. Even after technical viability of such low temperature solar thermal powered systems for water pumping, these systems do not seem to be very attractive as their economic viability is very far away.

  2. Flight evaluation of an extended engine life mode on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system designed to reduce the rate of engine deterioration was developed and evaluated in flight on the NASA Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The extended engine life mode increases engine pressure ratio while reducing engine airflow to lower the turbine temperature at constant thrust. The engine pressure ratio uptrim is modulated in real time based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. The extended engine life mode logic performed well, significantly reducing turbine operating temperature. Reductions in fan turbine inlet temperature of up to 80 F were obtained at intermediate power and up to 170 F at maximum augmented power with no appreciable loss in thrust. A secondary benefit was the considerable reduction in thrust-specific fuel consumption. The success of the extended engine life mode is one example of the advantages gained from integrating aircraft flight and propulsion control systems.

  3. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  4. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  5. Testing of high-octane fuels in the single-cylinder airplane engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeber, Fritz

    1940-01-01

    One of the most important properties of aviation fuels for spark-ignition engines is their knock rating. The CFR engine tests of fuels of 87 octane and above does not always correspond entirely to the actual behavior of these fuels in the airplane engine. A method is therefore developed which, in contrast to the octane number determination, permits a testing of the fuel under various temperatures and fuel mixture conditions. The following reference fuels were employed: 1) Primary fuels; isooctane and n-heptane; 2) Secondary fuels; pure benzene and synthetic benzine.

  6. Crash tests of three identical low-wing single-engine airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three identical four place, low wing single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested under controlled free flight conditions. The tests were conducted at the same nominal velocity of 25 m/sec along the flight path. Two airplanes were crashed on a concrete surface (at 10 and 30 deg pitch angles), and one was crashed on soil (at a -30 deg pitch angle). The three tests revealed that the specimen in the -30 deg test on soil sustained massive structural damage in the engine compartment and fire wall. Also, the highest longitudinal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. Severe damage, but of lesser magnitude, occurred in the -30 deg test on concrete. The highest normal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. The least structural damage and lowest accelerations occurred in the 10 deg test on concrete.

  7. High-Speed Tests of a Model Twin-Engine Low-Wing Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, John V; LEONARD LLOYD H

    1942-01-01

    Report presents the results of force tests made of a 1/8-scale model of a twin-engine low-wing transport airplane in the NACA 8-foot high-speed tunnel to investigate compressibility and interference effects of speeds up to 450 miles per hour. In addition to tests of the standard arrangement of the model, tests were made with several modifications designed to reduce the drag and to increase the critical speed.

  8. Application of selected advanced technologies to high performance, single-engine, business airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, C. S.; Martin, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Improvements in performance and fuel efficiency are evaluated for five new configurations of a six place, single turboprop, business airplane derived from a conventional, aluminum construction baseline aircraft. Results show the greatest performance gains for enhancements in natural laminar flow. A conceptual diesel engine provides greater fuel efficiency but reduced performance. Less significant effects are produced by the utilization of composite materials construction or by reconfiguration from tractor to pusher propeller installation.

  9. Method and apparatus for reduced oil consumption and oil deterioration in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, K.D.

    1989-06-26

    This patent describes a method for reducing oil consumption and oil deterioration in a reciprocating engine. It comprises: providing the engine with ceramic rings and ceramic cylinder linings the rings and the linings being in direct sliding contact; providing a means for the minimal adsorption of an oil lubricant on the rings and the linings to form a lubricating boundary-film on the rings and linings; and providing a means for restriction of an excess of the oil lubricant from entering the piston ring/cylinder liner region of the engine precluding a hydrodynamic, full film lubricant layer between the rings and linings.

  10. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  11. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  12. Flight Research Using F100 Engine P680063 in the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Conners, Timothy R.; Maxwell, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The value of flight research in developing and evaluating gas turbine engines is high. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting flight research on propulsion systems for many years. The F100 engine has been tested in the NASA F-15 research airplane in the last three decades. One engine in particular, S/N P680063, has been used for the entire program and has been flown in many pioneering propulsion flight research activities. Included are detailed flight-to-ground facility tests; tests of the first production digital engine control system, the first active stall margin control system, the first performance-seeking control system; and the first use of computer-controlled engine thrust for emergency flight control. The flight research has been supplemented with altitude facility tests at key times. This paper presents a review of the tests of engine P680063, the F-15 airplanes in which it flew, and the role of the flight test in maturing propulsion technology.

  13. Reciprocating balance weight mechanism for a piston type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nivi, H.; Field, N.L. III

    1987-08-25

    A balancing mechanism is described for reducing the vibration of a piston type internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a camshaft, the balancing mechanisms comprising one or more reciprocating balance weights, with each weight comprising an elongate body having a cam follower mounted at either end and with each weight being driven by two rotating cams with at least one of the cams being driven by either the crankshaft or the camshaft.

  14. Subsonic wind tunnel investigation of a twin-engine attack airplane model having nonmetric powered nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, V. E.; Matarazzo, A.

    1974-01-01

    A 1/10-scale powered model of a twin-engine attack airplane was investigated in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel. The study was made at several Mach numbers between 0.225 and 0.75 which correspond to Reynolds numbers, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, of 1.35 million and 3.34 million. Unheated compressed air was used for jet simulation in the nonmetric engine nacelles which were located ahead of and above the horizontal stabilizer.

  15. Combustion of hydrogen-based mixtures in gas-fueled reciprocating engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smygalina, A. E.; Zaitchenko, V. M.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The research is devoted to the possibility for application of hydrogen accumulated from renewable energy sources as a fuel for a reciprocating engine, which serves as an electrical generator drive. Hydrogen combustion in the chamber of a reciprocating engine, as a rule, occurs in a detonation mode. In order to obtain less hard modes, the present research proposes the usage of steam additions to hydrogen-air mixture or lean hydrogen-air mixtures. Mathematical simulation is used for investigation of combustion of mentioned mixtures in the combustion chamber of a reciprocating engine with a spark-plug ignition. The comparison of the usage of hydrogen-steam-air mixtures and lean hydrogen-air mixtures as fuels is given. The dependence of arising combustion modes and its quantitative characteristics on hydrogen content in combustible composition is investigated. The analysis of optimal combustion is presented, which is based on the consideration of two parameters: peak pressure in one cycle and the crankshaft angle corresponding to the achievement of the peak pressure.

  16. Flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane (ATLIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Project organization and execution, airplane description and performance predictions, and the results of the flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin engine airplane (ATLIT) are presented. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34-200 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll control spoilers, and full span Fowler flaps. The conclusions for the ATLIT evaluation are based on complete stall and roll flight test results and partial performance test results. The Stalling and rolling characteristics met design expectations. Climb performance was penalized by extensive flow separation in the region of the wing body juncture. Cruise performance was found to be penalized by a large value of zero lift drag. Calculations showed that, with proper attention to construction details, the improvements in span efficiency and zero lift drag would permit the realization of the predicted increases in cruising and maximum rate of climb performance.

  17. Summary of the effects of engine throttle response on airplane formation-flying qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin R.

    1993-01-01

    A flight evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of engine throttle response characteristics on precision formation-flying qualities. A variable electronic throttle control system was developed and flight-tested on a TF-104G airplane with a J79-11B engine at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This airplane was chosen because of its known, very favorable thrust response characteristics. Ten research flights were flown to evaluate the effects of throttle gain, time delay, and fuel control rate limiting on engine handling qualities during a demanding precision wing formation task. Handling quality effects of lag filters and lead compensation time delays were also evaluated. The Cooper and Harper Pilot Rating Scale was used to assign levels of handling quality. Data from pilot ratings and comments indicate that throttle control system time delays and rate limits cause significant degradations in handling qualities. Threshold values for satisfactory (level 1) and adequate (level 2) handling qualities of these key variables are presented. These results may provide engine manufacturers with guidelines to assure satisfactory handling qualities in future engine designs.

  18. Supercharged two-cycle engines employing novel single element reciprocating shuttle inlet valve mechanisms and with a variable compression ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesen, Bernard (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to novel reciprocating shuttle inlet valves, effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines, employing spark or compression ignition. Also permitting the elimination of out-of-phase piston arrangements to control scavenging and supercharging of opposed-piston engines. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve (32) and its operating mechanism (34) is constructed as a single and simple uncomplicated member, in combination with the lost-motion abutments, (46) and (48), formed in a piston skirt, obviating the need for any complex mechanisms or auxiliary drives, unaffected by heat, friction, wear or inertial forces. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve retains the simplicity and advantages of two-cycle engines, while permitting an increase in volumetric efficiency and performance, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of two-cycle engines into many areas that are now dominated by the four-cycle engine.

  19. Modular instrumentation system for real-time measurements and control on reciprocating engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, W. J.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumentation system was developed for reciprocating engines. Among the parameters measured are the indicated mean effective pressure, or theoretical work per cycle, and the mass fraction burn rate, a measure of the combustion rate in the cylinder. These computations are performed from measured cylinder pressure and crankshaft angle and are available in real time for the experimenter. A 100 or 200 consecutive-cycle sample is analyzed to reduce the effect of cyclic variations in the engine. Data are displayed in bargraph form, and the mean and standard deviation are computed. Other instruments are also described.

  20. Wind-tunnel Tests of a 2-engine Airplane Model as a Preliminary Study of Flight Conditions Arising on the Failure of the Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 15-foot-span model of a two-engine low wing transport airplane were made as a preliminary study of the emergency arising from the failure of one engine in flight. Two methods of reducing the initial yawing moment resulting from the failure of one engine were investigated and the equilibrium conditions were explored for two basic modes on one engine, one with zero angle of sideslip and the other with several degrees of sideslip. The added drag resulting from the unsymmetrical attitudes required for flight on one engine was determined for the model airplane. The effects of the application of power upon the stability, controllability, lift, and drag of the model airplane were measured. A dynamic pressure survey of the propeller slipstream was made in the neighborhood of the tail surfaces at three angles of attack. The added parasite drag of the model airplane resulting from the unfavorable conditions of flight on one engine was estimated. From 35 to 50 percent of this added drag was due to the drag of the dead engine propeller and the other 50 to 65 percent was due to the unsymmetrical attitude of the airplane. The mode of flight on one engine in which the angle of sideslip was zero was found to require less power than the mode in which the angle of sideslip was several degrees.

  1. Flight evaluation results for a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Walsh, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system on an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane was evaluated in flight. Thirty flights were flown in a four-phase program from June 1981 to February 1983. Significant improvements in the operability and performance of the F100 engine were developed as a result of the flight evaluation: the augmentor envelope was increased by 15,000 ft, the airstart envelope was improved by 75 knots, and the need to periodically trim the engine was eliminated. The hydromechanical backup control performance was evaluated and was found to be satisfactory. Two system failures were encountered in the test program; both were detected and accommodated successfully. No transfers to the backup control system were required, and no automatic transfers occurred. As a result of the successful DEEC flight evaluation, the DEEC system has entered the full-scale development phase.

  2. The Direct Measurement of Engine Power on an Airplane in Flight with a Hub Type Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gove, W D; Green, M W

    1927-01-01

    This report describes tests made to obtain direct measurements of engine power in flight. Tests were made with a Bendemann hub dynamometer installed on a modified DH-4 Airplane, Liberty 12 Engine, to determine the suitability of this apparatus. This dynamometer unit, which was designed specially for use with a liberty 12 engine, is a special propeller hub in which is incorporated a system of pistons and cylinders interposed between the propeller and the engine crankshaft. The torque and thrust forces are balanced by fluid pressures, which are recorded by instruments in the cockpit. These tests have shown the suitability of this type of hub dynamometer for measurement of power in flight and for the determination of the torque and power coefficients of the propeller. (author)

  3. Noise propagation from a four-engine, propeller-driven airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the propagation of periodic low-frequency noise from a propeller-driven airplane. The test airplane was a large four-engine, propeller-driven airplane flown at altitudes from 15 to 500 m over the end of an 1800-m-long, 22-element microphone array. The acoustic data were reduced by a one-third octave-band analysis. The primary propagation quantities computed were lateral attenuation and ground effects, both of which become significant at shallow elevation angles. Scatter in the measured results largely obscured the physics of the low-frequency noise propagation. Variability of the noise source, up to 9.5 dB over a 2-sec interval, was the major contributor to the data scatter. The microphones mounted at ground level produced more consistent results with less scatter than those mounted 1.2 m above ground. The ground noise levels were found to be greater on the port side than on the starboard side.

  4. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-powered airplane of 6,000 pounds or less maximum weight must have a steady climb gradient at sea level of... takeoff position(s); and (4) A climb speed not less than the greater of 1.1 VMC and 1.2 VS1 for... acrobatic category reciprocating engine-powered airplane of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight,...

  5. Modeling of reciprocating internal combustion engines for power generation and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a power generation and heat recovery model for reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICEs). The purpose of the proposed model is to provide realistic estimates of performance/efficiency maps for both electrical power output and useful thermal output for various capacities of engines for use in a preliminary CHP design/simulation process. The proposed model will serve as an alternative to constant engine efficiencies or empirical efficiency curves commonly used in the current literature for simulations of CHP systems. The engine performance/efficiency calculation algorithm has been coded to a publicly distributed FORTRAN Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and a user friendly tool has been developed using Visual Basic programming. Simulation results using the proposed model are validated against manufacturer’s technical data.

  6. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  7. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the takeoff and reach a height of 50 feet, as indicated by the takeoff path data, before passing over... by the takeoff path data) or 200 feet horizontally within the airport boundaries and 300 feet... takeoff path data) and after that without banking more than 15 degrees. (b) In applying this...

  8. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reach a height of 50 feet, as indicated by the takeoff path data, before passing over the end of the... path data) or 200 feet horizontally within the airport boundaries and 300 feet horizontally beyond the boundaries, without banking before reaching a height of 50 feet (as shown by the takeoff path data)...

  9. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reach a height of 50 feet, as indicated by the takeoff path data, before passing over the end of the... path data) or 200 feet horizontally within the airport boundaries and 300 feet horizontally beyond the boundaries, without banking before reaching a height of 50 feet (as shown by the takeoff path data)...

  10. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the takeoff and reach a height of 50 feet, as indicated by the takeoff path data, before passing over... by the takeoff path data) or 200 feet horizontally within the airport boundaries and 300 feet... takeoff path data) and after that without banking more than 15 degrees. (b) In applying this...

  11. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the takeoff and reach a height of 50 feet, as indicated by the takeoff path data, before passing over... by the takeoff path data) or 200 feet horizontally within the airport boundaries and 300 feet... takeoff path data) and after that without banking more than 15 degrees. (b) In applying this...

  12. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reach a height of 50 feet, as indicated by the takeoff path data, before passing over the end of the... path data) or 200 feet horizontally within the airport boundaries and 300 feet horizontally beyond the boundaries, without banking before reaching a height of 50 feet (as shown by the takeoff path data)...

  13. 14 CFR 121.185 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Destination airport. 121.185 Section 121.185 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Destination airport. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section no person operating a... determining the allowable landing weight at the destination airport the following is assumed: (1) The...

  14. 14 CFR 121.331 - Supplemental oxygen requirements for pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen requirements for... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.331 Supplemental oxygen requirements for... oxygen for each crewmember for the entire flight at those altitudes and not less than a two-hour...

  15. 14 CFR 121.331 - Supplemental oxygen requirements for pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen requirements for... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.331 Supplemental oxygen requirements for... oxygen for each crewmember for the entire flight at those altitudes and not less than a two-hour...

  16. 14 CFR 121.331 - Supplemental oxygen requirements for pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen requirements for... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.331 Supplemental oxygen requirements for... oxygen for each crewmember for the entire flight at those altitudes and not less than a two-hour...

  17. 14 CFR 121.331 - Supplemental oxygen requirements for pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen requirements for... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.331 Supplemental oxygen requirements for... oxygen for each crewmember for the entire flight at those altitudes and not less than a two-hour...

  18. 14 CFR 121.331 - Supplemental oxygen requirements for pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen requirements for... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.331 Supplemental oxygen requirements for... oxygen for each crewmember for the entire flight at those altitudes and not less than a two-hour...

  19. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  20. Airstart performance of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Licata, S. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The airstart performance of the F100 engine equipped with a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system was evaluated in an F-15 airplane. The DEEC system incorporates closed-loop airstart logic for improved capability. Spooldown and jet fuel starter-assisted airstarts were made over a range of airspeeds and altitudes. All jet fuel starter-assisted airstarts were successful, with airstart time varying from 35 to 60 sec. All spooldown airstarts at airspeeds of 200 knots and higher were successful; airstart times ranged from 45 sec at 250 knots to 135 sec at 200 knots. The effects of altitude on airstart success and time were small. The flight results agreed closely with previous altitude facility test results. The DEEC system provided successful airstarts at airspeeds at least 50 knots lower than the standard F100 engine control system.

  1. Performance improvements of single-engine business airplanes by the integration of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment is presented of the performance gains and economic impact of the integration in general aviation aircraft of advanced technologies, relating to such aspects of design as propulsion, natural laminar flow, lift augmentation, unconventional configurations, and advanced aluminum and composite structures. All considerations are with reference to a baseline mission of 1300 nm range and 300-knot cruise speed with a 1300-lb payload, and a baseline aircraft with a 40 lb/sq ft wing loading and an aspect ratio of 8. Extensive analytical results are presented from the NASA-sponsored General Aviation Synthesis Program. Attention is given to the relative performance gains to be expected from the single-engined baseline aircraft's use of a low cost general aviation turbine engine, a spark-ignited reciprocating engine, a diesel engine, and a Wankel rotary engine.

  2. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) Research at Argonne National Laboratory. A Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sreenath; Biruduganti, Muni; Bihari, Bipin; Sekar, Raj

    2014-08-01

    The goals of these experiments were to determine the potential of employing spectral measurements to deduce combustion metrics such as HRR, combustion temperatures, and equivalence ratios in a natural gas-fired reciprocating engine. A laser-ignited, natural gas-fired single-cylinder research engine was operated at various equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 1.0, while varying the EGR levels between 0% and maximum to thereby ensure steady combustion. Crank angle-resolved spectral signatures were collected over 266-795 nm, encompassing chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, and predominantly by CO2* species. Further, laser-induced gas breakdown spectra were recorded under various engine operating conditions.

  3. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  4. Effect of control logic modifications on airstart performance of F100 engine model derivative engines in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. B.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A series of airstarts were conducted in an F-15 airplane with two prototype Pratt and Whitney F100 Engine Model Derivative engines equipped with Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) systems. The airstart envelope and the time required for airstarts were defined. Comparisons were made between the original airstart logic, and modified logic which was designed to improve the airstart capability. Spooldown airstarts with the modified logic were more successful at lower altitudes than were those with the original logic. Spooldown airstart times ranged from 33 seconds at 250 knots to 83 seconds at 175 knots. The modified logic improved the airstart time from 31% to 53%, with the most improved times at slower airspeeds. Jet fuel starter (JFS)-assisted airstarts were conducted at 7000 m and airstart times were significantly faster than unassisted airstarts. The effect of altitude on airstart times was small.

  5. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  6. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine: Parasitic Loss Control through Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Farshid Sadeghi; Chin-Pei Wang

    2008-12-31

    This report presents results of our investigation on parasitic loss control through surface modification in reciprocating engine. In order to achieve the objectives several experimental and corresponding analytical models were designed and developed to corroborate our results. Four different test rigs were designed and developed to simulate the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL) contact. The Reciprocating Piston Test Rig (RPTR) is a novel suspended liner test apparatus which can be used to accurately measure the friction force and side load at the piston-cylinder interface. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with the experimental measurements. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results showed good agreement. The results revealed that in the reciprocating engines higher friction occur near TDC and BDC of the stroke due to the extremely low piston speed resulting in boundary lubrication. A Small Engine Dynamometer Test Rig was also designed and developed to enable testing of cylinder liner under motored and fired conditions. Results of this study provide a baseline from which to measure the effect of surface modifications. The Pin on Disk Test Rig (POD) was used in a flat-on-flat configuration to study the friction effect of CNC machining circular pockets and laser micro-dimples. The results show that large and shallow circular pockets resulted in significant friction reduction. Deep circular pockets did not provide much load support. The Reciprocating Liner Test Rig (RLTR) was designed to simplifying the contact at the PRCL interface. Accurate measurement of friction was obtained using 3-axis piezoelectric force transducer. Two fiber optic sensors were used to measure the film thickness precisely. The results show that the friction force is reduced through the use of modified surfaces. The Shear Driven Test Rig (SDTR) was designed to simulate the mechanism of the

  7. Assessment of advanced technologies for high performance single-engine business airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for significantly increasing the fuel efficiency and mission capability of single engine business aircraft through the incorporation of advanced propulsion, aerodynamics and materials technologies are explored. It is found that turbine engines cannot match the fuel economy of the heavier rotary, diesel and advanced spark reciprocating engines. The rotary engine yields the lightest and smallest aircraft for a given mission requirement, and also offers greater simplicity and a multifuel capability. Great promise is also seen in the use of composite material primary structures in conjunction with laminar flow wing surfaces, a pusher propeller and conventional wing-tail configuration. This study was conducted with the General Aviation Synthesis Program, which can furnish the most accurate mission performance calculations yet obtained.

  8. The 727 airplane target thrust reverser static performance model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, C. T. P.; Atkey, E. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a scale model static performance test of target thrust reverser configurations for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 series engine are presented. The objective of the test was to select a series of suitable candidate reverser configurations for the subsequent airplane model wind tunnel ingestion and flight controls tests. Test results indicate that adequate reverse thrust performance with compatible engine airflow match is achievable for the selected configurations. Tapering of the lips results in loss of performance and only minimal flow directivity. Door pressure surveys were conducted on a selected number of lip and fence configurations to obtain data to support the design of the thrust reverser system.

  9. 76 FR 11844 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issue Area-Phase 2 of Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Issues Group. (The FAA published a notice of Phase 1 task assignment in the Federal Register (75 FR 16902... Airplanes'' (70 FR 40166, July 12, 2005). The ARAC working group should provide information that could lead... Engine Issue Area--Phase 2 of Low Speed Alerting Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...

  10. Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes: Wallops Flight Facility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gregg G.; Senzig, David A.; McCurdy, David A.; Roof, Christopher J.; Rapoza, Amanda S.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC), the Environmental Measurement and Modeling Division of the United States Department of Transportation s John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), and several other organizations (see Appendix A for a complete list of participating organizations and individuals) conducted a noise measurement study at NASA s Wallops Flight Facility (Wallops) near Chincoteague, Virginia during September 2000. This test was intended to determine engine installation effects on four civil transport airplanes: a Boeing 767-400, a McDonnell-Douglas DC9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beechcraft King Air. Wallops was chosen for this study because of the relatively low ambient noise of the site and the degree of control over airplane operating procedures enabled by operating over a runway closed to other uses during the test period. Measurements were conducted using a twenty microphone U-shaped array oriented perpendicular to the flight path; microphones were mounted such that ground effects were minimized and low elevation angles were observed.

  11. Preliminary flight evaluation of F100 engine model derivative airstart capability in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, T. K.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A series of airstarts was conducted in an F-15 airplane with two prototype F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine control (DEEC) systems. The airstart envelope and time required for airstarts were defined. The success of an airstart is most heavily dependent on airspeed. Spooldown airstarts at 200 knots and higher were all successful. Spooldown airstart times ranged from 53 sec at 250 knots to 170 sec at 175 knots. Jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted airstarts were conducted at 175 knots at two altitudes, and airstart times were 50 and 60 sec, significantly faster than unassisted airstart. The effect of altitude on airstarts was small. In addition, the airstart characteristics of the two test engines were found to closely resemble each other. The F100 EMD airstart characteristics were very similar to the DEEC equipped F100 engine tested previously. Finally, the time required to spool down from intermediate power compressor rotor speed to a given compressor rotor speed was found to be a strong function of altitude and a weaker function of airspeed.

  12. Performance improvements of an F-15 airplane with an integrated engine-flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on the NASA Ames-Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The highly integrated digital control (HIDEC) system provides additional engine thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power. The amount of EPR uptrim is modulated based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. Engine thrust was increased as much as 10.5 percent at subsonic flight conditions by uptrimming EPR. The additional thrust significantly improved aircraft performance. Rate of climb was increased 14 percent at 40,000 ft and the time to climb from 10,000 to 40,000 ft was reduced 13 percent. A 14 and 24 percent increase in acceleration was obtained at intermediate and maximum power, respectively. The HIDEC logic performed fault free. No engine anomalies were encountered for EPR increases up to 12 percent and for angles of attack and sideslip of 32 and 11 degrees, respectively.

  13. 14 CFR 121.201 - Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: En route...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.201 Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One...

  14. 14 CFR 121.201 - Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: En route...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.201 Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One...

  15. 14 CFR 121.201 - Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: En route...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.201 Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One...

  16. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16894; AD 2011-26-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel... AD to prevent failure of the fuel injector fuel lines that would allow fuel to spray into the engine... response, any AD made applicable to TCM engines with externally mounted fuel injector lines, would have...

  17. 78 FR 47228 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... of engine power loss due to engine coolant contaminating the engine clutch. The design of the...

  18. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  19. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section: (1) Airplanes with high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that has jet engines with a bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane, after... do not have high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that does not have jet engines with...

  20. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section: (1) Airplanes with high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that has jet engines with a bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane, after... do not have high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that does not have jet engines with...

  1. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section: (1) Airplanes with high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that has jet engines with a bypass ratio of 2 or more before a change in type design— (i) The airplane, after... do not have high bypass ratio jet engines. For an airplane that does not have jet engines with...

  2. Effects of airplane characteristics and takeoff noise and field length constraints on engine cycle selection for a Mach 2.32 cruise application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Sideline noise and takeoff field length were varied for two types of Mach 2.32 cruise airplane to determine their effect on engine cycle selection. One of these airplanes was the NASA/Langley-LTV arrow wing while the other was a Boeing modified delta-plus-tail derived from the earlier 2707-300 concept. Advanced variable cycle engines were considered. A more conventional advanced low bypass turbofan engine was used as a baseline for comparison. Appropriate exhaust nozzle modifications were assumed, where needed, to allow all engines to receive either an inherent co-annular or annular jet noise suppression benefit. All the VCE's out-performed the baseline engine by substantial margins in a design range comparison, regardless of airplane choice or takeoff restrictions. The choice among the three VCE's considered, however, depends on the field length, noise level, and airplane selected.

  3. Evaluation of the ride quality of a light twin engine airplane using a ride quality meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1989-01-01

    A ride quality meter was used to establish the baseline ride quality of a light twin-engine airplane planned for use as a test bed for an experimental gust alleviation system. The ride quality meter provides estimates of passenger ride discomfort as a function of cabin noise and vibration (acceleration) in five axes (yaw axis omitted). According to the ride quality meter, in smooth air the cabin noise was the dominant source of passenger discomfort, but the total discomfort was approximately the same as that for the smooth-air condition. The researcher's subjective opinion, however, is that the total ride discomfort was much worse in the moderate turbulence than it was in the smooth air. The discrepancy is explained by the lack of measurement of the low-frequency accelerations by the ride quality meter.

  4. Testing of reciprocating seals for application in a Stirling cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curulla, J. F.; Beck, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Six single stage reciprocating seal configurations to the requirements of the Stirling cycle engine were evaluated. The seals tested were: the Boeing Footseal, NASA Chevron polyimide seal, Bell seal, Quad seal, Tetraseal, and Dynabak seal. None of these seal configurations met the leakage goals of .002 cc/sec at helium gas pressure of 1.22 x 10 to the 7th power PA, rod speed of 7.19 m/sec peak, and seal environmental temperature of 408 K for 1500 hours. Most seals failed due to high temperatures. Catastrophic failures were observed for a minimum number of test runs characterized by extremely high leakage rates and large temperature rises. The Bell seal attained 63 hours of run time at significantly lowered test conditions.

  5. 78 FR 64394 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines and Continental Motors, Inc. Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... by reference of a certain publication listed in this AD as of December 20, 2012 (77 FR 72203... INFORMATION: Discussion On November 29, 2012, we issued AD 2012-24-09, Amendment 39-17279 (77 FR 72203... FR 2615, January 14, 2013), which corrected the affected Lycoming Engines engine model from...

  6. 78 FR 70240 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...Bulletins.aspx . You may view this service information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA... Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 1600 Stewart Avenue, Suite 410, Westbury, NY...

  7. Development and Flight Test of an Emergency Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John J.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    An emergency flight control system that uses only engine thrust, called the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, was developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. The PCA system is a thrust-only control system, which augments pilot flightpath and track commands with aircraft feedback parameters to control engine thrust. The PCA system was implemented on the MD-11 airplane using only software modifications to existing computers. Results of a 25-hr flight test show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds, altitudes, and configurations. PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any normal flight controls were demonstrated, including ILS-coupled hands-off landings. PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. The PCA system was also tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control, a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, the MD-11 airplane and its systems, PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  8. 76 FR 25648 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... dynamic loads resulting from: (a) The loss of any fan, compressor, or turbine blade; and (b) Separately... Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include ] engine size and the potential torque load imposed by sudden engine...

  9. Thrust stand evaluation of engine performance improvement algorithms in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation is underway to determine the benefits of a new propulsion system optimization algorithm in an F-15 airplane. The performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of an F100 derivative turbofan engine for several modes of operation. The PSC algorithm uses an onboard software engine model that calculates thrust, stall margin, and other unmeasured variables for use in the optimization. As part of the PSC test program, the F-15 aircraft was operated on a horizontal thrust stand. Thrust was measured with highly accurate load cells. The measured thrust was compared to onboard model estimates and to results from posttest performance programs. Thrust changes using the various PSC modes were recorded. Those results were compared to benefits using the less complex highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) algorithm. The PSC maximum thrust mode increased intermediate power thrust by 10 percent. The PSC engine model did very well at estimating measured thrust and closely followed the transients during optimization. Quantitative results from the evaluation of the algorithms and performance calculation models are included with emphasis on measured thrust results. The report presents a description of the PSC system and a discussion of factors affecting the accuracy of the thrust stand load measurements.

  10. The effect of engine speed on the TDC flowfield in a motored reciprocating engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, S.; Vafidis, C.; Whitelaw, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of three velocity components have been obtained by forward-scatter laser Doppler anemometry in the transparent cylinder of a modified production engine motored in the speed range 300-2000 rpm with a disc-type combustion chamber and a compression ratio of 7.4. The in-cylinder flow development has been examined in detail with and without induction swirl at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. In both cases turbulence was non-isotropic during compression with a tendency towards isotropy at TDC. The swirl velocities at TDC of compression scaled linearly with engine speed while the volume-averaged turbulence intensity varied more than linearly with engine speed for both induction system configurations, increasing from 0.45 to 0.6 times the mean piston speed in the absence of induction swirl and from 0.4 to 0.5 with induction swirl.

  11. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: All engines operating. 23.65 Section... Climb: All engines operating. (a) Each normal, utility, and acrobatic category reciprocating engine-powered airplane of 6,000 pounds or less maximum weight must have a steady climb gradient at sea level...

  12. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Climb: All engines operating. 23.65 Section... Climb: All engines operating. (a) Each normal, utility, and acrobatic category reciprocating engine-powered airplane of 6,000 pounds or less maximum weight must have a steady climb gradient at sea level...

  13. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E & P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-09-30

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub X} emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work tests non-production, prototype, mid-pressure fuel valves and begins analysis of these tests. This analysis reveals questions which must be answered before coming to any firm conclusions about the use of the180 psig fuel valve. The research team plans to continue with the remaining pre-combustion chamber tests in the coming quarter. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and a change in strategy is suggested. Although field engines are available to test, it is suggested that the final field testing be put on hold due to information from outside publications during this last quarter. Instead, KSU would focus on related field-testing and characterization in an outside project that will close an apparent technology gap. The results of this characterization will give a more solid footing to the field testing that will complete this project.

  14. The application of laser Rayleigh scattering to a reciprocating model engine

    SciTech Connect

    Arcoumains, C.; Green, H.G.; Whitelaw, J.H.

    1984-02-01

    The Rayleigh light scattering technique has been used to quantify the mean and fluctuating concentration of a passive scalar used to simulate fuel injection in a reciprocating, two-stroke model engine motored at 200 rpm in the absence of compression. The transient concentration field, which results from injection of Freon-12 vapour through the centre of an axisymmetrically located permanently open valve, has been investigated for injection timings of 40 deg. before and at top-dead-centre as a function of spatial position and crank angle. The purpose-built Rayleigh system, with gated digital data acquisition and software dust particle filtering, was first evaluated in a Freon-12 free jet by comparing results to those obtained with a sampling probe. At low concentration fluctuations and independent of particle density the agreement between the two methods is excellent but at high concentration fluctuations and particle density the Rayleigh system overestimates the Freon-12 mole fraction by up to about 10% for reasons which are discussed. The results obtained in the model engine indicate that the Freon-12 concentration field expressed in terms of ensemble-averaged mole fractions and rms of concentration fluctuations, is dominated by the high momentum transient jet which, in the near field, exhibits similar trends to the steady jet. Impingement of the jet onto the flat piston improves mixing giving rise to nearly uniform concentration fluctuations of about 10%.

  15. An Investigation of the Ranger V-770-8 Engine Installation for the Edo XOSE-1 Airplane I : Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, M. Arnold; Conway, Robert N.

    1945-01-01

    Engine temperature data and cooling correlating analyses of the engine and oil cooler are presented in connection with an investigation of the cowling and cooling of the ranger V-770-8 engine installation in the Edo XOSE-1 airplane. Three types of baffles were installed in the course of the tests: the conventional, the turbulent-flow, and the NACA diffuser baffles. Each of the types was of merit in cooling a different region on the cylinder. Incorporation of the best features of the three types into one baffle, a method which appears to be feasible, would provide improvements in cylinder cooling.

  16. Improving the Performance of Multi-engined Airplanes by Means of Idling Propellers : the "free-wheel" Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillard, M

    1930-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the importance of free-wheeling propellers, this report considers the braking effect of a propeller on a stopped engine when the propeller is rigidly connected with the engine shaft and also when mounted on a free-wheel hub. The cases of propellers of asymmetric and symmetric section are discussed. The author describes the mechanism of the free-wheel propeller as constructed for this test. The results obtained with the device mounted on a 1,000 horsepower two-engine airplane are given.

  17. Tabulated pressure measurements on a large subsonic transport model airplane with high bypass ratio, powered, fan jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flechner, S. G.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental wind-tunnel investigation to determine the aerodynamic interference and the jet-wake interference associated with the wing, pylon, and high-bypass-ratio, powered, fan-jet model engines has been conducted on a typical high-wing logistics transport airplane configuration. Pressures were measured on the wing and pylons and on the surfaces of the engine fan cowl, turbine cowl, and plug. Combinations of wing, pylons, engines, and flow-through nacelles were tested, and the pressure coefficients are presented in tabular form. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.700 to 0.825 and angles of attack from -2 to 4 deg.

  18. Spin tests of a single-engine, high-wing light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Suit, W. T.; Moul, T. M.; Brown, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    The airplane has a relatively steep spin mode (low angle of attack) with a high load factor and high velocity. The airplane recovers almost immediately after any deviation from the prospin control positions, except for one maneuver with reduced flexibility in the elevator control system.

  19. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  20. In-flight acoustic measurements on a light twin-engined turboprop airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Mcdaniel, C. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1985-01-01

    Four series of flight tests were conducted to measure sound pressure levels inside and outside the cabin of a twin-engined turboprop airplane. Particular emphasis was placed on harmonics of the propeller blade passage frequency. The cabin was unfurnished for the first three flights, when the main objective was to investigate the repeatability of the data. For the fourth flight, the cabin was treated with fiberglass batts. Typically, the exterior sound pressure levels were found to vary 3 to 5 dB for a given harmonic, but variations as high as 8 dB were observed. The variability of harmonic levels within the cabin was slightly higher but depended on control of the relative phase between the propellers; when phase was not controlled the average variability was about 10 dB. Noise reductions provided by the fuselage structure were in the range of 20 to 40 dB, when an exterior microphone in the plane of rotation of the propeller was used as reference.

  1. Phase 2 program on ground test of refanned JT8D turbofan engines and nacelles for the 727 airplane. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The propulsion performance, acoustic, structural, and systems changes to a 727-200 airplane retrofitted with a refan modification of the JT8D turbofan engine are evaluated. Model tests, design of certifiable airplane retrofit kit hardware, manufacture of test hardware, ground test of a current production JT8D engine, followed by test of the same engine modified to the refan configuration, detailed analyses of the retrofit impact on airplane airworthiness, performance, and noise, and a preliminary analysis of retrofit costs are included. Results indicate that the refan retrofit of the 727-200 would be certifiable and would result in a 6-to 8 EPNdb reduction in effective perceived noise level (EPNL) at the FAR 36 measuring points and an annoyance-weighted footprint area reduction of 68% to 83%. The installed refan engine is estimated to provide 14% greater takeoff thrust at zero velocity and 10% greater thrust at 100 kn (51.4 m/s). There would be an approximate 0.6% increase in cruise specific fuel consumption (SFC). The refan engine performance in conjunction with the increase in stalled weight results in a range reduction of approximately 15% over the unmodified airplane at the same brake release gross weight (BRGW), with a block fuel increase of 1.5% to 3%. With the particular model 727 that was studied, however, it is possible to operate the airplane (with minor structural modifications) at a higher BRGW and increase the range up to approximately 15% relative to the nonrefanned airplane (with equal or slightly increased noise levels). The JT8D refan engine also improves the limited-field range of the airplane.

  2. Flight-determined engine exhaust characteristics of an F404 engine in an F-18 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Webb, Lannie D.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA-Langley) and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) recently completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Several types of aircraft with high nozzle pressure ratio engines were flown to satisfy a twofold objective. First, assessments were made of subsonic climb-to-cruise noise from flights conducted at varying altitudes in a Mach 0.30 to 0.90 range. Second, using data from flights conducted at constant altitude in a Mach 0.30 to 0.95 range, engineers obtained a high quality noise database. This database was desired to validate the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program and other system noise prediction codes. NASA-Dryden personnel analyzed the engine data from several aircraft that were flown in the test program to determine the exhaust characteristics. The analysis of the exhaust characteristics from the F-18 aircraft are reported. An overview of the flight test planning, instrumentation, test procedures, data analysis, engine modeling codes, and results are presented.

  3. 14 CFR 121.201 - Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerned: (1) The reliability of wind and weather forecasting. (2) The location and kinds of navigation... operating at the maximum continuous power available; (5) The airplane is operating in standard...

  4. 78 FR 60995 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and... on October 2, 2013, including uncertainty regarding Federal Government shutdown and travel....

  5. Comparison of predicted and measured drag for a single-engine airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. T.; Taylor, F. C.; Doo, J. T. P.

    1985-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural laminar flow (NLF) has rekindled designers' concerns that manufacturing deviations, (loss of surface contours or other surface imperfections) may destroy the effectiveness of NLF for an operational airplane. This paper reports on experimental research that compares predicted and measured boundary layer transition, total drag, and two-dimensional drag coefficients for three different wing surface conditions on an airplane typical of general aviation manufacturing technology. The three flight test phases included: (1) assessment of an unpainted airframe, (2) flight tests of the same airplane after painstakingly filling and sanding the wings to design contours, and (3) similar measurements after this airplane was painted. In each flight phase, transition locations were monitored using either sublimating chemicals or pigmented oil. As expected, total drag changes were difficult to measure. Two-dimensional drag coefficients were estimated using the Eppler-Somers code and measured with a wake rake in a method very similar to Jones' pitot traverse method. The net change in two-dimensional drag was approximately 20 counts between the unpainted airplane and the 'hand-smoothed' airplane for typical cruise flight conditions.

  6. Flight and Static Exhaust Flow Properties of an F110-GE-129 Engine in an F-16XL Airplane During Acoustic Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Jon K.; Webb, Lannie D.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The exhaust flow properties (mass flow, pressure, temperature, velocity, and Mach number) of the F110-GE-129 engine in an F-16XL airplane were determined from a series of flight tests flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. These tests were performed in conjunction with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LARC) as part of a study to investigate the acoustic characteristics of jet engines operating at high nozzle pressure conditions. The range of interest for both objectives was from Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.9. NASA Dryden flew the airplane and acquired and analyzed the engine data to determine the exhaust characteristics. NASA Langley collected the flyover acoustic measurements and correlated these results with their current predictive codes. This paper describes the airplane, tests, and methods used to determine the exhaust flow properties and presents the exhaust flow properties. No acoustics results are presented.

  7. Effect of Tilt of the Propeller Axis on the Longitudinal-stability Characteristics of Single-Engine Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J; Delaney, Noel K

    1944-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests of a model of a single-engine airplane with two different tilts of the propeller axis. The results indicate that on a typical design a 5 degree downward tilt of the propeller axis will considerably reduce the destabilization effects of power. A comparison of the experimental results with those computed by use of existing theory is included. A comparison of the experimental results with those computed by use of existing theory is included. It is shown that the results can be predicted with an accuracy acceptable for preliminary design purposes, particularly at the higher powers where the effects are of significant magnitude.

  8. On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.; Sekar, R.; Zigan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk gas

  9. A 727 airplane center duct inlet low speed performance confirmation model test for refanned JT8D engines, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaldschmidt, G.; Syltebo, B. E.; Ting, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The results from testing of a 0.3 scale model center duct inlet (S duct) for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 engines are presented. The objective of this test was to demonstrate that the required airflow of the JT8D-100 engine (480 lb/sec as compared to 334 lb/sec for JT8D-15) can be achieved with minimum modifications to the existing 727 airplane structure at acceptable levels of total pressure recovery and distortion. Steady-state pressure recovery, steady-state pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure measurements were taken at the engine face station. Surface static pressure measurements were taken along the duct. Test results indicated that the required airflow was achieved with acceptable pressure recovery (comparable to the current 727-200 S duct). Inlet inflow angle variation within the 727 airplane operating regime (minus 5 to 5 degrees) had no effect on the inlet performance. Pressure distortion at static and forward speed at takeoff airflow conditions are within P and WA limits for the Phase II duct when equipped with vortex generators. Static crosswind operation between 10 knots and 25 knots appears feasible at full takeoff power.

  10. The Bristol "Badminton" Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.

  11. Altitude Cooling Investigation of the R-2800-21 Engine in the P-47G Airplane. IV - Engine Cooling-Air Pressure Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Samuel J.; Staudt, Robert C.; Valerino, Michael F.

    1947-01-01

    A study of the data obtained in a flight investigation of an R-2800-21 engine in a P-47G airplane was made to determine the effect of the flight variables on the engine cooling-air pressure distribution. The investigation consisted of level flights at altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet for the normal range of engine and airplane operation. The data showed that the average engine front pressures ranged from 0.73 to 0.82 of the impact pressure (velocity head). The average engine rear pressures ranged from 0.50 to 0.55 of the impact pressure for closed cowl flaps and from 0.10 to 0.20 for full-open cowl flaps. In general, the highest front pressures were obtained at the bottom of the engine. The rear pressures for the rear-row cylinders were .lower and the pressure drops correspondingly higher than for the front-row cylinders. The rear-pressure distribution was materially affected by cowl-flap position in that the differences between the rear pressures of the front-row and rear-row cylinders markedly increased as the cowl flaps were opened. For full-open cowl flaps, the pressure drops across the rear-row cylinders were in the order of 0.2 of the impact pressure greater than across the front-row cylinders. Propeller speed and altitude had little effect on the -coolingair pressure distribution, Increase in angle of inclination of the thrust axis decreased the front ?pressures for the cylinders at the top of the engine and increased them for the cylinders at the bottom of the engine. As more auxiliary air was taken from the engine cowling, the front pressures and, to a lesser extent, the rear pressures for the cylinders at the bottom of the engine decreased. No correlation existed between the cooling-air pressure-drop distribution and the cylinder-temperature distribution.

  12. Preliminary study of temperature measurement techniques for Stirling engine reciprocating seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcock, D. F.; Hoogenboom, L.; Meinders, M.; Winer, W. O.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of determining the contact surface temperature in reciprocating seals are investigated. Direct infrared measurement of surface temperatures of a rod exiting a loaded cap seal or simulated seal are compared with surface thermocouple measurements. Significant cooling of the surface requires several milliseconds so that exit temperatures may be considered representative of internal contact temperatures.

  13. 78 FR 41684 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 Airplanes, Sudden Engine Stoppage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... airplane, was published in the Federal Register on September 25, 2012 (77 FR 58970). No comments were... auxiliary power unit (APU) installations, the APU mounts and adjacent supporting airframe structure must be... imposed by each of the following: (a) Sudden APU deceleration due to malfunction or structural...

  14. Analysis of the turbojet engine for propulsion of supersonic fighter airplanes / David S. Gabriel, Richard P. Krebs, E.Clinton Wilcox, Stanley L.Koutz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, David S; Krebs, Richard P; Wilcox, E Clinton; Koutz, Stanley L

    1953-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of two supersonic interceptor type airplanes to determine the most desirable turbojet engine characteristics for this application The airplanes were designed differently primarily because of the amount of subsonic flight incorporated in the flight plan--one flight having none and the other, a cruise radius of 400 nautical miles. Several power plant design variables were varied independently to determine the effect of changes in each parameter on airplane performance. These parameters included compressor pressure ratio, compressor efficiency, turbine-inlet temperature, afterburner temperature, engine specific weight, and air-handling capacity. The effects of using a convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle and of changing the design flight Mach number were also investigated.

  15. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reciprocating engine-powered airplanes of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight, and turbine engine-powered... determined at each weight, altitude, and ambient temperature within the operational limits established by the... climb speed equal to that achieved at 50 feet in the demonstration of § 23.53....

  16. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reciprocating engine-powered airplanes of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight, and turbine engine-powered... determined at each weight, altitude, and ambient temperature within the operational limits established by the... climb speed equal to that achieved at 50 feet in the demonstration of § 23.53....

  17. Engine Damage to a NASA DC-8-72 Airplane From a High-Altitude Encounter With a Diffuse Volcanic Ash Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Thomas J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) DC-8 airborne sciences research airplane inadvertently flew through a diffuse volcanic ash cloud of the Mt. Hekla volcano in February 2000 during a flight from Edwards Air Force Base (Edwards, California) to Kiruna, Sweden. Although the ash plume was not visible to the flight crew, sensitive research experiments and instruments detected it. In-flight performance checks and postflight visual inspections revealed no damage to the airplane or engine first-stage fan blades; subsequent detailed examination of the engines revealed clogged turbine cooling air passages. The engines were removed and overhauled. This paper presents volcanic ash plume analysis, trajectory from satellites, analysis of ash particles collected in cabin air heat exchanger filters and removed from the engines, and data from onboard instruments and engine conditions.

  18. Effect of Reynolds number and engine nacelles on the stalling characteristics of a model of a twin-engine light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    The investigation was made on a 1/18-scale model of a twin-engine light airplane. Static longitudinal, lateral, and directional characteristics were obtained at 0 deg and plus or minus 5 deg sideslip at a Mach number of about 0.2. The angle of attack varied from about 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 0.39 times one million to 13 deg at a Reynolds number of 3.7 times one million, based on the reference chord. The effect of fixed transition, vertical and horizontal tails, and nacelle fillets was studied.

  19. Preliminary flight-test results of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane /ATLIT/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Kohlman, D. L.; Crane, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present status and flight-test results are presented for the ATLIT airplane. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll-control spoilers, and full-span Fowler flaps. Flight-test results on stall and spoiler roll characteristics show good agreement with wind-tunnel data. Maximum power-off lift coefficients are greater than 3.0 with flaps deflected 37 deg. With flaps down, spoiler deflections can produce roll helix angles in excess of 0.11 rad. Flight testing is planned to document climb and cruise performance, and supercritical propeller performance and noise characteristics. The airplane is scheduled for testing in the NASA-Langley Research Center Full-Scale Tunnel.

  20. Crash tests of four low-wing twin-engine airplanes with truss-reinforced fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Four six-place, low-wing, twin-engine, general aviation airplane test specimens were crash tested under controlled free flight conditions. All airplanes were impacted on a concrete test surface at a nomial flight path velocity of 27 m/sec. Two tests were conducted at a -15 deg flight path angle (0 deg pitch angle and 15 deg pitch angle), and two were conducted at a -30 deg flight path angle (-30 deg pitch angle). The average acceleration time histories (crash pulses) in the cabin area for each principal direction were calculated for each crash test. In addition, the peak floor accelerations were calculated for each test as a function of aircraft fuselage longitudinal station number. Anthropomorphic dummy accelerations were analyzed using the dynamic response index and severity index (SI) models. Parameters affecting the dummy restraint system were studied; these parameters included the effect of no upper torso restraint, measurement of the amount of inertia-reel strap pullout before locking, measurement of dummy chest forward motion, and loads in the restraints. With the SI model, the dummies with no shoulder harness received head impacts above the concussive threshold.

  1. Full-scale wind tunnel-investigation of the Advanced Technology Light Twin-Engine airplane (ATLIT). [Langley full scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassell, J. L., Jr.; Newsom, W. A., Jr.; Yip, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance, stability, and control characteristics of the Advanced Technology Light Twin Engine airplane (ATLIT). Data were measured over an angle of attack range from -4 deg to 20 deg for various angles of sideslip between -5 deg and 15 deg at Reynolds numbers of 0.0000023 and 0.0000035 for various settings of power and flap deflection. Measurements were also made by means of special thrust torque balances to determine the installed propeller characteristics. Part of the investigation was devoted to drag cleanup of the basic airplane and to the evaluation of the effect of winglets on drag and stability.

  2. 77 FR 12450 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... review copies of the referenced service information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA 01803. For information on the availability of this material at the... Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive...

  3. The effect of chine tires on nose gear water-spray characteristics of a twin engine airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Stubbs, S. M.; Mccarty, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of nose gear chine tires in eliminating or minimizing the engine spray ingestion problem encountered on several occasions by the Merlin 4, a twin-engine propjet airplane. A study of the photographic and television coverage indicated that under similar test conditions the spray from the chine tires presented less of a potential engine spray ingestion problem than the conventional tires. Neither tire configuration appeared to pose any ingestion problem at aircraft speeds in excess of the hydroplaning speed for each tire, however, significant differences were noted in the spray patterns of the two sets of tires at sub-hydroplaning speeds. At sub-hydroplaning speeds, the conventional tires produced substantial spray above the wing which approached the general area of the engine air inlet at lower test speeds. The chine tires produced two distinct spray plumes at sub-hydroplaning speeds: one low-level plume which presented no apparent threat of ingestion, and one which at most test speeds was observed to be below the wing leading edge and thus displaced from the intakes on the engine nacelle.

  4. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. 121.645 Section 121.645 Aeronautics... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. (a) Any flag operation within the...-propeller powered airplane) unless, considering wind and other weather conditions expected, it has...

  5. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. 121.645 Section 121.645 Aeronautics... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. (a) Any flag operation within the...-propeller powered airplane) unless, considering wind and other weather conditions expected, it has...

  6. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. 121.645 Section 121.645 Aeronautics... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. (a) Any flag operation within the...-propeller powered airplane) unless, considering wind and other weather conditions expected, it has...

  7. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. 121.645 Section 121.645 Aeronautics... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. (a) Any flag operation within the...-propeller powered airplane) unless, considering wind and other weather conditions expected, it has...

  8. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. 121.645 Section 121.645 Aeronautics... airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental operations. (a) Any flag operation within the...-propeller powered airplane) unless, considering wind and other weather conditions expected, it has...

  9. General airplane performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockfeller, W C

    1939-01-01

    Equations have been developed for the analysis of the performance of the ideal airplane, leading to an approximate physical interpretation of the performance problem. The basic sea-level airplane parameters have been generalized to altitude parameters and a new parameter has been introduced and physically interpreted. The performance analysis for actual airplanes has been obtained in terms of the equivalent ideal airplane in order that the charts developed for use in practical calculations will for the most part apply to any type of engine-propeller combination and system of control, the only additional material required consisting of the actual engine and propeller curves for propulsion unit. Finally, a more exact method for the calculation of the climb characteristics for the constant-speed controllable propeller is presented in the appendix.

  10. Flight investigation of the effects of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification on stall/spin characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, T-tail light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Dicarlo, Daniel J.; Patton, James M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the change in stall/spin characteristics due to the addition of an outboard wing-leading-edge modification to a four-place, low-wing, single-engine, T-tail, general aviation research airplane. Stalls and attempted spins were performed for various weights, center of gravity positions, power settings, flap deflections, and landing-gear positions. Both stall behavior and wind resistance were improved compared with the baseline airplane. The latter would readily spin for all combinations of power settings, flap deflections, and aileron inputs, but the modified airplane did not spin at idle power or with flaps extended. With maximum power and flaps retracted, the modified airplane did enter spins with abused loadings or for certain combinations of maneuver and control input. The modified airplane tended to spin at a higher angle of attack than the baseline airplane.

  11. Numerical simulation of the operation of piston rings in a reciprocating engine

    SciTech Connect

    Saghir, H.; Arques, P.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors present results concerning the tightness of a combustion chamber by rings placed on a piston. The authors have developed a program of simulation of the operation of rings on a piston in movement. This program takes into account: the unstationary reciprocating movement of the ring in the piston ring groove and flows of gases between the combustion chamber, volumes delimited by the set rings-piston-cylinder and the crankcase. These flows are executed in rear of the ring or directly by the clearance to the cup of the ring.

  12. 77 FR 3090 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-POWERTRAIN GMBH & CO KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 3090-3091] [FR Doc No: 2012-1133] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR... Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park... September 28, 2011 (76 FR 59950). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the...

  13. Direct fired reciprocating engine and bottoming high temperature fuel cell hybrid

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Holcombe, Norman T.

    2006-02-07

    A system of a fuel cell bottoming an internal combustion engine. The engine exhaust gas may be combined in varying degrees with air and fed as input to a fuel cell. Reformer and oxidizers may be combined with heat exchangers to accommodate rich and lean burn conditions in the engine in peaking and base load conditions without producing high concentrations of harmful emissions.

  14. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2003-12-01

    During the second reporting period, the project team focused on identifying promising technologies that can then be used to monitor and control emissions from E&P engines. These technologies include control and monitoring technologies and in most cases can be used to monitor engine performance as well as control and monitor engine emissions. The project team also identified three potential sources to receive a Cooper Ajax engine that is approximately 100 bhp. The goal is to have this engine delivered to the project team by the end of the calendar year 2003. This will then allow the team to prepare the engine for testing at Ricardo in early 2004.

  15. Wind tunnel test of model target thrust reversers for the Pratt and Whitney aircraft JT8D-100 series engines installed on a 727-200 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambly, D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a low speed wind tunnel test of 0.046 scale model target thrust reversers installed on a 727-200 model airplane are presented. The full airplane model was mounted on a force balance, except for the nacelles and thrust reversers, which were independently mounted and isolated from it. The installation had the capability of simulating the inlet airflows and of supplying the correct proportions of primary and secondary air to the nozzles. The objectives of the test were to assess the compatibility of the thrust reversers target door design with the engine and airplane. The following measurements were made: hot gas ingestion at the nacelle inlets; model lift, drag, and pitching moment; hot gas impingement on the airplane structure; and qualitative assessment of the rudder effectiveness. The major parameters controlling hot gas ingestion were found to be thrust reverser orientation, engine power setting, and the lip height of the bottom thrust reverser doors on the side nacelles. The thrust reversers tended to increase the model lift, decrease the drag, and decrease the pitching moment.

  16. The 727 airplane side inlet low-speed performance confirmation model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuehle, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a low-speed wind tunnel test of a 0.3 scale model 727 airplane side inlet for JT8D-100 engines are presented. The objectives of the test were to develop lines for a full-scale flightworthy inlet, to evaluate inlet total pressure recovery and steady-state total pressure distortion, and to obtain model-scale distortion data which can be used in the assessment of the compatibility of the inlet with the JT8D-100 series engines. A secondary objective was to obtain internal/external cowl static pressures for the determination of nacelle loads. Two basic inlet models were tested at static, forward speed, angle-of-attack (inflow angle), and cross-wind conditions. One model was with and one without an acoustic ring. Two modifications to the models were also tested, one with the ring closer to the inlet throat and one with a larger lip. Test measurements consisted of inlet surface static pressure, engine face total pressure, inlet airflow, tunnel total pressure, tunnel total temperature and tunnel velocity. Total pressure traverses were taken directly behind the ring and strut. No dynamic measurements were taken.

  17. 75 FR 39803 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-16366. Docket No. FAA-2010-0308; Directorate Identifier 2010-NE-17-AD...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH model TAE 125-01...) Use the Measures section of Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Service Bulletin No. TM TAE...

  18. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen J. Adriani

    2005-04-01

    During the eighth reporting period, high-impact monitoring and control technologies were identified during a series of meetings at Ajax/Cooper in Oklahoma City. Many of the technologies that were identified will be tested on the Ajax DP-115 engine and are capable of being widely utilized by the E&P industry. Two major areas were engine controls and ignition systems but still included other alternatives to reduce emissions. Another major advance was the completion of setting the Ajax DP-115 engine. This includes anchoring and leveling the engine. Shortly after the engine was prepared, all the necessary utilities were installed. Once the utilities were installed the engine was successfully operated over its normal operating range at the end of the reporting period.

  19. Flight testing the digital electronic engine control in the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine which was flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The DEEC hardware and software throughout the F-15 flight envelope was evaluated. Real-time data reduction and data display systems were implemented. New test techniques and stronger coordination between the propulsion test engineer and pilot were developed which produced efficient use of test time, reduced pilot work load, and greatly improved quality data. The engine pressure ratio (EPR) control mode is demonstrated. It is found that the nonaugmented throttle transients and engine performance are satisfactory.

  20. Measurements of the Air-flow Velocity in the Cylinder of an Airplane Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, Hermann

    1939-01-01

    The object of the present investigation is to determine the velocity in the BMW-VI cylinder of an externally driven single-cylinder test engine at high engine speeds using the hot-wire method of Ulsamer.

  1. An analysis of airspeed, altitude, and acceleration data obtained from a twin-engine transport airplane operated over a feeder-line route in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copp, Martin R; Fetner, Mary W

    1956-01-01

    Time-history data of airspeed, altitude, and acceleration obtained with the NACA VGH recorder from a twin-engine airplane operated by a regional feeder airline in the Rocky Mountains are evaluated to determine the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of gusts and gust accelerations and the operating airspeeds and altitudes. The results obtained are compared with the results previously obtained from a representative short-haul and long-haul operation.

  2. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Beshouri; Kirby S. Chapman; Jim McCarthy; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Mike Whelan

    2006-03-01

    This quarterly report re-evaluates current market objectives in the exploration and production industry, discusses continuing progress in testing that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine, and presents a scheme for enacting remote monitoring and control of engines during upcoming field tests. The examination of current market objectives takes into account technological developments and changing expectations for environmental permitting which may have occurred over the last year. This demonstrates that the continuing work in controlled testing and toward field testing is on track Market pressures currently affecting the gas exploration and production industry are shown to include a push for increased production, as well as an increasing cost for environmental compliance. This cost includes the direct cost of adding control technologies to field engines as well as the indirect cost of difficulty obtaining permits. Environmental regulations continue to require lower emissions targets, and some groups of engines which had not previously been regulated will be required to obtain permits in the future. While the focus remains on NOx and CO, some permits require reporting of additional emissions chemicals. Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOx emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing

  3. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  4. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  5. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  6. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  7. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) When operating at flight altitudes above flight level 250, one pilot at the controls of the airplane... station at the controls of the airplane when operating at flight altitudes above flight level 250, the... in the event of cabin pressurization failure. (b) Crewmembers. When operating at flight...

  8. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen J. Adriani

    2004-01-01

    For the period of the 8th reporting period high-impact control technologies were identified during the meeting at Cooper in Oklahoma City. The technologies that were identified will be tested on the Ajax DP-115 engine and are capable of being widely utilized by the E&P industry. Two major areas where engine controls and ignition systems, but still included were other alternatives to reduce emissions. The most exhilarating item for this quarter was when Ajax engine was delivered to the test bed at the NGML.

  9. 78 FR 56622 - Airworthiness Directives; Continental Motors, Inc. Reciprocating Engines With Superior Air Parts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ..._Materials/Publications/Service_Bulletins/ . You may view this service information at the FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 781-238-7125. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket...

  10. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  11. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-07-01

    Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOX emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves and initial runs of these tests. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and changes to the first planned field test are presented. Although changes have been made to the previous plan, it is expected that several new sites will be selected soon. Field tests will begin in the next quarter.

  12. Automation of reciprocating gas engine compressor packages using programmable logic controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, W. )

    1990-09-01

    An approach taken to automate gas/engine compressor skid-mounted packages is described. The approach includes design criteria with special considerations relating to the application of programmable logic controllers (PLC's). Using typical industry standard specifications along with I/O lists, sequence narratives, and logic diagrams, the PLC's may be programmed to perform the desired operation. The added capabilities of the PLC enhance simulation, checkout, and startup.

  13. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-12-01

    This quarterly report discusses continuing work in the testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies, some of which have already been tested, and describes progress toward completing remaining tests to evaluate further synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed-loop control system coupled with a low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. Technologies including pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on preparing the test cell for tests using a 180 psig fuel valve. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine.

  14. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2005-10-01

    This quarterly report discusses the results from a testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies followed by a battery of tests that demonstrate synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed loop control, low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. The battery of tests include pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing. During several phases of the tests, the ignition timing also was varied to determine the optimal point for ignition timing. The results from these tests suggest that an optimum exists where fuel consumption is minimized along with NO{sub x} emissions. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and the cost to operate the engine is very inexpensive.

  15. A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D. L.

    2007-05-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore, high pressure, lean burn, natural gas engines a side pumped, passively Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser was developed and tested. The laser was designed to produce the optical intensities needed to initiate ignition in a lean burn, high compression engine. The laser and associated optics were designed with a passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for high voltage signaling and associated equipment. The laser was diode pumped to eliminate the need for high voltage flash lamps which have poor pumping efficiency. The independent and dependent parameters of the laser were identified and explored in specific combinations that produced consistent robust sparks in laboratory air. Prior research has shown that increasing gas pressure lowers the breakdown threshold for laser initiated ignition. The laser has an overall geometry of 57x57x152 mm with an output beam diameter of approximately 3 mm. The experimentation used a wide range of optical and electrical input parameters that when combined produced ignition in laboratory air. The results show a strong dependence of the output parameters on the output coupler reflectivity, Q-switch initial transmission, and gain media dopant concentration. As these three parameters were lowered the output performance of the laser increased leading to larger more brilliant sparks. The results show peak power levels of up to 3MW and peak focal intensities of up to 560 GW/cm2. Engine testing was performed on a Ricardo Proteus single cylinder research engine. The goal of the engine testing was to show that the test laser performs identically to the commercially available flashlamp pumped actively Q-switched laser used in previous laser ignition testing. The engine testing consisted of a comparison of the in-cylinder, and emissions behavior of the engine using each of the lasers as an ignition system. All engine parameters were kept as constant as possilbe while the equivalence ratio (fueling

  16. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  17. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  18. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  19. The FAA aging airplane program plan for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Dayton; Lewis, Jess

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aging Airplane Program is focused on five program areas: maintenance, transport airplanes, commuter airplanes, airplane engines, and research. These programs are complementary and concurrent, and have been in effect since 1988. The programs address the aging airplane challenge through different methods, including policies, procedures, and hardware development. Each program is carefully monitored and its progress tracked to ensure that the needs of the FAA, the industry, and the flying public are being met.

  20. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2006-12-31

    This report highlights work done on a project intended to lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting for Exploration and Production (E&P) operators by identifying, developing, testing, and commercializing emissions control and monitoring technologies. Promising technologies have already been identified and developed. Current work focuses on testing these promising technologies. Specifically, several technologies are being tested in the laboratory for application to lean-burn engines or fully characterized on-site for use with rich-burn engines. Upon completion of these tests, the most cost-effective and robust technologies will be tested in the field and commercialization will ensue. During this quarter, progress in laboratory testing for lean-burn engines was limited by maintenance issues on the KSU Ajax DP-115. The difficulties that required maintenance to be performed will likely require that the 180 psig prototype valve be tested in the future, if possible. The maintenance was performed, and it is expected that the Ajax will be available for testing in the coming quarter. Although laboratory testing was slowed as a result of maintenance issues, progress in experimental characterization of technologies has been significant. NSCR systems will be characterized as applied to rich-burn engines on-site. This characterization will ensure high-quality data in final field testing on rich-burn engines and is considered to be essential, despite that the work requires the delay of official field testing until 2008. Many preliminary and administrative tasks have been completed, including initial site selection, official proposal submittal, and beginning a process to approve necessary changes to installed field engines.

  1. Flight evaluation of modifications to a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Zeller, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The third phase of a flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 has recently been completed. It was found that digital electronic engine control software logic changes and augmentor hardware improvements resulted in significant improvements in engine operation. For intermediate to maximum power throttle transients, an increase in altitude capability of up to 8000 ft was found, and for idle to maximum transients, an increase of up to 4000 ft was found. A nozzle instability noted in earlier flight testing was investigated on a test engine at NASA Lewis Research Center, a digital electronic engine control software logic change was developed and evaluated, and no instability occurred in the Phase 3 flight evaluation. The backup control airstart modification was evaluated, and gave an improvement of airstart capability by reducing the minimum airspeed for successful airstarts by 50 to 75 knots.

  2. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  3. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  4. Fault detection and accommodation testing on an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Baer-Riedhart, J. L.; Maxwell, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The fault detection and accommodation (FDA) methodology for digital engine-control systems may range from simple comparisons of redundant parameters to the more complex and sophisticated observer models of the entire engine system. Evaluations of the various FDA schemes are done using analytical methods, simulation, and limited-altitude-facility testing. Flight testing of the FDA logic has been minimal because of the difficulty of inducing realistic faults in flight. A flight program was conducted to evaluate the fault detection and accommodation capability of a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 aircraft. The objective of the flight program was to induce selected faults and evaluate the resulting actions of the digital engine controller. Comparisons were made between the flight results and predictions. Several anomalies were found in flight and during the ground test. Simulation results showed that the inducement of dual pressure failures was not feasible since the FDA logic was not designed to accommodate these types of failures.

  5. Modeling dynamic reciprocity: Engineering three-dimensional culture models of breast architecture, function, and neoplastic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand why cancer develops as well as predict the outcome of pharmacological treatments, we need to model the structure and function of organs in culture so that our experimental manipulations occur under physiological contexts. This review traces the history of the development of a prototypic example, the three-dimensional (3D) model of the mammary gland acinus. We briefly describe the considerable information available on both normal mammary gland function and breast cancer generated by the current model and present future challenges that will require an increase in its complexity. We propose the need for engineered tissues that faithfully recapitulate their native structures to allow a greater understanding of tissue function, dysfunction, and potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:15963732

  6. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen Adriani

    2004-04-01

    During the fifth reporting period, the main goal for the team was to focus on collecting data to develop Oxygen Sensor Recording System (OSRS) parametric relationships for several rich-burn engines. An air/fuel ratio controller was intergraded with an O{sub 2} sensor. With the use of an Alternative Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (ACEMS) provided by Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), the performance will be observed during normal operation.

  7. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than

  8. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains a... under standard conditions in still air) of 60 minutes for a two-engine airplane or 180 minutes for...

  9. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  10. 77 FR 58970 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 Airplanes, Sudden Engine Stoppage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http... acceleration of the engine. 2. For auxiliary power unit (APU) installations, the APU mounts and adjacent... the maximum limit torque loads imposed by each of the following: (a) Sudden APU deceleration due...

  11. 76 FR 17183 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issues-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... interaction with currently used fly-by-wire flight control systems, stability augmentation or auto-flight... retrofit cause adverse interaction with currently used fly-by-wire flight control systems, stability... Engine Issues, and will reestablish the Flight Controls Harmonization Working Group, to assist...

  12. 75 FR 53846 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125-02...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32253), we published a final rule AD, FR Doc. 2010-12540, in... To, Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 42 Airplanes; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation... TAE 125-02-99 reciprocating engines, installed in, but not limited to, Diamond Aircraft...

  13. Differential equations in airplane mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleman, M T

    1922-01-01

    In the following report, we will first draw some conclusions of purely theoretical interest, from the general equations of motion. At the end, we will consider the motion of an airplane, with the engine dead and with the assumption that the angle of attack remains constant. Thus we arrive at a simple result, which can be rendered practically utilizable for determining the trajectory of an airplane descending at a constant steering angle.

  14. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Effects of Unsymmetrical Horizontal-Tail Arrangements on Power-on Static Longitudinal Stability of a Single-Engine Airplane Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purser, Paul E.; Spear, Margaret F.

    1947-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the effects of unsymmetrical horizontal-tail arrangements on the power-on static longitudinal stability of a single-engine single-rotation airplane model. Although the tests and analyses showed that extreme asymmetry in the horizontal tail indicated a reduction in power effects on longitudinal stability for single-engine single-rotation airplanes, the particular "practical" arrangement tested did not show marked improvement. Differences in average downwash between the normal tail arrangement and various other tail arrangements estimated from computed values of propeller-slipstream rotation agreed with values estimated from pitching-moment test data for the flaps-up condition (low thrust and torque) and disagreed for the flaps-down condition (high thrust and torque). This disagreement indicated the necessity for continued research to determine the characteristics of the slip-stream behind various propeller-fuselage-wing combinations. Out-of-trim lateral forces and moments of the unsymmetrical tail arrangements that were best from consideration of longitudinal stability were no greater than those of the normal tail arrangement.

  15. The evolution of airplanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Charles, J. D.; Lorente, S.

    2014-07-01

    The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.

  16. A study of the factors affecting the range of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David

    1937-01-01

    A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.

  17. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane can be safely controlled in flight after an engine becomes inoperative) or 115 percent of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance...

  18. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  19. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  20. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  1. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories and now a

  2. The Effect on Airplane Performance of the Factors That Must Be Considered in Applying Low-Drag Cowling to Radial Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcavoy, William H; Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1933-01-01

    This report presents the results of flight tests with three different airplanes using several types of low-drag cowling for radial air-cooled engines. The greater part of the tests were made with a Curtiss XF7Cc-1 (Sea Hawk) with a 410 horsepower. Wasp engine, using three fuselage nose shapes and six types of outer cowling. The six cowlings were: a narrow ring, a wide ring, a wide cowling similar in the original NACA cowling, a thick ring incorporating an exhaust collector, a single-surface cowling shaped like the outer surface of the exhaust-collector cowling, and polygon-ring cowling, of which the angle of the straight sections with the thrust line could be varied over a wide range.

  3. Subsonic Airplane For High-Altitude Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Alan; Reed, R. Dale

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses engineering issues considered in design of conceptual subsonic airplane intended to cruise at altitudes of 100,000 ft or higher. Airplane would carry scientific instruments for research in chemistry and physics of atmosphere, particularly, for studies of ozone hole, greenhouse gases, and climatic effects.

  4. Annoyance caused by propeller airplane flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide information on quantifying the annoyance response of people to propeller airplane noise. The items of interest were current noise metrics, tone corrections, duration corrections, critical band corrections, and the effects of engine type, operation type, maximum takeoff weight, blade passage frequency, and blade tip speed. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of recordings of propeller and jet airplane operations presented at d-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB in a testing room which simulates the outdoor acoustic environment. The first experiment examined 11 propeller airplanes with maximum takeoff weights greater than or equal to 5700 kg. The second experiment examined 14 propeller airplanes weighting 5700 kg or less. Five jet airplanes were included in each experiment. For both the heavy and light propeller airplanes, perceived noise level and perceived level (Stevens Mark VII procedure) predicted annoyance better than other current noise metrics.

  5. Reciprocal translocations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 26, describes reciprocal translocations of chromosomes: their occurrence, breakpoints, and multiple rearrangements. In addition, phenotypes of balanced and unbalanced translocation carriers and fetal death are discussed. Examples of translocation families are given. Meiosis and genetic risk in translocation carriers is presented. Finally, sperm chromosomes in meiotic segregation analysis is mentioned. 39 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development and Flight Evaluation of an Emergency Digital Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Webb, Lannie Dean

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system for emergency flight control of aircraft with no flight controls was developed and flight tested on an F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane has been flown in a throttles-only manual mode and with an augmented system called PCA in which pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to drive the throttles. Results from a 36-flight evaluation showed that the PCA system can be used to safety land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure. The PCA system was used to recover from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Guest pilots have also evaluated the PCA system. This paper describes the principles of throttles-only flight control; a history of loss-of-control accidents; a description of the F-15 aircraft; the PCA system operation, simulation, and flight testing; and the pilot comments.

  7. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one... the limitations on operation of emergency stationary engines to allow emergency engines to operate...

  8. Analysis of Acceleration, Airspeed, and Gust-Velocity Data From a Four-Engine Transport Airplane Operating Over a Northwestern United States Alaska Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Jerome N.; Copp, Martin R.

    1959-01-01

    Acceleration, airspeed, and altitude data obtained with an NACA VGH recorder from a four-engine commercial transport airplane operating over a northwestern United States-Alaska route were evaluated to determine the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of gust and maneuver accelerations., operating airspeeds, and gust velocities. The results obtained were then compared with the results previously reported in NACA Technical Note 3475 for two similar airplanes operating over transcontinental routes in the United States. No large variations in the gust experience for the three operations were noted. The results indicate that the gust-load experience of the present operation closely approximated that of the central transcontinental route in the United States with which it is compared and showed differences of about 4 to 1 when compared with that of the southern transcontinental route in the United States. In general, accelerations due to gusts occurred much more frequently than those due to operational maneuvers. At a measured normal-acceleration increment of 0.5g, accelerations due to gusts occurred roughly 35 times more frequently than those due to operational maneuvers.

  9. Summary of V-G and VGH Data Collected on Lockheed Electra Airplanes During Airplane Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Fetner, Mary W.

    1961-01-01

    Data obtained by NASA VGH and V-G recorders on several Lockheed Electra airplanes operated over three domestic routes have been analyzed to determine the in-flight accelerations, airspeed practices, and landing accelerations experienced by this particular airplane. The results indicate that the accelerations caused by gusts and maneuvers are comparable to corresponding results for piston-engine transport airplanes. Oscillatory accelerations (apparently caused by the autopilot or control system) appear to occur about one-tenth as frequently as accelerations due to gusts. Airspeed operating practices in rough air generally follow the trends shown by piston-engine transports in that there is no significant difference between the average airspeed in rough or smooth air. Placard speeds were exceeded more frequently by the Electra airplane than by piston-engine transport airplanes. Generally, the landing-impact accelerations were higher than those for piston-engine transports.

  10. Automated airplane surface generation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Cordero, Y.; Jones, W.

    1996-12-31

    An efficient methodology and software axe presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. A small set of engineering design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tall, horizontal tail, and canard components. Wing, canard, and tail surface grids axe manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage is described by an algebraic function with four design parameters. The computed surface grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations. Both batch and interactive software are discussed for applying the methodology.

  11. The results of a high-speed wind tunnel test to investigate the effects of the NASA refan JT8D engine nacelles on the stability and control characteristics of the Boeing 727 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupcis, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A high speed wind tunnel test was conducted to investigate the effects of the NASA Refan JT8D engine nacelles on the stability and control characteristics of the Boeing 727 airplane. The test was performed at the Calspan Corporation 8x8 ft. (2.44x2.44 m.) transonic wind tunnel. Both the 727-200 and -100 models were tested. A small nose-down pitching moment increment and a slight increase in longitudinal stability were noted due to the Refan nacelles. The directional stability of the 727-200 airplane increased up to 10 percent. A smaller improvement was observed on the 727-100 model. In general, the high speed stability and control characteristics of the basic airplane are not significantly altered by the Refan nacelle installation.

  12. The results of a low-speed wind tunnel test to investigate the effects of the Refan JT8D engine target thrust reverser on the stability and control characteristics of the Boeing 727-200 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupcis, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the Refan JT8D side engine target thrust reverser on the stability and control characteristics of the Boeing 727-200 airplane were investigated using the Boeing-Vertol 20 x 20 ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. A powered model of the 727-200 was tested in groud effect in the landing configuration. The Refan target reverser configuration was evaluated relative to the basic production 727 airplane with its clamshell-deflector door thrust reverser design. The Refan configuration had slightly improved directional control characteristics relative to the basic airplane. Clocking the Refan thrust reversers 20 degrees outboard to direct the reverser flow away from the vertical tail, had little effect on directional control. However, clocking them 20 degrees inboard resulted in a complete loss of rudder effectiveness for speeds greater than 90 knots. Variations in Refan reverser lip/fence geometry had a minor effect on directional control.

  13. Comparison of flight results with digital simulation for a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Substantial benefits of a full authority digital electronic engine control on an air breathing engine were demonstrated repeatedly in simulation studies, ground engine tests, and engine altitude test facilities. A digital engine electronic control system showed improvements in efficiency, performance, and operation. An additional benefit of full authority digital controls is the capability of detecting and correcting failures and providing engine health diagnostics.

  14. Full-scale wind-tunnel investigation of effects of slot spoilers on the aerodynamic characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verstynen, H. A., Jr.; Andrisani, D., II

    1973-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of slot spoilers on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a full-scale mockup of a light twin-engine airplane. The slots were located along the leading edge of the flaps and were used to modulate the flap-induced lift as a possible means of achieving direct lift control. The data showed that the slots were effective in spoiling up to 61 percent of the flap-induced lift, but that an adverse pitching-moment change (nose up) accompanied opening the slots. Opening the slots was found to decrease slightly the downwash angle at the tail and to increase slightly the longitudinal stability of the model.

  15. Design and testing of new center inlet and S-duct for B-727 airplane with refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, C. T.; Kaldschmidt, G.; Syltebo, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The work described in this paper was part of the NASA refan program. The airflow requirement of the refanned JT8D (-100 series) engine increased about 50% above that of the basic JT8D. This required a redesign of the center inlet and S-duct of the Boeing 727 airplane. The paper describes the design constraints for the S-duct and the analytic method used to define the lines of the new duct. Model tests that were conducted at static, angle-of-attack, and crosswind conditions are described with a variety of flow control devices. Test results showed that the new inlet and S-duct have a pressure recovery comparable to that of the existing inlet. By employing corotating vortex generators, less flow distortion was obtained for the core region than the existing duct has with its counter rotating vortex generators.

  16. Flight investigation of stall, spin and recovery characteristics of a low-wing, single-engine, T-tail light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. P., III; Dicarlo, D. J.; Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Flight tests were performed to investigate the stall, spin, and recovery characteristics of a four-place, low-wing, single-engine, T-tail, general aviation research airplane at an aft center-of-gravity position. Most stalls resulted in roll-offs. Spins were oscillatory in roll and pitch at 43 deg angle of attack; the magnitude of the oscillations was determined by aileron position. Power, flap deflection, and landing gear position did not affect the angle of attack to the spin. Antispin rudder followed by forward wheel with ailerons neutral produced the fastest and most consistent recoveries but the initial application of recovery controls did not always stop a spin.

  17. Wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of power and flaps on the static lateral characteristics of a single-engine low-wing airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamburello, Vito; Weil, Joseph

    1947-01-01

    Tests were made in the Langley 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the lateral-stability characteristics with and without power of a model of a typical low-wing single-engine airplane with flaps neutral, with a full-span single slotted flap, and with a full-span double slotted flap. Power decreased the dihedral effect regardless of flap condition, and the double-slotted flap configuration showed the most marked decrease. The usual effect of power in increasing the directional stability was also shown. Deflection of the single slotted flap produced negative dihedral effect, but increased the directional stability. The effects of deflecting the double slotted flap were erratic and marked changes in both effective dihedral and directional stability occurred. The addition of the tail surfaces always contributed directional stability and generally produced positive dihedral effect.

  18. Flight-measured afterbody pressure coefficients from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet engines for Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.

    1979-01-01

    Afterbody pressure distribution data were obtained in flight from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet exhausts. The data were obtained in level flight at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.60 and at elevated load factors for Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20. The test altitude varied from 2300 meters (7500 feet) to 15,200 meters (50,000 feet) over a speed range that provided a matrix of constant Mach number and constant unit Reynolds number test conditions. The results of the full-scale flight afterbody pressure distribution program are presented in the form of plotted pressure distributions and tabulated pressure coefficients with Mach number, angle of attack, engine nozzle pressure ratio, and unit Reynolds number as controlled parameters.

  19. Effects of Boattail Area Contouring and Simulated Turbojet Exhaust on the Loading and Fuselage-tail Component Drag of a Twin-engine Fighter-type Airplane Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, Willard E , Jr; Runckel, Jack F; Lee, Edwin E , Jr

    1958-01-01

    An investigation of a twin-engine fighter-type airplane model has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the effect on drag of a fuselage volume addition incorporating streamline contouring and more extensive boattailing of the engine shrouds. The effect of hot exhausts from the turbojet engines was simulated with hydrogen peroxide gas generators using scaled nonafterburning engine nozzles. Afterbody pressure distributions, base drag coefficients, and forces on the fuselage-tail configurations are presented at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 angles of attack of 0 degree and 4 degrees for jet pressure ratios from 1 to 7. The effect of jet operation on both the basic and modified models was generally to decrease base pressures but to increase most other afterbody pressures and, therefore, to result in an overall decrease in fuselage-tail component drag. The addition of volume to the basic model reduced the base drag coefficient by 0.0010 with the jets off and 0.0018 at a typical cruise operating condition of a jet pressure ratio of 3, a Mach number of 0.85, and an angle of attack of 4 degrees. The overall jet-off reduction in fuselage-tail component drag due to the volume addition was a maximum of 0.0040 at a Mach number of 0.90 for an angle of attack of 4 degrees.

  20. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    Various methods for preventing fires in airplanes are presented with most efforts centering around prevention of backfires, new engine and carburetor designs, as well as investigations on different types of fuels.

  1. 75 FR 27487 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier-Rotax GmbH 912 F Series and 912 S Series Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Gunskirchen, Austria, or go to: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com/ , for the service information... examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines has issued Service... Directive 2007--0060R1--E, dated April 20, 2007, and Rotax Aircraft Engines Service Bulletin SB-912-...

  2. 75 FR 7947 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... aircraft equipped with a TAE 125-01 engine. This was found to be mainly the result of a blockage of the... specified products. The MCAI states: An in-flight engine shutdown incident was reported on an aircraft... the following new AD: 2010-04-06 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-16199. Docket No....

  3. 75 FR 17084 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH, Platanenstrasse 14 D-09350.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2010-0308... Airworthiness Directives (ADs) (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines...

  4. Safeguards Against Flutter of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVries, Gerhard

    1956-01-01

    This report is a complilation of practical rules, derived at the same time from theory and from experience, intended to guide the aeronautical engineer in the design of flutter-free airplanes. Rules applicable to the wing, the ailerons, flaps, tabs,tail surfaces, and fuselage are discussed.

  5. Jet Interference Effects on a Model of a Single-Engine Four Jet V/STOL Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.60 to 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeer, James W.; Runckel, Jack F.

    1962-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the interference from four exhaust jets on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a V/STOL airplane. The single- engine four-jet turbofan power plant of the airplane was simulated by inducing tunnel airflow through two large side inlets and injecting the decomposition products of hydrogen peroxide into the internal flow. The heated gas mixture was exhausted through four nozzles located on the sides of the fuselage under the wing, two near the wing leading edge and two forward of the trailing edge; the nozzles were deflected downward 1.5 deg and outward 5.0 deg to simulate cruise conditions. The wing of the model was a clipped delta with leading-edge sweep of 40 deg, aspect ratio of 3.06, taper ratio of 0.218, thickness-chord ratio of 0.09 at the root and 0.07 at the tip, and 10 deg negative dihedral. Aerodynamic and longitudinal stability coefficients were obtained for the model with the tail removed, and for horizontal-tail incidences of 0 deg and -5 deg. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.00, angles of attack from 0 deg to 12 deg, and with jet total-pressure ratios up to 3.1. Jet operation generally caused a decrease in lift, an increase in pitching-moment coefficient, and a decrease in longitudinal stability at subsonic speeds. The jet interference effects on drag were detrimental at a Mach number of 0.60 and favorable at higher speeds for cruising-flight attitudes.

  6. 75 FR 69745 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... airplanes to establish a limit of validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance... validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance program (LOV); 2. Demonstrate... 17, 2006. \\3\\ 71 FR 19928 The FAA proposed that design approval holders for those airplanes...

  7. 78 FR 3363 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 engines. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of failure of the electro... airplanes, certificated in any category, powered by General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 engines, as identified in...-13269 (68 FR 51439, August 27, 2003), for Model 747-400 series airplanes equipped with GE Model...

  8. 78 FR 68352 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., before further flight, replace all four forward engine mount bolts and associated nuts, on the engine... inspection interval for certain pylon bolts must be reduced. This AD requires a torque check of forward... broken bolts, which could lead to engine detachment in-flight, and damage to the airplane. DATES: This...

  9. Influence of autoignition delay time characteristics of different fuels on pressure waves and knock in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.; Kalghatgi, G.T.

    2009-12-15

    The functional relationship of autoignition delay time with temperature and pressure is employed to derive the propagation velocities of autoignitive reaction fronts for particular reactivity gradients, once autoignition has been initiated. In the present study of a variety of premixtures, with different functional relationships, such gradients comprise fixed initial temperature gradients. The smaller is the ratio of the acoustic speed through the mixture to the localised velocity of the autoignitive front, the greater are the amplitude and frequency of the induced pressure wave. This might lead to damaging engine knock. At higher values of the ratio, the autoignition can be benign with only small over-pressures. This approach to the effects of autoignition is confirmed by its application to a variety of experimental studies involving: (i)Imposed temperature gradients in a rapid compression and expansion machine. (ii)Onset of knock in an engine with advancing spark timing. (iii)Development of autoignition at a single hot spot in an engine. (iv)Autoignition fronts initiated by several hot spots. There is much diversity in the effects that can be produced by different fuels in different ranges of temperature and pressure. Higher values of autoignitive propagation speeds lead to increasingly severe engine knock. Such effects cannot always be predicted from the Research and Motor octane numbers. (author)

  10. Details of the Construction and Production of Fuel Pumps and Fuel Nozzles for the Airplane Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubenetsky, W S

    1936-01-01

    This report presents investigations into the design and construction of fuel pumps for diesel engines. The results of the pump tests on the engines showed that, with a good cut-off, accurate injection, assured by the proper adjustment of the pump elements, there is a decrease in the consumption of fuel and hence an increase in the rated power of the engine. Some of the aspects investigated include: cam profile, coefficient of discharge, and characteristics of the injection system.

  11. Spin-tunnel investigation of the spinning characteristics of typical single-engine general aviation airplane designs. 2: Low-wing model A; tail parachute diameter and canopy distance for emergency spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, S. M., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.; White, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    A spin tunnel study is reported on a scale model of a research airplane typical of low-wing, single-engine, light general aviation airplanes to determine the tail parachute diameter and canopy distance (riser length plus suspension-line length) required for energency spin recovery. Nine tail configurations were tested, resulting in a wide range of developed spin conditions, including steep spins and flat spins. The results indicate that the full-scale parachute diameter required for satisfactory recovery from the most critical conditions investigated is about 3.2 m and that the canopy distance, which was found to be critical for flat spins, should be between 4.6 and 6.1 m.

  12. The Light Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggs, Ivan H.

    1925-01-01

    This report begins with a review and analysis of the work being done to develop light airplanes in the U.S. and abroad. A technical discussion of the construction and innovations in light airplanes is then presented.

  13. An Investigation of the Ranger V-770-8 Engine Installation for the Edo XOSE-1 Airplane II : Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennard, John S.

    1945-01-01

    Investigations were made to determine the cowling and cooling characteristics of the Ranger V-770-8 engine installation in an observation seaplane. Final cowl configurations possessed ample engine and oil-cooler pressure drops for cooling in the critical normal-power climb condition with any of the three baffle configurations tested. The indicated critical Mach number of the cowling was found to be 0.70 as determined by the pressure on the lower lip of the inlet.

  14. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal......

  15. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo.... SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Alenia Model C-27J airplane. This airplane has novel... certification of a twin-engine, commercial transport designated as the Model C-27J. The C-27J is a...

  16. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... take off that airplane at a weight greater than the weight that would allow the airplane to be brought... reaching 105 percent of minimum control speed (the minimum speed at which an airplane can be safely controlled in flight after an engine becomes inoperative) or 115 percent of the power off stalling speed...

  17. 76 FR 63822 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... thrust; and (b) the maximum acceleration of the engine. 2. For auxiliary power unit (APU) installations, the APU mounts and adjacent supporting airframe structure must be designed to withstand 1g level...: (a) Sudden APU deceleration due to malfunction or structural failure; and (b) The...

  18. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  19. Real-time in-flight thrust calculation on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    Computer algorithms which calculate in-flight engine and aircraft performance real-time are discussed. The first step was completed with the implementation of a real-time thrust calculation program on a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equiped F100 engine in an F-15 aircraft. The in-flight thrust modifications that allow calculations to be performed in real-time, to compare results to predictions, are presented.

  20. Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, H

    1931-01-01

    A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

  1. Flight evaluation of a simplified gross thrust calculation technique using an F100 turbofan engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtenbach, F. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust calculation technique was evaluated in flight tests on an F-15 aircraft using prototype F100-PW-100 engines. The technique relies on afterburner duct pressure measurements and empirical corrections to an ideal one-dimensional analysis to determine thrust. In-flight gross thrust calculated by the simplified method is compared to gross thrust calculated by the engine manufacturer's gas generator model. The evaluation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.5 and at altitudes from 6000 meters to 13,700 meters. The flight evaluation shows that the simplified gross thrust method and the gas generator method agreed within plus or minus 3 percent. The discrepancies between the data generally fell within an uncertainty band derived from instrumentation errors and recording system resolution.

  2. β-reciprocal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2016-07-01

    A new class of polynomials pn(x) known as β-reciprocal polynomials is defined. Given a parameter ? that is not a root of -1, we show that the only β-reciprocal polynomials are pn(x) ≡ xn. When β is a root of -1, other polynomials are possible. For example, the Hermite polynomials are i-reciprocal, ?.

  3. Reciprocating pellet press

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Charles W.

    1981-04-07

    A machine for pressing loose powder into pellets using a series of reciprocating motions has an interchangeable punch and die as its only accurately machines parts. The machine reciprocates horizontally between powder receiving and pressing positions. It reciprocates vertically to press, strip and release a pellet.

  4. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  5. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  6. Flight measured and calculated exhaust jet conditions for an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Francisco J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust jet conditions, in terms of temperature and Mach number, were determined for a nozzle-aft end acoustic study flown on an F-15 aircraft. Jet properties for the F100 EMD engines were calculated using the engine manufacturer's specification deck. The effects of atmospheric temperature on jet Mach number, M10, were calculated. Values of turbine discharge pressure, PT6M, jet Mach number, and jet temperature were calculated as a function of aircraft Mach number, altitude, and power lever angle for the test day conditions. At a typical test point with a Mach number of 0.9, intermediate power setting, and an altitude of 20,000 ft, M10 was equal to 1.63. Flight measured and calculated values of PT6M were compared for intermediate power at altitudes of 15500, 20500, and 31000 ft. It was found that at 31000 ft, there was excellent agreement between both, but for lower altitudes the specification deck overpredicted the flight data. The calculated jet Mach numbers were believed to be accurate to within 2 percent.

  7. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  9. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  10. Safety and design in airplane construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teichmann, Alfred

    1934-01-01

    The author gives a survey of the principles of stress analysis and design of airplane structures, and discusses the fundamental strength specifications and their effect on the stress analysis as compared with the safety factors used in other branches of engineering.

  11. 76 FR 50405 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12...: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4119; fax: (816) 329-4090; e-mail:...

  12. 14 CFR 121.413 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: Check airmen (airplane), check airmen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flight simulator, or in a flight training device. This paragraph applies after March 19, 1997. (b) The... to the airplane to which the check airman is in transaction. (e) The initial and transition flight training for pilot check airmen (airplane), flight engineer check airmen (airplane), and flight...

  13. Reciprocity in directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Mei; Zhu, Lingjiong

    2016-04-01

    Reciprocity is an important characteristic of directed networks and has been widely used in the modeling of World Wide Web, email, social, and other complex networks. In this paper, we take a statistical physics point of view and study the limiting entropy and free energy densities from the microcanonical ensemble, the canonical ensemble, and the grand canonical ensemble whose sufficient statistics are given by edge and reciprocal densities. The sparse case is also studied for the grand canonical ensemble. Extensions to more general reciprocal models including reciprocal triangle and star densities will likewise be discussed.

  14. The Airplane Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

  15. Metal Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    It has long been thought that metal construction of airplanes would involve an increase in weight as compared with wood construction. Recent experience has shown that such is not the case. This report describes the materials used, treatment of, and characteristics of metal airplane construction.

  16. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary......

  17. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  18. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  19. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a turbine-engine-powered airplane certificated after September 30, 1958) unless— (1) The takeoff.... (b) No person may operate a turbine-engine-powered transport category airplane certificated after... airport, the runway to be used, the effective runway gradient, the ambient temperature and wind...

  20. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... than a turbine-engine-powered airplane certificated after September 30, 1958) unless— (1) The takeoff.... (b) No person may operate a turbine-engine-powered transport category airplane certificated after... airport, the runway to be used, the effective runway gradient, the ambient temperature and wind...

  1. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  2. The Structure of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity is one of the defining features of social exchange and social life, yet exchange theorists have tended to take it for granted. Drawing on work from a decade-long theoretical research program, I argue that reciprocity is structured and variable across different forms of exchange, that these variations in the structure of reciprocity…

  3. Reciprocity and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella

    2012-02-01

    Guala points to a discrepancy between strong negative reciprocity observed in the lab and the way cooperation is sustained "in the wild." This commentary suggests that in lab experiments, strong negative reciprocity is limited when uncertainty exists regarding the players' actions and the intentions. Thus, costly punishment is indeed a limited mechanism for sustaining cooperation in an uncertain environment.

  4. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  5. Reciprocal NUT spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Davood; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Ehlers' transformation (sometimes called gravitational duality rotation) for reciprocal static metrics. First, we introduce the concept of reciprocal metric. We prove a theorem which shows how we can construct a certain new static solution of Einstein field equations using a seed metric. Later, we investigate the family of stationary spacetimes of such reciprocal metrics. The key here is a theorem from Ehlers', which relates any static vacuum solution to a unique stationary metric. The stationary metric has a magnetic charge. The spacetime represents Newman-Unti-Tamburino (NUT) solutions. Since any stationary spacetime can be decomposed into a 1 + 3 time-space decomposition, Einstein field equations for any stationary spacetime can be written in the form of Maxwell's equations for gravitoelectromagnetic fields. Further, we show that this set of equations is invariant under reciprocal transformations. An additional point is that the NUT charge changes the sign. As an instructive example, by starting from the reciprocal Schwarzschild as a spherically symmetric solution and reciprocal Morgan-Morgan disk model as seed metrics we find their corresponding stationary spacetimes. Starting from any static seed metric, performing the reciprocal transformation and by applying an additional Ehlers' transformation we obtain a family of NUT spaces with negative NUT factor (reciprocal NUT factors).

  6. Reciprocity and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella

    2012-02-01

    Guala points to a discrepancy between strong negative reciprocity observed in the lab and the way cooperation is sustained "in the wild." This commentary suggests that in lab experiments, strong negative reciprocity is limited when uncertainty exists regarding the players' actions and the intentions. Thus, costly punishment is indeed a limited mechanism for sustaining cooperation in an uncertain environment. PMID:22289307

  7. 77 FR 72200 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... airplanes. This AD requires ensuring that lockwire is installed correctly on the engine fuel feed manifold couplings. This AD also requires inspecting the assembly of the engine fuel feed manifold rigid and full flexible couplings. This AD was prompted by reports of fuel leaks due to improperly assembled engine...

  8. 77 FR 37831 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... previous NPRM (73 FR 32255, June 6, 2008) seems to be performing an engine fuel suction feed test, so... airplanes. That NPRM proposed to require repetitive operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the... engine fuel suction feed capability of the fuel system, which in the event of total loss of the...

  9. MLS: Airplane system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. D.; Stapleton, B. P.; Walen, D. B.; Rieder, P. F.; Moss, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis, modeling, and simulations were conducted as part of a multiyear investigation of the more important airplane-system-related items of the microwave landing system (MLS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the airplane RF system, including the antenna radiation distribution, the cabling options from the antenna to the receiver, and the overall impact of the airborne system gains and losses upon the direct-path signal structure. In addition, effort was expended toward determining the impact of the MLS upon the airplane flight management system and developing the initial stages of a fast-time MLS automatic control system simulation model. Results ot these studies are presented.

  10. Stall-proof Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachmann, G

    1927-01-01

    My lecture has to do with the following questions. Is the danger of stalling necessarily inherent in the airplane in its present form and structure, or can it be diminished or eliminated by suitable means? Do we possess such means or devices and how must they operate? In this connection I will devote special attention to the exhibition of stall-proof airplanes by Fokker under the auspices of the English Air Ministry, which took place in Croyden last April.

  11. Hidden patterns of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Syi

    2014-03-21

    Reciprocity can help the evolution of cooperation. To model both types of reciprocity, we need the concept of strategy. In the case of direct reciprocity there are four second-order action rules (Simple Tit-for-tat, Contrite Tit-for-tat, Pavlov, and Grim Trigger), which are able to promote cooperation. In the case of indirect reciprocity the key component of cooperation is the assessment rule. There are, again, four elementary second-order assessment rules (Image Scoring, Simple Standing, Stern Judging, and Shunning). The eight concepts can be formalized in an ontologically thin way we need only an action predicate and a value function, two agent concepts, and the constant of goodness. The formalism helps us to discover that the action and assessment rules can be paired, and that they show the same patterns. The logic of these patterns can be interpreted with the concept of punishment that has an inherent paradoxical nature.

  12. Hidden patterns of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Syi

    2014-03-21

    Reciprocity can help the evolution of cooperation. To model both types of reciprocity, we need the concept of strategy. In the case of direct reciprocity there are four second-order action rules (Simple Tit-for-tat, Contrite Tit-for-tat, Pavlov, and Grim Trigger), which are able to promote cooperation. In the case of indirect reciprocity the key component of cooperation is the assessment rule. There are, again, four elementary second-order assessment rules (Image Scoring, Simple Standing, Stern Judging, and Shunning). The eight concepts can be formalized in an ontologically thin way we need only an action predicate and a value function, two agent concepts, and the constant of goodness. The formalism helps us to discover that the action and assessment rules can be paired, and that they show the same patterns. The logic of these patterns can be interpreted with the concept of punishment that has an inherent paradoxical nature. PMID:24368125

  13. Flight test results for several light, canard-configured airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Philip W.

    1987-01-01

    Brief flight evaluations of two different, light, composite constructed, canard and winglet configured airplanes were performed to assess their handling qualities; one airplane was a single engine, pusher design and the other a twin engine, push-pull configuration. An emphasis was placed on the slow speed/high angle of attack region for both airplanes and on the engine-out regime for the twin. Mission suitability assessment included cockpit and control layout, ground and airborne handling qualities, and turbulence response. Very limited performance data was taken. Stall/spin tests and the effects of laminar flow loss on performance and handling qualities were assessed on an extended range, single engine pusher design.

  14. 19. View northwest of Tropic Chamber reciprocal compressors (typical), in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View northwest of Tropic Chamber reciprocal compressors (typical), in machine area. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  15. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  16. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  17. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... internal combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This action proposes to amend... internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and...

  18. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... ignition (CI) reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE) (75 FR 9648). The final NESHAP for... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. 75 FR 32612 (June 8, 2010). In that action, EPA... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...

  19. Theory of reciprocating contact for viscoelastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putignano, Carmine; Carbone, Giuseppe; Dini, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    A theory of reciprocating contacts for linear viscoelastic materials is presented. Results are discussed for the case of a rigid sphere sinusoidally driven in sliding contact with a viscoelastic half-space. Depending on the size of the contact, the frequency and amplitude of the reciprocating motion, and on the relaxation time of the viscoelastic body, we establish that the contact behavior may range from the steady-state viscoelastic solution, in which traction forces always oppose the direction of the sliding rigid punch, to a more elaborate trend, which is due to the strong interaction between different regions of the path covered during the reciprocating motion. Practical implications span a number of applications, ranging from seismic engineering to biotechnology.

  20. Progress made in the construction of giant airplanes in Germany during the war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, A

    1920-01-01

    The construction of giant airplanes was begun in Germany in August, 1914. The tables annexed here show that a large number of airplanes weighing up to 15.5 tons were constructed and tested in Germany during the War, and it is certain that no other country turned out airplanes of this weight nor in such large numbers. An examination of the tables shows that by the end of the War all the manufacturers had arrived at a well-defined type, namely an airplane of about 12 tons with four engines of 260 horsepower each. The aircraft listed here are discussed with regard to useful weight and aerodynamic qualities.

  1. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing. Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR 21.35(b)(2), the following... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... ``Vision'' Jet. The SF50 is a low- wing, five-plus-two-place (2 children), single-engine...

  2. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... SF50 airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR part 21.35(b)(2... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... low-wing, five-plus-two-place (2 children), single-engine turbofan- powered aircraft. It...

  3. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lays, E. J.; Murray, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Concepts are discussed that project turbine engine cost savings through use of geometrically constrained components designed for low rotational speeds and low stress to permit manufacturing economies. Aerodynamic development of geometrically constrained components is recommended to maximize component efficiency. Conceptual engines, airplane applications, airplane performance, engine cost, and engine-related life cycle costs are presented. The powerplants proposed offer encouragement with respect to fuel efficiency and life cycle costs, and make possible remarkable airplane performance gains.

  4. 76 FR 38550 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Door 1 Extendable Length Escape Slide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... a derivative of the 747-400. The Model 747-8 is a four-engine jet transport airplane that will have a maximum takeoff weight of 975,000 pounds, new General Electric GEnx -2B67 engines, and the...-8 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on May 10, 2011 (76 FR 26957). No comments...

  5. 75 FR 70090 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc. Model CL-600-2E25 Airplane, Operation Without Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... (APU)-generated electrical power. Service experience on other airplane models with similar electrical... engine generators or APU, is not extremely improbable. Thus, it must be demonstrated that the airplane... landing with inoperative normal engine- and APU-generated electrical power (for example,...

  6. Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Gray; Burken, John J.; Burcham, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center have received a patent on an emergency flight-control method implemented by a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system. Utilizing the preexisting auto-throttle and engine-pressure-ratio trim controls of the airplane, the PCA system provides pitch and roll control for landing an airplane safely without using aerodynamic control surfaces that have ceased to function because of a primary-flight-control-system failure. The installation of the PCA does not entail any changes in pre-existing engine hardware or software. [Aspects of the method and system at previous stages of development were reported in Thrust-Control System for Emergency Control of an Airplane (DRC-96-07), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (March 2001), page 68 and Emergency Landing Using Thrust Control and Shift of Weight (DRC-96-55), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 58.]. Aircraft flight-control systems are designed with extensive redundancy to ensure low probabilities of failure. During recent years, however, several airplanes have exhibited major flight-control-system failures, leaving engine thrust as the last mode of flight control. In some of these emergency situations, engine thrusts were successfully modulated by the pilots to maintain flight paths or pitch angles, but in other situations, lateral control was also needed. In the majority of such control-system failures, crashes resulted and over 1,200 people died. The challenge lay in creating a means of sufficient degree of thrust-modulation control to safely fly and land a stricken airplane. A thrust-modulation control system designed for this purpose was flight-tested in a PCA an MD-11 airplane. The results of the flight test showed that without any operational control surfaces, a pilot can land a crippled airplane (U.S. Patent 5,330,131). The installation of the original PCA system entailed modifications not only of the flight-control computer (FCC) of the airplane but

  7. Lean-Burn Stationary Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine Operation with a Prototype Miniature Diode Side Pumped Passively Q-switched Laser Spark Plug

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.L.; Woodruff, S.D.; McMillian, M.H.; Richardson, S.W.; Gautam, Mridul

    2008-04-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore lean burn stationary natural gas engines a laser diode side pumped passively Q-switched laser igniter was developed and used to ignite lean mixtures in a single cylinder research engine. The laser design was produced from previous work. The in-cylinder conditions and exhaust emissions produced by the miniaturized laser were compared to that produced by a laboratory scale commercial laser system used in prior engine testing. The miniaturized laser design as well as the combustion and emissions data for both laser systems was compared and discussed. It was determined that the two laser systems produced virtually identical combustion and emissions data.

  8. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

  9. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

  10. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  11. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  12. Follow-On Studies for Design Definition of a Lift/Cruise Fan Technology V/STOL Airplane, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A three engine, three fan V/STOL airplane was designed for use as a Research Technology Airplane in proof-of-concept of a candidate configuration for use as a Navy multimission airplane. Use of mechanically interconnected variable pitch fans is made to accommodate power transfer for flight control in hover and to provide flight capability in the event of a single engine failure. The airplane is a modification of a T-39A transport. Design definition is provided for high risk propulsion components and a development test program is defined.

  13. Automatic Stability of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1932-01-01

    It is endeavored in this report to give a full outline of the problem of airplane stability and to classify the proposed solutions systematically. Longitudinal stability, which can be studied separately, is considered first. The combination of lateral and directional stabilities, which cannot be separated, will be dealt with later.

  14. A family of supersonic airplanes: Technical and economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, F. D.; Whitten, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    To improve the prospects for success in the market place, the family approach is essential to the design of future supersonic airplanes. The evolution from a basic supersonic airplane to a family could follow historic patterns, with one exception: substantial changes in passenger carrying capacity will be difficult by the conventional fuselage "doughnut" approach so successfully used on the cylindrical fuselage of subsonic airplanes. The primary reasons for this difference include the requirement for highly integrated "area ruled" configurations, to give the desired high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, and other physical limitations such as takeoff and landing rotation. A concept for a supersonic airplane family that could effectively solve the variable range and passenger capacity problem provides for modification of the fuselage cross section that makes it possible to build a family of three airplanes with four, five, and six abreast passenger seating. This is done by replacing or modifying portions of the fuselage. All airplanes share the same wing, engines, and major subsystems. Only small sections of the fuselage would be different, and aerodynamic efficiency need not be compromised.

  15. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  16. Flight duration, airspeed practices and altitude management of airplanes involved in the NASA VGH General Aviation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight duration, airspeed, and altitude information obtained from NASA velocity gravity height (VGH) recorders is presented for each of 95 general aviation airplanes flown in twin- and single-engine executive, personal, instructional, commercial survey, aerial application, aerobatic, commuter, and float operations. These data complement normal acceleration data obtained from the same airplanes and reported in NASA-TM-84660, and together they provide a data base for the design and analysis of general aviation airplane operations.

  17. Contractor safety training reciprocity

    SciTech Connect

    Melancon, R.

    1996-08-01

    In June, 1995, the National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) adhoc committee on Contractor Safety Training, turned over the task of developing reciprocity agreements with all Contractor Safety Training Councils to the Executive Directors of each of the Council`s. The Council representatives were to develop these agreements based on the NPRA adhoc committee training objectives that were developed jointly by representatives of the petroleum industry, chemical industry, contractors and the Council`s.

  18. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages 6674-6724 in the issue of...

  19. Exploring Venus by Solar Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    A solar-powered airplane is proposed to explore the atmospheric environment of Venus. Venus has several advantages for a solar airplane. At the top of the cloud level, the solar intensity is comparable to or greater than terrestrial solar intensities. The Earthlike atmospheric pressure means that the power required for flight is lower for Venus than that of Mars, and the slow rotation of Venus allows an airplane to be designed for continuous sunlight, with no energy storage needed for night-time flight. These factors mean that Venus is perhaps the easiest planet in the solar system for flight of a long-duration solar airplane.

  20. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Influence of airplane components for model D. [Langley spin tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralston, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of airplane components, as well as wing location and tail length, on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6 scale general aviation airplane model. The airplane was tested in a built-up fashion (i.e., body, body-wing, body-wing-vertical, etc.) in the presence of two wing locations and two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  1. Mechanical control of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykow, H

    1929-01-01

    Before undertaking a detailed description of an automatic-control mechanism, I will state briefly the fundamental conditions for such devices. These are: 1) it must be sensitive at one or more reference values; 2) it must stop the angular motions of the airplane not produced by the pilot; and 3) it must be possible to switch it off and on by a simple hand lever.

  2. Strength calculations on airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, A

    1925-01-01

    Every strength calculation, including those on airplanes, must be preceded by a determination of the forces to be taken into account. In the following discussion, it will be assumed that the magnitudes of these forces are known and that it is only a question of how, on the basis of these known forces, to meet the prescribed conditions on the one hand and the practical requirements on the other.

  3. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  4. 78 FR 52875 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... the wing structure to support the limit load condition, and consequent loss of structural integrity of...: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, WA 98124-2207; telephone 206-544-...

  5. 78 FR 65185 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...) of the engineering data that support the established structural maintenance program. This AD requires..., 2013 (78 FR 42720). The NPRM proposed to require for certain airplanes, a modification of the web of... received. Boeing supported the NPRM (78 FR 42720, July 17, 2013). Clarification of Applicability Since...

  6. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... airplane's wing root, is not at a high risk of an inadvertent in-flight engine shutdown and loss of flight... operators Relocate the magneto switch from the 3.5 work-hours x $85 $125 $422.50 $124,637.50 port side... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in...

  7. 78 FR 42720 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will... personal information you provide. We will also post a report summarizing each substantive verbal contact...

  8. 78 FR 42900 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed....gov , including any personal information you provide. We will also post a report summarizing...

  9. 78 FR 42895 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... intended to support the airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support... regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments... provide. We will also post a report summarizing each substantive verbal contact we receive about...

  10. 77 FR 55105 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... establish a limit of validity of the engineering data that supports the structural maintenance program... tables. This document corrects the errors in those tables. DATES: This corrective action becomes... entitled ``Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage'' (77 FR 30877), which corrected a final...

  11. 78 FR 58962 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... ignition source (e.g., hot brakes or engine exhaust nozzle), consequently leading to a fuel-fed fire. DATES...-10, Amendment 39-6230 (54 FR 23643, June 2, 1989) (``AD 89-12-10''), for certain The Boeing Company... airplanes to the applicability, and clarify the applicability of AD 89-12-10, Amendment 39-6230 (54 FR...

  12. 77 FR 7518 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 11, 2011 (76 FR 62649). The original NPRM (71 FR 34025, June 13... torque boxes on the engines with new improved aero/fire seals. The first supplemental NPRM (73 FR 51382, September 3, 2008) proposed to add airplanes to the applicability. The second supplemental NPRM (74 FR...

  13. Effects of propeller rotation direction on airplane interior noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.; Daniels, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    Interior noise measurements for upsweeping and downsweeping movement of the propeller blade tips past the fuselage were made on a twin-engine airplane and on two simplified fuselage models. Changes in interior noise levels of as much as 8 dB reversal of propeller rotation direction were measured for some configurations and test conditions.

  14. 75 FR 16660 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Document Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building... CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas..., 2010 (75 FR 89). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The...

  15. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion In January 2012, we issued AD 2012-02-02 (77 FR 6003, February... 172S airplanes that have installed an engine fuel return system modification kit. AD 2012-02-02 (77 FR... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska and (4)...

  16. 77 FR 37775 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...: Todd Thompson, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA... Register on February 8, 2012 (77 FR 6520). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77...

  17. Trend of airplane flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Koppen, Joachim

    1933-01-01

    This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.

  18. Modeling and analyzing characteristics of self-infrared radiation on airplane-skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaozhao; Wu, Wenyuan; Wu, Chengguo; Yang, Yuntao; Huang, Yanhua; Sunxiaobo, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    The characteristic of the self-infrared radiation of airplane-skin is very important for the stealth performance of airplane. Based on the theory of the airplane-skin temperature field, the distribution of the atmospheric temperature field and the principle of the black-body radiation function the self-infrared radiation model was established. In specified flight conditions, the influence of the atmospheric temperature, the speed of flight, the emissivity and the sight angle detection on the self-infrared radiation of the airplane skin were analyzed. Through the simulation of infrared radiation, some results under different flight states are obtained. The simulation results show that skin infrared radiation energy mainly concentrate on the far infrared wavebands, and various factors have different effects on the infrared radiation of skin. This conclusion can help reduce the infrared radiation and improve the stealth performance of airplane in the engineering design and the selection of flight conditions.

  19. An ultrafast reciprocating probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Tan, Yi; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2016-11-01

    For tokamak plasma diagnostics, an ultrafast reciprocating probe system driven by magnetic field coils, achieving a maximum velocity of 21 m/s, is introduced. The probes are attached with a driving hoop made of carbon steel and accelerated by three acceleration coils in series, then decelerated by two deceleration coils and buffer springs and return slowly. The coils with a current of about 1 kA generate a magnetic field of about 1 T. This probe system has been tested on the SUNIST (Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak) spherical tokamak. Radial profiles of the floating potential and other plasma parameters measured by this probe system are given.

  20. High pressure reciprocating pump

    SciTech Connect

    Besic, D.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a reciprocating pump having a plunger and a pumping chamber. It comprises: the plunger having a bore communicating with an intersection opening and wherein the plunger incudes a central axis; a suction valve and a discharge valve, each having an axis of actuation parallel to a central axis of the plunger; the suction valve comprising a cylindrical core having a central passageway, and the core is slidably received by a seating member and resiliently biased to the seating member.